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AUTHORIZED PRODUCT MANUAL
Congratulations! You are the proud owner of a Yamaha FX500 SIMUL-EFFECT PROCESSOR. The FX500 is a high-performance digital effect device which provides a chain of up to 5 different effects, and extensive programming capability so you can create custom effect chains to suit your own specific musical requirements. With programmable compressor, distortion, equalizer, modulation and reverb/delay effect stages, the FX500 gives you a complete state-of-the-art signal-processing system in one compact package. 60 superlative preset effect programs are provided that you can simply select and use right away, while 30 RAM memory locations can be used to store your original signal-processing creations. Furthermore, the effects are all created using leading-edge Yamaha digital signal processing technology, so the sound is nothing less than superb. Please read through this operation manual thoroughly while learning to use your FX500, in order to take full advantage of all the sophisticated capabilities it provides and keep the manual in a safe place for later reference!
1. Precautions.. 3 2. The FX500: What It Is and What It Does.. 4 Effects.. 4 Memory Configuration... 4 MIDI Control... 4 3. Connections: Basic System Setup.. 5 4. The Controls: A Quick Operation Guide. 7 5. The MEMORY Mode: Selecting Effect Programs.. 9 6. Effect Processor Selection.. 10 Reversing the Order of the Modulation & Reverb Stages... 10 7. The Parameter Mode: Editing the Effect Programs.. 11 Editing Parameter Data.. 11 Assigning MIDI CONTROLLERS to Effect Parameters.. 11 Memory Store Operation.. 12 COMPRESSOR... 12 DISTORTION.. 13 EQUALlZER... 13 n MODULATlON... 14 Chorus... 14 Flanger... 14 Symphonic.. 15 Tremolo.. 15 REVERB/DELAY.. 15 Reverb Group.. 16 Reverb Hall Reverb Room Reverb Vocal Reverb Plate.. 16 Early Reflection Group.. 16 E/R Hall E/R Random OR Reverse E/R Plate.. 16 Delay Group.. 17 Delay.. 17 Echo... 17 Reverb and Delay Group (Parallel). 17 Reverb + Delay... 17 Reverb and Delay Group (Serial). 18 Delay Reverb Reverb Delay.. 18 8. The Utility Mode... 19 n Program Title Edit.. 19 n MIDI Program Selection: MIDI Setup and Program Change Table Edit.. 19 MIDI Setup.. 20 Program Change Table Edit.. 20 n MIDI Parameter Control: Control Change 1 Table Edit and Control Change 2 Table Edit.20 Control Change 1 Table Edit. 21 Control Change 2 Table Edit. 21 Assigning CONTROLLER 1 and CONTROLLER 2 to Specific Effects. 21 Footswitch Function Select.. 22 Using Tap Tempo Delay.. 22 Footswitch Memory Recall Range Edit. 23 9. Specifications.. 24 10. MIDI Data Format... 26 11. Block Diagram... 30 12. FX500 Parameter Chart... 31 13. Preset Program Parameters.. 32
CANADA THIS APPARATUS COMPLIES WITH THE CLASS B LIMITS FOR RADIO NOISE EMISSIONS SET OUT IN RADIO INTERFERENCE REGULATIONS. CET APPAREIL EST CONFORME AUX NORMES CLASSE B, POUR BRUITS RADIOELECTRIQUES. TEL QUE SPECIFIER DANS LE REGLEMENT SUR LE BROUILLAGE RADIOELECTRIQUE.
!! PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE PROCEEDING !!
7. ALWAYS USE THE CORRECT POWER SUPPLY Always use the supplied AC Adaptor to power your FX500 or, if the original adaptor is lost or broken, a replacement or equivalent type obtained from your Yamaha dealer. Also, make sure that the adaptor you have is appropriate for the AC mains supply voltage in the area where you intend to use the FX500 (the correct INPUT voltage is marked on the adaptor). 8. ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE Since the FX500 contains digital circuitry, it may cause interference and noise if placed too close to TV sets, radios or similar equipment. lf such a problem does occur, move the FX500 further away from the affected equipment. 9. MEMORY BACKUP The FX500 contains a special long-life battery that retains the contents of its internal RAM memory even when the power is turned OFF. The backup battery should last for approximately 5 years. When the battery voltage drops to a level that is too low to maintain the memory contents, the following message will appear on the FX500 display when the power is turned ON:
1. AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT, HUMIDITY, DUST AND VlBRATlON Keep the unit away from locations where it is likely to be exposed to high temperatures or humidity-such as near radiators, stoves, etc. Also avoid locations which are subject to excessive dust accumulation or vibration which could cause mechanical damage. 2. AVOID PHYSICAL SHOCKS Strong physical shocks to the unit can cause damage. Handle it with care. 3. DO NOT OPEN THE CASE OR ATTEMPT REPAIRS OR MODlFlCATlONS YOURSELF This product contains no user-serviceable parts. Refer all maintenance to qualified Yamaha service personnel. Opening the case and/or tampering with the internal circuitry will void the warranty. 4. MAKE SURE POWER IS OFF BEFORE MAKING OR REMOVING CONNECTlONS Always turn the power OFF prior to connecting or disconnecting cables. 5. HANDLE CABLES CAREFULLY Always plug and unplug cables including the cord of the power supply by gripping the connector, not the cord. 6. CLEAN WITH A SOFT DRY CLOTH Never use solvents such as benzine or thinner to clean the unit. Wipe clean with a soft, dry cloth.
** WARNING ** MEMORY DATA
If this display appears, have the backup battery replaced by qualified Yamaha service personnel. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REPLACE THE BACKUP BATTERY YOURSELF!
FCC CERTIFICATION (USA) This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed and used properly, that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturers instructions, may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient the receiving antenna. Relocate the equipment with respect to the receiver. Move the equipment away from the receiver. Plug the equipment into a different AC power outlet so that it and the receiver are on different branch circuits. If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. The user may find the following booklet prepared by the Federal Communications Commission helpful: How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems. This booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, Stock No. 004-000-00345-4.
2. The FX500: What It Is and What It Does
The FX500 SIMUL-EFFECT PROCESSOR is a highperformance digital signal processor intended for use with electric guitars, electronic keyboards or other instruments. lt employs leading-edge Yamaha digital signal processing technology to provide a chain of up to six independent effects that can be independently controlled to produce precisely the required overall sound. As shown below, the FX500 includes five effect (compressor, distortion, equalizer, modulation and reverb) stages. Stages can be turned on or off as required, and the order of the modulation and reverb stages can be reversed. The compressor. distortion and equalizer stages are basically single-function processors. The modulation and reverb stages each incorporate a number of separate effects which can be selected and used as required. Several of the reverb effects actually combine both delay and reverb, effectively giving you a total of six effects in the chain! Each effect has a number of parameters which can be adjusted to tailor its sound to your specific musical needs.
COMP, DIST, EQ, MOD and REV Effect Keys These keys function differently in the MEMORY and PARAM modes. When the MEMORY mode is selected (i.e. when the MEMORY key indicator is litsee MEMORY Mode Key), these keys are used to turn the corresponding effect stage ON (indicator lit) or OFF (indicator out). [See page 10 for further details] When the PARAM mode is selected (i.e. when the PARAM key indicator is litsee PARAM Mode Key), these keys select the various parameters available for editing in the corresponding effect stage. [See page 11 for further details] Arrow( )and( ) keys keys function differently in the MEMORY, The and PARAM and UTILITY modes. When the MEMORY mode is selected (i.e. when the MEMORY key indicator is lit-see" MEMORY Mode Key), the and are used to select the desired effect program. [See page 9 for further details] When the PARAM mode is selected (i.e. when the PARAM Mode PARAM key indicator is lit see Key), they are used to edit the selected effect parameter. [See page 11 for further details] When the UTILITY mode is selected (i.e. when the UTILITY key indicator is lit see" UTILITY Mode Key), the and keys are used to program the selected utility function. [See page 19 for further details]
Liquid Crystal Display Panel This is the FX500s main information center, providing all information necessary for effect program selection, programming and utility control.
SEL/ASN Key The SEL/ASN key functions differently in the MEMORY and PARAM modes. When the MEMORY mode is active this key reverses the order of the MOD and REV processing stages. [See page 10 for further details] In the PARAM mode, the SEL/ASN key is used to assign effect parameters for control via external MIDI controllers. [Seepage 21 for further details] BYPASS Key When the BYPASS key is pressed and BYPASS appears on the display panel, all FX500 effect stages are completely bypassed and the input signal is fed directly to the output. Press the BYPASS key a second time to turn the bypass function off. The rear-panel BYPASS footswitch jack can also be used for bypass BYPASS Jack" on page 5). control (see MEMORY Mode Key and lndicator When the MEMORY key indicator is lit, the FX500 MEMORY mode is active and effect programs (1 90) and keys can be selected and recalled using the and RECALL key. In the MEMORY mode it is also possible to turn effect stages ON or OFF using the COMP, DIST, EQ, MOD and REV keys. The MEMORY mode can be activated while the PARAM mode is selected by pressing the MEMORY key. The MEMORY mode can not be directly selected from the UTILITY mode by pressing the MEMORY key. The UTlLlTY mode must first be exited by pressing the UTILITY key several times or holding it down (approximately 1 second) until the UTILITY key indicator goes out. [See page 9 for further details] RECALL Key After using the and keys to select a disired effect program while in the MEMORY mode, the RECALL key is pressed to actually recall and activate the selected program. [See page 9 for further details] STORE Key After editing any of the effect programs, the new program can be stored in any of the FX500s RAM memory locations (61 through 90) for later recall and use. The STORE key is used to store edited data to a RAM memory location. [See page 12 for further details]
PARAM Mode Key and lndicator The PARAM key selects the PARAM (parameter) mode in which the individual parameters for each effect stage can be edited as required. The PARAM key indicator lights when the PARAM mode is active. The PARAM mode can not be directly selected from the UTlLlTY mode by pressing the PARAM key. The UTILITY mode must first be exited by pressing the UTILITY key several times or holding it down (approximately 1 second) until the UTILITY key indicator goes out. [See page 11 for further details] UTILITY Mode Key and lndicator Pressing this key activates the UTlLlTY mode, allowing access to 7 different utility functions: Program Title Edit [Page 19] MIDI Setup [Page 20] Program Change Table Edit [Page 20] Control Change 1 Table Edit [Page 21] Control Change 2 Table Edit [Page 21] Foot Switch Function Select [Page 22] Foot Switch Memory Recall Range Edit [Page 23] The UTILITY key LED lights when the UTlLlTY mode is active. Each time the UTlLlTY key is pressed the next function on the utility list is selected. The mode that was active before the UTILITY key was pressed (MEMORY or PARAM) is selected following the last function on the utility list. The UTILITY mode can also be exited by pressing the UTILITY key several times or holding it down (approximately 1 second) until the UTILITY key indicator goes out.
5. The MEMORY Mode: Selecting Effect Programs
In the FX500 MEMORY mode, the and keys can be used to select individual effect programs. When a new program number is selected, its number will flash on the display and its title will appear on the upper line. Press the RECALL key to actually recall and activate the selected program. The number of the selected effect program should now be flashing on the display, indicating that the program has been selected but has not yet been recalled (the previous effect program is still active). Press the RECALL key to actually recall and activate the selected program. The program number will stop flashing.
lf the MEMORY mode is not already selected (i.e. if the MEMORY key indicator is not lit), press the MEMORY key to select the MEMORY mode.
The MEMORY mode can not be directly selected from the UTILITY mode by pressing the MEMORY key. The UTILITY mode must first be exited by pressing several times or holding (about one second) the UTILITY key until the UTILITY key indicator goes out. Use the and/or keys to select the number of the desired effect program (in this example we go to program number 10 from number 1, so only the key is used). Press the o r key briefly to select the next highest or lowest numbered program, or hold either key down for continuous scrolling in the corresponding direction. Faster scrolling is achieved by pressing the opposite arrow key while holding the arrow key corresponding to the direction of scrolling.
6. Effect Processor Selection
In the MEMORY mode the FX500 effect stages can be individually turned ON or OFF by using the COMP, DIST, EQ, MOD and REV keys. Pressing any of these keys alternately turns the corresponding effect stage ON (indicator lit) or OFF (indicator out). When a stage is turned OFF, it is bypassed and the previous active stage is connected directly to the following active stage. lf all stages are ON, the effect chain is as shown below: This is the normal order of the MOD and REV effect stages:
The current order of the selected effects in the MOD and REV stages is also shown on the bottom line of the display (MOD - REV in this case).
lf, however, you only wanted to use the compressor, equalizer and reverb stages, you could press the DIST and MOD keys to turn the stages OFF, resulting in the effect chain shown below:
Press the SEL/ASN key to reverse this order.
NOTE: The ON/OFF status of each effect is stored to the RAM memory along with all other effect data when a STORE operation is performed (see Memory Store Operation on page 12).
The new MOD/REV order is also shown on the display.
n Reversing the Order of the Modulation & Reverb Stages
Normally, the last two effects in the FX500 effect chain are a modulation type and reverb type, in that order. By pressing the SEL/ASN key while in the MEMORY mode, however, this order may be reversed. The order of the MOD and REV effect stages is shown on the bottom line of the LCD, and the LEDs associated with the MOD and REV keys will light to show the selected order: MOD REV MOD.
The ability to reverse the order of the modulation and reverb stages is important because it gives you choice of applying reverb/delay to the already-modulated signal, or applying modulation to the reverb/delay signal. The difference in sound can be quite significant. NOTE: The selected order of the MOD and REV effect stages is stored to the RAM memory along with all other effect data when a STORE operation is performed (see Memory Store Operation on page 12).
7. The Parameter Mode: Editing the Effect Programs
The parameter mode provides access to several important parameters for each effect, allowing you to change the sound of each effect over a broad range to suit your specific requirements. Once the parameters for each effect stage have been programmed and fine-tuned to provide exactly the sound you want, the entire effect program can be stored into one of the FX500s RAM memory locations for later recall and use. Press the selected effect key (i.e. the key you pressed in step , above) to move the cursor to the parameter to be edited. Each time the effect key is pressed the cursor moves one parameter to the right. In many effects, two or three parameter screens are required, so the next screen will appear when the cursor is moved past the last parameter on each screen. The first screen is re-selected after the last parameter on the last screen. The modulation stage flanger effect, for example, has the following three parameter screens:
The FX500 features a three-band equalizer stage for wide ranging tonal control. Up to 15 dB of boost or cut can be applied to the low, mid and high bands, and the center frequency of the mid band can be adjusted over a broad 400 Hz 6.3 kHz range.
DST (Distortion Drive Level: 0 100) Sets the degree of distortion produced. Higher values produce more distortion. TRG (Noise Gate Trigger Level: -80 -30 dB) Sets the threshold level of the distortion effect stage noise gate. Signals below the threshold level are suppressed, thus reducing noise. Caution: excessively high TRG levels can cause notes to be cut off unnaturally.
LOG (Low Gain: -15 +15 dB) Sets the amount of boost or cut applied to frequencies below 280 Hz. A setting of 0 produces no boost or cut. Minus values produce cut and plus values produce boost.
MIG (Mid Gain: -15 +15 dB) Sets the amount of boost or cut applied to mid-band frequencies. A setting of 0 produces no boost or cut. Minus values produce cut and plus values produce boost. MIF (Mid Frequency: 400 6.3 kHz) Sets the center frequency of the Mid equalizer band.
SPED (Modulation Speed: 0.1 20.0 Hz) Sets the speed of modulation and therefore the rate of effect variation. PMD (Pitch Modulation Depth: %) Sets the depth of delay time modulation. Higher values deepen the pitch modulation portion of the effect. AMD (Amplitude Modulation Depth: %)
HIG (High Gain: -15 +15 dB) Sets the amount of boost or cut applied to frequencies above 6.3 kHz. A setting of 0 produces no boost or cut. Minus values produce cut and plus values produce boost. LVL (Output Level: -41 +6 dB) Determines the output level of the effect.
Sets the depth of amplitude modulation. Higher values deepen the amplitude modulation portion of the effect. MIX (Mixing Balance: %) Sets the balance between the direct and effect sound. Higher values produce a greater proportion of effect sound in relation to direct sound. LVL (Output Level: -41 +6 dB) Determines the output level of the effect.
The MODULATION effect stage contains a number of effects based on signal strength (amplitude) and signal delay variation, or modulation. The different MODULATION effects are selected by the TYP (type) parameter which appears at the left of every MODULATION display screen.
Flanging is a fairly pronounced effect based primarily on delay time modulation. By adjusting the various parameters you should be able to create an extremely broad range of sounds, from gentle shimmering to wild sweeps.
Reverb and Delay Group (Parallel)
Reverb + Delay (R+D)
This effect functions like separate reverb and delay processors connected in parallel.
The Delay Reverb program provides both delay and reverb, with delay before reverb.
L-DLY (Left Channel Delay Time: 0.1 380.0 ms) Sets the delay time of the left channel. R-DLY (Right Channel Delay Time: 0.1 380.0 ms) Sets the delay time of the right channel. FB (Feedback: %) Determines the amount of effect-sound feedback returned to the input of the processor. Higher values produce a a greater number of repeats. L/R (L/R Channel Delay Level Balance: %) Sets the left-to-right channel balance of the delay sound level. Higher values produce higher-level delay sound from the left channel, and smaller values produce a high-level delay sound from the right channel. RVT (Reverb Time: 0.s) Sets the duration of the reverb effect. R/D (Reverb/Delay Level Balance: %) Determines the balance between the level of the reverb and delay sound. Higher values produce a greater proportion of reverb sound, while smaller values produce a greater proportion of delay sound. MIX (Mixing Balance: %) Sets the balance between the direct and effect sound. Higher values produce a greater proportion of effect sound in relation to direct sound. LVL (Output Level: -41 +6 dB) Determines the output level of the effect.
The Reverb Delay provides delay and reverb with reverb before delay.
L-DLY (Left Channel Delay Time: 0.1 330.0 ms) Sets the delay time of the left channel. R-DLY (Right Channel Delay Time: 0.1 380.0 ms) Sets the delay time of the right channel. FB (Feedback: %) Determines the amount of effect-sound feedback returned to the input of the processor. Higher values produce a a greater number of repeats. L/R (L/R Channel Delay Level Balance: %) Sets the left-to-right channel balance of the delay sound level. Higher values produce higher-level delay sound from the left channel, and smaller values produce a higher-level delay sound from the right channel. DMX (Delay Mixing Balance: %) Sets the balance between the direct and delay sound. Higher values produce a greater proportion of delay sound in relation to direct sound. RVT (Reverb Time: 0.s) Sets the duration of the reverb effect.
Program Title Edit
The Program Title Edit function allows you to create original titles for your effect programs, for easy identification. When Program Title Edit is called the LCD will appear something like the example below the memory title will appear on the upper line. Use the MEMORY and PARAM keys to move the cursor to the desired character location, then use the and keys to change the character at the cursor location. The STORE key can be used to place a space at the cursor position. Continue until the new title is complete.
MIDI Setup This function makes it possible to select any of the four available program change table BANKS, and to change the MIDI receive channel for each BANK.
Use the and keys to select the program change number to which a new FX500 memory location number is to be assigned. The range of available program change numbers is from 1 to 128. Move the underline cursor to the MEM parameter by pressing the PARAM key. Use the and keys to select the memory location number containing the effect which is to be assigned to the currently selected program change number. If -- is selected, no new memory location will be selected when that program number is received. Move the underline cursor back to the PGM parameter by pressing the MEMORY key and repeat the above steps to assign as many program change numbers as necessary.
Use the UTlLlTY key to select the MIDI SETUP display.
NOTE: The program number/memory number
assignments made are stored in the BANK selected in the previous MIDI Setup function. To program the program change/memory number assignments for a different BANK, return to the MIDI SETUP display, select the desired BANK, then program the required assignments.
The underline cursor should be under the BANK keys to select the bank parameter. Use the and you wish to program (A, B, C or D). Move the cursor to the ch= parameter by pressing the PARAM key, then use the and keys to set the receive MIDI channel (1 16), the OMNI mode (all channels can be received), or turn MIDI reception OFF for the selected bank. The underline cursor can be moved back to the BANK parameter if necessary by key. pressing the MEMORY
* Press the STORE key to directly assign OFF. Two other control sources which are not directly associated with MIDI control change numbers can also be selected: NOTE ON VELCTY (key velocity, an integral part of MIDI NOTE ON data), and CHANNEL PRESS (channel pressure).
The cursor will appear under the currently selected parameter. Use the and keys to select the parameter you wish to control. All parameters for the currently selected effects are available. Cmp-THR, for example, refers to the compressor threshold level parameter. Dst-LPF is the distortion low-pass filter frequency parameter, etc. The individual parameters are described in detail in the "7. The Parameter Mode Editing the Effect Programs section beginning on page 11. In addition to the standard effect parameters, the following two parameters are available: VOLUME: assigns the controller to a special volume control stage located immediately after the EQ stage. CURSOR: Allows the assigned controller to control the position of the cursor in the parameter mode, facilitating selection of parameters for editing. NOTE: Control change reception is disabled while parameters are being selected. Press the SEL/ASN key to move the cursor to the MIN and then to the MAX position, using the and keys at each position to set the desired control range. Both MIN and MAX have a possible value range of 0 to 100%. For example, if the original range for DIST-LVL is -41 to 6 (dB), then setting MIN and MAX to 10 and 90 (%), respectively, produces a control range from -36 to + 1 (dB). To assign CONTROLLER 2 to an effect parameter, press the SEL/ASN key again, causing a the CONTROLLER 2 display to appear.
Footswitch Function Select
Footswitch Function Select determines the function of an optional Yamaha FC4 or FC5 footswitch connected to the FX500s rear-panel MEMORY IN/DEC TRIGGER jack. The keys LCD display will appear as below, and the and can be used to select the desired footswitch function.
TAP TEMPO DELAY is a function which allows delay time to be controlled by tapping the footswitch in time with the music (see Using Tap Tempo Delay, below). When MEMORY INC/DEC is selected, the footswitch can be used to recall a range of effect programs specified by the Footswitch Memory Recall Range Edit function, described below.
Using Tap Tempo Delay
When the TAP TEMPO DELAY footswitch function is selected, and the REVERB stage Dly, Ech, R+D, D R or R D effect is selected, the footswitch connected to the MEMORY INC/DEC jack can be used to set the time of the L-DLY parameter. Simply tap the footswitch twice at the appropriate interval. The time between taps sets the time between delays.The time of the R-DLY parameter is charged by the same amount as the L-DLY time. By tapping in time with the music you are playing, this function makes it simple to accurately match the delay time to tempo.
NOTE: If the same parameter is assigned to CTRL 1 and CTRL 2, CTRL 1 takes priority. Carry out steps to controller 2. and above to assign a parameter
When finished with controller assignment, press any of the effect keys (COMP, DIST, EQ, MOD or REV) to return to the normal parameter editing mode, or press the MEMORY key to return to the MEMORY mode. As with all other parameters, individual control assignments can be stored with each program by pressing the STORE key.
CAUTION: lf either the L-DLY or R-DLY parameter is set
to its maximum or minimum value, the TAP TEMPO DELAY function cannot be used to create longer or shorter delays.
Footswitch Memory Recall Range Edit
The FX500 permits memory selection via an optional Yamaha FC4 or FC5 footswitch connected to the MEMORY INC/DEC TRlGGER footswitch jack (as long as the footswitch is assigned to MEMORY INC/DEC operation using the Footswitch Function Select function described above). The Footswitch Memory Recall Range Edit function permits setting the range of memory location numbers that will be selected when the footswitch is pressed.
If, for example, the RANGE parameter is set to 20 TO 30 as shown in the LCD illustration above, each time the footswitch is pressed the next highest memory location will be selected until the last number in the specified range is reached. After the last number in the specified range, the first (lowest) number is selected and the process repeated. Reverse sequences can be programmed by entering the highest number in the range before the lowest, as shown below.
Use the UTILlTY key to call the F.SW MEMORY RCL display. The underline cursor should be located under the first memory number in the range. Use the range. and keys to enter the first number in the
Press the PARAM ( ) key to move the cursor to the second number in the range. Use the and keys to enter the second number in the range. The MEMORY key can be used to return to the first number in the range if necessary.
ANALOG ClRCUITRY Frequency Response 20 Hz 20 kHz. Dynamic Range Better than 85 dB, effect OFF, Total Harmonic Distortion Less than 0.1% @ 1 kHz, effect OFF. Input Impedance/Nominal Level Greater than 500 kohms/-20 dBm (Unbalanced phone jack, front and rear). Output Impedance/Nominal Level 1 k-ohm/-20 dBm or -10 dBm, switchable (Unbalanced phone jacks x 2). Headphone Impedance/Nominal Level 150 ohms/-22 dBm (Unbalanced stereo phone jack).
Control & Keys INPUT LEVEL control, COMP, DIST, EC, MOD, REV, SEL/ASN, BYPASS, STORE, MEMORY , RECALL, PARAM ( ), UTILITY POWER Connector INPUT jack. Display Backlit LCD with 7-segment program number, BYPASS, and 15-character x P-line display area. LED PEAK, SIGNAL Switch POWER (on/off)
DIGITAL CIRCUITRY Connectors A/D and D/A Converters 16-bit quantization (linear). Sampling Frequency 44.1 kHz EFFECTS & MEMORY Effect Stages COMPRESSOR, DISTORTION, EQUALIZER, MODULATION (Chorus, Flanger, Symphonic, Tremolo), REVERB (Reverb, Early Reflection, Delay, Echo, Reverb+Delay, Reverb Delay, Delay Reverb) Memory ROM area: 60 (No. 1 60) RAM area.: 30 (No. 61 90) Initial data area: 1 (No. 0) INPUT, OUTPUT L, OUTPUT R, PHONES, BYPASS, MEMORY INC/DEC or TRIGGER, MIDI IN, DC 12V IN Control PHONES LEVEL Switch OUTPUT LEVEL -20dB/-10dB
Power Supply U.S. & Canadian Models: PA-1207U AC Adaptor (120 V AC) General Model: PA-1210H AC Adaptor (220/240 V AC) Dimensions (W x H x D) 220 x 45 x 250 mm (8-518 x 1-3/4 x 9-7/8) Weight 1.4 kg (3 Ibs. approx.) 0dB = 0.775 V rms Specifications and exterance are subject to change without notice.
10. MIDI Data Format
Channel Information (Channel Voice Message) NOTE ON
This message is received on the MIDI channel specified in the currently selected BANK when CONTROLLER 1 or CONTROLLER 2 is assigned to NOTE ON VELOCITY. When a NOTE ON message is received, the value of the assigned effect parameter is changed according to the received velocity value.
The NOTE OFF message does not affect operation of the FX500, but receive capability has been included to provide compatibility with transmitting devices that send a NOTE OFF to mark the end of a NOTE ON message.
1000nnnn (8nH) n=0 (channel #1) n=15 (channel #16) k= same as NOTE ON NOTE NO. 0kkkkkkk v= same as NOTE ON VELOCITY 0vvvvvvv
STATUS NOTE NO. VELOCITY
1001nnnn (9nH) n-0 (channel #1) 0kkkkkkk 0vvvvvvv n=15 (channel #16) k=0127 v=1127,0 (OFF)
This message is received on the MIDI channel specified in the currently selected BANK when CONTROLLER 1 or CONTROLLER 2 is assigned to a control number between 0 and 120. When a CONTROL CHANGE message is received, the value of the assigned effect Parameter is changed according to the received control value.
CHANNEL PRESSURE This message is received on the MIDI channel specified in the currently selected BANK when CONTROLLER 1 or CONTROLLER 2 is assigned to CHANNEL PRESS. When a CHANNEL PRESSURE message is received, the value of the assigned effect parameter is changed according to the received pressure value.
1011 nnnn (BnH) n=0 (channel #1) n-15 (channel #16) CTL NO. 0ccccccc c=0120 CTL VALUE 0vvvvvvv v=0127
1101nnnn (DnH) n=0 (channel #1) n=15 (channel #16) PRESSURE 0vvvvvvv v=0127
This message is received on the MIDI channel specified in the currently selected BANK. When a PROGRAM CHANGE message is received, the effect program assigned to the received program number in the program change assignment table of the current BANK is selected.
1100nnnn (CnH) n=0 (channel #1) n=15 (channel #16) p=0127 PGM NO. 0ppppppp
[ Simul-Effect Processor ] Model FX500 MIDI Implementation Chart Transmitted x x x x ************** x ************** x x x x x x x x Recognized 1 - 16, off 1 - 16, off OMNI on/OMNI on x x 0 - 127 x o v=1-127 x x o x o o o
Date : 6/3, 1989 V e r s i o n : 1. 0 R e m a r k s memorized
Function. Basic Default Channel Changed D e f a u l t Messages A l t e r e d
Note Number : True voice Velocity Note ON Note OFF After Touch Key's Ch's
Pitch Bender 0 - - 95 Control Change Prog Change : True # System Exclusive System : : Common : System Real Time Aux : Song Pos Song Sel Tune :Clock :Commands 102 - 114
x x x x x x x ************** x x x x x x x x x x
o o o o o o 0 - 127 x x x x x x x x o x
All Bypass COMP DIST EQ MOD REV *1
Local ON/OFF All Notes OFF M e s - : Active Sense sages : Reset
Notes: *1 = For program 1 - 128, memory #0 - #90 is selected
Mode 1 : OMNI On, POLY Mode 3 : OMNI OFF, POLY
Mode 2 : OMNI ON, MONO Mode 4 : OMNI OFF, MONO
o : Yes x : NO
11. Block Diagram
12. FX500 Parameter Chart
13. Preset Program Parameters
This product is supported by Yamahas worldwide network of factory trainad and qualified dealer service personnel. In the event of a problem, contact your nearest Yamaha dealer.
P.O.Box 1, Hamamatsu, Japan
5.0 R1 CR
Yamaha Corporation of America 6600 Orangethorpe Avenue, P.O. Box 6600, Buena Park, CA 90622-1/14/98 FX500 OM
AUTHORIZED PRODUCT MANUAL
MULTITRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
Your MT100II Multitrack Cassette Recorder is a powerful recording tool that will enable you to work with sound in many ways. No other multitrack cassette recorder offers the straightforward simplicity and ease-of-use of the MT100II. Whether you need to record acoustic instruments or voice using microphones, electronic instruments and line-level sources, or a creative blend of the two, the MT100II makes the process of building tracks extraordinarily smooth and simple. You can simply record and remix four tracks, or use the multitrack ping-pong recording technique to individually record up to ten independent parts adding sound layer by layer until you create exactly the arrangement and texture your imagination demands with its ability to record on all four tracks at once, or in any conbination, MT100II is the ideal choice for recording bands or layering tracks at home. And, because its a YAMAHA, you know that the MT100II will give you the very finest sound quality and overall performance available. In order to make use of the MT100II's many features and obtain maximum performance, we urge you to read this operation manual thoroughly and keep it in a safe place for later reference.
PRECAUTIONS. 1 THE CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS. 2 MT100II CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS. 2 CONNECTION EXAMPLES. 8 ABOUT CASSETTE TAPES. 9 THE RECORDING PROCESS. 10 RECORDING THE FIRST TRACK. 11 STEP 1: CHANNEL-TO-TRACK ASSIGNMENT. 11 STEP 2: MONITOR SETUP. 12 STEP 3: SETTING RECORDING LEVELS.13 STEP 4: RECORD. 13 OVERDUBBING. 14 PING-PONG RECORDING. 15 A PING-PONG RECORDING EXAMPLE. 16 MIXDOWN. 17 USING THE GRAPHIC EQUALIZER. 18 USING THE TAPE OUT JACKS. 19 USING THE AUX SEND/RETURN LOOP. 20 PUNCH-IN/OUT RECORDING. 21 MAINTENANCE. 22 SPECIFICATIONS. 23 BLOCK DIAGRAM. 25
1. AVOID EXCESSIVE HEAT, HUMIDITY, DUST AND VIBRATION Keep the unit away from locations where it is likely to be exposed to high temperatures or humidity such as near radiators, stoves, etc. Also avoid locations which are subject to excessive dust accumulation or vibration which could cause mechanical damage. 2. AVOID PHYSICAL SHOCKS Strong physical shocks to the unit can cause damage. Handle it with care. 3. DO NOT OPEN THE CASE OR ATTEMPT REPAIRS OR MODIFICATION YOURSELF This product contains no user-serviceable parts. For other than routine cleaning, refer maintenance to qualified YAMAHA personnel. Opening the case and/or tampering with the internal circuitry will void the warranty. 4. MAKE SURE POWER IS OFF BEFORE MAKING OR REMOVING CONNECTIONS Always turn the power OFF prior to connecting or disconnecting cables. This is important to prevent damage to the unit itself as well as other connected equipment. 5. HANDLE CABLES CAREFULLY Always plug and unplug cables including the AC cord by gripping the connector, not the cord. 6. CLEAN WITH A SOFT DRY CLOTH Never use solvents such as benzine or thinner to clean the unit. Wipe clean with a soft, dry cloth. 7. ALWAYS USE THE CORRECT POWER SUPPLY The MT100II should only be powered using the supplied YAMAHA PA100 AC Adaptor. The use of other adaptors can cause serious damage to the MT100II. 8. KEEP THE HEADS AND TAPE PATH CLEAN To ensure consistent high performance and sound quality from your MT100lI, it is important to clean the head and tape path regularly (ideally before each recording session). To do this, use a cleaning kit specifically designed for use with cassette tape equipment. 9. USE ONLY HIGH-QUALITY CHROME CASSETTE TAPE The MT100II is designed for use with CrO2 (chrome) formulation tape, and will not provide proper performance with any other type of tape. Always choose cassette tapes from a reliable manufacturer.
IMPORTANT NOTICE FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM
Connecting the Plug and Cord
IMPORTANT. The wires in this mains lead are coloured in accordance with the following code: BLUE : NEUTRAL LIVE
As the colours of the wires in the mains lead of this apparatus may not correspond with the coloured markings identifying the terminals in your plug proceed as follows: The wire which is coloured BLUE must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter N or coloured BLACK. The wire which is coloured BROWN must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter L or coloured RED.
THE CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS
MT100II MULTlTRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
MT100II CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
[Note] The terms channel and track: In this owners manual, the term channel refers to the circuitry and controls required to process one input source. MT100lIs mixer section has four channels. The term track refers to the magnetic bands on tape used to store signals recorded by MT100II's recorder section. Since MT100II records four separate bands of audio on tape, it is a four-track recorder.
INPUT SELECT Switches
The INPUT SELECT switches are used to select the input source for each of the four channels. TAPE: Select this position to play back already recorded material. When selected, mixer channel 1 will receive playback from track 1; channels 2, 3, & 4 will receive tracks 2, 3, & 4 respectively. OFF: In this position, the channel receives no input signal. MIC/LINE: In this position, the channel can receive a microphone, keyboard, or other line-level signal which is connected to the input jack. [Note] All channels which are not in use should be set to OFF position.
[Note] When any of the REC SELECT switches are set to a position other than OFF, the red indicator LED above the transport REC button will flash, indicating that the MT100II is set up to record. Recording will commence when the transport REC and PLAY buttons are pressed simultaneously. If all REC SELECT switches are set to OFF, the unit will not record even if the transport REC and PLAY buttons are pressed.
The PAN controls assign the signal from the corresponding mixer channel to any desired position in the stereo sound field. If a PAN control is set to the maximum LEFT position, the signal from that channel will appear only at the left-channel MT100II output (STEREO OUT L). If the PAN control is set fully RIGHT, the signal will appear only at the STEREO OUT R output jack. If a PAN control is set to its center position, then the signal from that channel will appear equally at both the left- and right-channel outputs, and the sound will appear to come from the center of the stereo sound field, a point midway between the two stereo speakers. By varying the level of the signal sent to the left-and right-channel outputs, the PAN control can be used to position the sound at any point in the stereo spectrum. The PAN controls can also be used during recording to assign the signal from several channels to a single track of the recorder section, or to assign a channel to a differently-numbered recorder track (see CHANNEL-TO-TRACK ASSIGNMENT on page 11).
MIC/LINE Gain Controls
The gain controls adjust the sensitivity of the channel inputs to accept a wide range of signal levels from line to microphone. The gain controls are used in conjunction for the input faders to set the optimum recording level with a wide range of sources (see SETTING RECORDING LEVELS on page 13). [Note] A gain control only affects the level of the signal connected to the input jack.
The input faders are used to adjust the level (volume) of the corresponding mixer channels signal, whether it comes from a source plugged into an input jack or from the MT100II's recorder section. (The INPUT SELECT switches are used to choose between the two.) The faders are used to set up the optimum levels when recording, and to balance (mix) the sound from the recorders tracks when playing back a recording. Noise and distortion are at their lowest at input fader level "7".
REC SELECT Switches
The REC SELECT switches are used when recording to assign (send) the signal from each mixer channel either directly to the corresponding track of the recorder or to a different track via the PAN controls (see CHANNEL-TOTRACK ASSIGNMENT on page 11).
AUX SEND Controls
The AUX SEND controls are used primarily when adding effects such as reverberation or echo to the sound of a channel or track. The AUX SEND control on each mixer channel determines the amount of signal from that channel sent to the AUX SEND jack. The AUX SEND jack must be connected to the input of an external signal processor such as the YAMAHA FX500 Simul-effect Processor (see USING THE AUX SEND/RETURN LOOP on page 20).
The MASTER fader sets the overall output level of the MT100II mixer section, and thus the level of the output signal appearing at the STEREO OUT jacks. The MASTER fader also affects recording level when any of the mixer sections channels are assigned to the recorders tracks via the PAN controls (see SETTING RECORDING LEVELS on page 13).
LED Peak Meters AUX RETURN Control
The AUX RETURN control determines the level at which the signal from an external signal processor is returned and mixed in with the MT100lIs main stereo output signal. The output from an external signal processor fed by the AUX SEND jack must be connected to the AUX RETURN jack(s) (see USING THE AUX SEND/RETURN LOOP on page 20). The four LED peak meters accurately display output levels from the MT100lIs four recorder tracks when the METER switch is set to "4 TRACK", or meters 1 and 2 display the level of signals appearing at the mixer sections stereo outputs (the STEREO OUT jacks) when the METER switch is set to STEREO. The LED peak meters are a guide for setting up the optimum recording levels. (see SETTING RECORDING LEVELS on page 13).
MONITOR SELECT Switch
MONITOR: This position is selected to listen to the four tape tracks. In this position a mix from the four MONITOR controls is sent to the PHONES jack and the MONITOR OUT jack. MIX: This position is selected to hear a combination of the four tape tracks and input sources connected to the input jacks. The mix from the MONITOR controls is combined with the stereo output from the mixer section and sent to the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jack. STEREO: This position is selected to monitor the stereo output from the mixer section. In this position, the mix sent to the MONITOR OUT jack and PHONES jack is the same mix that is sent to the STEREO OUT jacks.
When the METER switch is set to STEREO, meters 1 and 2 display the level of signals appearing at the mixer sections stereo outputs (the STEREO OUT jacks). When set to 4 TRACK, the four LED peak meters display the level of the corresponding recorder track signals.
dbx ON/OFF Switch
The dbx switch determines whether the MT100IIs internal dbx noise reduction system is ON or OFF. For normal recording and playback using the MT1000II, the dbx switch should be turned ON. This provides a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio (as much as 85 dB) so your recordings will sound cleaner and have much less tape hiss. For dbx noise reduction to be effective, it must be turned ON both during recording and playback. The dbx switch may be turned OFF when playing back tapes that were recorded on other equipment and which are not dbx-encoded.
MONITOR CONTROLS 1 4
The four MONITOR controls determine the level of the signal from the corresponding recorder tracks which is sent to the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jacks when the MONITOR SELECT switch is set to either MONITOR or MIX. The MONITOR controls are primarily used to set up the optimum levels for monitoring recorded tracks while recording new material (overdubbing).
ZERO STOP Switch
When the transport is in rewind, the ZERO STOP function automatically stops the tape at a specified location. To set the ZERO STOP point, play the tape to the desired location and reset the tape counter to ZERO by pressing the counter reset button. In rewind, with the ZERO STOP switch ON, the transport will stop when the tape counter reaches 999. This is particularly handy in the multitrack overdub process when it is necessary to repeatedly rewind the tape and play from the same point.
This control is used to set headphone and control room listening level. It adjusts the level of signal sent to the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jacks with out affecting the signal level appearing at the STEREO OUT jacks.
MT100ll MULTlTRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
TAPE SPEED Switch
The TAPE SPEED switch selects either the standard 4.8cm/sec cassette tape speed, or the MT100II's special 9.5cm/sec high tape speed. Use the standard (4.8) speed when replaying tapes recorded on standard cassette recorders, or to obtain maximum tape economy. When you want maximum sound quality, use the high (9.5) tape speed. The improvement in sound quality provided by the high tape speed is significant, and we recommend that you use the high speed for all important recordings. [Note] Never change the TAPE SPEED setting while the tape is running.
set to a position other than OFF. If all the REC SELECT switches are set to OFF, the red REC indicator LED will flash when the REC button is pressed, and the orange PAUSE indicator will light. If any REC SELECT switche is set to a position other than OFF, the red REC indicator and the orange PAUSE indicator will light continuously. From the REC/PAUSE mode it is necessary to press the PLAY button to start the transport running. Actual recording will begin if at least one track REC SELECT button is set to a position other than OFF. If not, the transport will run in a record/ready mode until a REC SELECT switch is set to a position other than OFF. [Note] Only tracks for which the REC SELECT switch is set to a recording position will be recorded when the RECORD mode is activated. [Note] The RECORD mode cannot be activated if a cassette is loaded from which the record-prevention tab has been removed. PLAY: Starts the transport running in the PLAY mode. The green PLAY indicator LED will light to indicate PLAY status. REW (REWIND): Press this button the rewind the tape. If the ZERO STOP switch is ON, the tape will stop rewinding when the counter reaches 999. FF (FAST FORWARD): Press this button the wind the tape ahead at high speed. When this button is pressed while in the PLAY mode, the audio will be heard as the tape winds ahead at high speed. STOP: Immediately stops the transport and/or defeats the RECORD mode. PAUSE: Temporarily stops playback or recording. The orange PAUSE indicator LED will light when the PAUSE mode is active. Press the PLAY button to disengage the PAUSE mode and continue playback or recording.
Taking up tape slack If the tape in the cassette is slack, or some portion of the tape is out of the cassette shell, there is a risk it may become tangled around the capstan or pinchroller. In order to correct this, insert a pencil or ballpoint pen into the center of one reel, and rotate to take up loose tape slack.
PREVENTING ACCIDENTAL TAPE ERASURE:
Storing cassette tapes To prevent tape slack during storage, keep tapes in their cases. Do not store tapes in direct sunlight, or in places with high heat or humidity, as this may damage the tapes. Also, keep the tapes away from magnetic fields, emitted from devices such as televisions or speakers, because the recordings can be erased or sonically alterd to some degree.
RECORDING OVER A TAPE WITH THE TABS BROKEN OUT:
THE RECORDING PROCESS
For details pertaining to the operation of MT100lI controls, please refer to page 3, MT100II CONTROLS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS. Recording with the MT100II is a very simple process. All you need is the MT100II, a pair of monitor headphones, and an instrument, microphone, or other signal source. The multitrack recording process can be basically broken down into the following steps: 1. Record the First Track. a) Select channel-to-track assignment for input source. b) Set Record Level. c) Record. 2. Overdub on the Remaining Tracks. a) Select channel-to-track assignment for each overdub. b) Set records level for each overdub. c) Record the overdub. 3. Track Combining. a) If necessary, use ping pong technique to combine tracks and clear them for additional overdubs. 4. Mixdown. a) Set up for monitoring the mix. b) Set up a rough mix and add effects. c) Finalize and rehearse the mix. d) Connect the MT100II STEREO OUT jacks to a stereo casette recorder. e) Record (from the MT100II to the stereo cassette recorder). These steps (and what the recording terms mean) will be described in detail below, so its a good idea to read through the following sections in sequence in order to get a clear picture of the overall recording process.
10 MT100lI MULTlTRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
RECORDING THE FIRST TRACK
STEP 1: CHANNEL-TO-TRACK ASSIGNMENT
The first step in making any recording is to assign the channel to which your instrument or other source is connected to one of the recorders tracks. Depending on what you are recording, you might want to record a single instrument or other source on a single track of the tape, or you might want to combine several instruments or other sources and record them on a single track. The MT100II offers two channel-to-track assignment methods.
Direct Channel-to-Track Assignment
With this method, an instrument or source connected to one of the mixers channels is fed directly to the correspondingly numbered track of the recorder. You can record a single track like this, or up to all four tracks simultaneously. Using this method, only one input source can be recorded on a single track. For direct channel-to-track assignment, the REC SELECT switchs are set to the number position (1, 2, 3 or 4). For example, if the channel 1 REC SELECT switch is set to 1, the channel 1 signal will be sent directly to track 1 of the recorder. This applies in the same way to all other channels and tracks.
Panned Channel-to-Track Assignment
The panned channel-to-track assignment method makes it possible to assign several of the mixers channels to a single recorder track, or single mixer channels can be assigned to a track of a different numbers. Each of the REC SELECT switches has either an "L or R position. These correspond to the left (L) and right (R) channels of the mixers stereo output. If track 1s REC SELECT switch is set to L for example, track 1 will receive any signals which are panned LEFT. Therefore, it is possible to send the signal from channel 1 to track 4 by selecting R on track 4s REC SELECT switch and panning channel 1 RIGHT. In addition, any other channels which are panned RIGHT will also be recorded on track 4 if the faders for those channels are at raised. The assignment illustrated below is achieved by setting track 4s REC SELECT switch to R and setting the PAN controls on channels 1, 2 and 3 fully right.
[Note] When a REC SELECT switch is set to "L" or R the track will also record signal from the LEFT or RIGHT side of the AUX return. Therefore, effects can be recorded along with input sources.
DIRECT CHANNEL - TO - TRACK ASSIGNMENT
PANNED CHANNEL - TO - TRACK ASSIGNMENT
STEP 2: MONITOR SETUP
Once your source is connected to an input channel and that channel is assigned to one of the recorders tracks, you should set up your monitor system so that you can listen to the track as it is recorded. The MT100II allows you to monitor the material being recorded either via a pair of headphones connected to the PHONES jack or via a sound system with speakers connected to the MONITOR OUT jacks. The level appearing at the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jacks is controlled by the MONITOR/PHONES control. The MONITOR SELECT switch has three positions which allow you to listen to tape tracks only (MONITOR position), input sources (STEREO position), or a combination (MIX position).
MONITOR: In this position only the output from the recorders four tracks is sent directly to the PHONES jack and the MONITOR OUT jacks via the four MONlTOR controls. The MONITOR controls are used to create the desired monitor mix. This setup is ideal for general monitoring while recording because it allows you to listen to the four tape tracks while leaving input faders available to route signal sources to tape. Material already recorded on any of the recorders tracks is delivered to the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jacks via the corresponding MONITOR controls. In this case, an input source can only be heard when it is assigned to a track via the appropriate REC SELECT switch, and the TRANSPORT controls are in the RECORD or RECORD/PAUSE mode. MIX: Both the output from the recorders four tracks (via the MONITOR controls) and the stereo output from the mixer section are sent to the PHONES jack and MONITOR OUT jacks.
1. Press the REC button and then the PLAY button to start recording, wait a few seconds, and start playing. 2. When youve finished recording the track, press the transport STOP button, turn the REC SELECT switch for the track just recorded to the OFF position, rewind the tape (the tape will stop automatically at counter 999 if the ZERO STOP switch is ON). 3. Play back the recording (press the PLAY button) and listen to the track to make sure that everything went as planned.
[Note] If you plan to record using microphones and you will be monitoring in the same room as where the microphones are set up, we recommend the use of headphones while actual recording is taking place. If speakers are used for monitoring during recording, their sound can leak back into the microphones compromising the quality of your recording.
Overdubbing is the process of recording a new track (or new tracks) while monitoring previously recorded tracks. If youre only planning to record a maximum of four tracks, you can go ahead and overdub the second, third and fourth tracks. If youre planning to use the "ping-pong recording technique to record more than four parts, however, record only three tracks and then move on to the ping-pong step (see PING-PONG RECORDING on page 15). 1. Plug the instrument or other source to be recorded into an available channel input. 2. Make sure that the REC SELECT switches of previouslyrecorded tracks are set to OFF so that previously recorded tracks arent erased when the new track is recorded. 3. Set up the channel-to-track assignment for the new track. 4. Check your monitor settings to ensure that you can monitor the previously recorded track(s) as well as the new track to be recorded (the MONITOR SELECT switch should normally be set to MONITOR.) 5. Set the recording level for the new track. 6. You can now rehearse the overdub without actually recording by simply playing back the already-recorded track(s) and playing the new part. When MONITOR select is in the MONITOR position, it is not possible to hear input source unless MT100Ils transport is in RECORD or RECORD/PAUSE. If you are not ready to actually record your overdub, and would like to hear the new input source along with previously recorded tracks, set the MONITOR select switch to the MIX position. 7. Make sure the tape is rewound to the beginning of the piece and start recording. These steps are simply repeated to overdub tracks 3 and 4.
14 MT100II MULTITRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
Ping-pong recording is a technique you can use to squeeze more than just 4 parts onto your 4-track machine. This is accomplished by re-recording a mix of existing tracks onto an open track. Once tracks have been combined in this way on a new track, the original tracks can be erased, clearing them for additional overdubs. In ping-pong recording, you can record parts on tracks 1, 2, and 3, for example, and then re-record these tracks onto track 4, using the mixer controls to set up the right balance between the 3 original tracks. You now have a mix of the first 3 tracks on track 4, and tracks 1, 2, and 3 are available for more recording. Thats already the equivalent of 6 tracks on your 4-track recorder. While mixing the first 3 tracks down onto track 4 you can also mix in a live instrument via the MT100II mixer section. That would give you 4 parts recorded on track 4 of the tape. With the 3 tracks you still have available for recording, thats a total of 7 tracks. Now, if you record only 2 of the remaining tracks and ping-pong these to track 3 while mixing in another live instrument, youll have 4 parts on tracks 4, 3 parts on track 3, and 2 tracks available. Thats a total of 9. Following this procedure it is actually possible to record up to 10 individual tracks without re-recording any single track more than once (refer to the illustration).
[Note] Ping-ponging is a critical step because the tracks to be ping-ponged must be mixed perfectly before you can go on to recording the subsequent tracks. This is because once theyre ping-ponged and new material has been recorded on the original tracks, their balance and individual sound cannot be changed unless you go back and record the original tracks all over again. [Note] It is recommended that you record using the 9.5 cm/ set tape speed with dbx ON if you plan to combine tracks using the ping-pong technique. Under some conditions, use of the 4.8 cm/sec tape speed with noise reduction OFF will cause feedback when a previously recorded track is re-recorded onto an adjacent track. [Note] Ping-Pong recording technique requires that multiple tracks are directed to tape via PAN controls. Remember that a signal appearing at the stereo AUX RETURN will also be added along with the tracks being recorded or ping-ponged. To prevent an effect from being recorded, set the AUX RETURN fader to 0 (all the way off).
EXAMPLE: Recording tracks 1 through 10 using the Ping- pong process.
A PING-PONG RECORDING EXAMPLE
The following is an example of how you would ping-pong material recorded on tracks 1, 2 and 3 onto track 4. Heres how the controls should be set:
INPUT SELECT switches
Make sure that the channel 1,2 and 3 INPUT SELECT switches are set to TAPE and the channel-4 INPUT SELECT switch is set to OFF.
To begin with, set the input 1 through 3 faders to about 7 on their scales, and set the MASTER fader to 0.
1. Play back the tape. Gradually increase the MASTER fader setting until you can hear the tracks youve recorded and the channel-4 meter reads around 0 on the meter scale. Adjust the MONITOR 4 control for the most comfortable monitoring level. 2. Adjust the input 1, 2 and 3 faders carefully until you get the desired balance between the first three tracks. Youll notice that as you adjust the balance between tracks the channel-4 meter reading might change considerably. Youll have to compensate for this as you set up the pingpong mix by adjusting the MASTER fader. 3. At this time the GRAPHIC EQUALIZER may be switched on and used to enhance the sound-quality of tracks as they are combined. 4. AUX SEND controls on the channels may be used to add an effect to the balance. The amount of effect added is controlled by the AUX RETURN fader. 5. When everything is set up perfectly, rewind the tape to the beginning and start recording. Sit back and waft until the ping-pong is complete, then stop the recorder. Now play back the tape and listen to the ping-ponged track carefully. If something sounds odd, go back and repeat the pingpong process. You can do this as many times as necessary until you get it right then go on to the next step. 6. Complete your recording by overdubbing and using the Ping-Pong technique as necessary. [Note] Only one output (left or right) of the effect will be recorded. If the RECORD SELECT switch is set to L, the output of the effect processor connected to the LEFT AUX RETURN jack will be recorded. If the RECORD SELECT switch is set to R, the output of the effect processor connected to the RIGHT AUX RETURN jack will be recorded.
The channel 1 through 3 REC SELECT switches must be set to OFF, and the channel-4 REC SELECT switch should be set to R.
Set all four AUX SEND controls to MIN for the time being.
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER Switch
Switch this OFF for the time being.
Since the channel-4 REC SELECT switch is set to R, the channel 1 through 3 PAN controls must be rotated full clockwise (right) to assign the track 1, 2 and 3 signals to track 4 of the tape. The channel-4 PAN control can be set to center.
AUX RETURN Control
[Note] Since the AUX SEND/RETURN loop returns the effect signal to the mixer sections stereo outputs, effects can be added to channels during ping-pong recording as long as the panned channel-to-track assignment method is used. The AUX SEND/RETURN loop cannot be used to add effects when recording tracks which have been assigned using the direct channel-to-track assignment method.
20 MT100II MULTITRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
Punch-in/out recording makes it possible to re-record a short segment of an otherwise perfect track in order to correct a mistake or brush up an important passage. You punch-in at the point where you begin recording the new segment, and "punch-out at the end of the new segment so that the previously-recorded material is not erased.
Punch-in/out Using the REC SELECT Switches
1. With all REC SELECT switches set to OFF, start the recorder running a few measures before the section to be re-recorded begins in the record-ready mode by pressing the REC button and then the PLAY button with all track REC SELECT switches set to OFF. The red REC LED will flash indicating that the transport is in the record-ready mode. The MONITOR SELECT switch should be set to MONITOR so you can hear all the tracks. 2. At a convenient break in the track switch the track to be corrected to the record mode (punch-in by switching the REC SELECT switch for that track to the appropriate record position) and start playing the new material to be recorded. The REC LED will light continuously as soon as the REC SELECT switch is set to a record position. 3. At the end of the re-recorded segment switch the track back to the play mode (punch-out by switching the REC SELECT switch for that track to OFF). The red REC LED will begin to flash.
1. Plug a YAMAHA FS-1 (optional) footswitch into the MT100II PUNCH I/O jack. 2. Set the REC SELECT switch for the track to be punched-in to the appropriate record position, and press the REC button to activate the rec/pause mode. The red REC LED should flash instead of lighting continuously. If the red REC LED lights continuously, press the footswitch once so that it flashes. If the LED lights continuously, press the footswitch once so that it flashes.
CAUTION: WHEN USING A FOOTSWITCH, MAKE SURE
THE RED REC LED LIGHT IS FLASHING, NOT STEADY BEFORE PUTTING THE TRANSPORT IN RECORD. THIS WILL PREVENT ACCIDENTAL ERASURE OF EXISTING MATERIAL. DO NOT PRESS REC AND PLAY. 3. Press the PLAY button to start the transport running in the record-ready mode. 4. Press the footswitch to punch-in. The red REC LED will light continuously. 5. Press the footswitch a second time to punch-out. The red REC LED will begin to flash.
The MT100II recording & playback head has been precision-constructed to extremely fine tolerances in order to make high-quality 4track recording possible. Optimum performance can only be achieved if the head surface is kept immaculately clean. Cleaning should be carried out at regular intervals at least after every 10 hours of use. Dirty heads can cause any of, or a combination of, the following problems:
Recording, playback and erasure are not possible. Reduced playback sound level. Fluctuating and or/distorted sound. Excessive noise. A drop in level at the high frequencies.
If any of the above problems occur, clean the heads carefull before assuming the fault is with the recorder. Use a commercially available head-cleaning kit (read the instructions provided with the kit), or wipe carefully with a cloth or cotton swab that has been dampened with isopropyl alchohol. Also clean the pinch roller at the same time as the heads.
22 MT100II MULTITRACK CASSETTE RECORDER
Tape Type Heads Tape Speed Pitch Control Wow & Flutter Rewind Time Motor Chrome (70 microsec. EQ) 4-channel Permalloy rec/play head 4-channel ferrite erase head 4.8 cm/sec 9.5 cm/sec 10% Less than 0.15% WRMS Approx. 100 sec., for C-60 tape DC servo motors (2)
Input Input Impedance Rated Input Level Max. Input Level Min. Input Level Input Impedance Rated Input Level Min. Input Level Output Impedance Load impedance Rated Output Level Load impedance Max. Output Level Output Impedance Load Impedance Rated Output Level Output Impedance Load Impedance Rated Output Level Output Impedance Load Impedance Rated Output Level 10 k-ohms -10 dB to -50 dB (fader nominal) +10 dB (gain control min.) -56 dB (gain control, fader max.) 10 k-ohms -10 dB (AUX RETURN level control nominal) -16 dB (AUX RETURN level control max.) 1 k-ohm Greater than 10 k-ohms -10 dB into 50 k-ohms 8 to 40 ohms 45 mW + 45 mW/40 ohms 1 k-ohm Greater than 10 k-ohms -10 dB into 50 k-ohms 1 k-ohm Greater than 10 k-ohms -10 dB into 50 k-ohms 1 k-ohm Greater than 10 k-ohms -10 dB into 50 k-ohms
AUX RETURN L & R
STEREO OUT L & R
PHONES TAPE OUT 1 4
Frequency Response (NR OUT) 50 Hz to 18 kHz, +3 dB/6 dB at 9.5 cmlsec. 50 Hz to 12.5 kHz, +3 dB/6 dB at 4.8 cm/sec. S/N ratio (3% THD Level) 85 dB, dbx ON, IHF-A 1.5% at 315 Hz, dbx on, 10 dB Rec, Level Distortion Greater than 55 dB at 1 kHz, dbx on Channel Separation Erasure Ratio Greater than 70 dB at 1 kHz, dbx on dbx * Noise Reduction Graphic Equalizer 100, 400, 1k, 5k, 10kHz (10 dB), Q = 0.7
Power Requirements (PA100 AC Adaptor) Dimensions (WxHxD) Weight U.S. & Canadian Models: 120 V AC, 60 Hz General Model: 220/240 V AC, 50/60 HZ 400 x 76 x 212 mm (15-3/4 x 3 x 8-3/8") 2.0 kg (4 Ibs 7 oz)
*dbx is a trademark of dbx Incorporated. 0 dB = 0.775 Vr.m.s. All specifications subject to change without notice.
SERVICE This product is supported by YAMAHAs worldwide network of f a c t o r y t r a i n e d and qualified dealer service personnel. In the event of a problem, contact your nearest YAMAHA dealer.
YAMAHA CORPORATION P.O. Box 1. Hamamatsu. Japan
9001 Printed in Japan
Yamaha Corporation of America 6600 Orangethorpe Avenue, P.O. Box 6600, Buena Park, CA 90622-6600
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