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Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 5Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 administration unleashed [Book]

By Tammy Fox - Sams (2007) - Paperback - 597 pages - ISBN 0672328925

A guide to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 administration covers such topics as streamlining deployment with Kickstart, managing storage, administering users and groups, scripting and scheduling tasks, and setting up firewalls.

Here you can find all about Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 5, for example download and installation guide, documentation, release notes, kernel version, kernel, iso. You can also write a review.

 

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4.22. Time Zone Configuration
Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world. From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone: Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection. You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Figure 4.22. Configuring the Time Zone Select System Clock uses UTC if you know that your system is set to UTC.
To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool. Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue. To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig.

4.23. Set Root Password

Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.
The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Figure 4.23. Root Password 56
Package Group Selection Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.
To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password for your system. You cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password. The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program asks you to enter them again. You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.

Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?

single

Press Enter to exit edit mode. Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system. Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password. If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account. If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
6.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the cat /proc/meminfo command. Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:

mem=xxM

Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes. In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that # all kernel paths are relative to /boot/ default=0 timeout=30 splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz title Red Hat Enterprise Linux (2.6.9-5.EL) root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL ro root=/dev/hda3 mem=128M
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system. Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected. Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry. At the end of the kernel line, add
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to exit edit mode. Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system. Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command. Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot.
6.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool. Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.

7.2.1.2. Preparing to use an image file available through a network
To make the ISO image file available on a local network, place it in a publicly accessible folder on a HTTP, FTP, or NFS server. If you plan to use an image file that is already publicly available through the Internet, no special preparation is necessary. In either case, take note of the URL and verify that you can access the file from another machine on your network before commencing installation. Refer to Section 7.3.2, Let the installer prompt you for a driver update and Section 7.3.4, Use a boot option to specify a driver update image file on a network to learn how to specify this network location during installation. 75
Chapter 7. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
7.2.2. Preparing a driver update disk
You can use a variety of media to create a driver update disk, including CD, DVD, floppy disk, and USB storage devices such as USB flash drives
7.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop
CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the CD or DVD. The steps will be generally similar. Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
Use the desktop file manager to locate the driver update ISO image file supplied to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
Figure 7.2. A typical.iso file displayed in a file manager window
Preparing a driver update disk 2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
Figure 7.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog 3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a list of files similar to the following:

12.19.3. Partition Fields
Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are creating. The labels are defined as follows: Device: This field displays the partition's device name. Mount Point/RAID/Volume: A mount point is the location within the directory hierarchy at which a volume exists; the volume is "mounted" at this location. This field indicates where the partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button. Type: This field shows the partition's file system type (for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat). Format: This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted. Size (MB): This field shows the partition's size (in MB). Start: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins. End: This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends. Hide RAID device/LVM Volume Group members: Select this option if you do not want to view any RAID device or LVM Volume Group members that have been created.
12.19.4. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions: A swap partition (at least 256 MB) swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function of the memory workload running on that system. However, given that swap space is usually designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table. Table 12.2. Recommended System Swap Space Amount of RAM in the System 4GB of RAM or less 4GB to 16GB of RAM 16GB to 64GB of RAM 64GB to 256GB of RAM 256GB to 512GB of RAM Recommended Amount of Swap Space a minimum of 2GB of swap space a minimum of 4GB of swap space a minimum of 8GB of swap space a minimum of 16GB of swap space a minimum of 32GB of swap space
Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces. A PPC PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive the PPC PReP boot partition contains the YABOOT boot loader (which allows other POWER systems to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Unless you plan to boot from a floppy or network source, you must have a PPC PReP boot partition to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For IBM System i and IBM System p users: The PPC PReP boot partition should be between 4-8 MB, not to exceed 10 MB. A /boot/ partition (100 MB) the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC firmware, creating a small partition to hold these is a good idea. For most users, a 100 MB boot partition is sufficient.

17.3.1. Installation using X11 Forwarding
For example, to connect to the Linux image and display the graphical installation program using OpenSSH with X11 forwarding on a Linux workstation, type the following at the workstation shell prompt:
ssh -X linuxvm.example.com
The -X option enables X11 forwarding. The graphical installation program cannot be started if your DNS or hostnames are not set correctly, or the Linux image is not allowed to open applications on your display. You can prevent this by setting a correct DISPLAY= variable. Add the parameter DISPLAY=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file, replacing workstationname with the hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux Image. Allow the Linux image to connect to the workstation using the command xhost +linuxvm on the local workstation. If the graphical installation via NFS does not automatically begin for you, verify the DISPLAY= variable settings in the parm file. If performing a VM installation, rerun the installation to load the new parm file on the reader. Additionally, make sure when performing an X11 forwarded display that the X server is started on the workstation machine. Finally, make sure either the NFS, FTP or HTTP protocols are selected, as all 3 methods support graphical installations.
17.3.2. Installation using VNC
If you are using VNC, a message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC client viewer and details the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH terminal into the VNC client viewer and connect to the Linux image to begin the installation. Once you have logged into the Linux image the loader will start the installation program. When the loader starts, several screens appear for selecting the installation method. 184
Installing from a Hard Drive (DASD)
17.4. Installing from a Hard Drive (DASD)
The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, if you used the askmethod boot options and selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition. Enter the device name of the partition containing the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images. This partition must be formatted with a ext2 or vfat filesystem, and cannot be a logical volume. There is also a field labeled Directory holding images. If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/. After you have identified the disk partition, the Welcome dialog appears.

21.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid's dependencies to be satisfied. You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum: A / (root) partition 215
Chapter 21. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM System z System A <swap> partition of type swap
21.2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
21.3. Problems After Installation
21.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
If you have installed the X Window System and would like to log in to your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system using a graphical login manager, enable the X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP). This protocol allows users to remotely log in to a desktop environment from any X Window System compatible client (such as a network-connected workstation or X terminal). To enable remote login using XDMCP, edit the following line in the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux system with a text editor such as vi or nano: Add the line Enable=true, save the file, and exit the text editor. Switch to runlevel 5 to start the X server:

/sbin/init 5

From the client machine, start remote X session using X. For example:
X :1 -query s390vm.example.com
The command connects to the remote X server via XDMCP (replace s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X server) and displays the remote graphical login screen on display :1 of the client system (usually accessible by using the Ctrl-Alt-F8 key combination). You may also access remote desktop sessions using a nested X server, which opens the remote desktop as a window in your current X session. Xnest allows users to open a remote desktop nested within their local X session. For example, run Xnest using the following command, replacing s390vm.example.com with the hostname of the remote X server:
Xnest :1 -query s390vm.example.com
21.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root. If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single. Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password. If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account. If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:

27.1.2. Hardware/Software Problems
This category includes a wide variety of different situations. Two examples include failing hard drives and specifying an invalid root device or kernel in the boot loader configuration file. If either of these occur, you might not be able to reboot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, if you boot into one of the system recovery modes, you might be able to resolve the problem or at least get copies of your most important files.

27.1.3. Root Password

What can you do if you forget your root password? To reset it to a different password, boot into rescue mode or single-user mode, and use the passwd command to reset the root password.
27.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from CD-ROM, or some other boot method, instead of the system's hard drive. As the name implies, rescue mode is provided to rescue you from something. During normal operation, your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system uses files located on your system's hard drive to do everything run programs, store your files, and more. 265
Chapter 27. Basic System Recovery However, there may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. To boot into rescue mode, you must be able to boot the system using one of the following methods : By booting the system from an installation boot CD-ROM. By booting the system from other installation boot media, such as USB flash devices. By booting the system from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CD-ROM #1. Once you have booted using one of the described methods, add the keyword rescue as a kernel parameter. For example, for an x86 system, type the following command at the installation boot prompt:

linux rescue

You are prompted to answer a few basic questions, including which language to use. It also prompts you to select where a valid rescue image is located. Select from Local CD-ROM, Hard Drive, NFS image, FTP, or HTTP. The location selected must contain a valid installation tree, and the installation tree must be for the same version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux disk from which you booted. If you used a boot CD-ROM or other media to start rescue mode, the installation tree must be from the same tree from which the media was created. For more information about how to setup an installation tree on a hard drive, NFS server, FTP server, or HTTP server, refer to the earlier section of this guide. If you select a rescue image that does not require a network connection, you are asked whether or not you want to establish a network connection. A network connection is useful if you need to backup files to a different computer or install some RPM packages from a shared network location, for example. The following message is displayed: The rescue environment will now attempt to find your Linux installation and mount it under the directory /mnt/sysimage. You can then make any changes required to your system. If you want to proceed with this step choose 'Continue'. You can also choose to mount your file systems read-only instead of read-write by choosing 'Read-only'. If for some reason this process fails you can choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped and you will go directly to a command shell. If you select Continue, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/. If it fails to mount a partition, it notifies you. If you select Read-Only, it attempts to mount your file system under the directory /mnt/sysimage/, but in read-only mode. If you select Skip, your file system is not mounted. Choose Skip if you think your file system is corrupted. Once you have your system in rescue mode, a prompt appears on VC (virtual console) 1 and VC 2 (use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 key combination to access VC 1 and Ctrl-Alt-F2 to access VC 2):

part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03 raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Section 31.4.1, Advanced Partitioning Example. reboot (optional) Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, kickstart displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting. The reboot option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -r command. Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in cmdline mode on System z. For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart options. The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in the kickstart file.
Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop, depending on the installation media and method.
Chapter 31. Kickstart Installations repo (optional) Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package installation. Multiple repo lines may be specified.
repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
--name= The repo id. This option is required. --baseurl= The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist, not both. --mirrorlist= The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --baseurl, not both. rootpw (required) Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
--iscrypted If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted. selinux (optional) Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in anaconda.
selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
--enforcing Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.
If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is enabled and set to -enforcing by default.

Pre-Installation Script

32.10. Pre-Installation Script
Figure 32.15. Pre-Installation Script You can add commands to run on the system immediately after the kickstart file has been parsed and before the installation begins. If you have configured the network in the kickstart file, the network is enabled before this section is processed. To include a pre-installation script, type it in the text area. To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.4 can be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %pre --interpreter /usr/bin/ python2.4 in your kickstart file. Many of the commands that are available in the pre-installation environment are provided by a version of busybox called busybox-anaconda. Busybox-supplied commands do not provide all features, but supply only the most commonly used features. The following list of available commands include commands provided by busybox: addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk, basename, bbconfig, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, cal, cat, catv, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, e2label, echo, ed, egrep, eject, env, ether-wake, expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, fgrep, find, findfs, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck.ext2, fsck.ext3, fsck.minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, hdparm, head, hexdump, hostid, hostname, httpd, hush, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, inetd, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iptunnel, kill, killall, lash, last, length, less, linux32, linux64, ln, load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap, login, logname, losetup, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs, md5sum, mdev, mesg, mkdir, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs.ext2, mkfs.ext3, mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, msh, 333
Chapter 32. Kickstart Configurator mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nohup, nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6, pipe_progress, pivot_root, printenv, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, readprofile, realpath, renice, reset, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, runparts, runlevel, rx, sed, seq, setarch, setconsole, setkeycodes, setlogcons, setsid, sh, sha1sum, sleep, sort, start-stop-daemon, stat, strings, stty, su, sulogin, sum, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, tail, tar, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time, top, touch, tr, traceroute, true, tty, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname, uncompress, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip For a description of any of these commands, run: busybox command --help In addition to the aforementioned commands, the following commands are provided in their full featured versions: anaconda, bash, bzip2, jmacs, ftp, head, joe, kudzu-probe, list-harddrives, loadkeys, mtools, mbchk, mtools, mini-wm, mtools, jpico, pump, python, python2.4, raidstart, raidstop, rcp, rlogin, rsync, setxkbmap, sftp, shred, ssh, syslinux, syslogd, tac, termidx, vncconfig, vncpasswd, xkbcomp, Xorg, Xvnc, zcat

Do not include the %pre command. It is added for you.
The pre-installation script is run after the source media is mounted and stage 2 of the bootloader has been loaded. For this reason it is not possible to change the source media in the preinstallation script.

Post-Installation Script

32.11. Post-Installation Script
Figure 32.16. Post-Installation Script You can also add commands to execute on the system after the installation is completed. If the network is properly configured in the kickstart file, the network is enabled, and the script can include commands to access resources on the network. To include a post-installation script, type it in the text area.
Do not include the %post command. It is added for you.
For example, to change the message of the day for the newly installed system, add the following command to the %post section:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /etc/motd
More examples can be found in Section 31.7.1, Examples.
32.11.1. Chroot Environment
To run the post-installation script outside of the chroot environment, click the checkbox next to this option on the top of the Post-Installation window. This is equivalent to using the --nochroot option in the %post section. 335
Chapter 32. Kickstart Configurator To make changes to the newly installed file system, within the post-installation section, but outside of the chroot environment, you must prepend the directory name with /mnt/sysimage/. For example, if you select Run outside of the chroot environment, the previous example must be changed to the following:
echo "Hackers will be punished" > /mnt/sysimage/etc/motd
32.11.2. Use an Interpreter
To specify a scripting language to use to execute the script, select the Use an interpreter option and enter the interpreter in the text box beside it. For example, /usr/bin/python2.2 can be specified for a Python script. This option corresponds to using %post --interpreter /usr/bin/ python2.2 in your kickstart file.

32.12. Saving the File

To review the contents of the kickstart file after you have finished choosing your kickstart options, select File => Preview from the pull-down menu.

33.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
The /sbin/init program (also called init) coordinates the rest of the boot process and configures the environment for the user. When the init command starts, it becomes the parent or grandparent of all of the processes that start up automatically on the system. First, it runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script, which sets the environment path, starts swap, checks the file systems, and executes all other steps required for system initialization. For example, most systems use a clock, so rc.sysinit reads the /etc/ sysconfig/clock configuration file to initialize the hardware clock. Another example is if there are special serial port processes which must be initialized, rc.sysinit executes the /etc/rc.serial file. The init command then runs the /etc/inittab script, which describes how the system should be set up in each SysV init runlevel. Runlevels are a state, or mode, defined by the services listed in the SysV /etc/rc.d/rc<x>.d/ directory, where <x> is the number of the runlevel. For more information on SysV init runlevels, refer to Section 33.4, SysV Init Runlevels. Next, the init command sets the source function library, /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions, for the system, which configures how to start, kill, and determine the PID of a program. 341
Chapter 33. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown The init program starts all of the background processes by looking in the appropriate rc directory for the runlevel specified as the default in /etc/inittab. The rc directories are numbered to correspond to the runlevel they represent. For instance, /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ is the directory for runlevel 5. When booting to runlevel 5, the init program looks in the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory to determine which processes to start and stop. Below is an example listing of the /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ directory:
K05innd ->./init.d/innd K05saslauthd ->./init.d/saslauthd K10dc_server ->./init.d/dc_server K10psacct ->./init.d/psacct K10radiusd ->./init.d/radiusd K12dc_client ->./init.d/dc_client K12FreeWnn ->./init.d/FreeWnn K12mailman ->./init.d/mailman K12mysqld ->./init.d/mysqld K15httpd ->./init.d/httpd K20netdump-server ->./init.d/netdump-server K20rstatd ->./init.d/rstatd K20rusersd ->./init.d/rusersd K20rwhod ->./init.d/rwhod K24irda ->./init.d/irda K25squid ->./init.d/squid K28amd ->./init.d/amd K30spamassassin ->./init.d/spamassassin K34dhcrelay ->./init.d/dhcrelay K34yppasswdd ->./init.d/yppasswdd K35dhcpd ->./init.d/dhcpd K35smb ->./init.d/smb K35vncserver ->./init.d/vncserver K36lisa ->./init.d/lisa K45arpwatch ->./init.d/arpwatch K45named ->./init.d/named K46radvd ->./init.d/radvd K50netdump ->./init.d/netdump K50snmpd ->./init.d/snmpd K50snmptrapd ->./init.d/snmptrapd K50tux ->./init.d/tux K50vsftpd ->./init.d/vsftpd K54dovecot ->./init.d/dovecot K61ldap ->./init.d/ldap K65kadmin ->./init.d/kadmin K65kprop ->./init.d/kprop K65krb524 ->./init.d/krb524 K65krb5kdc ->./init.d/krb5kdc K70aep1000 ->./init.d/aep1000 K70bcm5820 ->./init.d/bcm5820 K74ypserv ->./init.d/ypserv K74ypxfrd ->./init.d/ypxfrd K85mdmpd ->./init.d/mdmpd K89netplugd ->./init.d/netplugd K99microcode_ctl ->./init.d/microcode_ctl S04readahead_early ->./init.d/readahead_early S05kudzu ->./init.d/kudzu S06cpuspeed ->./init.d/cpuspeed S08ip6tables ->./init.d/ip6tables S08iptables ->./init.d/iptables S09isdn ->./init.d/isdn S10network ->./init.d/network S12syslog ->./init.d/syslog S13irqbalance ->./init.d/irqbalance

34.1. Setting up the Network Server
First, configure an NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to export the entire installation tree for the version and variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. Refer to the section Preparing for a Network Installation in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for detailed instructions.
34.2. PXE Boot Configuration
The next step is to copy the files necessary to start the installation to the tftp server so they can be found when the client requests them. The tftp server is usually the same server as the network server exporting the installation tree. To copy these files, run the Network Booting Tool on the NFS, FTP, or HTTP server. A separate PXE server is not necessary.
34.2.1. Command Line Configuration
If the network server is not running X, the pxeos command line utility, which is part of the systemconfig-netboot-cmd package, can be used to configure the tftp server files as described in Section 34.4, TFTPD:
pxeos -a -i "<description>" -p <NFS|HTTP|FTP> -D 0 -s installer.example.com \ -L <location> -k <kernel> -K <kickstart> <os-identifer>
The following list explains the options: 347
Chapter 34. PXE Network Installations -a Specifies that an OS instance is being added to the PXE configuration. -i "<description>" Replace "<description>" with a description of the OS instance. -p <NFS|HTTP|FTP> Specify which of the NFS, FTP, or HTTP protocols to use for installation. Only one may be specified. -D <0|1> Specify "0" which indicates that it is not a diskless configuration since pxeos can be used to configure a diskless environment as well. -s installer.example.com Provide the name of the NFS, FTP, or HTTP server after the -s option. -L <location> Provide the location of the installation tree on that server after the -L option. For example, if the installation tree is exported as /install/rhel5 on an NFS share, specify L /install/rhel5. -k <kernel> Provide the specific kernel for booting. Installation trees can contain multiple kernels. For example, if the installation tree contain a patched kernel named vmlinuz-du alongside the standard kernel named vmlinuz, use -k vmlinuz-du to specify the patched kernel. -K <kickstart> Provide the location of the kickstart file, if available. Specify this location as a full path, including the protocol; for example: -K nfs:192.168.0.1:/install/rhel5/ks.cfg <os-identifer> Specify the OS identifier, which is used as the directory name in the / tftpboot/linux-install/ directory. If FTP is selected as the installation protocol and anonymous login is not available, specify a username and password for login, with the following options before <os-identifer> in the previous command:

/sbin/chkconfig --level 345 xinetd on /sbin/chkconfig --level 345 tftp on
These commands configure the tftp and xinetd services to immediately turn on and also configure them to start at boot time in runlevels 3, 4, and 5.
Configuring the DHCP Server
34.5. Configuring the DHCP Server
If a DHCP server does not already exist on the network, configure one. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for details. Make sure the configuration file contains the following so that PXE booting is enabled for systems which support it:
allow booting; allow bootp; class "pxeclients" { match if substring(option vendor-classidentifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient"; next-server <server-ip>; filename "linux-install/ pxelinux.0"; }
where the next-server <server-ip> should be replaced with the IP address of the tftp server.
34.6. Adding a Custom Boot Message
Optionally, modify /tftpboot/linux-install/msgs/boot.msg to use a custom boot message.
34.7. Performing the PXE Installation
For instructions on how to configure the network interface card with PXE support to boot from the network, consult the documentation for the NIC. It varies slightly per card. After the system boots the installation program, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.

Part VII. Appendix

Appendix A. Revision History
Note that revision numbers relate to the edition of this manual, not to version numbers of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Revision Mon Apr 3.1-14 Typo in script RT3#104480 Rdiger Landmann r.landmann@redhat.com
Revision Thu Jan Rdiger Landmann 3.1-13 r.landmann@redhat.com Correct instructions to create USB bootable media BZ#317221
Revision Wed Jan 3.1-12 Correct pxeos example BZ#243098
Rdiger Landmann r.landmann@redhat.com
Revision Wed Jan 3.1-11 Clarify pxeos details BZ#243098
Revision Wed Jan Rdiger Landmann 3.1-10 r.landmann@redhat.com Document using clearpart to ensure that DASDs are formatted during installation BZ#606048 Expand documentation of multipath kickstart command BZ#629834

 

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