Canon EOS 33
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Canon EOS 33 Digital Camera, size: 15.5 MB
Canon EOS 33V
Canon EOS 33
Evolution of Canon& 39;s Burst A1 / EOS 33 / Elan 7 / 1D
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The EOS ELAN 7NE (DATE) / ELAN 7N / 30V (DATE) / 33V is a highperformance, AF single-lens reflex camera with Eye Control and seven AF points. It is suited for a wide variety of subjects and situations with fully automatic and user-controlled shooting modes. Read this instruction booklet to familiarize yourself with your new camera before taking pictures. Also read Handling Cautions on page 6 to prevent camera malfunction and damage. Keep this instruction booklet handy for easy reference.
Before Using Your Camera
Before an important shoot, be sure to take test shots to make sure the camera operates properly. EOS cameras have a lens mount for dedicated operation (autofocusing, exposure control, etc.) with Canon EF lenses. Using a non-Canon lens with an EOS camera may not result in proper camera or lens operation. Note that the warranty does not cover any camera malfunction or damage occurring with the use of non-Canon products.
The Caution symbol alerts you to avoid shooting problems. The Note symbol gives supplemental information for basic camera operation or picture-taking tips. The Custom Function symbol indicates that there is a relevant Custom Function. For details, see Custom Function Settings on page 85.
m Model (EOS ELAN 7NE, 30V) only
Introduction Handling Cautions..6 Quick Start Guide..8 Nomenclature..10 Conventions Used in this Instructions.16 A Night Portrait.31 FUsing Red-eye Reduction..32 qUsing the Self-timer.33 Using the Eyepiece Cover..34 Imprinting the Date or Time.35 Setting the Date and Time.36 Replacing the Date Battery.36
Before You Start..17
Installing the Batteries.18 Checking the Battery Level.19 Mounting and Detaching a Lens.20 Mounting a Lens.20 Detaching the Lens.20 How the Shutter Button Works.21 5Loading and Unloading Film.22 Loading Film..22 Checking the Film Speed.23 Unloading Film..24 6Midroll Rewind.24 Dioptric Adjustment..25 Holding the Camera..26
3 AF Modes and Metering Modes.37
Selecting the AF Mode..38 One-Shot AF for Still Subjects..39 AI Servo AF for Moving Subjects.39 AI Focus AF for Automatic AF Mode Switching..40 3Selecting an AF Point..41 Basic Procedure for AF Point Selection..41 Automatic Selection.42 Manual Selection..42 e Eye Control Calibration.43 Calibration Procedure.43 Eye Control Calibration and Operation Tips..46 Intelligent Eye Control..46 Deleting Eye Control Calibration Settings..47 gUsing Eye Control.48 Eye Control Servo AF.49 Turning Off Eye Control..49
Fully Automatic Shooting.27
YFull Auto Mode..28 AF-Assist beam with the Built-in Flash.29 Programmed Image Control Modes.30 U Portrait..30 ILandscape..30 O Close-up..30 P Sports.31
Focusing Off-Center Subjects..50 When Autofocus Fails (Manual Focusing).51 8Manual Focusing.51 ZMetering Modes.52
5 Flash Photography..77
Using the Built-in Flash..78 In a Basic Zone Mode..78 In a Creative Zone Mode.78 aFlash Exposure Compensation.80 Using an EOS-dedicated Speedlite.81 Using an EX-series Speedlite..81 Using an EZ/E/EG/ML/TL-series Speedlite..81
4 User-Controlled Shooting.53
S Program AE..54 R Shutter-Priority AE..56 E Aperture-Priority AE..58 Depth-of-field Preview.59 W Manual Exposure..60 Q Depth-of-field AE..62 Depth-of-field AE with a Manually-Selected AF Point.62 Depth-of-field AE with Eye Control.64 Exposure Compensation..67 LAuto Exposure Bracketing (AEB).68 Canceling AEB..69 jAE Lock..70 Bulb Exposures..71 4Multiple Exposures..72 HSelecting the Film Advance Mode.73 D Setting the ISO Film Speed..73 9Silencing the Beeper.74 bLCD Panel Illumination.74 Mirror Lockup..75 KWireless Remote Control..76 Using the Remote Switch.76
How Low Battery Levels Affect Camera Operation
On the LCD panel, if the <r> icon blinks or it is not displayed, a proper exposure can still be obtained as long as the shutter releases. However, when the battery level is low, the film advance and auto rewind might stop midway or not work at all and the <r> icon may blink on the LCD panel. After the batteries are replaced with new ones, film advance will be possible and film rewind can resume by pressing the <6> button.
Lens Electrical Contacts
After detaching the lens from the camera, put on the lens caps or put down the lens with the rear end up to avoid scratching the lens surface and electrical contacts.
Quick Start Guide
Install the batteries.
Refer to the battery orientation diagram on the battery chamber cover, and insert two CR123A lithium batteries as shown. (p.18)
Attach a lens.
Align the red dots on the lens and camera and turn the lens as shown by the arrow until it snaps in place. (p.20)
Load the film.
Align the edge of the film leader with the orange mark on the camera and close the camera back until it snaps shut. (p.22) The film will advance to the first frame.
Focus the subject.
Aim the AF points on the main subject and press the shutter button halfway to autofocus. (p.21) Under low-light or backlit conditions, the built-in flash will pop-up and fire automatically. (p.78)
On the lens, set the focus mode switch to <AF>. (p.20)
Turn the Mode Dial to <Y> (Full Auto).
Keep pressing the Mode Dials lock button while turning the dial. (p.28)
Take the picture.
Press the shutter button completely to take the picture. (p.21)
Unload the film.
At the end of the roll, the film rewinds automatically. Open the camera back to remove the film cartridge. (p.24)
Reference page numbers are in parentheses. The camera controls are indicated as icons in brackets < >.
AF mode dial (p.15, 38) **Eye Control switch (p.15, 43, 48) Red-eye reduction lamp / Self-timer/ Remote control lamp (p.32/33/76) LCD panel (p.12) <l> Main Dial (p.16) Shutter button (p.21) LCD panel illumination button (p.74) Remote control sensor (p.76) Grip / Battery compartment (p.18) Back cover release lever (p.22) Built-in flash / AF-assist beam (p.78/29) Flash-sync contact Hot shoe (p.81) Dioptric adjustment knob (p.25) Mode Dial lock release button (p.14) Mode Dial (p.14) Film advance mode lever (p.15, 33, 73)
Mount the lens.
lens, set 3 On the to <AF>. the focus mode switch
If the focus mode switch is set to
Remove the front lens cap.
<MF>, autofocus will not operate.
Detaching the Lens
3 release 5 While pressing the lens shown by button, turn the lens as the arrow.
Turn the lens until it stops, then
Keep the removed caps where you will not lose them. <AF> stands for Auto Focus, and <MF> stands for Manual Focus. An EF-S lens cannot be attached to the camera.
How the Shutter Button Works
The shutter button has two stages. You can press it down halfway or fully. The two levels of shutter button operation are as follows:
When it is pressed halfway:
the shutter button down halfway activates autofocusing (AF) and automatic exposure (AE) and the shutter speed and aperture value are set. sThe exposure (the combination of shutter speed and aperture value) appears on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder (0).
When it is pressed fully:
shutter is released to take the picture and the film advances by one frame.
If an Extender (sold separately) is used and the maximum aperture (the lowest f/number) of the lens becomes smaller than f/5.6, autofocusing will not operate. After pressing the shutter button halfway, wait a moment before pressing it completely to take the picture. If you press the shutter button completely at one stroke or right after pressing it halfway, it will take a moment before the picture is taken. Camera movement during the moment of exposure is called camera shake. Camera shake can cause blurred pictures. To prevent blurred pictures due to camera shake: Hold the camera steady. Use your finger tip to touch the shutter button, grasp the camera with your entire right hand, then press the shutter button gently. If the AF Mode Dial has been set to <5>, the focus confirmation light <n> will not light. If the AF Mode Dial has been set to <5> and automatic AF point selection is set (p.42), the AF point will not flash in red.
5Loading and Unloading Film
When you load the film, it advances automatically to the first frame. With DX-coded film, the camera automatically sets the films ISO speed.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to any setting except <2>.
button while turning the dial.
cover. 2 Open the back back cover release Slide down the
lever and open the back.
3 Insert the film cartridge at a slight angle. the edge of leader 4 Pullorange markthe filmcamera.to the on the
Hold down the film cartridge while
pulling out the film leader.
If you pull out the film leader too
bottom of the eyecup, slide it upward to remove.
2 Turn the dioptric adjustment knob.
Turn the knob left or right so that the
AF points in the viewfinder look sharp. The illustration shows the knob at the standard setting (1 dpt).
3 Reattach the eyecup.
If the dioptric adjustment knob still cannot make the viewfinder look clear, use a Dioptric Adjustment Lens Ed (10 types sold separately).
Holding the Camera
To avoid taking blurred pictures, hold the camera steady to minimize camera shake.
Firmly grasp the camera grip with your right hand, and press your both elbows lightly against your body. Hold the lens at the bottom with your left hand. Press the camera against your face and look through the viewfinder. To maintain a stable stance, place one foot in front of the other instead of lining up both feet.
The camera automatically senses whether it is in the horizontal or vertical position. The camera orientation sensor will make a small sound when you switch to vertical or horizontal shooting.
Fully Automatic Shooting
This chapter describes how to use the cameras Basic Zone modes <Y> <U> <I> <O> <P> <A> for quick and easy shooting. In these modes, all you do is point and shoot. Also, these modes override the cameras <l> <u> and AF Mode dials, film advance mode lever (except <p>), and buttons (except <0> <6> and the shutter button). This is to prevent spoiled shots caused by accidental operation of camera controls.
Turn the Mode Dial to <Y>, <U>, <I>, <O>, <P>, or <A>.
The picture-taking procedure is the same as with the <Y> Full Auto mode on page 28. The settings automatically set by the Basic Zone modes are shown in the Feature Availability Table on page 91.
n B a sic Zo
YFull Auto Mode
All you do is point the camera and press the shutter button. Everything is automatic so it is easy to photograph any subject. With seven AF points to focus the subject, you just point and shoot.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <Y>. 2 Aim any of the AF points on the subject.
The main subject, as determined by
the camera, will be focused by one of the AF points. To focus a subject not covered by any of the AF points, see Focusing OffCenter Subjects on page 50.
depth and breadth of the picture. automatically sets the AF mode to <4>, the film advance mode to <J> (single-frame shooting), and the metering mode to <Z>.
Use this mode to take close-up shots of flowers, insects, etc.
As much as possible, focus the subject at the
lens closest focusing distance.
To obtain a larger magnification, use the
telephoto end of a zoom lens.
For serious close-up shots, optional EOSs This
dedicated macro lenses are recommended. automatically sets the AF mode to <4>, the film advance mode to <J> (single-frame shooting), and the metering mode to <Z>.
This is for fast-moving subjects when you want to freeze the action.
The camera will first track the subject with the
center AF point. Focus tracking will then continue with any of the seven AF points covering the subject. While you hold down the shutter button, focusing will continue for continuous shooting. Using a telephoto lens and ISO 400 or higher speed film is recommended. The focus confirmation light will not light even when focus is achieved. s This automatically sets the AF mode to <5>, the film advance mode to <H>, and the metering mode to <Z>.
This mode is for taking pictures of people at twilight or at night. The flash illuminates the subject while a slow sync speed obtains a natural-looking exposure of the background.
If you want to photograph only a night scene
(without people), use the <I> mode instead.
Tell the subject to keep still even after the flash
automatically sets the AF mode to <4>, the film advance mode to <J> (single-frame shooting), and the metering mode to <Z>.
A blinking shutter speed indicates that the shutter speed is too slow to prevent a blurred picture caused by camera shake. Hold the camera steady and press the shutter button smoothly, or use a tripod. (The shutter speed indicator still blinks when you use a tripod, but camera shake will not be a problem.) In the <A> mode, use a tripod to prevent camera shake.
Do not stand in front of the camera when you press the shutter button to start the self-timer. Doing so prevents the camera from focusing the subject. To cancel the self-timer after it starts, set the film advance mode lever to <J> (single-frame shooting) or <H>. When using the self-timer to take a picture of only yourself, first lock the focus (p.50) on an object at the same distance where you will be in the picture. The self-timer beeper can be silenced. (p.74)
Using the Eyepiece Cover
When using the self-timer or optional wireless remote control, you should use the eyepiece cover (p.17) to prevent stray light from entering the eyepiece and affecting the exposure reading.
1 Remove the eyecup from the eyepiece.
Push up both sides at the bottom of
2 Attach the eyepieceiscover. to the The eyepiece cover attached
Slide the eyepiece cover down into
the eyepiece groove to attach it.
Imprinting the Date or Time (DATE Model only)
The camera has a date feature with an automatic calendar to 2019. It can imprint the date or time on the photograph as shown in the left photo. The date or time can be imprinted in any shooting mode.
Press the <q> button.
time the button is pressed, the imprinting format changes in the following sequence as shown on the quartz date display panel:
Month, day, year Day, month, year Year, month, day Day, hour, minute Hyphens
(Dec. 24, 2004) (24 Dec. 2004) (2004 Dec. 24) (24th 16:45) (Blank)
<W> is displayed above the month. When a picture is taken, the bar <9> will blink to indicate that the date or time has been imprinted.
Imprinting the Date or Time (DATE Model only) Setting the Date and Time
date or time display. 1 Select the <q> button. Press the digit to be set. 2 Select the <6> button until the Press the
digit blinks. time you press the button, the settable digit will change as follows: Year month day. Or hour minute a
correct number. 3 Set thepressing the <7> button until Keep
the correct number appears.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all the
date and time digits are set correctly.
4 Finalize the setting. Keep pressing the <6> button
until no digits blink.
If a is blinking and you press
<6>, the seconds will be reset to 0.
Replacing the Date Battery
When the date/time on the imprinted photograph looks faded, replace the CR2025 lithium battery as follows. Battery life is about 3 years.
1 Remove the battery chamber cover. Open the camera back and loosen
the screw as shown in the illustration.
2 Take out the battery. a new 3 Insertbatterysbattery. contact (+) positive The
must face up. the battery chamber 4 Reattachcorrect date and time. cover. Set the
e Eye Control Calibration (m Model only) Eye Control Calibration and Operation Tips
Hold the camera as you always do while looking through the viewfinder. Look through the viewfinder so you can see all four corners of the viewfinder. Avoid squinting or blinking your eye. When using Eye Control, look through the eyepiece in the same way you did during the calibration. During the calibration procedure, keep looking (without moving your eye) at the blinking AF point until it lights and the beeper sounds. Keep both eyes open while looking through the viewfinder. If you wear eyeglasses, wear them properly without having them slide down your nose. Eye Control calibration and operation might not be possible in the following cases: When you wear bifocal eyeglasses or hard contact lenses. You wear mirror-type sunglasses or other specially-coated glasses. Your eye is too far away from the eyepiece due to eyeglasses, etc. Your eye is too close to the viewfinder.
Intelligent Eye Control
You can repeat the calibration procedure under different conditions such as when you are outdoors, indoors, or at night. The camera can save these additional calibration settings under the same CAL No. By accumulating more calibration settings, the camera can provide more precise Eye Control.
Two or more users must not share the same CAL No. Each user should have his or her own CAL No. If necessary, delete the calibration settings saved under another CAL No. to store another users calibration settings. (p.47)
Deleting Eye Control Calibration Settings
If you want to save new calibration settings under a CAL No. that already has calibration settings, follow the procedure below to first delete the previous calibration settings. You can then do the calibration procedure and save the new calibration settings under that CAL No.
2 Select the CAL No. whose be calibration settings are to
Select a non-blinking CAL No.
the <w> button and 3 Press button simultaneously. <3>
CAL No. will start blinking to indicate that the calibration settings have been deleted.
gUsing Eye Control (m Model only)
With Eye Control, you just look at the AF point where you want to focus. Eye Control can be used in all shooting modes except <Y> (Full Auto). In the <Y> (Full Auto) mode, Eye Control information is also added to the automatic AF point selection program for more precise automatic AF point selection.
the CAL 2 Selectthe <l> No. to select your dial Turn
Exposure compensation is used to alter the cameras standard exposure setting. You can make the picture look lighter (increased exposure) or darker (decreased exposure). The exposure compensation amount can be set up to +/2 stops in half-stop increments.
to a 1 Turn the Mode Dial <W>.Creative Zone mode except exposure setting. 2 Check the shutter button halfway and Press the
check the display.
3 Set the exposure compensation amount.
Turn the <i> switch to <1> and To cancel the exposure
compensation, set the exposure compensation amount to <b>.
Increased exposure Exposure level mark
4 Take the picture.
The exposure compensation amount set is retained even after the Mode Dial is set to <2>. Assuming that a shutter speed of 1/125 sec. and an aperture value of f/8.0 will give a correct exposure, setting the exposure compensation amount to plus or minus 1 stop will change the shutter speed or aperture value as follows:
Shutter speed Aperture value 1 stop 8.0 +1 stop 60 5.6
LAuto Exposure Bracketing (AEB)
With AEB, the camera automatically changes the exposure within a set range (up to +/-2 stops in 1/2-stop increments) for three successive frames.
Standard exposure (0)
Decreased exposure (1/2 stop)
Increased exposure (+1/2 stop)
1 Move the <7> arrow to the <L> icon.
<0> button. (1)
AEB 2 Set the desired dial. amount. Turn the <l>
AEB range standard exposure
three bracketed shots will be exposed in the following sequence: standard exposure, decreased exposure, and increased exposure. s As shown on the left, the respective bracketing amount will be displayed as each bracketed shot is taken. s The picture will be taken in the current film advance mode.
After the three bracketed shots are
taken, the AEB setting will not be canceled automatically. To cancel AEB, follow steps 1 and 2 to set the AEB amount to Z. AEB will also be canceled automatically if the flash is ready to fire.
AEB cannot be used with flash or bulb exposures. During AEB shooting, the <7> arrow will appear next to the <L> icon and the AEB level <x> will be displayed. In the viewfinder, the <j> icon will blink. In the <H> film advance mode, the camera stops shooting automatically after taking the three AEB shots. In the <J> (single frame) mode, press the shutter button completely three times to take the three AEB shots. If you use the self-timer or remote control, the three AEB shots will be taken continuously automatically. If C.Fn-05-1 is set (mirror lockup), single-frame film advance will take effect during AEB shooting even if the continuous film advance mode has been set. AEB can also be set in combination with exposure compensation. If you set the exposure compensation amount beyond the displayable range, the indicator will look as shown below. However, the exposure compensation amount will still take effect. In the <S> <R> <E> <Q> modes: : 1 stop AEB. : 1 stop AEB with 1-stop exposure compensation. : 1 stop AEB with 1.5-stop exposure compensation. : 1 stop AEB with 2-stop exposure compensation. In the <W> mode: : 1 stop AEB with 2-stop exposure compensation.
KWireless Remote Control
With Remote Controller RC-1 (sold separately), wireless operation is possible up to 5 m/16.4 ft away from the front of the camera.
1 Turn the film advance mode lever to <p>.
<K> icon appears on the LCD panel.
2 Take the picture. Point the signal transmitter toward
the cameras remote control sensor and press the signal button. s The remote control lamp will light, and the picture will be taken. For details on using the remote control, see the RC-1s instructions.
Remote control sensor
Certain types of fluorescent light may cause camera misoperation. During wireless remote control, try to keep the camera away from fluorescent light. You can also use Remote Controller RC-5 (sold separately). If you set the film advance mode lever to <p> and do nothing for four minutes, the wireless remote control mode will be canceled automatically to save battery power.
Using the Remote Switch
Connect the Remote Switch RS60E3s (sold separately) plug to the cameras remote control terminal. To take a picture, press the Remote Switchs shutter-release button.
With the built-in flash or EOSdedicated Speedlite, you can easily take flash pictures in the same way as normal AE shooting. In the Basic Zone modes (except <I> <P>), the built-in flash is fully automatic. In Creative Zone modes, it can be used at any time.
Using the Built-in Flash
In a Basic Zone Mode
In low-light or backlit conditions, the built-in flash will pop up and fire automatically (except in <I> <P> modes).
In a Creative Zone Mode
Just pop-up the built-in flash to fire the flash regardless of the ambient light level. S : Use this mode for automatic flash photography. The flash sync speed (within 1/60 sec. - 1/125 sec) and aperture value will be set automatically as with the <Y> (Full Auto) mode.
R : Use this mode if you want to set the flash sync speed manually (within 30 sec. - 1/125 sec.). The camera will set the flash aperture value automatically to obtain a correct flash exposure. E : Use this mode if you want to set the flash aperture value. The camera will set the flash sync speed (within 30 sec. 1/125 sec.) automatically to obtain the best exposure for the aperture you set. For portraits with a night scene or dark background, a slow sync speed will be set to obtain a proper exposure for both the subject and background. The flash illuminates the subject, while the background is properly exposed with a slow shutter speed. Because automatic slow-sync shooting uses a slow shutter speed, always use a tripod. W : Enables you to manually set the shutter speed (30 sec. 1/125 sec. or bulb) and aperture. The subject is properly exposed with the flash and the background is exposed with the flash sync speed and aperture value you have set.
Q : This mode gives the same flash result as the <S> mode.
Flash Distance Range (With EF28-105mm f/3.5-4.5)
ISO 400 28mm Negative Film 1 - 5.2 / 3.3 - 17.- 7.4 / 3.3 - 24.3 Slide Film 1 - 3.7 / 3.3 - 12.- 5.2 / 3.3 - 17.2 90mm Negative Film 1 - 4.0 / 3.3 - 13.- 5.7 / 3.3 - 18.- 8.1 / 3.3 - 26.8
Slide Film 1 - 2.8 / 3.3 - 9.- 4.0 / 3.3 - 13.- 5.7 / 3.3 - 18.9
1 - 10.5 / 3.3 - 34.4 1.2 - 7.4 / 3.9 - 24.3
Use the built-in flash at least 1 meter (3.3 ft) away from the subject. Closer distances may result in the flash partially obstructed by the lens barrel. When using the built-in flash, detach any hood attached to the lens. A lens hood will partially obstruct the flash coverage. When a super telephoto lens or a fast, large-aperture lens is attached, the built-in flash coverage might be obstructed. Using an EOS-dedicated Speedlite is recommended. The built-in flashs flash coverage is suited for a 28mm lens. If you use a shorter wide-angle lens, the flash picture may look dark along the periphery. To retract the built-in flash, push it down. In <R> or <W> mode, even if you set the shutter speed faster than 1/125 sec. 1/125 sec. will be set automatically. If the camera finds it difficult to focus, the AF-assist beam will fire automatically (except <I> <P>). C.Fn-07-3 disables the built-in flash from firing. (p.86) C.Fn-06-1 enables 2nd-curtain sync with the built-in flash. (p.86) With C.Fn-09-1, the flash sync speed will be fixed at 1/125 sec. in the <E> mode. (p.87)
Using the Built-in Flash aFlash Exposure Compensation
Flash exposure compensation can be set in the same way as with exposure compensation. It can be set up to +/2 stops in 1/2-stop increments.
the <7> arrow to 1 Moveon the LCD panel. the <a> icon
Press the <0> button to move
the arrow. (1)
2 Set the flash exposure compensation amount.
Turn the <i> switch to <1> and
To cancel flash exposure
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <G>. The <V> icon and Custom
Function No. are displayed on the LCD panel.
the Custom No. 2 Selectthe <l> dial Functionthe to select Turn
Custom Function No.
Custom Function 3 Set thethe <w> button. setting. The Press
Custom Function setting changes each time you press the button. The W setting is the default. Repeat steps 2 and 3 above to set any other Custom Functions.
4 Finalize the setting. a shooting Turn the Mode Dial to
mode. <V> icon remains displayed on the LCD panel and the Custom Function setting is set.
Custom Function Setting No. Function Setting No.
C.Fn stands for Custom Function.
Custom Function Settings
C.Fn-01 Film rewind speed
Increase the film rewind speed. 0 : Normal (silent) rewind 1 : High-speed rewind
C.Fn-02 Film leader position after film rewind
Prevent the film leader from being rewound in the film cartridge after film rewind. 0 : Rewinds film leader into the cartridge 1 : Leaves film leader outside the cartridge
C.Fn-03 DX-coded film speed setting method
Prevent the camera from automatically setting the ISO film speed when the film is loaded. 0 : Enabled 1 : Disabled
C.Fn-04 Shutter button and <j> functions
0 : AF activation with shutter button pressed halfway, and AE lock with the <j> button. 1 : AF activation with the <j> button, and AE lock with shutter button pressed halfway. Makes focusing and AE lock separate operations. 2 : AF activation with shutter button pressed halfway, and suspend AF operation with the <j> button. During AI SERVO AF, if an obstruction comes in front of the subject, you can press the <j> button to stop the AF operation momentarily. The exposure is determined when the shot is taken.
C.Fn-05 Mirror lockup
0 : Disabled (Normal operation) 1 : Enabled Effective for close-up and telephoto shots to prevent camera shake caused by the mirrors reflex action. See page 75 to use this feature.
C.Fn-06 Shutter curtain sync with built-in flash/EOS-dedicated Speedlite
0 : 1st-curtain sync 1 : 2nd-curtain sync With second-curtain sync and a slow shutter speed, you can create a light trail following a moving subject. The flash fires right before the shutter closes. Second-curtain sync can be set even with EOS-dedicated Speedlites which cannot switch the shutter curtain synchronization. The Speedlite with a shutter curtain synchronization setting will override the cameras setting.
C.Fn-07 AF-assist beam emission / Main flash firing
The AF-assist beam from the camera and the EOS-dedicated Speedlite can be enabled/disabled, and the flash from the camera and EOS-dedicated Speedlite can be enabled/disabled. 0 : Enable AF-assist and flash 1 : Disable AF-assist and enable flash 2 : Enable AF-assist only with EOS Speedlite and enable flash 3 : Enable AF-assist and disable flash
C.Fn-08 Partial metering linkage with AF point/FE lock
Partial metering and FE lock can be linked to the selected AF point. Effective for composing the shot. 0 : Disabled (Partial metering/FE lock linked to center AF point) 1 : Enabled
C.Fn-09 Flash sync speed in Av mode
0 : Auto 1 : 1/125 sec. (fixed) When you use flash in the aperture-priority mode (Av), the flash sync speed will be fixed at 1/125 sec. This prevents the camera from setting a slow sync speed in low-light conditions.
C.Fn-10 Superimposed display for focus confirmation
0 : On 1 : Off Disables the AF point from flashing in red when it achieves focus. When the AF point is selected, it will still flash in red.
C.Fn-11 AF point selection method
0 : <3> button + <h> 1 : Select AF point manually with <h> or select automatically with <3> While the metering is active (0), you can manually select the AF point with the <h> button. Convenient if you have to change the AF point often or if you want to change the AF point in the AI SERVO AF mode. 2 : <3> button + <l> <u> After you press the <3> button, turn the <l> or <u> dial to select the AF point. Turn the <l> dial to select a horizontal AF point or turn the <u> dial to select a vertical AF point.
C.Fn-12 Switch to center AF point with the <3> button
0 : Disabled 1 : Enabled Press the <3> button to immediately switch to the center AF point. Convenient if you often use the center AF point.
C.Fn-13 Lens AF stop button function
0 : AF stop 1 : AF start AF operates only while the AF stop button is pressed. While you press the button, AF operation with the camera is disabled. 2 : AE lock while metering When you press the button while metering timer is still active, AE lock takes effect. Convenient when you want to focus and meter separately. 3 : AF point selection method switching (between automatic and manual). In the manual AF point selection mode, holding down the button switches to automatic AF point selection. Holding down the button switches from manual AF point selection to automatic AF point selection immediately. Convenient when you are no longer able to focus track a moving subject with a manually-selected AF point in the AI Servo AF mode. In the automatic AF point selection mode, holding down the button selects the center AF point. 4 : AF mode switching (between One-Shot AF and AI Servo AF) In the One-Shot AF mode, holding down the button switches to AI Servo AF mode. In the AI Servo AF mode, holding down the button switches to One-Shot AF mode. Convenient when you need to keep switching between One-Shot AF and AI Servo AF for a subject that keeps moving and stopping. 5 : IS start With the lens IS switch already ON, the Image Stabilizer operates only while you hold down the AF stop button.
The same conditions above apply during continuous shooting. (approx. 3.5 frames per sec.)
The program line below applies when the camera is used in the <S> Program AE mode with an EF 28-105mm f/3.5-4.5 lens.
184.108.40.2060 1.2000 4000
: At 28mm focal length : At 105mm focal length
Program Line Description
The bottom horizontal axis represents the shutter speed and the right vertical axis represents the aperture value. On the left edge and top edge of the graph, the Exposure Value (EV) is indicated for the respective shutter speed and aperture value combination set by the Program AE mode and denoted by the program line. Example: When the 105mm focal length is used and the subject brightness is EV 12, the point where the diagonal line from EV 12 (on the top edge of the graph) intersects the program line indicates the corresponding shutter speed (1/125 sec.) and aperture value (f/5.6) which the program sets automatically. The arrowhead lines above the graph indicate the metering range for the respective film speed.
If there is a problem, first refer to this Troubleshooting Guide.
Nothing is displayed on the LCD panel.
The batteries are exhausted. / The batteries have been installed incorrectly. s Replace the batteries with new ones. / Install the batteries correctly. (p.18)
The picture looks blurred.
The lens focus mode switch is set to <MF>. s Set the lens focus mode switch to <AF>. (p.20)
There was camera shake when the picture was taken. the camera steady or use a faster shutter speed. (p.21)
The shutter does not work.
On the LCD panel, the frame count is not displayed and the <5> icon blinks. s Take out the film and load it correctly. (p.22) The focus confirmation light <n> in the viewfinder blinks and focus cannot be achieved. s Select another AF point. (p.41) If focus still cannot be achieved, focus manually. (p.51)
The <r> icon blinks on the LCD panel.
The battery level is very low. s Replace the batteries with new ones. (p.18)
A misoperation has occurred. the shutter button halfway. (p.21) / Remove the batteries and reload it. (p.18) If the blinking <r> icon does not turn off, consult your nearest Canon dealer.
Type Type.35 mm AF/AE SLR camera with built-in flash Recording media.35 mm film Image size.24 x 36 mm Compatible lenses.Canon EF lenses (except EF-S lenses) Lens mount.Canon EF mount (electronic control) Viewfinder Type.Eye-level pentaprism Coverage..90% vertical and 92% horizontal coverage Magnification..0.7x (1 diopter with 50mm lens at infinity) Eyepoint..19.5 mm Dioptric adjustment range.2.5 - +0.5 diopter Focusing screen..Fixed, all-matte screen Mirror..Quick-return half mirror (Transmission:reflection ratio of 40:60, no mirror cut-off with EF 600mm f/4 or shorter lens) Viewfinder information.AF (AF points, focus confirmation light, Eye Control); Exposure (shutter speed, aperture value, exposure level, AE lock); Flash (flash ready, red-eye reduction, hispeed sync, FE lock, Flash Exposure Compensation) Depth-of-field preview.Depth-of-field preview button Autofocus Type.TTL-CT-SIR with a CMOS sensor (TTL secondary image-registration, phase detection) AF points..7 AF working range..EV 1 - 18 (at 20C, ISO 100) Focusing modes..One-Shot AF, AI Servo AF, AI Focus AF, Manual focusing (MF) AF point selection..Automatic selection, manual selection, manual selection with Eye Control (Eye Control AF) Selected AF point display.Superimposed in viewfinder and displayed on LCD panel. AF-assist beam.Built-in flash fires intermittent burst automatically. Effective range: Approx. 4.5 meters at center, Approx. 4 meters at periphery. Eye Control Type.Eye position detected by IREDs. Calibration.Up to five calibration settings can be stored (Intelligent feature provided).
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Internal flash. Basic (PIC) modes and external flash units. Canon external flash unit types. Nomenclature of external flash units. Older Canon Speedlite flash units. Hotshoe flashes. Handle-mount (grip) flash. Macro flash. Third-party flash units. Achiever. Metz. Sigma. Soligor. Sunpak. Vivitar. Other flashes. Which flash unit should I buy? Part II - EOS flash photography modes. Subject and Background in flash photography. Fill flash. Fill flash ratios. Auto fill reduction. Slow shutter sync. X-sync (flash sync) speed. Maximum X-sync speed and EOS bodies. EOS flash photography confusion. Program (P) mode flash. Tv (shutter priority) mode flash. Av (aperture priority) mode flash. Manual (M) exposure mode flash. Multiple flash units. Metering patterns for the background when using flash. Flash metering patterns. Do not focus and recompose. Flash terminology. Strobe and flash. Inverse square law. Guide number. Exposure values (EV). Dedicated or non-dedicated flash units. Shoe mount. The redeye effect. Redeye reduction. The first curtain sync problem. Second-curtain sync. Colour temperature theory. Colour temperature and film.
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Colour temperature and flash photography. Colour filters. Limitations of filters. Mireds. Wratten numbers. Trigger circuit voltage. Slave flashes. Flash meters. Flash sync trivia. Part III - Common EOS flash features. Bounce flash - swivel and tilt. Zooming flash heads. Flash head coverage. AF assist light. Camera-specific notes on AF assist lights. Flash exposure compensation (FEC). Which bodies/flash units have FEC. List of which bodies/flash units have FEC. Faking flash exposure compensation. Flash exposure lock (FEL). Flash exposure bracketing (FEB). Enabling second curtain sync. List of which flash units and camera bodies have second-curtain sync. Range warning. Manual flash. Flash exposure level. Rapid-fire mode. Stroboscopic flash. Setting stroboscopic flash. Flash exposure confirmation. Wireless remote control. List of wireless-capable flash units and cameras. Modelling flash. Save Energy (SE) mode. High-voltage connector. PC terminals/sockets. Custom functions on flash units. Test flash (manual firing). Manual flash triggering for light painting. Noise. Flash safety. Accessories. Extension cords. Flash diffusers. Flash brackets. External battery packs. Flash extenders Power source options for external flash units. Standard AA non-alkaline (zinc carbon) cells.
Top Ten Frequently Asked EOS Flash Questions.
Before we start, however, Id like to provide quick answers to the top ten Frequently Asked
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EOS Flash Questions, since they come up an awful lot. 1) My camera already has a built-in flash. Do I need an external one? If so, what kind? This question crops up all the time on discussion forums, much to the irritation of oldtimers. And their irritation usually arises for two simple reasons. First, theyre grumpy cantankerous curmudgeons and second, the question is sort of meaningless without knowing what your photographic requirements and interests are. Its very much like asking, Which car should I buy? The answer depends on your needs and budget. But heres a brief overview of what you should consider. If you just want something to take snapshots with, a built-in popup flash is probably sufficient. It cant produce much light and so doesnt have a lot of range, but then friends in restaurants arent going to be very far from you. It has a harsh quality, but for snapshots most people dont seem to mind much. And internal flash units are convenient - you cant lose them unless you lose the whole camera, and they dont add any additional weight or bulk. However, if you want to get into more advanced photography youll probably want either to buy a good external flash unit or else eschew flash as often as possible and rely more on available light. As noted above, the light from an internal flash unit is very harsh, whereas external units let you soften the light by bouncing it off of walls or ceilings, or attaching light-softening diffusers. Most importantly, an external flash unit can be taken off the camera - either with an extension cord or wireless. This is important since on-camera flash provides unnatural head-on lighting. At this point its largely a matter of how much you want to spend and how much weight you want to carry around. Please consult the which flash? section of this document for more details. Nonetheless, remember that flash is no panacea for photographic lighting problems. Its obviously a valuable tool, but often the best way to ruin a nice picture is to blast tons of light onto the scene with a flash unit. Available light photography forces you to slow down and consider the light around you, which ultimately can help you become a better photographer. 2) Im not happy with my flash photos. The lighting always looks harsh and unflattering. Flash is like that. Basically, soft lighting is light which originates from a large area. Portable camera flashes, by contrast, have very small light-producing areas and, therefore, produce very hard-edged light with pronounced shadows. Flash units also tend to be mounted right next to the camera lens, producing an unnatural look. How often do you see the world illuminated by light emanating from your head? You dont - unless youre wearing a caving helmet. Light tends to come from overhead sources - the sun, ceiling lamps, etc. The easiest way to soften the lighting in your flash photos is to bounce the light from the flash unit off a large white surface. Walls and ceilings work for this, as
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confirmation light and if the flash metering was deemed adequate then the light glows. Camera bodies which support A-TTL: All EOS bodies which support TTL (see above). Flash units which support A-TTL: Speedlites 300EZ, 300TL (T90 only), 420EZ, 430EZ, 540EZ. Limitations of A-TTL. Sadly A-TTL, despite its name, is of rather limited value. For one thing, use of A-TTL in bounce mode on some flash units such as the 420EZ and 430EZ results in blinding flashes of white light from the main bulb each time you press the shutter halfway, which can be very annoying to human subjects. Although these flash units use a small separate A-TTL tube to flash fairly discreet near-infrared red light during the preflash stage when the head is pointed straight on, they flash the main flash tube (white light) instead when the flash head is tilted or swivelled. If that werent enough, the preflash isnt even really used by most EOS cameras when its in Av, Tv or M modes, since unlike P mode you arent setting aperture automatically for flash metering purposes. And, unlike E-TTL, the A-TTL preflash is never used for actual flash metering. The original purpose of the A-TTL preflash in those modes was to provide information to the flash out of range warning light in early EOS cameras - the 630, RT and 1. Canon had to drop that whole system for patent reasons by the late 80s, but the A-TTL preflash in non-P mode still lives on as a kind of useless appendix in most A-TTL flash units. Its interesting to note that the 540EZ flash avoids these problems simply by ditching A-TTL in bounce mode altogether and reverting to TTL. In fact, the 540EZ doesnt use A-TTL for Av and Tv modes either, unlike the earlier flash units. Presumably by that point Canon decided that most 540EZ buyers werent going to be 630, RT and 1 owners as well. Since the A-TTL sensor is on the front of the flash unit - behind a recessed plastic lens and not inside the camera, metering through the camera lens, its conceivable that a very heavy filter on the lens might result in some metering problems since the filter doesnt cover the sensor as well. And, speaking of the flash-mounted sensors, be sure not to block it with your hand or anything for the same reason. Some flash diffusers can also present a problem in that the light spilling downwards from the diffuser can enter the A-TTL sensor inadvertently. Finally, despite the additional complexity of the preflash circuitry, A-TTL simply ends up setting a pretty small aperture most of the time, to assure wide depth of field, which isnt always what you want. In short, A-TTL adequately assures reasonable flash exposure and depth of field in a point and shoot fashion in P mode. It isnt so useful for more subtle or complex lighting techniques and isnt useful at all in Av, Tv and M modes. E-TTL (evaluative TTL). With the Canon Elan II/50 camera in 1995, Canon introduced another form of flash technology - E-TTL, for evaluative through the lens flash metering. E-TTL fires a lowpower preflash of known brightness from the main bulb to determine correct flash exposure. It measures the reflectance of the scene with the preflash, then calculates proper flash
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The shutter stays open for the full duration of the shutter speed time. The shutter closes and the mirror flips back down. If the flash unit has a flash exposure confirmation light and if the flash metering was deemed adequate then the light glows. Camera units which support E-TTL: All type A EOS cameras (see below). Flash units which support E-TTL: All EX series Speedlites: 220EX, 380EX, 420EX, 550EX, MR-14EX, MT-24EX. Limitations of E-TTL. One drawback of E-TTL is that the preflash can cause people who blink quickly to be photographed mid-blink - what EOS list member Julian Loke has referred to as the BEETTL syndrome, for blinking eye E-TTL. The preflash normally occurs an extremely brief period of time before the main flash, but when using second-curtain sync with slow shutter theres enough time for rapid blinkers to react to the preflash. This apparently can also be a problem for nature photographers who photograph birds. Another problem is that the use of preflash can trigger studio slave flash units which work by detecting the light from the triggering camera - analogue optical slaves. This results in flash exposure going very wrong, since the optical slave is triggered too soon. The preflash can also confuse handheld flash meters, making manual flash metering very difficult. More abstractly, E-TTL is a very automated system and isnt well documented for the user. For instance, as noted above, Canon have never published details on the E-TTL auto fill reduction algorithm. It takes a bit of experimenting to figure out how the system is likely to respond. And theres relatively little user selection or choice in operation modes. Most flash units dont, for instance, let you manually choose TTL, A-TTL or E-TTL flash metering at will. E-TTL has also been a problem for a lot of digital users (see TTL and E-TTL and digital EOS cameras below) because of the way E-TTL flash metering is performed. Some of these issues are addressed by E-TTL II, which is described in the next section. Finally, not every E-TTL feature is supported by every type A body and E-TTL flash unit. Some wireless E-TTL features and other functions such as the modelling light, for example, require both newer type A EOS bodies like the EOS 3 or EOS 30 and flash units like the 550EX or 420EX. Part III of this article describes which features are available for which combinations of camera body and flash unit. E-TTL II. Introduced in 2004 with the EOS 1D mark II digital camera and the EOS Elan 7N/EOS 30V/7S film camera, E-TTL II is an improved version of regular E-TTL which includes two key innovations. Improved flash metering algorithms. First, E-TTL II examines all evaluative metering zones both before and after the E-TTL preflash goes off. Those areas with relatively small changes in brightness are then weighted for flash metering. This is done to avoid the common E-TTL problem of highly reflective materials causing specular highlights in a flash-illuminated image and throwing off the flash
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05/08/2005 08:05 PM
metering. Normally E-TTL II uses evaluative algorithms for its flash metering, but the EOS 1D mark II has a new custom function (CF 14-1) that lets you use centre-weighted averaging rather than evaluative metering for flash metering if you prefer. Distance data incorporated into some calculations. Second, E-TTL II can use distance data when its available. Many EF lenses (see list in next section) contain rotary encoders that can detect the current focus distance. For example, if your camera is focussed on an object 4 metres away then the lens will send this approximate focus distance data to the camera body. Under certain conditions the distance data is factored into the calculations for determining proper flash output. This is particularly useful if you use the focus and recompose method without setting FEL - the new system can help minimize flash metering errors under these conditions. Canon describe the new system as essentially metering flash data across a flat plane rather than a point. Up until now distance data hasnt really been used much by EOS cameras. Some PIC (icon modes) apparently incorporate distance data into their exposure calculations, but thats really been about it. E-TTL II is the first really useful application of this information that Canon have implemented, and is obviously very similar to the fashion in which Nikon have long relied on distance data for their flash metering system. Cases in which distance data is not used. Distance data is not always used by E-TTL II. There are three very significant cases in which distance data is not used, aside from the obvious case when it isnt available because the lens doesnt provide it. These three conditions are bounce flash, macro flash and wireless ETTL flash. When youre using bounce flash (ie: when the flash units head is in basically any position other than full-on straight) then there is no way for the camera to know the distance the light took to reach the subject from the flash. Light will be scattered off walls or ceilings or reflectors and wont travel directly to the subject. Since bounce flash is a common technique to improve the quality of a flash-illuminated scene it means that the primary advantage of E-TTL II in this situation is just better evaluative flash metering. The other two conditions are similar. With macro flash youre too close to the subject for the lens to determine useful information, and with wireless E-TTL flash the camera will have no idea where the flash units are positioned in relation to the subject. Note that E-TTL II can still use distance data if the flash unit is connected to a camera via an Off-Camera Shoe Cord. (there was some confusion about this early on, but Canon USAs Chuck Westfall has confirmed it) This means that users of flash brackets wont be left out, though it does mean that if you position the flash unit closer to or further from the subject than the camera, or if you point the flash unit away from the lens axis while keeping the flash head locked in a straight ahead position, then you might throw off the flash metering slightly. You cant directly disable the use of distance data if the lens has it, though in this case you could take the simple precaution of setting the flash head to a very slight off-centre bounce position that would disable distance data while not significantly altering the flash coverage. To summarize, there are two important points to keep in mind. First, E-TTL II does not require any changes to either the flash units or lenses used with an E-TTL II camera - the changes are all basically internal to the camera body. And second, while E-TTL II does use
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distance data when its available and when its appropriate (eg: when using direct nonbounce flash), it doesnt prevent you from using older lenses. Camera units which support E-TTL II: EOS 1D mark II, EOS 30V/33V/7S/Elan 7N/Elan 7EN. Flash units which support E-TTL II: All EX series Speedlites: 220EX, 380EX, 420EX, 550EX, MR-14EX, MT-24EX. Canon EF lenses with distance data for E-TTL II. The following lenses are capable of returning distance data for use with those cameras which can use them. This list was published by Canon USAs Chuck Westfall in March 2004 and is reasonably comprehensive, though does have a few omissions. Note that most of the lenses with distance data capabilities contain ring USM focus motors. In fact, the first three lenses with distance encoders were introduced in 1990 along with the EOS 10/10S - the 35-135mm 4-5.6 USM, 70-210mm 3.5-4.5 USM, and 100-300mm 4.55.6 USM. Its also not clear what the resolution is of a typical lens distance decoder. Photos Ive seen of the decoder rings (not quite like childrens toys in a cereal packet) in one lens suggest that the distance data is fairly approximate, with each combination of distance contacts returning a certain distance range. I have no information as to whether any third-party lenses compatible with the EF lens mount are capable of returning distance data. EF 14mm 2.8L USM EF 20mm 2.8 USM EF 24mm 1.4L USM EF 28mm 1.8 USM EF 35mm 1.4L USM MP-E 65mm 2.8 1-5x Macro EF 85mm 1.8 USM EF 100mm 2 USM EF 100mm 2.8 Macro USM EF 100mm 2.8 Macro (discontinued) EF 135mm 2L USM EF 180mm 3.5L Macro USM EF 200mm 2.8L II USM EF 200mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) EF 300mm 2.8L IS USM EF 300mm 4L IS USM EF 300mm 4L USM (discontinued) EF 400mm 2.8L IS USM EF 400mm 4 DO IS USM EF 400mm 5.6L USM EF 500mm 4L IS USM EF 600mm 4L IS USM EF 1200mm 5.6L USM EF 16-35mm 2.8L USM EF 17-35mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) EF 17-40mm 4L USM
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EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
20-35mm 3.5-4.5 USM 24-70mm 2.8L USM 24-85mm 3.5-4.5 USM 28-70mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) 28-80mm 3.5-5.6 USM (discontinued) 28-105mm 3.5-4.5 USM (discontinued) 28-105mm 3.5-4.5 II USM 28-105mm 4-5.6 USM 28-105mm 4-5.6 28-200mm 3.5-5.6 USM 28-200mm 3.5-5.6 (discontinued) 28-300mm 3.5-5.6L IS USM 35-135mm 4-5.6 USM (discontinued) 70-200mm 2.8L IS USM 70-200mm 2.8L USM 70-200mm 4L USM 70-210mm 3.5-4.5 USM (discontinued) 70-300mm 4.5-5.6 DO IS USM 90-300mm 4.5-5.6 USM 90-300mm 4.5-5.6 100-300mm 4.5-5.6 USM 100-400mm 4.5-5.6L IS USM
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II) and do not support either TTL or A-TTL. Even Canon digital cameras with internal popup flashes are E-TTL only. (though if you want to use flash with a non-EOS camera you should probably check out Kevin Bjorkes page for its limitations. Canon have also written a letter to D30 users concerning proper use of EX flash units) Since digital bodies lack film they cant use regular off the film flash sensors for TTL metering. The mirrorlike surface of a CMOS or CCD imaging chip has very different reflective properties from film. Besides, Canon have clearly switched to E-TTL, only supporting TTL for back compatibility with older products. This means that only Canon EX flash units or third-party flash units with E-TTL support can be used with Canons current lineup of digital cameras. Older E and EZ flash units will not work correctly - no automatic through the lens metering is possible. You can get manualcapable EZ flash units like the 540EZ to fire in manual flash mode but this requires external flash metering. Unfortunately, E-TTL has been a particular problem for digital EOS users. Many users report serious problems with wildly varying exposure when using an E-TTL flash unit with their Canon DSLRs, particularly the D30 and D60. Some of these problems stem from the users focussing and recomposing and failing to use the flash exposure lock (FEL) feature, which sets the wrong area around which the flash will meter. But many problems cant be blamed on this. The main problem appears to stem from the way in which E-TTL on these bodies biases flash exposure heavily to the focus point. For more information please consult the section on E-TTL flash metering patterns. For this reason some digital EOS users have given up on E-TTL and gone back to the old-style autoflash units. Others routinely set their lens to manual focus once focus has been achieved, since the camera uses a centre-weighted average metering pattern for flash metering when in manual focus. Still, at least with digital you have a rear-panel preview and histogram, so you can tell right away if a flash photo failed to work. And Canon are aware of the problem. The EOS 10D has revised E-TTL algorithms which rely on centre-weighted average metering for E-TTL flash, even if the lens is set to autofocus mode. And E-TTL II, introduced with the EOS 1D mark II, analyzes all metering zones before and after the preflash for improved flash metering. Note that this applies to the wholly Canon-designed generation of digital SLRs - the D30 onwards. Its not clear how the first generation of Canon digital SLRs (developed in conjunction with Kodak), the long-discontinued EOS DCS1, DCS3 and D2000 cameras, support flash. It seems the DCS cameras theoretically support TTL, albeit poorly, and the D2000 and D6000 support E-TTL as well, but Canons Web site doesnt really go into much detail. Type A and type B bodies. While Canon have officially divided their camera bodies into types A and B there are subvariants of type A cameras. Specifically, the first generation of type A cameras does not have support for wireless E-TTL flash ratios and modelling flash; the second generation does. There is also a third generation which supports E-TTL II. Type A bodies Support for E-TTL flash, FEL and FP mode: EOS Elan II(E), EOS 50(E)/55
EOS system compatible flash units.
This document is concerned primarily with two types of flash technologies built by Canon for use with their EOS cameras - the pop-up integral flash units built into most low and midrange EOS cameras and the external shoe-mounted Speedlite flash units which can be attached to any EOS camera. I do not discuss studio flash units (large flash units for studio photography, usually powered by AC current and not batteries, and called studio strobes in North America) in any detail here. Heres a good brief introduction to a typical monolight studio flash, if youre interested. Internal flash. Most low to mid-range Canon EOS cameras contain integral flash units, built into the top housing that contains the cameras prism or mirror. Some are motorized and pop up immediately in all basic (PIC or icon) modes except sports and landscape if the camera thinks you need flash, or upon the touch of a button if youre in an advanced (creative zone) mode. Others require the user to lift up the flash manually. One camera, the 10/10s, has a motorized flash unit which both pops up and retracts mechanically, for those interested in trivia. These internal flash units are useful for quick snapshots and the like, but arent usually useful for quality photography for a number of reasons. First, theyre very small and offer very low output levels - low guide numbers such as 11 or 13. Second, theyre located quite close to the lens axis and so are very likely to cause the redeye effect when photographing people. Third, since they dont extend very far above the top of the camera body their light is easily partially blocked by large lenses or lenses with large lens hoods. And fourth, they dont offer any tilt or swivel options and generally have coverage areas of only 28mm or 35mm at the wide end. However, since theyre built-in theyre obviously eminently portable and handy at a moments notice. Theyre useful for applying a touch of fill flash when outdoors. And they recharge very rapidly as they use the cameras lithium battery as a power source. This latter can be a bit expensive, though, as using the built-in flash runs down the camera battery alarmingly quickly. No EOS camera lets you use the internal flash when an external flash unit is mounted on the hotshoe. In fact, external flash units physically prevent the internal flash from being raised. Additionally, EOS cameras with motorized internal flashes have small electrical switches built into the hotshoe which detect the presence of a device and disallow internal flash popup. So the internal flash wont rise automatically if anythings in there - even, say, a hotshoe-mounted spirit level or something else non-electrical. These switches, incidentally, have been known to stick, rendering the internal flash inoperable. None of the professional EOS cameras (1, 1v, 3, etc) have built-in flash units, for the reasons listed above and possibly also because of the difficulty of waterproofing a popup
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support the most advanced Canon flash technology at the time they were introduced; TTL and A-TTL in the case of the EZ units and TTL and E-TTL in the case of the 550EX. They also have both manual controls and tilt and swivel flash heads. Of these the 420EZ is the most limited - it has no flash exposure compensation, for example. * Discontinued product at time of writing. Handle-mount (grip) flash. Canon still make one large flash unit of this type, the 480EG. Its basically a flash bracket with a massive heavy-duty flash attached to the side. The camera sits on the bracket and is held in place via the tripod mount. This type of handle flash is sometimes jokingly referred to as a potato masher flash unit. The 480EG is a high-output flash unit meant for press or wedding photographers, but hasnt been updated in some time and is a TTL-only flash (no A-TTL or E-TTL support). Nowadays people usually just buy flash brackets and put a regular 550EX flash unit on them for this sort of application. This setup also lets you mount the flash unit vertically above the lens rather than to the side only, like the 480EG. But if you want the sheer light output you cant beat the 480EG or similar flash units from manufacturers such as Metz. The 480EG is also the most powerful flash unit that Canon make, even though its advertised guide number is only 48 and thus seemingly lower than flash units like the 540EZ or 550EX. This is because the 480EGs flash head does not zoom and cannot, therefore, automatically concentrate light output when used with longer focal lengths - it can just blast the same amount of light regardless of lens zoom setting. See the sections on guide numbers and zooming flash for a more detailed explanation. The unit does, however, ship with a wide-angle attachment and a telephoto attachment which can be clipped on and used to diffuse or concentrate the units light output. (the telephoto attachment gives the unit a guide number of 68 at 135mm, so you may occasionally see the 480EG being misleadingly described as a flash unit with a guide number of 68) The 480EG has twin bulbs, a slave connector and full tilt and swivel capabilities, but it does not support second-curtain sync or exotic features like stroboscopic flash. Interestingly, it also has an old-style external auto flash sensor built in. So if you have an older pre-EOS camera that doesnt support TTL metering - or if you want to avoid TTL metering altogether for some reason - you can still use it. You can even use the optional Synchro Cord 480 to link the flash to a camera via a PC socket. Macro flash. Canon sell three flash units for macro (closeup) photography. Two, the TTL-only ML-3 flash and the E-TTL MR-14EX flash, are ring-shaped flashes designed to fit directly around the end of a macro lens. The other, the luxurious and hugely expensive E-TTL MT-24EX macro twin lite, contains two small flash heads on the end of a pair of short swivelling arms which can be adjusted independently and which can also be clipped to a ring that fits macro lenses. The MT-24EX flash heads can even be detached and mounted separately on other mounts, since each head includes a shoe mount and a standard 1/4-20 tripod mount. Both the MR-14EX and the MT-24EX can control slave flash units in wireless E-TTL mode, which is very handy - you use the macro flash units (the two tubes are assigned to groups A and B) to illuminate the foreground and then use slaved Speedlites (assigned to group C) to illuminate the background. Note that the older and long-discontinued ML-2 macro ring lite
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flash supports TTL, but only with the T90 camera - Canon states that it cannot meter TTL reliably with EOS cameras. Macro flashes are specifically designed for closeup photography, and let you take shadowless photos of small objects. Additionally, since each macro flash has two independent flash tubes you can adjust the lighting ratio between them, for more directional lighting. Unfortunately, only newer-model mid to high end type A cameras support ratio control. It was trendy for a while in the 1990s to take fashion photos with large ring flashes to get a flat shadowless look to the models, but macro flashes arent really powerful enough to do this sort of thing well. (though the MT-24EX is bright enough to be used for this in closeup portrait setups if you really want to) For some bizarre reason people consistently mistype macro as marco, as if the flash unit type were of Italian provenance. Please note that its not. Third-party flash units. A number of manufacturers other than Canon build flash units that can be used with EOS cameras. Heres a bit of information on them. Note that one problem with third party flashes is that Canon have not published the data protocols used by its cameras, lenses and flashes. So any flash unit designed to be compatible with EOS TTL, A-TTL or E-TTL flash metering has been reverse-engineered based on the behaviour of existing products. Its quite possible that Canon will release a future camera that uses some modification to the protocol and your flash wont work with it. This may or may not be a big issue for you, but its worth keeping in mind as it has been a problem in the past. For instance, the EOS 30/Elan 7 does not work with some Metz adapters and the EOS 300V/Rebel Ti/Kiss 5 doesnt work with any Metz adapters - see the note below. Another common problem involves AF assist lights. As far as I know no third party flash unit is capable of illuminating the AF assist light when a focus point other than the centre point is selected when used with multiple focus point cameras. Achiever. Achiever, a Hong Kong third-party manufacturer of flash units, point and shoot cameras and various sundry other products like paper shredders, list a number of flash units that they say work with EOS cameras. I understand that their products are all TTL only. But useful feature lists of their products arent published on their site at all, so who knows? Metz. Metz, a respected German maker of flash units, sell quite a few Mecablitz flashes that work with EOS cameras by means of an adapter system. Photozone list some of them - the 54MZ-3, 50MZ-5, 40MZ-3, 40MZ-1, 40MZ-3i, 40MZ-1i, 40MZ-2, 40AF-4 and 32MZ-3 - and describe their features. The Metz range is, in fact, much more extensive than Canons, and Metz offers features that Canon do not - such as flash units with memory settings, built-in secondary reflectors,
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American camera accessory and snapshot camera marketer and designer (they dont build products) Vivitar sell the 283 and 285HV flash units. These are selfcontained flashes that rely entirely on their built-in flash sensors - they dont support TTL metering of any kind. In fact, Vivitar apparently pioneered the autoflash concept with the 283, which is probably the best-selling flash unit of all time. 283s and 285s are relatively cheap and commonly used by photo professionals as remote flashes triggered by optical slaves and so on. You should be aware, however, that older models have a very high trigger voltage that can damage EOS cameras. Newer models are fine, but check first before attaching any such flash unit to your camera, just to be sure. Vivitar also sell a number of EOS-compatible flashes, some of which are said to be rebranded Sigma products. Theres a list of their flash units on their Web site, and several are said to be Canon compatible, though TTL only. Their Web site is pretty uninformative, so youre basically on your own there. Other flashes. Finally, any electronic flash unit that mounts on a camera hotshoe and which has a trigger voltage of less than 6 volts will fit an EOS camera and will be fired when you take a photo. However, it wont work with any form of TTL flash metering. See the section on Older Canon Speedlite flash units for details. Which flash unit should I buy? This question obviously comes down to your light output and feature needs, your budget and your weight and size requirements. Here are a few notes to help you make a decision. If you dont know whether your camera is a type A or type B model, consult this list. All flash units marked with an asterisk are discontinued models. I have a type B camera with no plans to buy a type A camera in the future. You should probably stick with an E or EZ series flash unit, since buying an EX unit means youre paying for features you cant use. Also, since EZ units are mostly discontinued you can get a used unit fairly cheaply. Recommended: The 200E, but only if you need something really tiny for occasional close-range fill flash work. Particularly if your camera lacks a built-in flash unit. Id avoid the 200E if size and weight are not critical, as its got feeble output, doesnt tilt or swivel and lacks flash exposure compensation buttons for use on older EOS cameras which lack FEC controls. If you want a reasonably powerful and feature-complete unit for cheap then the 430EZ* is your best bet. If you want the best you can buy in terms of features and output then the 540EZ is for you. This unit gives you slightly more output and flash exposure confirmation compared to the 430EZ. It also doesnt generate irritating flashes of white light each time you press the shutter release halfway when in creative zone modes other than P.
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Not recommended: The 160E* offers little unless size and weight are a really serious issue. The 160E uses a 2CR5 lithium battery, which is a costly way to power a flash unit. However its this small lithium cell which explains the incredibly tiny size of the 160E. The 300EZ* is a fixed unit which can neither swivel nor tilt - get a 430EZ instead. The 430EZ is larger and heavier, but more flexible than the 300EZ. The 420EZ* isnt a bad unit but lacks convenient flash exposure compensation buttons. The 430EZ has these plus an external battery socket and doesnt cost much more. I have a Canon digital camera, a type A camera, or a type B camera but plan to buy a type A camera soon. If you have a type A camera youre best off buying an EX-series (E-TTL capable) flash to take full advantages of the newer features. All EX-series flash units will work fine in TTL mode with type B cameras as well - the only missing feature being A-TTL, which is fairly useless anyway. Finally, if you have a digital Canon camera such as a D60 or PowerShot then you dont have a choice - you must get an EX-series flash unit as the earlier models wont work. Recommended: The 220EX, but only if you need something really tiny and lightweight for occasional close-range fill flash work. Particularly if your camera lacks a built-in flash unit. However, Id avoid the 220EX if size and weight are not critical, since it doesnt produce much light and doesnt tilt or swivel. The 420EX is great for general-purpose fully-automatic flash photography. It can also serve as a wireless E-TTL slave. However it lacks manual controls and only supports flash exposure compensation (FEC) on midrange and pro EOS bodies (ie: those cameras with custom functions). The top of the line 550EX flash is quite powerful and can do anything a portable flash unit can be expected to do, but its very large and both costs more and weighs more than a brand new low-end EOS camera. However it can serve as an E-TTL wireless master, has manual controls and works in stroboscopic mode. Not recommended: The 380EX* can tilt but cant swivel. It also cant be used as a wireless slave. Unless money is a serious concern and you find a 380EX on sale for a really good price Id get the 420EX instead, since the 420EX usually doesnt cost much more. I have specialized requirements: Macro photography with a type B body: the ML-3*. Macro photography with a type A body: the MR-14EX. Macro photography with a type A body and a huge budget: the MT-24EX. News or wedding photography for which massive light output is important and
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subtle control is not: the 480EG. Though Metz offer many high-powered grip models which offer more control over the Canon unit. What about third party units? A number of companies other than Canon sell EOS-compatible flash units. The vast majority, however, are TTL only. There is also a small risk of compatibility problems with both current and future EOS camera bodies. If youre satisfied with TTL operation (particularly if you have a type B camera with no plans to upgrade to a type A) and youve tested the flash unit to ensure that it works with your existing camera body, then an inexpensive third party unit may be the way to go if youre on a tight budget. But I cant offer any recommendations for such cheap units because there are so many different brand names which sell them. Many of these units are actually the same basic product, rebadged and sold by different distributors. So if a cheap third-party product is of interest to you Id recommend you go to your local camera shop and look around. There are some better units worth considering as well. Metz make a wide range of well-featured and powerful flash units with interchangeable adapter modules (including an E-TTL capable module for type A cameras), and Sigma sell the popular EF 500 Super, which supports E-TTL and wireless E-TTL operation.
On to Part II.
- NK Guy, tela design. Disclaimer and copyright: This site is copyright 2001-2004 NK Guy, tela design. This information is provided with neither warranties nor claims of accuracy or completeness of any sort. Use this information at your own risk. All trademarks mentioned herein belong to their respective owners. I wrote this document in the hope that others in the Internet community might find it useful or interesting. However, I dont think its reasonable for anyone else to earn money from or take credit for - my work. Therefore you may copy and print this document for your own personal use. You may not, however, reprint or republish this work, in whole or in part, without prior permission from me, the author. Such republication includes inclusion of this work in other Web sites, Web pages, FTP archives, books, magazines or other periodicals, CD-ROM and DVD-ROM compilations or any other form of publication or distribution. Please do not frame this site within another. Please send feedback if you find this article to be of interest or value or if you have any comments, corrections or suggestions. Please also consider making a donation to help defray some of the costs of building and maintaining this site. Thanks! Thanks to Jim Strutz, Mark Overton, Gerard Maas, Steve Dunn, Julian Loke, Lewis
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Macdonald and Martijn Stol for valuable suggestions to this document. Any errors or omissions are purely my own, however.
Back to Photo notes.
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