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Wireless ADSL 2/2+ Modem Router
AirLive WT-2000ARM ADSL2/2+ Router
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, stored, transcribed in an information retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, magnetic, electronic, optical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written permission.
FCC Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against radio interference in a residential environment. AirLive WT-2000 ARM can generate, use and radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions in this manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If AirLive WT-2000 ARM does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which is found by turning the equipment ON and OFF, the user is encouraged to try to reduce the interference by one or more of the following measures: Adjust or relocate the receiving antenna Increase the separation between the equipment or device Consult a dealer or an experienced technician for assistance
CE Declaration of Conformity
This is to certify that this device complies the essential protection requirements of the European Council Directive 89/336/EEC, Article 4a. Conformity is declared by the application of EN Class B (CISPR 22). Compliance with the applicable regulations is dependent upon the use of shielded cables. It is the responsibility of the user to procure the appropriate cables.
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. FEATURES...2 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS..3 PACKAGE CONTENT..3 HARDWARE PLACEMENT..4
1.4.1. Rear Panel... 4 1.4.2. Front LEDs... 5
2. 3. 4. 5.
HARDWARE INSTALLATION..6 SETUP WIZARD..7 IP ADDRESS SETTING..13 WEB MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION..21
5.1. QUICK START...24 5.2. INTERFACE SETUP..29
5.2.1. Internet... 29 5.2.2. LAN... 34 5.2.3. Wireless... 37
5.3. ADVANCED SETUP..41
5.3.1. Firewall... 41 5.3.2. Routing... 42 5.3.3. NAT... 46
188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. NAT... 46 DMZ.... 47 Virtual Server... 48
5.3.4. ADSL... 50
5.4. ACCESS MANAGEMENT..51
5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.4.5. ACL... 51 IP Filter... 52 SNMP.... 55 UPnP... 56 DDNS.... 57
5.5.1. 5.5.2. 5.5.3. 5.5.4. 5.5.5. Administrator... 59 Time Zone... 60 Firmware.. 61 System Restart... 62 Diagnostics... 63
5.6.1. Device Info... 64 5.6.2. System Log... 65 5.6.3. Statistics... 66
6. TROUBLESHOOTING..67 7. GLOSSARY..71
Access Management ACL (Access Control)
IP Filter UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) SNMP Dynamic DNS
1.2. Minimum Requirements
The following devices are necessary to configure and use the ADSL2+ Router:
A PC with Pre-installed Ethernet Adapter (Required) and a Web-Browser (Internet Explorer 4.0 or higher) RJ-45 Ethernet crossover cable (Included in the package) RJ-11 (ADSL Ready) phone Line
1.3. Package Content
One ADSL2+ Router (Annex A or B) One Dipole Antenna One Power Adapter (12VDC, 1A) One RJ-45 Ethernet Cable (100 cm) One RJ-11 Telephone Line (180 cm) One Quick Installation Guide One CD with full User Manual
1.4. Hardware Placement
1.4.1. Rear Panel
1) Antenna Connector The antenna connector of the router is reverse SMA connector. It allows you to connecting an external antenna with reverse SMA connector to the router easily. 2) Reset The Reset button can be used to reset the router or restore to factory defaults. If problems occur with your router, press the routers reset button with a pencil tip (for less than 5 seconds) and the router will re-boot itself, keeping your original configurations. If problems persist or you experience extreme problems or you forgot your password, press the reset button for longer than 5 seconds and the router will reset itself to the factory default settings (warning: your original configurations will be replaced with the factory default settings)
3) Power Jack Please plug the power adapter attached with the ADSL Router to the power jack. The power adapter is 12VDC, 1A. 4) Local Area Network (LAN)
The routers 4 LAN ports are where you connect your LANs PCs, printer servers, hubs and switches etc. 5) ADSL Connect the supplied RJ-11 telephone line to this port and your ADSL/telephone network.
1.4.2. Front LEDs
On the routers front panel there are LED lights that inform you of the routers current status. Below is an explanation of each LED and its description.
LED PWR (Green) WLAN (Yellow)
Light Status On Off Blinking On Blinking
Description The router is ready Wireless LAN is disabled Wireless traffic is transmitting or receiving Connected to an ADSL DSLAN successfully No connection The LAN cable is connected to the router No network connection. Network traffic transferring or receiving through the LAN port
8. Click Save to save the settings and reboot the router.
9. After saving and rebooting the router, the ISP settings are all finished. This wizard will then help to set your computer to obtain IP Address from the router automatically. Note1: Using the router to get into the Internet, the IP Address of each PC has to be set in the same subnet as the router. This wizard will help to set the proper IP Address to your computer. Note2: By default, the routers DHCP Server is enabled. If it is disabled before running the wizard, the wizard will enable the DHCP Server of the router automatically.
10. The ISP settings are all finished. If you want to configure more settings, please click Advanced Settings or click Finish to close the wizard.
4. IP Address Setting
Using the router to get into the Internet, the PCs in the network must have Ethernet adapter installed and be connected to the router either directly or through a hub or switch. The TCP/IP protocol of each PC has to been installed and the IP Address of each PC has to be set in the same subnet as the router. The routers default IP Address is 192.168.2.1 and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. PCs can be configured to obtain IP Address automatically through the DHCP Server of the router or a fixed IP Address in order to be in the same subnet as the router. By default, the DHCP Server of the router is enabled and will dispatch IP Address to PC from 192.168.2.100 to 192.168.2.200. It is strongly recommended to set obtaining IP address automatically. This section shows you how to configure your PCs so that it can obtain an IP address automatically for either Windows 95/98/Me, 2000 or NT operating systems. For other operating systems (Macintosh, Sun, etc.), please follow the manual of the operating systems. The following is a step-by-step illustration on how to configure your PC to obtain an IP address automatically for Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 95/98/Me, and Windows NT.
Windows XP 1. Click the Start button and select Control Panel and then double click Network Connections. The Network Connections window will appear. 2. Right click on the Local Area Connection icon and select Properties. The Local Area Connection window will appear. 3. Check your list of Network Components. You should see Internet Protocol [TCP/IP] on your list. Select it and click the Properties button.
4. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window, select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically as shown on the following screen.
5. Click OK to confirm the setting. Your PC will now obtain an IP address automatically from your routers DHCP server. Note: Please make sure that the routers DHCP server is the only DHCP server available on your LAN.
Windows 2000 1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear. 2. Double-click Network and Dial-up Connections icon. In the Network and Dialup Connection window, double-click Local Area Connection icon. The Local Area Connection window will appear. 3. In the Local Area Connection window, click the Properties button. 4. Check your list of Network Components. You should see Internet Protocol [TCP/IP] on your list. Select it and click the Properties button. 5. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window, select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically as shown on the following screen.
6. Click OK to confirm the setting. Your PC will now obtain an IP address automatically from your Broadband Routers DHCP server. Note: Please make sure that the routers DHCP server is the only DHCP server available on your LAN.
Windows 95/98/Me 1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear. 2. Double-click Network icon. The Network window will appear. 3. Check your list of Network Components. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to install it now. If TCP/IP is installed, go to step 6. 4. In the Network Component Type dialog box, select Protocol and click Add button. 5. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box, select Microsoft and TCP/IP and then click the OK button to start installing the TCP/IP protocol. You may need your Windows CD to complete the installation. 6. After installing TCP/IP, go back to the Network dialog box. Select TCP/IP from the list of Network Components and then click the Properties button.
7. Check each of the tabs and verify the following settings: Bindings: Check Client for Microsoft Networks and File and printer sharing for Microsoft Networks. Gateway: All fields are blank. DNS Configuration: Select Disable DNS. WINS Configuration: Select Disable WINS Resolution. IP Address: Select Obtain IP address automatically.
8. Reboot the PC. Your PC will now obtain an IP address automatically from your routers DHCP server. Note: Please make sure that the routers DHCP server is the only DHCP server available on your LAN.
Windows NT 1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear. 2. Double-click Network icon. The Network window will appear. Select the Protocol tab from the Network window. 3. Check if the TCP/IP Protocol is on your list of Network Protocols. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to install it now. If TCP/IP is installed, go to step 5. 4. In the Select Network Protocol window, select the TCP/IP Protocol and click the Ok button to start installing the TCP/IP protocol. You may need your Windows CD to complete the installation. 5. After you install TCP/IP, go back to the Network window. Select TCP/IP from the list of Network Protocols and then click the Properties button.
In the Quick Start, click Run Wizard to start the configuration.
Please follow the steps in the setup wizard to complete the configuration of the Internet connection.
Step 1: Set your new password Please enter the new password and confirm the password again.
Step 2: Choose your tome zone Please select the tome zone where you are located.
Step 3: Set your Internet connection Please check with your ISP the connection type of the ADSL line.
Step 4: Input the data supplied by your ISP To know more about the explanation of each setting, please refer to Section 5.2.
Step 5: Re-start your ADSL router Click Next to save the settings and restart the router.
ATM VC Parameter Virtual Circuit Description VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier define a virtual circuit. VPI VPI is a virtual path determines the way an ATM cell should be routed. The VPI is an 8-bit (in UNI) or 12-bit (in NNI) number that is included in the header of an ATM cell. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned by the ISP.
Description VCI is the label given to an ATM VC to identify it and determine its destination. The VCI is a 16-bit number that is included in the header of an ATM cell. The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535. Enter the VCI assigned by the ISP.
CBR (Constant Bit Rate) This class is used for emulating circuit switching. The cell rate is constant with time. Select CBR to specify fixed (always on) bandwidth for voice or data traffic. UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) Select UBR for applications that are non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. rtVBR (real time Variable Bit Rate) This class is similar to nrtVBR but is designed for applications that are sensitive to cell-delay variation. Examples for real-time VBR are voice with speech activity detection (SAD) and interactive compressed video.
nrtVBR (non-real time Variable Bit Rate) This class allows users to send traffic at a rate that varies with time depending on the availability of user information. Statistical multiplexing is provided to make optimum use of network resources. Multimedia e-mail is an example of nrtVBR. PCR Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the PCR (Peak Cell Rate). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. SCR SCR (Sustain Cell Rate) is the average rate, as measured over a long interval, in the order of the connection lifetime. Parameter MBS Description MBS (Maximum Burst Size) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
When Default Router is enabled, all the packets for
destinations not known by the router's routing table are sent to the default route. By default, it is enabled. TCP MTU Option MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) determine the maximum size of each packet in any transmission within the network. Please specify the MTU range from 100 to 1500 bytes or 0 byte as the default value. Dynamic Route Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. This router supports RIP1, RIP2-B and RIP2-M protocols for dynamic routing. After the RIP protocol is selected, please choose the RIP direction from None, Both, IN Only or OUT Only. Parameter Multicast Description Specify the method of transmitting data simultaneously to many receivers. Please select IGMP v1 or IGMP v2 as the multicast protocol or select Disabled to disable the function.
Router Local IP Parameter IP Address Description Enter the IP Address of the ADSL router for the local user to access the routers web page. By default, the IP Address is 192.168.2.1.
Parameter IP Subnet Mask
Description Enter the Subnet Mask of the ADSL router. By default, the Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.0.
Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. This router supports RIP1, RIP2-B and RIP2-M protocols for dynamic routing. After the RIP protocol is selected, please choose the RIP direction from None, Both, IN 35
Only or OUT Only. Multicast Specify the method of transmitting data simultaneously to many receivers. Please select IGMP v1 or IGMP v2 as the multicast protocol or select Disabled to disable the function.
DHCP Parameter DHCP Description You can enable or disable the DHCP server. By enabling the DHCP server the router will automatically give your LAN clients an IP address. If the DHCP is not enabled then youll have to manually set your LAN clients IP addresses. Starting IP Address If the DHCP Server is enabled, please set the Starting IP Address which will be the first IP Address assigned to the LAN client. By default, the Starting IP Address is 192.168.2.100. IP Pool Count You can select a particular IP address range for your DHCP server to issue IP addresses to your LAN Clients. By default, the IP Pool Count is 100. The IP range is starting from IP 192.168.2.100 to 192.168.2.199. Parameter Lease Time Description In the Lease Time setting you can specify the time period that the DHCP Server lends an IP address to your LAN clients. The DHCP will change your LAN clients IP address when this time threshold period is terminated. DNS Relay A Domain Name System (DNS) server is like an index of IP addresses and Web addresses. If you type a Web address into your browser, such as www.router.com, a
DNS server will find that name in its index and the matching IP address. Please select Use Auto Discovered DNS Server Only to auto set the DNS Server. If there is a DNS server that you would rather to use, please select Use Discovered DNS Server Only and you need to specify the IP address of that DNS server. Primary DNS Server Enter the ISPs DNS Server IP Address; or you can specify your own preferred DNS Server IP Address. Secondary DNS Server This is optional. You can enter another DNS Servers IP Address as a backup. The secondary DNS will be used should the Primary DNS fail.
Wireless LAN Parameter Access Point Description Activated or deactivated the wireless function of the router. When it is activated, the router will be an access point for other wireless clients to connect wirelessly. SSID The SSID (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) is the unique name identified in a WLAN. The ID prevents the unintentional merging of two co-located WLANs. The default SSID of the router is airlive.
Parameter Broadcast SSID
Description Select Yes to make the SSID to be visible so wireless 38
clients can scan the router within the network. Select No if you want to hide the SSID of the router. Wireless clients have to set the same SSID of the router in order to access the network. Channel ID The radio channel used by the wireless LAN. All devices in the same wireless LAN should use the same channel. To prevent unauthorized wireless clients from accessing the router, this router supports WEP, WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication type. If the router has enabled the authentication, all the wireless clients settings have to be consistent with the router for building the connection.
WEP/WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK Parameter WEP-64Bits Description WEP is less level of security than WPA. WEP supports 64-bit and 128-bit key lengths to encrypt the wireless data. The longer key length will provide higher security. When WEP-64Bits is selected, you have to enter exactly 5 ASCII characters (a-z and 0-9) or 10 hexadecimal digits ("0-9", "a-f") for each Key (1-4). WEP-128Bits When WEP-128Bits is selected, you have to enter exactly 13 ASCII characters (a-z and 0-9) or 26 hexadecimal digits ("0-9", "a-f") for each Key (1-4).
Description WPA-PSK is suitable for home and small business. It
Description When you enable the firewall function, it will protect you from following attacks of WAN side: SYN flooding attack Ping of Death Teardrop Land attack
If you enable SPI, all traffics initiated from WAN site will be blocked including DMZ, Virtual Server, etc.
Routing Table List You can see the current routing table of the router here. If you want to add another routing rule, please click ADD ROUTE. Parameter Dest IP Mask Description Show the IP Address of the destination LAN. Show the Subnet Mask of the destination LAN. If it shows 8 that means the Subnet Mask is 255.0.0.0; 16 means the Subnet Mask is 255.255.0.0; 24 means the Subnet Mask is 255.255.255.0.
Parameter Gateway IP
Description The next stop gateway of the path toward the destination 43
LAN. This is the IP of the neighbor router that this router should communicate with on the path to the destination LAN. Metric The number of hops (routers) to pass through to reach the destination LAN. It must be between 1 and 15. Device Show the interface that go to the next hop (router), such as LAN port. Use Edit The counter for access time. Edit the route, this icon is not shown for system default route. Drop Drop the route, this icon is not shown for system default route.
If you have another router with a LAN-to-LAN connection, you may need to create a static routing on the router that is the gateway to Internet.
Destination IP Address Enter the IP Address of the destination LAN. IP Subnet Mask Gateway IP Address Metric Enter the Subnet Mask address of the destination LAN. This is the gateway IP Address where packets are sent. The number of hops (routers) to pass through to reach the destination LAN. It must be between 1 and 15. Announced in RIP Select Yes, this routing path will be propagated to other hosts through RIP broadcasts. Select No, this routing path will be kept private and it is not included in RIP broadcasts.
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows multiple users at your local site to access the Internet through a single Public IP Address or multiple Public IP Addresses. NAT provides Firewall protection from hacker attacks and has the flexibility to allow you to map Private IP Addresses to Public IP Addresses for key services such as Websites and FTP. Parameter Virtual Circuit Description VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier define a virtual circuit. NAT Status The activated or deactivated status for the NAT function will be shown here. Number of IPs Select Single if you only have a public IP Address. Select Multiple if you have multiple IP Addresses. 46
The DMZ Host is a local computer exposed to the Internet. When setting a particular internal IP Address as the DMZ Host, all incoming packets will be checked by the firewall and NAT algorithms then passed to the DMZ Host. For example, if you have a local client PC that cannot run an Internet application (e.g. Games) properly from behind the NAT firewall, then you can open the client up to unrestricted two-way Internet access by defining a DMZ Host.
Parameter DMZ setting for
Description Show the DMZ setting is for single or multiple IP Addresses.
Enable or disable the DMZ function.
DMZ Host IP Address Enter a static IP Address to the DMZ Host. This IP Address will be exposed to the Internet.
Use the Virtual Server function when you want different servers/clients in your LAN to handle different service/Internet application type (e.g. Email, FTP, Web server etc.) from the Internet. Computers use numbers called port numbers to recognize a particular service/Internet application type. The Virtual Server allows you to re-direct a particular service port number (from the Internet/WAN) to a particular LAN private IP Address and its service port number.
Parameter Virtual Server for
Description Show the Virtual Server setting is for single or multiple IP Addresses. Choose the rule number. Enter the start port number. Enter the end port number.
Rule Index Start Port Number End Port Number
Parameter Local IP Address
Description It is recommended to enter a static IP Address for the server here. If the servers IP Address is obtained from DHCP Server, the IP Address may be changed dynamically and will cause problem on this feature. Please assign a static IP Address to the server and make sure that the IP Address is not in the range of IP Addresses that the DHCP Server will assign.
IP Filter Rule Editing Parameter IP Filter Rule Index Active Description This is the item number to record the setting rule. Select Yes to enable the current rule, select No to cancel the current rule. Source IP Address Subnet Mask Port Number Enter the start IP Address which will be monitored. Enter the Subnet Mask based on the Source IP Address. LAN users use port numbers to distinguish one network application over another such as 21 is for FTP service. The port number range is from 0 to 65535. It is recommended that this option be configured by an advanced user. Destination IP Address Enter the start IP Address which will be monitored. Subnet Mask Enter the Subnet Mask based on the Destination IP Address.
Port Number Parameter Protocol
This is the port or port ranges that define the application. Description It is the packet protocol type used by the application. Please select TCP, UDP or ICMP. For example, FTP service, you have to select TCP.
Select action for the traffic unmatching current rule. Forward is to leave it pass through; Next is to check it by the next rule.
IP Filter Listing The IP Filter Listing will list the IP Filter rules you have configured. You can review the settings here.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a popular protocol for network management. It is used for collecting information and configuring the network devices. This router supports SNMP agent function, which allows a manager station to manage and monitor the router through the network.
Parameter Get Community
Description Enter the password for the incoming Get- and GetNext requests from the management station.
Enter the password for a Set request to configure the router.
When the UPnP function is enabled, the router can be detected by UPnP compliant system such as Windows XP. The router will be displayed in the Neighborhood of Windows XP, so you can directly double click the router or right click the router and select Invoke to configure the router through web browser.
Parameter UPnP Auto-configured
Description Activated or deactivated the UPnP function. Select this check box to allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically configure the router so that they can communicate through the router, for example by using NAT traversal, UPnP applications automatically reserve a NAT forwarding port in order to communicate with another UPnP enabled device; this eliminates the need to manually configure port forwarding for the UPnP enabled application.
PC Anywhere TCP PC Anywhere UDP PPP
PPP is the Point-to-Point-Protocol. The successor to SLIP, PPP provides routerto-router and host-to-network connections over both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.
PPPoA (RFC 2364) The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method for transporting multi-protocol data grams over point-to-point links. This document describes the use of ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) for framing PPP encapsulated packets. PPPoE (RFC 2516) This document describes how to build PPP sessions and encapsulate PPP packets over Ethernet. PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) provides the ability to connect a network of hosts over a simple bridging access device to a remote Access Concentrator. Protocol A protocol is a set of rules for interaction agreed upon between multiple parties so that when they interface with each other based on such a protocol, the interpretation of their behavior is well defined and can be made objectively, without confusion or misunderstanding. PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit, connection-oriented permanent leased line circuit between end-stations on a network over a separate ATM circuit. RFC Request for Comments. The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet suite of protocols and related experiments. Not all RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards are written up as RFCs. RFC 1483 Multi-protocol encapsulation over AAL-5. Two encapsulation methods for carrying network interconnect traffic over ATM AAL-5. The first method allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single ATM virtual circuit. The protocol of a carried PDU is identified by prefixing the PDU by an IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) header. This method is in the following called "LLC Encapsulation". The second method does higher-layer protocol multiplexing implicitly by ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs). It is in the following called "VC Based Multiplexing".
Router A system responsible for making decisions about which of several paths network (or Internet) traffic will follow. To do this, it uses a routing protocol to gain information about the network and algorithms to choose the best route based on several criteria known as "routing metrics. Subnet Mask A subnet mask, which may be a part of the TCP/IP information provided by your ISP, is a set of four numbers (e.g. 255.255.255.0) configured like an IP address. It is used to create IP address numbers used only within a particular network (as opposed to valid IP address numbers recognized by the Internet, which must be assigned by InterNIC). TCP/IP, UDP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Unreliable Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP/IP is the standard protocol for data transmission over the Internet. Both TCP and UDP are transport layer protocol. TCP performs proper error detection and error recovery, and thus is reliable. UDP on the other hand is not reliable. They both run on top of the IP (Internet Protocol), a network layer protocol. TELNET It is the virtual terminal protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. Allows users of one host to log into a remote host and act as normal terminal users of that host. VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier is part of the ATM cell header. A VCI is a tag indicating the channel over which a cell will travel. The VCI of a cell can be changed as it moves between switches via Signaling. VPI Virtual Path Identifier is part of the ATM cell header. A VPI is a pipe for a number of Virtual Circuits.
WAN Wide Area Network is a network that connects computers located in geographically separate areas (e.g. different buildings, cities, countries). The Internet is a wide area network. Web-based management Graphical User Interface (GUI) Many devices support a graphical user interface that is based on the web browser. This means the user can use the familiar Netscape or Microsoft Internet Explorer to Control/configure or monitor the device being managed.
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