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Roland TR-808 - Service Manual, size: 5.8 MB
User reviews and opinions
|ntcctnntcctn||5:28am on Saturday, July 10th, 2010|
|when f=2.6-96.2mm, F/2.0-5.2, the transformation is the 35mm camera, 16:9 dynamic pattern: (45 time of optimized focal variations) 41.7-1877mm.|
|dvergin||2:06am on Friday, June 18th, 2010|
|Big Design Flaw - Requires AC Power for PC Transfers The FS100 camcorder firmware forces the device to be on AC power, plugged into a wall socket.|
|mvirgens||4:31am on Monday, June 14th, 2010|
|I was looking for a camera to start producing online video. I had lights and other equipment from my still photography days. A friend of mine wanted to get into video taping and asked me about still cameras with video capabilities.|
|brush3287||10:15pm on Sunday, May 16th, 2010|
|I bought this camcorder 6 months ago. It produces excellent image and very good sound quality. It is good enough for family use with reasonable price.|
|DanielSon||7:10pm on Friday, April 23rd, 2010|
|Overall the camera is a good unit with an exceptional zoom. I was very impressed with the zoom quality. I am very disappointed. For my application, all I need are .avi files. Even all the old cameras are capable of this very clean and common file format. This is a great compact camcorder. It is very light, but it fits nicely in my palm. It starts up quickly in a few seconds.|
|jago25_98||9:52am on Monday, April 19th, 2010|
|A Neat Little Camcorder! I purchased the Canon FS100 and am very impressed with it. Here are the features that are the most impressive. 1. A Neat Little Camcorder! I purchased the Canon FS100 and am very impressed with it. Here are the features that are the most impressive. 1.|
|Zubajda||4:33am on Thursday, March 18th, 2010|
|This is a great little camera that packs a pretty big punch. Minidv camcorders from JVC and Canon have done. ... Good picture quality in most aplications, very light .|
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Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer
Owen Meyers McGill University 2003
2 From inspiring band names (808 State) to getting checked in lyrics, to being the backbone for entire genres of music (Miami Bass), the TR-808 is one of the best-known pieces of music gear, ever (Douglas, formen.ign.com). The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Machine is one of the most influential and unique drum machines of its time. From its release in the 1980s, artists like Run D.M.C., The Beastie Boys, Afrika Bambaataa, MC ADE, and Juan Atkins have used the TR-808 to push the boundaries of their respective genres to higher grounds. In recent years, imitations of this stellar drum machine have been introduced. From Propellerheads ReBirth software to Novations D-Station hardware, the TR-808 sounds are in high demand. Still held in high regard today, the TR-808 has withstood the test of time with its quirky analog sounds and subsonic bass drum. Drum machines date back to the 1960s. Before making their mark in popular music, these rhythm machines were used with home organs. One of these early machines was the Rhythm Ace R-1 by Ace Electronics (Vail, p. 82). Ikutaro Kakehashi, who is a former president of the Roland Corporation, ran Ace Electronics at the time. The concept of a rhythm machine was slow to catch on in popular music, but musicians soon recognized that potential existed in these devices. Kakehashi founded the Roland Corporation in 1972 and soon after began
manufacturing what are now some of the most sought after beat boxes of all time. Rolands most famous rhythm machines are the CR-78 (1978), the TR-808 (1980) and the TR-909 (1983), where CR stands for CompuRhythm and TR is short for Transistor Rhythm (ibid, p. 83). Great advances were being made in the technological world by the late 1970s. For example, the CR-78 was the first rhythm machine to use a CPU chip, and was one of the first programmable rhythm machines (ibid, p. 83). appealing to musicians. This made the drum machines much more
The second programmable device from Roland was the TR-808.
3 Though its initial reception was minimal, the TR-808 Rhythm Composers popularity is currently second to none. Both the CR-78 and the TR-808 use analog technology, while the TR909 introduced a combination of analog and digital circuits (ibid, p. 83). During this period, many companies were producing digital machines that replicated or sampled acoustic drum sounds. The TR-808 and TR-909 broke away from this trend. Their sounds are extremely unique and have since become standards in sample libraries and synth sound sets (ibid, p. 84). The sounds that the Roland TR-808 rhythm machine is known for are the kick drum, snare drum, open and closed hi-hats, and cowbell. The bass drum has a unique booming sound that is clearly created using a sine wave with a slight attack. This bass drum sound is known for filling out the low-end frequencies without cluttering the mix, because of its extremely pure and deep timbre (C. Cutler, p. 111), as well as having the potential to seriously damage your speakers. The snare drum, with its snappy parameter, floats lightly on top of the booming bass drum. The hi-hats have a swooshy feel that sounds great in 16th note patterns. By far the most unnatural sound on this machine is the cowbell, which sounds like a computerized ping. The TR-808 also includes low/mid/hi toms, low/mid/hi congas, rimshot, claves, hand clap, maracas and cymbal. This collection of sounds, though cheesy in nature, has inspired artists across all genres to create music that pushes the limits set by those who preceded them. The TR-808 is best suited to the genres of early rap, Miami Bass and techno, but it is also prominent in pop and electronic music. Producer Dan Nakamura observed that the TR-808 was first used in country music. Rap artists would get the used drum machines from the country music centers and proceed to exploit them for their massive bass sound. Run D.M.C. are one such group. They would be playing an 808, but would be scratching over (Beckett,
www.techtv.com). Early rap consists mostly of rhyming over a drum beat or record scratching.
4 The texture is very sparse, and the TR-808s sound blends nicely with the essential elements of this genre. Run D.M.C. were using both the TR-808 and record scratching to accompany their rhymes. Two prime examples of this can be heard in Jam-Master Jay and To the Maker. Run D.M.C.s new style, which was driven by a booming 808 kick that [rippled] through the seat of your pants (Dery, www.cultdeadcow.com), influenced the Beastie Boys in their transition from punk to rap in the mid-80s. Two songs from their album Licensed to Ill that feature the TR-808 are Brass Monkey and Slow and Low. The kinky sounds offered by the TR-808 stimulated the Beastie Boys carefree, party-on attitude. The early rap classic Planet Rock also employs the unique TR-808 sound. Afrika Bambaataa & SoulSonic Force and Arthur Baker created this song, along with John Robie on keyboards. We went into Intergalactic Studio, says Tom Silverman of Tommy Boy Records, which included a Neve board, a Fairlight, a Memorymoog, and a Roland TR-808. That was pretty much all we used (ibid). These artists created a masterpiece from the available
equipment, which happened to include a TR-808 drum machine. By no coincidence, Planet Rock brought the TR-808 sound to the foreground with its unique blend of electronic funkiness and melodies from Kraftwerks Trans-Europe Express. Miami Bass is a genre dedicated to cars and the female behind (i.e. booty), also known as boom n bass. One of the forerunners of Miami Bass was MC ADE (Adrian Hines) with his song Bass Rock Express. Inspired directly by Kraftwerks Trans-Europe Express, MC ADE made booty bounce all over the South in 1985 (Shapiro, p. 107) with this tune. This genre relies heavily on the deep, resonant bass drum of the TR-808. The basic idea is to load your car up with as many subwoofers as you can, then pump up the bass so everyone can hear you pass by. The TR-808s bass drum allows you to do exactly this.
5 The TR-808s sound was very influential on the genre of techno, particularly in Detroit. This type of music has a mechanical feel that comes from programmed drum loops. Juan Atkins was one of the key players in this scene during the 1980s. As one half of the group Cybotron, Atkins produced the song Clear using the TR-808, thus bringing the booming bass drum to the genre of techno (ibid, p. 107). Atkins was also a member of the Belleville Three (with Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson), a group of Detroit friends in search of new, unrealistic sounds. This group basically created the four-to-the-floor groove and endless snare-roll crescendi ubiquitous in house, techno, and everything that followed (Berk, p. 193-4) using the TR-808 and TR-909 drum machines. At the time, the Belleville Three chose these instruments because they provided the right sounds for a reasonable price. Today, people are convinced that these sounds were responsible for making techno and house interesting (ibid, p. 199-200). This is partly true, as these unique sounds suit the music better than realistic instrument sounds. However, the originality and ingenuity of these artists also helped to build techno and house music into what it is today. Such a profound influence the TR-808 has had on popular music that groups are continuously referring to it in their names and lyrics. The group 808 State took their name directly from the TR-808, along with the state-of-mind they shared (808 State, www.808state.com). Classic analog gear, such as the TR-808, is essential to this groups Several popular artists, including Newcleus, Aphex Twin,
compositional style and sound.
Vanilla Ice, Sublime, and Blaque use both the sound and the reputation of the TR-808 in their music and lyrics. Sublime uses the TR-808 to emulate the sparse sounds of early rap in their song Cisco Kid. Blaque refers to the classic sound of the TR-808 bass drum in her song 808 when she says, 'Cause I'll be goin' boom like an 808. Other popular songs such as a remix of
6 Cindy Laupers Time After Time by INOJ, Phil Collins One More Night, and Marvin Gayes Sexual Healing feature the TR-808 drum machine. Since the Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer was in production for only three years, there were a relatively small number of units sold approximately 12,000 (Vail, p. 83). Thus, a large market has opened up in the area of sampling, replicating, and emulating the TR-808. When compared to software emulators such as Propellerheads ReBirth, Arturias Storm or Digidesigns Koblo Studio 9000, the original TR-808 drum machine is generally easier to use and sounds better, but it also takes up more space and money. Hardware devices, including Analog Solutions Concussor and Novations D-Station, use analog modeling and sampleplayback engines in their quest to reproduce the TR-808 sound and feel (M. Cutler, emusician.com). These devices are more realistic than software emulators because you have direct access to the physical knobs and buttons, as well as having more options to manipulate the sounds. However, these devices are generally more expensive than the original TR-808. From their meager beginnings as a simple accompaniment device, drum machines have evolved to become staple instruments in many popular music groups. The TR-808 in particular has become a standard sound in the genres of rap, Miami Bass and techno. Its unmistakable subsonic bass drum, snappy snare drum, swooshy hi-hats and ultrasonic cowbell can be heard in the music of Run D.M.C., the Beastie Boys, Afrika Bambaataa, MC ADE and Juan Atkins, to name a few. These artists have all used the TR-808 in their own unique way to propel their particular genres into the spotlight. Also prominent in pop and electronic music, this drum machine has inspired groups to use its repute and sound in their names, lyrics and music. It is continually used as a model for hardware and software simulation, as well as being a basis for
7 drum machine reviews. The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer holds a coveted position in the world of music.
TR-808 Listening List: 1. Run D.M.C. Jam Master Jay 2. Run D.M.C. To The Maker 3. The Beastie Boys Brass Monkey 4. The Beastie Boys Slow and Low 5. Newcleus Jam On It 6. Afrika Bambaataa Planet Rock 7. MC Ade Bass Rock Express 8. Cybotron Clear 9. 808 State Ancodia 10. 808 State Flow Coma 11. Aphex Twin Analogue Bubblebath 1 12. Vanilla Ice Dancin 13. Sublime Cisco Kid 14. Blaque 808 15. Cindy Lauper Time After Time (INOJ Remix) 16. Phil Collins One More Night 17. Marvin Gaye Sexual Healing
Classic albums featuring the Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer
Afrika Bambaataa, Run D.M.C. & The Beastie Boys, Juan Atkins
Propellerheads ReBirth Software TR-808 Module
Arturias Storm Software Psion Module
Koblo Studio 9000 Software, Analog Solutions Concussor
Beckett, Wade and Lux, Joanna. Dan The Automater Nakamura. TechTV Inc. http://www.techtv.com/audiofile/features/story/0,23008,3349481,00.html. 2002. Berk, Michael. Technology. In Modulations, ed. Peter Shapiro. New York: Caipirinha Productions, Inc., 2000. p. 188-209. Cutler, Chris. Plunderphonics. In Music, Electronic Media and Culture, ed. Simon Emmerson. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2000. p. 87-114. Cutler, Marty. Whats New. Electronic Musician Online. http://emusician.com/ar/emusic_whats_new_31/index.htm. 2002. Dery, Mark. Hip-Hop Primer #2 (Part 1 of 2). cDc Communications. http://www.cultdeadcow.com/cDc_files/cDc-0186.txt. 1991. Douglas, Adam. Retro Music Gear: Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer. IGN Entertainment, Inc. http://formen.ign.com/news/27419.html. 2000. 808 State. Bio. globalState. http://www.808state.com/various/bio/intro.htm. 2003. Robair, Gino. Something Old, Something New. Electronic Musician Online. http://emusician.com/ar/emusic_something_old_something/index.htm. 2001. Shapiro, Peter. Miami Bass. In Modulations, ed. Peter Shapiro. New York: Caipirinha Productions, Inc., 2000. p. 106-7. Vail, Mark. Vintage Synths: Roland CR-78, TR-808 & TR-909 Classic Beat Boxes. Keyboard, Volume 20 (May 1994). p. 82-6.
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