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Nokia D211 Radio Card Data Security Guides For The D211
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Mobilize your workforce with the Nokia D211 multimode radio card
Accenture, the worlds leading management consulting and technology services company, was looking for a way to increase the productivity and accessibility of its workforce. With the help of the Nokia D211 multimode radio card, Accenture employees in Finland reached this goal in an easy to manage way. One to four hours per user per week were saved because of increased mobility and access to critical information from places where it was previously not possible.
Accenture is a global consulting and technology services organization with deep reservoirs of industry knowledge, technological expertise and strategic insight. Accenture delivers innovations that help clients across all industries quickly realize their visions. It has forged a series of landmark joint ventures to create a network of operating companies to develop and deliver the latest business solutions. Through its investments in emerging technologies and business approaches, Accenture is giving clients immediate access to emerging developments from the front line of the new economy. The company comprises more than 75,000 professionals in 47 countries with the common goal of becoming the market leader, architect and builder of the new economy. Many of Accentures employees spend most of their time working at customer sites and use laptop as their main working tool. They need to be able to access critical information regardless of where they are: meeting rooms at customer premises, airports, home etc. The information may be in the customers or Accentures corporate network, the customers extranet or the Internet. In addition to being able to access critical information practically everywhere with the network coverage, it is also especially important for Accenture employees to be reachable regardless of their location. Accenture was interested in finding a way to increase the accessibility and productivity of their employees. This results in better customer satisfaction as an Accenture employee is more readily available and has better responsiveness to customer requirements. Before the advent of the Nokia D211 multimode radio card, Accenture employees used a mobile phone or their laptops internal modem as the means of connection. However, Accenture people needed a solution where they are able to connect without cables and free their mobile phone for voice calls.
In order to achieve the aims of being accessible and being able to access critical information, Nokia and Sonera, a mobile operator and service provider, offered a solution: the Nokia D211 multimode radio card and the Sonera Company Data subscription. The Nokia D211 multimode radio card is a PC card that enables network access through GPRS, HSCSD and wireless LAN networks. Currently Nokia is the only manufacturer who has been able to combine these three technologies into one product. Network access is provided via Soneras Company Data subscription, which is a data only service aimed at corporates. Company Data offers HSCSD, GPRS and WLAN (wGate, Soneras public WLAN service) access via a single SIM card.
Nokia is the world leader in mobile communications. Backed by its experience, innovation, user-friendliness and secure solutions, the company has become the leading supplier of mobile phones and mobile, fixed broadband and IP networks. By adding mobility to the Internet, Nokia creates new opportunities for companies and further enriches the daily lives of people. Nokia is a broadly held company with listings on six major exchanges.
Accenture is the worlds leading management consulting and technology services company. Committed to delivering innovation, Accenture collaborates with its clients to help them realize their visions and create tangible value. With deep industry expertise, broad global resources and proven experience in consulting and outsourcing, Accenture can mobilize the right people, skills, alliances and technologies. With more than 75,000 people in 47 countries, the company generated net revenues of $11.6 billion for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2002. Its home page is www.accenture.com. The service works well in conjunction with the Nokia D211 multimode radio card as the SIM card can be kept in the Nokia D211 multimode radio card all the time. This enables users to have separate SIM cards for voice services via their mobile phone and for data access in the Nokia D211 multimode radio card. Improved productivity and the capability to access critical information anywhere within network coverage were the main benefits of putting the Nokia D211 multimode radio card and Sonera Company Data subscription into use. Accentures employees felt that they were able to access information from places where it was previously not possible. Depending on the job description, one to four hours per user per week were saved. The Installation Disk feature proved to be beneficial and helped our IT department save time. Wrong network configurations were completely eliminated which meant my team didnt have to spend valuable time reinstalling software, says Tommy Rasku, IT Administrator, Accenture Technology Infrastructure Services. Our endusers also found this feature practical as they were able to get instant access to the Internet after the installation. The Nokia D211 multimode radio card and Soneras Company Data offer significant time savings and productivity gains for Accentures employees because of the increased mobility it offers. It is also very easy to manage and support from the IT administrators point of view. As such, it is the optimum solution for enterprises looking at mobilizing their workforce in a way that is also easy to manage. For further information about Accenture and our WLAN experiences and recent solutions, please contact Risto Valtakari, Risto.Valtakari@accenture.com.
TeliaSonera Finland (Sonera Corporation), the Finnish profit centre of TeliaSonera, offers products and services under the Sonera brand. TeliaSonera, formed through a merger of Telia and Sonera in December 2002, is the leading telecommunications group in the Nordic and Baltic regions. TeliaSonera's overall focus is on best serving its customers in its core business and creating value for shareholders through stronger profits and cash flows. TeliaSonera is listed on the Stockholm Exchange, the Helsinki Exchanges and Nasdaq Stock Market in the USA. Pro forma Net sales 2002 amounted to EUR 8.8 billion. The number of employees was 29,000.
Copyright 2003 Nokia. All rights reserved. Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or trade names of their respective owners.
Ease of installation and manage
From an IT administrator perspective, the Nokia D211 multimode radio card and Sonera Company Data solution also proved beneficial. The Nokia D211 multimode radio card offers a feature called Installation Disk, which allows the IT administrator to create a single installation file. This contains the software and all network settings needed to establish a connection to the supported networks (GSM, GPRS, WLAN). With the help of this feature, end-users do not have to know the complex network settings as they are part of the installation file.
Copyright 2002 Nokia. All rights reserved. | Date: 05/06/2002.
NOKIA D211 LINUX DEVICE DRIVER
SUPPORT GUIDE FOR
1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION.... 1 REQUIREMENTS.... 1 COMPILING AND INSTALLING THE DEVICE DRIVER.. 1 CONFIGURING THE DEVICE DRIVER... 2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 5.1 GENERAL CONFIGURATION VARIABLES.. 3 WLAN AD HOC NETWORK... 3 WLAN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK... 3 GSM CONFIGURATION.... 4 NOKIA_CTL... 5
USING THE DEVICE DRIVER.... 4 UNINSTALLING THE DEVICE DRIVER.. 6 WEP KEYS.... 6 COMPILING THE USER INTERFACE... 6 SIM SERVICES.... 7
10. TROUBLESHOOTING.... 8 11. GLOSSARY.... 8
Legal Notice Copyright 2002 Nokia. All rights reserved. Reproduction, transfer, distribution or storage of part or all of the contents in this document in any form without the prior written permission of Nokia is prohibited. Nokia and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or tradenames of their respective owners. Nokia operates a policy of continuous development. Nokia reserves the right to make changes and improvements to any of the products described in this document without prior notice. Under no circumstances shall Nokia be responsible for any loss of data or income or any special, incidental, consequential or indirect damages howsoever caused. The contents of this document are provided "as is". Except as required by applicable law, no warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are made in relation to the accuracy, reliability or contents of this document. Nokia reserves the right to revise this document or withdraw it at any time without prior notice. The availability of particular products may vary by region. Please check with the Nokia dealer nearest to you.
This document is an installation and user's guide for the Linux device driver of the Nokia D211. The user should be familiar with installing and compiling device drivers in source code form. For further information on the use of the Nokia D211, please refer to the User's Guide found on the product CD-ROM or visit the Nokia Web site at www.forum.nokia.com.
The Linux device driver of the Nokia D211 is provided partly in binary and partly in source code form. The code must be compiled to a loadable kernel module, which can then be inserted into a running Linux kernel. A binary userspace daemon is used for the kernel module management. The included command line utility can be used for configuring the device driver. The device driver may not work with all Linux kernel versions. See the section for tested kernel versions. Note: Although there are Linux versions for many different architectures, the Nokia D211 device driver has been tested with x86 compatible single processor Linux only. To compile and install the device driver, there must be kernel sources available in the system. In the 2.4 kernel series, the needed PCMCIA support is included in the kernel. A working PCMCIA support is required in order to make the device driver work. For more information on this matter, please refer to your Linux distribution documentation or the documentation provided with the PCMCIA package. Support for /proc file system in the kernel is required due to the card initialisation scripts. Note: The system must have kernel sources available because the device driver compilation requires them. The kernel must have /proc file system support. You should also have working PCMCIA support.
COMPILING AND INSTALLING THE DEVICE DRIVER
1. Copy the driver packages to the appropriate directory (e.g. /usr/src). 2. Unpack the packages with, for example, the command tar zxvf package_name. The device driver sources and binaries are now located in the d211 subdirectory.
First the device driver must be unpacked.
After you have unpacked the device driver package, you can begin the compilation. 1. Copy config.mk.orig to config.mk. 2. Edit the config.mk to match your system. It is important that all the directives in config.mk are correct. Otherwise the device driver may not work or may not even compile. Syntax of the file: LINUX = /usr/src/linux OS_RELEASE=2.4.16 ROOTDIR=/ SMAC2=d211fw.bin This is the location of the Linux source code Kernel version for module installation Root directory for kernel module and tool installation Firmware for the radio card
3. When the config.mk is correct, compile the device driver by issuing the command 'make all'. If the compilation succeeds, nokia_cs.o appears in the src directory. If the compilation is not successful, check again the config.mk for possible errors. It is possible that the device driver does not compile to your system. In that case you should use one of the setups that Nokia has used in developing the device driver. 4. If you are installing the device driver for the first time, issue the command 'make config_install' to install the default configuration. If you have previously installed the device driver and do not want to override the previous setup, you need not do this. 5. Issue the command 'make install' to install the device driver. It installs the kernel module and the userspace utilities. You may need to restart your PCMCIA system before using the device driver. If you need to compile the device driver more than once, it is recommended that you issue the command 'make clean' before another build is made. This procedure ensures that the object files from a previous build are recompiled and no version mismatch will occur. Note: If the device driver does not compile to your system, try one of the setups listed in the section.
CONFIGURING THE DEVICE DRIVER
The configuration file that needs to be edited is /etc/pcmcia/nokia_cs.opts. It defines what the radio card should do at startup. Currently only the WLAN connection can be activated when the radio card is inserted. For GSM functionality, see chapter 4.4. Note: GSM and WLAN functionality cannot be used at the same time.
4.1 GENERAL CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
The configuration file contains three general configuration variables. They configure the actions that are performed after the card is inserted.
MODE=WLAN PROFILE=My_profile NETWORK_START=yes
MODE selects the operating mode. It can be set to WLAN or GSM to enable WLAN or GSM functionality after startup. PROFILE is used to specify the used profile for the selected operating mode. If NETWORK_START is set to yes, the network is started after the profile startup. If it is set to no, no network is started. [m2] After these general configuration variables[m3], multiple profiles can be described consecutively. Each profile starts with a profile name, which is placed in brackets, and is followed by profile parameters. The profile can also be set manually by using the nokia_ctl utility. See chapter 5.1.
4.2 WLAN AD HOC NETWORK
For a simple ad hoc network, MODE is set to WLAN and the other configuration variables are located in the selected profile (PROFILE). For example, edit the nokia_cs.opts as follows:
MODE=WLAN PROFILE=My_profile NETWORK_START=yes [My_profile] mode=adhoc ssid=<put here the desired ssid>
This configuration joins an existing ad hoc network with the desired ssid. If there is no adhoc network with the desired ssid available, the configuration creates one. The profile must contain: country (0), mode (adhoc), and the desired ssid (network name, e.g. Nokia ADHOC).
4.3 WLAN INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK
For a simple infrastructure network, MODE is set to WLAN and the other configuration variables are located in the selected profile (PROFILE). For example, edit the nokia_cs.opts as follows:
MODE=WLAN PROFILE=Infra_profile NETWORK_START=yes [Infra_profile] mode=infra
ssid=Nokia WLAN shared_key1=0x123456789a
In this case the network name is Nokia WLAN and the network has one shared WEP key. The card will automatically find the best matching WLAN access point with the desired SSID and matching WEP key. The profile must contain: mode (infra) and the desired ssid (network name).
4.4 GSM CONFIGURATION
Note: When referring to GSM data or GSM connection, the information also applies to GPRS connections. To enable a GSM connection, set MODE to GSM: MODE=GSM This setting alone will ensure that the WLAN connection is not established at device driver startup. GSM connection requires that you have a working PPP setup in your device. Check from your Linux distribution documentation how to install PPP support on you device. When the radio card is inside the PCMCIA slot and WLAN connection is not established, in order to use the GSM functionality, it is necessary to first give the PIN code for the SIM card. PIN code can be given with the nokia_ctl program. The GSM radio also needs to be enabled, and this can be done with nokia_ctl, too. The device driver creates a serial port /dev/ttyNC0. This serial port can be used for GSM connections. The serial port supports AT commands that are listed in the Developer Manual for the Nokia D211 found at www.forum.nokia.com. In scripts directory there is a sample wvdial script for different connection types. A sample PPP options file is also in the same directory. You can copy this into your PPP configuration directory (usually /etc/ppp).
USING THE DEVICE DRIVER
If the device driver has been installed correctly, it should load automatically when the Nokia D211 is inserted into the PC card slot of the device. You can check the status from your system log messages which typically are located in /var/log/messages. Other means of checking the status is to give the command 'dmesg' and reading /proc/net/nokia_cs. Syntax of the information in /proc/net/nokia_cs: WLAN NetDev WLAN MAC WLAN ChrDev WLAN ChMajor name of the card ethernet device MAC address of the Nokia D211 name of the controlling character device major number of the character device
WLAN ChMinor GSM TTYDev GSM ChMajor GSM ChMinor GSM status WLAN status WLAN state
minor number of the character device name of the GSM serial port major number of the serial port minor number of the serial port GSM radio status, possible states are: on, off WLAN radio status, possible states are: off, initialized, on WLAN state, possible values are: disabled, initialized, reset, hidden scan, scanning, joining, authenticating, associating, closed, creating BSS, infra, adhoc BSSID of the created or joined network SSID of the created or joined network radio channel used radio strength of the current WLAN access point current operating mode (infrastructure/ad hoc)
WLAN BSSID WLAN SSID WLAN Channel WLAN RadioSS WLAN Mode
WLAN Known BSSs lists all the BSSs the device driver knows. The syntax: ID CAP sequence number capability information as in the IEEE 802.11 specification. For example, bit0=1 means that the BSS is an infrastructure network and if 0, it is an ad hoc network. MAC address of the WLAN access point channel maximum rate (in 500kbit/s intervals) radio strength of the WLAN access point (as seen by the radio card) SSID of the network
MAC CH MX RSSI SSID
Nokia_ctl is a simple user interface to control the radio card. Running nokia_ctl without any arguments will tell the supported commands. Top level commands or command classes are: enable_wlan disable_wlan wlan_mibset wlan_mibget profile Command enables WLAN Command disables WLAN WLAN MIB write commands WLAN MIB read commands WLAN profile
enable_gsm disable_gsm gsm
Command gives a PIN code and enables GSM Command disables GSM and stops any connections GSM commands
Most important command is enable_gsm which will ask for the PIN code and then give it to the radio card. Giving the PIN code is necessary if GSM is going to be used. One of the command classes is 'gsm'. You can give commands in the 'gsm' set by writing 'nokia_ctl gsm enableGSMradio,' for example. This command enables GSM radio access and it is also necessary if GSM data connection is desired. Also the WLAN connection can be controlled with the nokia_ctl: for example, it can be disabled with the nokia_ctl disable_wlan command before using GSM functionality. The WLAN profile in use can also be selected and changed with the nokia_ctl. When changing profiles, the command nokia_ctl disable_wlan is used to disable the old profile. The new profile is selected with the command nokia_ctl profile <profile_name>.
UNINSTALLING THE DEVICE DRIVER
Type 'make uninstall' in the main directory to uninstall the device driver. This removes everything else of the driver except the directory where the device driver was first unpacked (e.g. /usr/src/d211)
WEP keys consist of a secret key and a 24-bit Initialization Vector. For example, the 128-bit WEP key has a 104-bit secret key that the user can set, and a 24-bit Initialization Vector that cannot be controlled by the user. Many manufacturers refer to this 128-bit key as a 128-bit key, whereas others refer to it as a 104-bit key (104+24). Both keys offer the same level of encryption and are therefore interoperable. Regardless of how the WEP keys have been named, all keys are compatible as long as their length is the same. For example, keys that are 40 bits long, always consist of 5 alphanumeric characters or 10 hexadecimal characters. The Nokia D211 supports three key lengths: 40 (40+24), 128 (104+24), and 152 (128+24) bits. The 40-bit key is Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) compatible.
COMPILING THE USER INTERFACE
The Nokia D211 package comes with a simple user interface for which the source code is also supplied. Normally it is not necessary to compile it since it is also supplied as a binary. If the user desires to make changes to the user interface it must be compiled. The compilation
of the user interface is also an example of how to develop software for the Nokia D211 radio card. In order to compile the user interface, the programmer needs to obtain the C++ headers from http://www.forum.nokia.com. The headers can be found in the D211 SDK package and they should be copied from there to control/public/ directory in the Linux driver main directory. After that you can compile the user interface with the command 'make f Makefile.sdk' in the user interface directory.
SIM services refer to a service which enables you to access the Internet via your service provider's or network operator's own public network. Your service provider may, for example, offer you the possibility to check data from your company intranet, send and receive e-mail, and save documents. SIM services are usually available in public places such as hotels, airports, railway stations, business centres, and corporate buildings. Note: Before you can take advantage of the SIM services, you must subscribe to these services from your service provider or network operator and obtain instructions for use. A SIM card is used as a means for user identification: the data stored on the SIM card is read, and if valid, you are allowed to connect to the Internet and intranets. The SIM card is provided by the service provider or network operator. Accounting data, such as used access time and/or transferred data, is passed from the network on to the service provider for billing purposes. Accounting begins when the wireless station is authenticated and ends when the wireless station logs off. Note: The actual invoice for services from your service provider may vary, depending upon network features, rounding-off for billing, taxes and so forth. A SIM services client has been included in the distribution but it is not installed by default. The client can be found in directory NAAP under the top directory of the distribution. To install the program, simply copy the binary nokia_ss to a directory in your PATH, e.g. /usr/bin or /usr/local/bin. You can change the configuration by supplying a configuration file to the program as an argument, i.e. "nokia_ss /path/to/configurationfile". The configuration file consists of key = value pairs as follows: address realm IP address of the interface to be used for authentication, e.g. 127.0.0.1. If not defined, the address of eth0 is used as a default. owlan.org by default
A sample configuration file "config.example" can be found in the same directory as the client. Note: The client assumes that GSM has been enabled on the Nokia D211 radio card, i.e. the user has manually enabled it by issuing the command 'nokia_ctl enable_gsm' before running the client. See chapter 5.1 for further information on how to use the nokia_ctl utility.
I cannot compile the device driver. Make sure you have the right kernel sources. The kernel must match the kernel in config.mk and the kernel as 'uname -r' reports. If the kernels match, make sure you have the correct kernel versions (see below for more information). I cannot load the module; it says undefined reference to some functions. If you are sure you compiled the device driver against the correct kernel sources, then you probably have to obtain a known-to-work kernel. The developers of this device driver have used different 2.4 series kernels up to 2.4.16 with the kernel PCMCIA support. Because of the differences that may arise as the kernel is compiled, Nokia cannot guarantee that the device driver will work even with these kernels. My PC crashes as soon as the device driver module is loaded or radio card is inserted. There is probably some incompatibility between the device driver binary part and your system. Please try one of the recommended kernels. I cannot make any connections although the kernel module loads correctly. Check /proc/net/nokia_cs and kernel log messages for more information about the situation. You can try to get more debugging information by editing src/Makefile and uncommenting OPTIONS = -DD_DEBUG. After that you need to compile and install the device driver again. Check also that the nokia_cs userspace daemon is started after card insertion, e.g. with command ps aux which shows all currently started userspace programs.
Ad hoc One of the two WLAN operating modes that can be selected when using the Nokia D211. With this configuration option, users can set up a wireless network where wireless stations can send and receive data directly with each other without WLAN access points. This type of network is sometimes called a peer-to-peer network.
Basic Service Set Identifier. A six-byte address that distinguishes one WLAN access point from another. Sometimes called network ID. A specified frequency band for the transmission and reception of signals. Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM is a digital telecommunications system used widely in Europe, Asia and the Pacific. General Packet Radio Service. GPRS is a technology that enables sending and receiving data over a mobile network. GPRS as such is a data bearer that enables wireless access to data networks like the Internet. One of the two WLAN operating modes that can be selected when using the Nokia D211. With this configuration option users can set up a network where wireless stations communicate with wired and wireless stations through a WLAN access point. Media Access Control. A protocol that governs access to a shared transmission medium, such as a wireless LAN. In a local area network, MAC address is the computers unique hardware address. Management Information Base. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. Standard architecture-independent extension device. Also called PC card. Feature unique to the Nokia D211. A profile is a collection of settings needed establish a network connection. Received Signal Strength Indication. Subscriber Identity Module. SIM card is a small plastic card with an embedded integrated circuit. It contains all the information the cellular network needs to identify the network user. The SIM card also contains security-related information. Service Set Identifier. Wired Equivalent Privacy. A security feature using the RC4 algorithm that performs wireless data encryption. The WEP algorithm uses up to 152-bit keys. A local area network in which radio links are used to connect devices instead of physical cables. Physical device that connects wired and wireless local area networks together.
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