Toshiba Tecra L2-S022
Toshiba Tecra L2-S022 Laptop & Notebook, size: 3.9 MB
High Quality, Improved AC Power Cable (length 6 feet/1.8 meters) is included ! Specially for more convenient and safe work.Also compatible with Laptop AC Adapter Charger for Gateway MX3210 MX6424 NX
Brand: Techno Earth
Part Number: A83XYZSTU28017
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User reviews and opinions
|gamio||12:06pm on Thursday, August 19th, 2010|
|I am a Western Digital portable HDD user for 4 years now and in my opinion the 500 GB elements version is the High Capacity and Most Reliable product ...|
|kialiecoyote||9:49pm on Monday, August 9th, 2010|
|Power Supply dies but got it fixed My power supply died the other day much like everyone elses.|
|athegn||2:06am on Monday, June 28th, 2010|
|"This drive has a great size for the price. Thing missing is the additional firewire connection.|
|thookerov||10:51am on Tuesday, June 8th, 2010|
|props to New Egg for an amazing turn around time when processing my order. 22 1/2 hours. granted im in So.Cal and i dont they they are too far off. A rubber sleeve for it would be nice. This has been a super great purchase. The drive is fast and was ready to go right out of the package.|
|AntonioSilva||4:02am on Monday, May 3rd, 2010|
|The would be a good choice for a portable hard drive. It works. Radically smaller than the EBook it replaced None noted none quick external hard drive and has plenty of room on it...just wished there was not as much preloaded junk on it that you cant take off...|
|Ling Ip||2:34am on Tuesday, April 6th, 2010|
|I purchased the external HD two months ago and it's performed flawlessly. Works great for backing up my desk and lap top computers. Easy to use.|
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Ad-Hoc Cooperative Networks: A Demonstration of Video over Wireless
Thanasis Korakis , Zhifeng Tao , Kaustubh Sinkar , Salik Makda, Shivendra Panwar
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 10021 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, 201 Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02139 E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Abstract Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of the wireless channel and spatial diversity, thereby achieving tremendous improvements in system capacity and delay. An implementation approach has been pursued in this demonstration to conrm the viability and efcacy of cooperation at the MAC layer in ad-hoc networks. The protocol we implemented is based on , in which a station would resort to a neighboring helper station for MAC layer forwarding, if the two-hop relaying yields a better collective performance than a direct transmission. In the demo, a video clip is streamed from a server to a client, while the underlying wireless transport would alternate between IEEE 802.11b and the cooperative MAC protocol. The cooperative MAC protocol delivers a smooth and artifact-free user experience, while the video playout over IEEE 802.11b experiences noticeable freezes and frequent distortions. The demo clearly demonstrates the performance superiority of the implemented cooperative MAC, as compared to the legacy IEEE 802.11b.
II. I MPLEMENTATION OF C OOPERATION The implementation of the cooperative MAC protocol in this demo is based upon MadWiFi , which is an open source IEEE 802.11a/b/g Linux driver for the Atheros chipset. In order to implement the cooperative MAC, we use the Address 4 eld of the 802.11 header that is not used in the ad-hoc mode, in order to keep information about the helper selected for the ongoing transmission. Depending on the specic role a station assumes, different new functionalities will be invoked, which is summarized in Table I. TABLE I: Summary of Implemented Functionalities
Role Source New Functionality Helper selection, based upon CoopTable Insertion of the address of the helper in the MAC Header of the packet to be transmitted Cooperative packet relay (update of the MAC Header) Packet reception and removal of information about the cooperative transmission
Projects web page: http://eeweb.poly.edu/coopmac I. T HE C OOPERATIVE MAC P ROTOCOL Following the philosophy of cooperation, we have implemented a Cooperative MAC protocol for ad-hoc networks . in this protocol a station would resort to a neighboring helper station for MAC layer forwarding, if the two-hop relaying yields a better collective performance than a direct transmission. The basic functionality of the protocol is illustrated in Figure 1 and summarized as follows. When a wireless station experiences a bad channel and thus has to transmit at a low rate, it uses a relay that is located in its communication range. The relay, which is called helper in the protocol, enjoys a good channel condition between itself and both the source and destination stations. Using the helper, the transmitter sends its data frames in two fast hops (i.e., from transmitter to helper and helper to receiver), achieving a faster transmission and improved throughput. Every station maintains information about its candidate helpers in a table called CoopTable. Corresponding to a particular helper station, each row in the CoopTable stores the MAC address of the helper, the transmission rates that this helper could provide for the two hops transmission (i.e., station to the helper, helper to the intended destination), and a timestamp that indicates the last time that this helper transmitted on the channel.
STAs 1st Hop Data Rsh
In a real environment, every station could be considered as a candidate helper by its neighbor station. Thus, irrespective of the actual role a station plays in the communication, it always transmits a Hello message on a periodic basis, which indicates the sustainable rate between it and its neighbors. A station can update its CoopTable based upon the information retrieved from the received Hello message, and hence always remains aware of the potential helpers in the neighborhood. The details of the implementation can be found in , . III. D EMONSTRATION OF V IDEO OVER C OOP MAC A. Demo Conguration The demo consists of 4 laptops, whose basic congurations are outlined in Table II. TABLE II: Basic Conguration of Mobile Stations
Model CPU /Memory Operating system 802.11 NIC 802.11 Chipset Toshiba Tecra L2 s022 Intel Pentium M 1.73 Ghz / 512 MB Fedora Core 5, kernel ver 2.6.16 NL-5354CB+ Aries2(f), PCMCIA Atheros AR5004+
STAd Rhd 2nd Hop Data
One of the laptops is a transmitter, one is a receiver and the other two are candidate helpers. The names of the helpers as well as the two hop rates that they could provide are listed in Table III. TABLE III: Candidate Helpers
Name Fast Helper Slow Helper First Hop Rate 11 Mbps 5.5 Mbps Second Hop Rate 11 Mbps 5.5 Mbps
Fig. 1: Cooperation at MAC layer.
(a) Legacy 802.11
(b) Cooperative MAC
Fig. 2: Video Quality Comparison: A Snapshot.
(a) Basic window
(b) Conguration window
Fig. 3: The Transmitters GUI. B. Demo Description The transmission of a video clip is considered in the described testbed. A V LC  server is placed at the source station and constantly streams a commercial video clip, while the destination station runs a V LC media player to play the video. The demo consists of three sequential phases, as outline in Table IV. Once all three phases are completed the cycle starts from the beginning. To automate the phase transition, scripts run at each helper to turn on and off its wireless card. TABLE IV: Three Phases in the Demonstration
Phase 1 Both helpers are active. The transmitter selects the Fast Helper and transmits through it. The quality of the video at the receiver is superior. The wireless card of the Fast Helper is turned off. The transmitter dynamically understands the change and switches to the Slow Helper. The quality of the video at the receiver is still good. The wireless cards of both the helpers are turned off. The transmitter now transmits directly to the receiver in a low rate. The quality of the video at the receiver degrades appreciably.
As described in Table IV, the user perception is poor for video transmission in the 802.11 network, as noticeable freezes and distortions occur frequently. Meanwhile, the video is smooth and artifact-free, when it is received over a cooperative MAC network. Figure 2(a) and 2(b) provide a snapshot of the video taken at the receiver for 802.11 and cooperative MAC, respectively. The comparison of these two gures is typical and reveals the substantial improvement in the video quality that CoopMAC can deliver. A video of the demo can be found in the projects site .
C. A Graphical User Interface: CoopGUI To facilitate experiment conguration and simplify user participation, a graphical user interface (GUI) called CoopGUI has also been developed. Based on Java SDK 1.4 for Linux, CoopGUI communicates directly with the driver of 802.11 and CoopMAC, and obtain the corresponding state information and parameters such as the ID of every station (MAC and IP addresses) and the transmission rate that the station can sustain. At the transmitter, the CoopGUI displays the content of CoopTable, such as the active candidate helpers, and the helper that is being used currently. At the helpers, the GUI gives information about its state (on or off), which station is helping and which rates it is providing in the two hop transmission. We dont run the GUI at the receiver, as the main point there is the quality of the video that is observed in the V LC client. Using the GUI we can also dynamically change several parameters in the driver, such as the rates in the two hops for every helper, the Hello Packet period, etc. A snapshot of the two different windows of transmitters CoopGUI (i.e., Basic window and Conguration window) are depicted in Figure 3. R EFERENCES
 T. Korakis, Z. Tao, Y. Slutskiy, and S. Panwar, A Cooperative MAC protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks, in IEEE PerCom Workshop on Pervasive Wireless Networking (PWN 07), (White Plains, New York), March 2007.  MADWiFi: Multiband Atheros Driver for WiFi, http://madwifi. sourceforge.net/.  T. Korakis, Z. Tao, S. Makda, B. Gitelman, and S. Panwar, To Serve is to Receive Implications of Cooperation in a Real Environment, in Proceedings of Networking 07, (Atlanta, Georgia, USA), May 2007.  Website for the Cooperative MAC Implementation, http://eeweb. poly.edu/coopmac/.  VLC Media Player, http://www.videolan.org/vlc/.
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