Cakewalk Score Writer
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Cakewalk Score Writer
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Cakewalk Score Writer Getting Started
Copyright Information Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy this software on any medium except as specically allowed in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc.
Copyright 1998 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright 1998 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. Cakewalk Pro Audio, Cakewalk Professional, Cakewalk Home Studio, Cakewalk Guitar Studio, Cakewalk Overture, Cakewalk Score Writer, Cakewalk Audio FX, Cakewalk Metro, Virtual Jukebox, Virtual Piano, CFX, StudioWare, and the Cakewalk logo are trademarks of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Table of Contents
Introduction.. 1 Score Writer...1 Learning Score Writer...1 On-line Help...2 Score Writer Windows...2 Writing Your First Score.. 3 Starting Score Writer...3 Assigning Instruments...4 Opening the Tutorial File...5 Preparing The Score..5 Entering Notes...6 Editing Notes....8 Changing Pitch or Duration..8 Erasing....9 Adding a Pickup Measure...9 Adding a Slur...11 Entering Symbols...11 Dynamics...12 Ornaments and Articulations...13 Adding Voices...13 Changing Stem Directions..15 Cursor Toggle...16 Saving...16 Beyond the Basics.. 17 Adding Staves...17 Setting Up Staves...19 Setting Up MIDI...20 Recording MIDI...21
Metronome... 21 Record Options.. 21 Transcription Quantize.. 22 Linking Staves to MIDI Devices.. 22 Recording... 23 Setting up Step Record.. 24 Adding Chords.. 26 Adding Lyrics... 27 Printing... 28 Setting up the Score.. 28 Printing... 28 Templates... 28
Score Writer is fun to learn and easy to use. You can write music and hear the results immediately. Score Writer runs on almost any Windows 95 or 98 computer. You can install and set it up in just a few minutes. Then you can create piano, band, orchestral, choral, and lead sheet notation and print your arrangements of up to sixteen instruments.
Learning Score Writer
Cakewalk provides two learning tools for Score Writer: Cakewalk Score Writer: Getting Started. This guide contains step-by-step tutorials designed to introduce you to Score Writers basic features. Work through the tutorials to get up and running quickly. Cakewalk Score Writer: On-line Help. Descriptions of every toolbar, button, palette, tool, menu, command, window, and dialog box in Score Writer. Procedures to show you how to use everything and get your job done. Consult help when you need to understand any feature in greater depth.
To see on-line help about a particular topic: The Help key. Press F1 to get context-sensitive help about highlighted commands, about active dialog boxes and their parts, and about active windows. The Help button. Click the help button in any dialog box to get help about that dialog box. The Help menu. Choose Help>Contents (the Contents command in the Help menu) to see the entire on-line help system. You can navigate it by contents, by topic, and by index.
Score Writer Windows
Score Window. The score window displays a traditional music score. Use it to enter, view and modify your musical score. Tool Bar. The tool bars buttons open all of Score Writers tool palettes. Use the tool bar to select tools for writing and modifying music in the score window. Transport Window. Use the transport window to control MIDI recording and playback, and to select the MIDI thru instrument. Tracks Window. Use the tracks window to work with tracks: to specify how many voices they have, and whether notes in each voice should automatically ip stems up or down when you enter them. You also determine which tracks play and which are silent, and which MIDI playback devices, programs, channels and transpositions belong to which tracks. Chords Window. The chords window contains a list of possible chord sufxes, as well as root and bass names. Use the chords window to insert chord names into your score with the mouse. Lyrics Window. Use the lyrics window to type or change lyrics and assign them to notes in the score. Step Input Window. Use the step input window to build a score by recording notes, rests, rhythmic and slash notation, and chords, one step at a time.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Tool Bar Score Window
Writing Your First Score
In this tutorial, you start constructing a score for Amazing Grace using some of the note and symbol tools available in Score Writer.
Page View Controls
Starting Score Writer
When you open Score Writer for the rst time, the Score Window appears. Score Writer asks you to set up your MIDI devices and assign instruments to them in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
Writing a Score
If you plan to use MIDI, once youve set up your MIDI devices you need to assign a MIDI instrument denition to each available MIDI port and channel. The assignments you make determine the MIDI bank names, patch names, note names, and controller names that you see.
Select one or more MIDI ports and channels from the Port/ Channel list (use Shift-click and Control-click to select multiple ports and channels). Choose the instrument to which the selected ports and channels should be assigned from the Uses Instrument list. A black line connects the two lists. To save these changes permanently, check the Save Changes for Next Session box. Click OK when you are done.
From now on, Score Writer uses the bank, patch, controller, and note names from the assigned instrument. You can change your choices in the Assign Instruments dialog box any time. Display it by choosing Options>Instruments.
Chapter 2: Writing Your First Score
Opening the Tutorial File
Score Writer comes with a le called Tutorial. To open this le:
Choose File>Open. Score Writer opens the directory dialog box.
Find the le called Tutorial, then click the Open button. Score Writer opens the Tutorial le.
Use this specially prepared, blank score for this tutorial.
Preparing The Score
The rst step in constructing the score is setting the key and time signature.
Choose the Arrow Cursor tool from the Tool Bar. Click somewhere in the rst measure, so that the insertion point is positioned within that measure.
Blinking insertion point
Choose Measures>Set Key. The Set Key Signature dialog box opens.
Click here twice to move the key up two fifths.
Click the up arrow twice to move the key up to D Major, then click the OK button.
Since this piece is in 3/4 time, you need to change the time signature.
Choose Measures>Set Meter.The Set Meter dialog box opens.
Click the 3/4 button at the top of the window to set the score to 3/4 time. Click OK. Your score looks like this:
Now youre ready to add some notes. Before you add each note, you have to specify a duration for it. There are three ways to do so: Press and hold the note palettes icon in the Tool Bar, choose a note from the pop-up menu, and release the mouse button. The note palette vanishes.
Tear off the Notes palette by dragging it off the main toolbar, then choose a note value from the palette by clicking the appropriate tool.
Or Specify the note duration from the keyboard. Use 2 for a half note, 4 for a quarter note, and so on. The chart on the Quick Reference card shows shows a complete list of keyboard substitutions.
Here is the melody for Amazing Grace that you will write on the score:
Since the rst note in the melody is a half note, type the number 2. If the Notes palette is visible, the half note icon highlights. The note icon in the tool bar also changes to a half note.
Now its time to add the notes.
Position the crosshair in the rst measure, on d, then click.
Position crosshair on d
A D appears in the score, and instantly moves to the left,
Type 8 to set the duration to eighth notes. Position the cursor on the f space and click.This inserts an f# since you are in the key of d.
Position the cursor on the d line, to the right of the f# you just inserted, and click. Score Writer automatically draws a beam connecting the f# and d.
Repeat the steps of selecting the duration and placing notes on the score until your window looks like the melody on page 7.
Score Writer has many tools for adjusting score elements. In many instances, it is not necessary to specially select them; you can just move the pointer over the element and the pointer will change shape to let you know that you can now edit the element. You may notice that the last note in the melody on page 7 is the wrong pitch and duration. This section shows you how to x it.
Changing Pitch or Duration
The eighth note G in the last measure of the score should actually be a half note A. To change pitch, drag a note up and down or select it, then press the up or down arrow keys. To change its duration, select it, then type the keyboard equivalent for the correct value
Position the pointer over the erroneous note so that it becomes a Drag Cursor, then click. The note head turns red, indicating that it is selected:
Change the G ito an A by dragging it up one step.
While the note is still selected, change its duration by typing the number 2 (for half note). The note becomes a half note.
Score Writer lets you edit multiple notes simultaneously. Select multiple notes by shift-clicking them or by dragging a box around them. Any edit operation affects all selected notes.
To erase any item from the score, select the eraser cursor from the tool bar (or type e). Position the cursor over the note or symbol you wish to delete and click.
Adding a Pickup Measure
You may have noticed that the initial pickup note is missing from the score. To add new measures and change their lengths:
1. 2. 3.
Choose the Arrow Cursor tool from the Tool Bar. Click in the rst measure, making it the active measure. Choose Measures>Insert. The Insert Measure dialog box opens:
The preset values are correct, so simply click OK. Score Writer inserts a blank measure before the rst measure.
Now tell Score Writer that its a pickup measure.
Click in the rst measure to make it the active measure. Choose Measures>Set Meter to open the Set Meter dialog box.
Click here to indicate that the currently active measure is a pickup measure.
Click the Is Pickup check box. Click OK.
Use what you learned earlier to put a quarter-note a in the measure. To move the barline to the left, reducing the space used by the measure:
Make sure that the Arrow Cursor tool is selected. Choose Options>Show>Handles.
Handles (small boxes for manipulating objects) appear.
To move the barline, drag its handle to the left. Adjust it so that it looks good to you. Choose Options>Show>Handles again to hide the handles. You can use handles even when theyre invisible, if you prefer not to see them.
Adding a Slur
Now add a slur to the eighth notes in the second measure:
Select the slur tool from the Groups palette.
The groups palette has a number of tools for marking multiple note, like ties, slurs, and ottava signs. 2. Drag a rectangle around the notes that you want to group.
When you release the mouse button, a slur appears.
To alter the shape of the slur, either drag the slur or click it to display shaping handles. Try dragging handles now to see how the slur changes.
The tool bar has a number of palettes whose tools are called symbols. These are the ornaments, articulations, noteheads, dynamics, expressions, text and clefs palettes. This section introduces you to the basics of placing and moving symbols on the score.
There is a mezzo-piano at the start of the piece. To put it in the score:
Choose the mezzo-piano tool from the dynamics palette. You can drop the palette down temporarily from the dynamics button in the tool bar, or you can tear off the palette for repeated uses.
Position the pointer under the rst note of the score and click to place a mezzo-piano symbol there. To move it, move the pointer over the symbol so that it becomes a drag cursor, and drag the symbol to the right place.
Some dynamics symbols, like the crescendo hairpin, are resizable. To see how this works, add a crescendo and diminuendo to the score.
Choose the crescendo hairpin from the dynamics palette.
Put the pointer at the start of the second measure, press and hold the mouse button and drag to the right. The crescendo symbol appears and grows as you drag.
Drag to right to create a crescendo
Now add a diminuendo in the third measure, using what you learned above. Drag from right to left, using the same open hairpin symbol.
Drag to left to create a diminuendo
Ornaments and Articulations
Add ornaments (like ngerings) and articulations (like staccato marks) to the score just as you add dynamics. To add the same ornament or articulation to many notes, drag a box around them with the ornament tool. You can, if you wish, attach ornaments to specic notes. To do so click the note or select a group of notes to ornament. You can drag an attached ornament wherever you please, but it remains attached to the original note for playback purposes.
Now its time to add a second voice to the score. A voice is a single melodic line in a track. Each track may have up to four voices. For further explanation of voices, consult Terms in on-line help.
Choose the dotted half note in the note palette. Click the half note, then the augmentation dot to add a dot to the half note.
Select Voice 2 from the voice pop-up menu at the bottom of the score window.
Selecting Voice 2 dims the notes belonging to Voice 1:
Dimmed notes indicate inactive voice
Click the f space at the start of the second measure to add f#. Dont worry about the stemsyoull clean them up later.
New note inserted in Voice 2
Add more dotted half notes, one per measure: another f#, a g, then a nal f#.
New notes in Voice 2
Changing Stem Directions
With the stems from each voice going in the wrong direction, the score is difcult to read. To change stem direction:
Choose Edit>Select All (or type Control-a) to select all the notes in the current voice. The note heads turn red to indicate that they are selected. Choose Notes>Stem>Stem Down (or type Control-d) to point the stems down. Choose Voice 1 from the Voice pop-up menu at the bottom of the score window (or type Control-1). Choose Edit>Select All (or type Control-a) to select all the notes in Voice 1. Choose Notes>Stem>Stem Up (or type Control-u) to point the stems up. Show all voices by selecting All from the voice pop-up menu (or typing Control-0 [zero]).
Another easy way to control stem directions is to use the Tracks window. Here, you can set stem direction automatically for any voice in the track before you even enter the notes. Theres just one nal bit of clean-up to do to complete this section: you may want to move the slur in measure two. Use Alt-drag. Otherwise youll reshape it rather than move it.
Type c to toggle between the Arrow Cursor and the most recently used palette tool. This is a great way to switch between tools, letting you keep your mouse near your score.
The File>Save and File>Save As commands save your score to disk. Now is a good time to save your work before proceeding with the next part of the tutorial. Choose any name you wish, like My Amazing Grace.scw.
Beyond the Basics
This chapter teaches you how to create systems (groups of staves played together), assign instrument names, and set up some features of tracks.
The score of Amazing Grace now consists of two voices in the treble clef. The next task is to add a staff for the left-hand accompaniment.
To specify the bass clef, select the bass staff tool from the staves palette. Dont confuse the staves palette with its neighbor, the clefs palette.
Move the pointer to the staff below the treble clef, so that the pointer becomes an up arrow. When youre in position, click the mouse. The bass clef appears in the proper position.
You can add a variety of kinds of staves with the staves tools, like piano staves, percussion staves, piano and melody staves. Further, you can
add a number of symbols that affect multiple staves, like braces, brackets, and cross-staff barlines. To delete a staff, click its handle (just to the left of the middle line) with the eraser cursor. Now add a brace so the staves appear as a grand staff (conventional lefthand/right-hand piano notation).
Select the brace tool from the staves palette. Drag a box that spans the two staves.
When you release the button, the brace appears.
All that remains is to add a barline through the system.
Select the Cross-Staff Barlines tool from the Staves palette.
Chapter 3: Beyond the Basics
Drag a box around both staves. A barline appears, connecting the two staves.
Score Writer has many features that can affect all the staves or measures in a system at once. See "The Score Window" in help for full details (press F1 in the score window).
Setting Up Staves
In this tutorial, you specify that the staves are piano parts.
Click anywhere in the top staff to make it the active one. Choose Score>Setup Track or double-click the staffs handle. The Setup Track dialog box opens:
In the Instrument section display the Instrument Name pop-up menu, which lists common instruments. Choose Piano for the current track.
The name boxes in the Setup Track dialog box ll in automatically. 4. Check the Show Main box. This causes the instrument name to appear to the left of the staff in the score. Click OK.
Use the Setup Track dialog box to change many properties of each track, including which lines of the staff are displayed which elements of the staff are displayed scale of entire staff (greater or less than 100%) transposition if different from concert key
The next several tutorials discuss Score Writers MIDI functions. If you arent using a MIDI device with Score Writer, skip to Adding Lyrics on page 27.
Setting Up MIDI
To record with MIDI, you must have a MIDI interface connected to your computer and a MIDI keyboard connected to the interface. A detailed explanation of these procedures is beyond the scope of this tutorial, so if you havent yet set yourself up, read the manuals that come with your MIDI keyboard(s) and interface(s) and get set up. You wont be able to proceed with this tutorial until you have done this.
There are a few program options to set up before you can start recording.
You may want to set up a metronome to guide your playing. To do so, consult Options>Metronome>Metronome Sound in the on-line help.
1. Choose Options>Record Options. This opens the Record Options dialog box, where you tell Score Writer how to display the recorded data.
Make sure Auto Transcribe is checked. Click OK to dismiss the dialog box.
Score Writer records data from MIDI devices with great rhythmic sensitivity. Often you dont want such an accurate transcription. Say youre only interested in entering quarter notes. Unless you play with computer precision, you could wind up with something like this:
To x this, use the Transcription Quantize Amount button to round up anything smaller than a quarter note. Choose quarter note resolution.
Now whatever you play in transcribes as quarter notes or longer.
Linking Staves to MIDI Devices
To play on the proper devices, you need to specify where to send the data:
Click anywhere in the treble clef, so that it becomes active. Choose Windows>Tracks.
Each line in this window represents a staff in the score. If you have a multi-timbral synthesizer (one that plays more than one note at a time), you can play each staff over a different synthesizer sound, that is, with a unique device and channel. For simplicitys sake, assign both staves to the same sound.
Click in the Device column. A pop-up menu appears listing all of your currently available instruments, as you set them up in the Assign Instruments dialog box in the rst tutorial. Pick a device and MIDI channel appropriate for your setup.
Score Writer is now congured to play back the right and left hand parts on the synthesizer channel you selected.
Look at the left hand part for Amazing Grace.
You are going to play this into Score Writer from a MIDI keyboard. While you are do so, you will hear the metronome and the alreadyentered right-hand part.
Make sure Options>Keyboard Thru is checked.
Click the Device column for Track 2, and pick the same MIDI device and channel.
Open the Transport window by choosing Windows>Transport.
Play (from Stop button beginning) button
Play (from current measure) button
Using the Thru device pop-up menu, select the same MIDI Instrument that you selected in the previous section. This makes everything you play on your keyboard sound on the Thru device. Click in the rst measure of the bass staff. Recording begins at the insertion point. Set a transcription quantize note to smooth the transcription. Choose Options>Metronome>Click in Count Off to have the metronome give you a one-bar count-in. Click the record button to begin. There is a one-measure count in during which the metronome plays but no MIDI data is recorded. Play the part! When youve played it, press the spacebar or click the stop button to stop recording,
When you nish, your score should look like the one on page 23. To clean up any mistakes use the editing techniques introduced earlier. To hear what you played, click the Play button or press the space bar. Score Writer plays back your notes. Click the Stop button or press space to stop playing.
Setting up Step Record
This tutorial introduces you to Score Writers step entry features. It assumes you have set up your MIDI devices and interfaces properly. Step entry lets you enter notes very quickly from a MIDI device, one at a time. It assigns them the value, size, duration, and velocity you specify in the Step Input window, regardless of how you play them.
To open the Step Input window, choose Windows>Step Input.
Note Size pop-up menu
Type area (choose Notes, Rests, Slash, Rhythmic, or Chord) notation) Size area Duration area Velocity area
Use the Step Entry window to add more notes to the left hand part.
Make sure the type area displays a note. Position the insertion point at the beginning of the rst full measure of the bass clef. When you step enter data, it starts at the insertion point (the blinking cursor). Select the dotted half note from the Note Size pop-up menu. The counter advances this much time after you enter each note.
Select Percent from the Duration pop-up menu. This tells Score Writer that step-entered notes have a playback duration equal to 90% of a dotted half-note. Playback duration affects only what you hear when you play the data over MIDI devices. A little space between notes often sounds a little more realistic.
Play the low notes of the left hand part as shown here:
You can, of course, enter rests and chords, as well as rhythmic and slash notes. See The Step Input Window in on-line help.
Use the Chords window to put chord names in the Score window. To open the Chords window, choose Windows>Chords.
Root buttons Bass buttons
Chord Name Display
To add a chord to the score:
Click one of the root buttons to set the root of a chord name. Click a sharp or at button if the root is sharp or at.
Click one of the bass buttons to add an alternate bass note to a chord name. Click the sharp or at button if the bass note is sharp or at. Click one of the symbols to select it. If a symbol isnt visible, use the scroll bars to scroll the list, Preview the chord name in the chord name display. Click the Score window to insert the chord name.
For more information about adding chords, see "The Chords Window" in the on-line help.
To add a lyric to a score that currently contains no lyrics:
Choose Window>Lyrics. Score Writer opens the Lyrics window.
2. 3. 4.
Click the Insert Lyric button. Score Writer creates a tab. In the Name box, type a name for the lyric. In the Track box, type the number of the track to which you want to assign the lyric, numbering the tracks from top to bottom. In the Measure box, type the number of the measure in which you want the lyric to begin. In the Voice box, type the voice number (1-4) to which you want to assign the lyric. In the Verse box, type the verse number (1-4) of the lyric.
Type the lyric in the Lyric editing area. Use spaces to separate words, and hyphens to separate syllables you want attached to different notes. Click the Apply Lyric button. Score Writer assigns each word to an individual note automatically, adjusting for hyphens and spaces.
See "Lyric Window" in the on-line help for details about adding lyrics.
Youre ready for the nal stepputting your score on paper.
Setting up the Score
Before printing, you need to set margins and page size. Choose Score>Page Dimensions to open the Page Dimensions dialog box. To add titles, composer, author of lyrics, copyright, and other textual information, use the Page Text dialog box. Choose Score>Title Page. You can specify font, size, style, location, and whatever text you want to appear. Drag page text on the score to reposition it. To move a stave on the page, press and drag its handles, located at the left and right edges of of each staff on the middle line. If you prefer, you can make the staff handles visible by choosing Options>Show>Handles. See "Arranging Staves and Systems" in the on-line help for more information. Score Writer has many facilites for making your score look just as you want it to. Try, for example, Measures>Wrap Left, Measures>Wrap Right, Measures>Justify, Score>Respace Staves, Score>Recalc Layout. For more information on these commands, see the on-line help.
When everything is perfect, choose File>Print. In the standard print dialog box, set everything properly for your printer and click OK.
In the Score Writer Templates folder are a number of templates using different formats. Open them and look at the staff and page settings to get a feel for their design. You can create your own templates, too. One of the best ways to learn is by example, so dont be shy!
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff.8-33 You can enter notes or chords directly from the TAB staff.8-33 Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff.8-34 Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff.8-34 Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard.8-35 Working with Percussion.8-35 Setting Up a Percussion Track.8-36 Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line.8-36 Ghost Strokes.8-38 Printing.8-39 The Meter/Key View.8-40 What Is Meter?.8-40 What Is Key?.8-41 Opening the Meter/Key View.8-42 Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes.8-42 Working with Lyrics.8-44 Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View.8-45 Opening the Lyrics View.8-46 Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View.8-46
9 Mixing and Effects Patching. 9-1
The Console View.9-2 Configuring the Console.9-4 Mixing MIDI.9-8 Routing and Mixing Digital Audio.9-10 Audio Track Modules.9-13 Aux Busses.9-13 Audio Main Output Modules.9-15 Using Real-Time Effects.9-16 Using Control Groups.9-19 Using Remote Control.9-23 Recording Automation Data.9-25 Mixing Down and Distributing Audio.9-27 Preparing Audio for Distribution.9-29
10 Using Instrument Definitions. 10-1
Assigning Instruments.10-2 Importing Instrument Definitions.10-4 Creating Instrument Definitions.10-5 Creating Lists.10-8 Copying Name Lists.10-9
Assigning the Bank Select Method. 10-9 Assigning Patch Names. 10-10 Assigning Note Names. 10-12 Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names. 10-14
11 Working with StudioWare.11-1
StudioWare Panels. 11-2 Using Panels. 11-4 Grouping Controls. 11-6 Recording Control Movements. 11-8 Control Settings. 11-12 StudioWare Panel Drawing Speed. 11-13 Designing and Implementing Panels. 11-13 Creating a New Panel. 11-14 Adding and Arranging Widgets. 11-16 Using Clusters. 11-18 Functional Settings. 11-20 Customizing the Appearance of a Panel. 11-28 Advanced Panel Design. 11-31 Alias Formulas. 11-31 Using Aliases for Track and Port Numbers. 11-34 Hiding Clusters. 11-34 Grouping Widgets. 11-35 Widget Tips and Tricks. 11-36 TutorialCreating a Panel. 11-37 Starting Out. 11-38 Adding a Pop-Up Cluster. 11-38 Controlling MIDI Sustain and Modulation. 11-40 Volume Control and Indicators. 11-42 Adding Labels and Images. 11-43
12 Using Layouts and Templates.12-1
Layouts. 12-2 Templates. 12-4 Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments. 12-6
13 Improving Audio Performance.13-1
Audio System Configuration. 13-2 The Wave Device Profiler. 13-2 DirectShow Audio Dialog Box. 13-5 Configuring Pro Audio for 18-, 20-, and 24-bit Operation. 13-12 Digital Audio Data Management. 13-13
Buttons in the Large Transport toolbar, shown in the following picture, can control most of Pro Audios basic playback functions. If you dont see the Large Transport toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and check Transport (Large).
Now time (MBT)
Now time slider
Rewind Stop Now time (SMPTE)
Go to End
1. To play the song, click the Play button bar. , or press the space
Do you hear music? Go ahead, get out your instrument and jam along! If you don't hear anything, see Appendix A: Troubleshooting for some troubleshooting tips.
Restarting the Song
When Pro Audio gets to the end of the song, it stops. To play the song again, do the following: 1. Click the Rewind button measure. , or press W to go back to the rst
Click the Play button, or press the space bar.
1. To temporarily pause playback, click the Play button or the Stop button , or press the space bar. Click the Play button again to resume playback.
Certain Pro Audio functions can only be used when the song is paused. If a function or command does not seem to work, try pausing the song.
The Now Time
The Now time is the current time in the song. In the Clips pane of the Track view, the Now time is indicated by a vertical line. The Now time is also shown in the Transport toolbar, both in MBT (measure/beat/tick) format and in time code format (hour/minute/second/frame). During playback, the Now time increases in accordance with the progress of the song. You can set the Now time of the song by clicking in the ruler in the Clips pane or (when playback is paused) by dragging the Now slider in the Transport toolbar. While you are playing with the song, you may want to keep an eye on the Now time. The Big Time view displays the Now time in a large font so you can more easily see it from a distance. To open this view, choose View-Big Time. You can change the time format displayed in the Big Time window by clicking on it. You can change its font by right-clicking on it.
Starting from a Marker
Markers make it easier to nd certain points within the song. You may want to set markers at the beginning of each section of your song or at times with which some event must be synchronized. The Markers toolbar lets you move the Now time to a marker, add a new marker at the Now time, and edit the marker list. If you dont see the Marker toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and check Markers.
You can also change the patch by clicking in the Patch eld and using the + and keys to increment through the different patches. To do so: 1. 2. Solo the Piano track by clicking on the Solo button in track 1. Click in the Patch eld in the Piano track, moving the highlight to that eld. Press the + or key on the numeric keypad.
You may want to experiment with changing all the instruments used by the song. One thing you should know: Changing the instrument on a percussion track (such as the Drum, Shaker, and Triangle tracks in this song) may have no effect. Percussion instruments are played on MIDI
Click the Solo button in track 1 again to unsolo the Piano track.
channel 10, which in General MIDI is dedicated to percussion. The note determines the instrument, and the patch is irrelevant.
Changing the Patch in the Console View
Its easier to change a tracks patch in the Console view. For example, to change the Piano tracks patch, click the Patch button in the Piano module and choose a new patch from the menu.
Playing Music on a Keyboard
If you've connected a MIDI keyboard (or another instrument) to your external MIDI interface or the MIDI interface of your sound card, you can play one or more parts of the song on the keyboard instead of the sound cards internal synthesizer. For instructions on connecting a keyboard to your computer, see To Connect a MIDI Keyboard to Your Computer on page 1-16. For this tutorial, we assume that you want to connect the keyboard to the MIDI in and out of your sound card.
Checking Your MIDI Device Settings
First, lets make sure that Pro Audio is set up to send MIDI output to your keyboard.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Ports dialog box. In the Output Ports column, two devices should be selected. The rst should be your sound card synthesizer device; the second should be your MIDI out device. The uppermost selected device will correspond to Port 1, the second device to Port 2, and so on. For help with these settings, see Setting Up Output Devices on page 3-17.
Routing MIDI Data to the Keyboard
Lets play the Piano track on the MIDI keyboard. First, turn your keyboard on and make sure it is set up to receive MIDI input on channel one. Then, do the following:
In the Track view, right-click on any column in the Piano track (track 1) to open the pop-up menu. Choose Track Properties to open the Track Properties dialog box. For Port, select your MIDI out device. Click OK.
2. 3. 4.
Or, if you prefer, the procedure is a little easier in the Console view:
In the Console view, click the Port button in the Piano module. Choose your MIDI out device from the menu.
If you dont hear anything on your keyboard, see Appendix A: Troubleshooting for some hints on troubleshooting.
Setting Up the Tracks
Now let's set up the rst of the tracks where the takes will be stored:
In track 9 (or the rst available empty track), double-click the Name column and name the track. Click the Arm button.
Double-click in the Source, Port, Channel, or Patch column to open the Track Properties dialog box. Set the Source to MIDI Omni. Set the Port to your sound card's MIDI synthesizer. Set the Channel to an unused channel or to the channel you used for your earlier take(s). For Patch, select any patch. Click OK.
4. 5. 6.
As usual, you could set the tracks to play back on your MIDI instrument instead by specifying the appropriate port and channel.
Finally, let's record our takes:
Choose Realtime-Record Options to display the Record Options dialog box. Choose the Store Takes in Separate Tracks option to store each new take in a separate track. Each time a new take starts, the settings from the rst track will be copied to the new track.
3. 4. 5.
Click OK. Click Rewind Click Record.
Pro Audio loops over the designated section and records your takes to successive tracks. If you want to erase the most recent take during loop recording, choose Realtime-Reject Loop Take. To stop recording, click Stop , or press the space bar.
Imagine that one of your takes was close to ideal, except for one or two notes in one measure. Rather than recording another full take, you'd prefer to keep the take but replace that measure. Punch-in recording lets you replace a section of a track. The way it works is this: First, you set the start and end times of the punch to the section you want to replace and turn on punch recording. Then, you arm the track and start recording. You can play along with the original take to get the rhythm and feeling. However, nothing will be recorded until the punch start time. During the punch, the material already in the track will be replaced with what you record. When the punch ends, the song will continue to play, but recording will stop. Let's try it. Suppose you want to replace measures 5 and 6 in the take in track 8.
Display the Record toolbar by choosing View-Toolbars-Record.
Click to open the Record Options dialog box Punch In Time Punch Out Time Click here to set punch times to the selection start and end times
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punch-out times. The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material.
To Choose a Recording Mode
Select a mode from the drop-down list in the Record toolbar. to display the Choose Realtime-Record Options or click Record Options dialog box, then select the desired mode.
Cakewalk saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different recording mode with each of your projects.
Choosing a Source
To record into a track, you must choose a source for the music or sound to be recorded. Usually, you choose MIDI Omni to record material from a MIDI instrument or the left or right channel of a digital audio device (such as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record stereo audio in a single track. The source for each track is displayed in the Source column of the Track window and at the bottom of each module in the Console window.
When you choose MIDI Omni as the input source for a track, Pro Audio merges material from all MIDI sources (ports) and instruments. This means you dont have to worry about port, channel, or other MIDI settings. Sometimes, you may want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn how to do this, see Recording Channel by Channel on page 4-28.
While each track can have a different source, it is also possible for several tracks to have the same source. If you record the same material into several different tracks at once, the resulting material will be stored in linked clips. For more information about linked clips, see Working with Linked Clips on page 5-21.
To Choose a Source in the Track View
1. Double-click in the Source column of a track to display the Track Properties dialog box. Choose a source from the Source list, and click OK. OR 1. 2. Click in the Source column of the track you want to set. Press the + or key until you reach the source you want.
To Choose a Source in the Console
1. Click the Source button and choose a source from the list.
If you want to assign all your audio sources to a series of tracks, heres a quick shortcut. Hold the Shift key and click in the Source cell for each track. Pro Audio will assign the audio sources to these tracks in increasing order. The names of the sources depend on your audio hardware. The assignment of sources will wrap to the rst audio source when you exceed the number of available audio sources.
Arming Tracks for Recording
Pro Audio lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks you want to record by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several tracks at one time. Each track records material received though its own input source.
To Arm a Track for Recording
In the Track view, click In the Console view, click.
events, which can hold System Exclusive messages up to 255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For more information about Sysx, see Chapter 14, Using System Exclusive Data.
To Filter Event Types.
1. 2. 3. Choose Options-Global and click the MIDI tab. Check the message types you want recorded. Click OK.
From now on, Pro Audio records only the types of events you have chosen.
To Filter by Channel.
1. 2. 3. Choose Options-Project and click the MIDI Input tab. Check the channel numbers from which you want to record. Click OK.
Pro Audio records events from the channels you have chosen and excludes events from the other channels.
Pro Audio lets you control the echo of MIDI data from your MIDI inputs to your MIDI outputsthat is, from your master keyboard to one or more of your sound modules. This function is known as MIDI thru and is congured using the Project Options dialog box. There are three different echo modes, as shown in the following table:
Mode. None Manual
How it works. Disables MIDI echo. Enables MIDI echo and lets you manually control the mapping of inputs to outputs. Enables MIDI echo and maps data automatically by following the parameters of the current track. The Auto mode allows you to use the Track view as a list of selectable MIDI echo-mapping destinations.
If you choose the manual echo mode, you can control the routing and processing of MIDI echo data, as shown in the following table:
Setting. Port What it means. The desired destination port. Blank means the port is not mapped. The desired destination channel. Blank means that the channel is not mapped. The desired note transposition, if any. The desired velocity transposition, if any.
To Congure MIDI Echo.
1. 2. Choose Options-Project and click the MIDI Input tab. Choose the echo mode you want (None, Manual, or Auto) from the Echo Mode list. If you chose the Manual echo mode, congure the mapping the way you want. Click OK.
From now on, Pro Audio echoes MIDI according to these settings.
As described on page A-5, you should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to prevent notes from being doubled. Notes you play on the keyboard are then transmitted to Pro Audio, echoed to the synthesizer, and played only once. When Pro Audio starts, it sends a special MIDI message that attempts to disable Local Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this message. If yours does not, you will need to disable Local Control every time you turn it on for use with Pro Audio. If your synthesizer does not let you disable Local Control (this is rare), you can use the Local On Port setting in the Project Options dialog box to indicate the number of the output port connected to your synthesizer. Pro Audio will then refrain from sending MIDI echo data to that port. In this conguration, you may need to turn your synthesizers volume control up and down from time to time to avoid hearing it play along with your other modules. If this situation doesnt apply to you, the Local On Port should be set to 0. Note that the Virtual Piano will not record if the Local On Port is set to any value other than 0.
To Split Material into New, Separate Clips
1. 2. Select a portion of one or more existing clips. Choose Edit-Create Clips, or right-click on any selected clip and choose Create Clips from the menu.
Pro Audio creates new clips from the selected material.
Select the clips you want to combine.
Adding Effects in the Track View
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. Cakewalk adds these effects in real-time, preserving your tracks original data.
To Add Effects in the Track View
1. Double-click the Effects column of the track you want to add effects to. The FX bin appears. 2. Right-click in the FX bin to display the effects popup menu. Move the cursor over the menu name to display a submenu of effects. Cakewalk displays MIDI effects if you are editing a MIDI track, and audio effects for an audio track. 3. Click an effect from the submenu. The name of the effect appears in the FX bin. To delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the popup menu. 4. Double-click the effect name to set the effects parameters, if desired. Repeat steps 2-4 for all the effects you want to add. Click Done.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes from one tempo to another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases (ritardandos), and almost any other type of change you can imagine. The tempo changes you add to your song become part of the project and are saved with the project le. You can add tempo changes to your project in four ways: Using the Tempo toolbar Using the Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo views Tempo List pane
The Edit-Fit to Time and Edit-Fit Improvisation commands can also be used to introduce tempo changes into your work le. For more information, see Stretching and Shrinking Events on page 6-12 and Fit Improvisation on page 6-26. When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, Pro Audio will, at your option, stretch or shrink the audio wave to t the new tempo. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. Sometimes you dont want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some examples: If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo of the background music without altering the voice-over. If youre trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged.
Minimum Length (ms)
Find a Steady Rhythm
In the second step, you set the Timing Synthesis parameters to determine how the pulses are converted to musically meaningful data.
The Timing Synthesis parameters are as follows:
Parameter/Option. Insert Tempo Changes
Meaning. Tells Pro Audio to insert tempo changes in the appropriate places in your song to ensure that the sequence plays in time with the rhythm track. Remember to also set the Expected Pulse Duration, because it denes the metronome markings for all tempo changes. The musical time value for each pulse that was found. For example, if youre analyzing a drum beat that has steady eighth notes on the highhat, you should set this value to Eighth for the correct tempo changes to be inserted. Tells Pro Audio to create a MIDI note event for each pulse that was found. The Note Velocities parameter lets you choose which velocity will be used The velocity of generated MIDI notes. You can either select Vary With Pulse Level to adjust velocity to the dynamic structure of the original source material, or select Set All To Same Value to assign each inserted MIDI note a specied velocity.
Expected Pulse Duration
Convert Pulses to MIDI Note
When using Extract Timing, keep in mind the following: It knows nothing about the musical context of the audio It does not know, and cannot gure out, the approximate tempo of the audio, the feel, or the time signature
It only knows how to listen for sudden changes in volume. You must guide it with your own knowledge about the music.
To Extract Timing from Audio Data.
1. 2. Select the audio data to be analyzed. Choose Edit-Audio-Extract Timing, or right-click in the Audio view and choose Extract Timing from the menu, to open the Extract Timing dialog box.
Set the Pulse Analysis parameters as described in the table above. Click Audition to get visual feedback in the Audio view, so you can be sure the pulses are aligned to your liking. If not, re-adjust the parameters and try again. Set the Timing Synthesis parameters as described in the table above. Click OK.
Option Trigger and freewheel
How it works Audio event playback is started (or triggered) at the exact time code, but then the audio plays at its own internal rate (or freewheels). When audio freewheels, it can gradually drift from the time code due to variations in the time code signal. The speed of audio event playback is continually adjusted to stay in sync with the time code. If the external clock drifts or changes rate, Pro Audio adjusts the audio playback speed to stay in sync. This adjustment may introduce slight pitch changes, but those changes will be negligible if the external clock is reasonably steady.
Full chase lock
Some digital sound cards (such as the Frontier Design Wavecenter or the Antex Studio Card) have external clock inputs. If you are using one of these cards, and an external clock source like a digital tape deck is the master timing source for the project, choose the Trigger and Freewheel option. The clock input on the audio card guarantees that there is no drift between the time code and audio playback.
To Set the Audio Playback Option
1. 2. 3. Choose Options-Audio, and click the Advanced tab. Check the desired option from the Synchronization list. Click OK.
Audio playback under time code sync is handled according to the setting you chose.
SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock
When using SMPTE/MTC Sync with full chase lock, the rst time you play any audio the pitch may uctuate wildly for up to 30 seconds. Also, you may occasionally note the pitch of the audio sounding consistently high or low pitch.
A simple analogy makes this behavior easy to understand: Synchronizing audio to SMPTE/MTC is a lot like trying to get even and stay neck-and-neck with another car on the freeway. If the car is ahead of you, you need to drive faster to catch up to it. If it's behind you, you have to slow until the car catches up to you. Once the two cars are neckand-neck, you can simply keep going at the same speed, unless the other car changes its speed. If the other car speeds or slows, you must speed or slow too. The rst time you play audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync, the audio clock has to get even with the external clock. This could mean racing ahead, which raises the pitch of the audio, or stepping on the brakes, which lowers the pitch of the audio. These uctuations continue until Pro Audio matches its playback speed to the external clock, which usually takes no more than 30 seconds. The stable playback speed, by the way, may be slightly faster or slower than the normal audio playback speed, resulting in a slight change in the pitch of the audio. Heres the best way to address this problem: Start each new Pro Audio session by playing some audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync. Let the audio play for 30 seconds or until all audio pitch uctuations stop.
To Congure MIDI Machine Control
1. 2. 3. Choose Options-Project, and click the Clock tab. Select SMPTE/MTC as the clock source. Click the MIDI Out tab.
Check the Transmit MMC box. Enter the ID of the master timing device in the Time Code Masters Unit ID box. Click OK.
MMC is now enabled.
To Disable MIDI Machine Control
1. 2. Choose Options-Project, and click the MIDI Out tab. Make sure the Transmit MMC box is not checked, and click OK.
MMC is disabled.
Programming with Cal
Cakewalk Application Language (CAL) is an event-processing language that you use to extend Pro Audio with custom editing commands. You can write your own CAL program and use or edit CAL programs that other people have written. You also can create CAL programs by recording a series of commands, keystrokes, and mouse actions. Pro Audio translates and saves these actions as CAL programs, which you can use or edit. CAL les are stored on disk in les with an extension of.cal. The Cakewalk World Wide Web site (www.cakewalk.com) contains additional CAL programs that you can download and use. If you have written some interesting CAL programs and want to make them available to other users, please let us know.
Creating and Running CAL Programs. 2 Sample CAL Files. 3 Writing CAL Programs. 5 Recording CAL Programs. 6
Creating and Running CAL Programs
The CAL view is a small notepad-like editor for creating, editing, saving, recording, and running CAL programs.
The CAL view works like a basic text editor, allowing you to enter and edit your programs freely. The editor supports Cut, Copy, and Paste, and you can also paste information into a CAL view from a word processor or other text editing program. While you can run a CAL program from within the CAL view, you can also run an existing CAL program without displaying it in the CAL view. To interrupt a CAL program while it is running, press the Esc (Escape) key. Press OK to conrm that you want to interrupt the CAL program. As a rule, you shouldnt interrupt a CAL program in this way unless you suspect it is stuck in an innite loop.
Initialization File Format
Initialization les all follow a common format. They are divided into sections whose names appear in the le in brackets, like this: [Section Name] Within each section, variables are of the form: <variable name>=<value> For example, the DrawPlayingAudio variable belongs in the [Wincake] section in cakewalk.ini, and determines whether the audio waveform is redrawn or not when the display is scrolling during playback. If the value is 0 (FALSE), then the waveforms are not redrawn. If the value is 1 (TRUE), then waveforms are redrawn. To redraw waveforms when scrolling during playback, the entry in the le looks like this: [Wincake] DrawPlayingAudio=1 The variable names contain no spaces. They are not case sensitive.
Many of the items in cakewalk.ini are set using Pro Audio menus and dialog boxes. However, some items can be changed only by using the Options-Initialization File command or by directly editing this le using the Windows Notepad. cakewalk.ini is divided into different sections. Unless otherwise noted below, all entries should appear in the section that starts with the line: [Wincake] For example, if you want to add the line PanicStrength=1 to cakewalk.ini, you should put it on the line under [Wincake], like this: [Wincake] PanicStrength=1
The following section lists the different variables you can change in cakewalk.ini.
Variable. DrawPlayingAudio=< 0 or 1>
Default value. 0 (disable)
What it does This line controls whether the audio waveform is redrawn or not when the display is scrolling during playback. By setting the value to 1, you can force the Track and Audio views to always redisplay audio data, even during playback. This is recommended only for very fast machines. This line species whether or not Pro Audio should jump to the foreground (focus) once it locks to SMPTE. This determines the location of the Hyphenator extension DLL used by Pro Audio, and is written during installation. This should never need to be changed. Each StudioWare view remembers a certain maximum number of (Design mode) operations before discarding old ones. This line lets you control the maximum depth of each Panel undo history. Be aware that the larger the number you specify, the more memory must be dedicated to storing the information required to undo commands. This line controls whether Pro Audio hides (n=0) or shows (n=1) all widget bitmaps while in Use mode (except those in Image widgets). The Panic/Reset button stops playback and turns off any stuck notes. There are two ways a MIDI note can be turned off: By a note-off message (n=1) or by MIDI controller number 123 (all notes off). By default, Panic uses controller 123 only (n=0).
CPU Meter and Disk Meter
Pro Audio 9s Status bar now includes a CPU meter, a disk meter, and a dropout indicator to instantly display audio performance and resources.
NTONYX Style Enhancer MIDI Plug-in (Micro 1.28 Lite Version)
Global Toolbar to Mute, Solo, or Arm Tracks
Pro Audio 9 has a new toolbar that enables you to mute or un-mute, solo or un-solo, and arm or unarm all tracks at once. Its called the Solo toolbar and you display it by choosing View-Toolbars and clicking Solo.
More Reliable Clip Indicators
Pro Audio 9 provides sample-accurate input clipping indicators. Pro Audio 9s clipping indicators illuminate at a point slightly below 0dB, specically at 0.1dB below the threshold of 0dB.
Apply Audio Effects Button
The new Apply Audio Effects button lest you destructively apply an audio tracks effects to the track, thereby freeing up CPU resources for more tracks and/or effects. For more information, see To Apply Multiple Audio Effects Ofine. on page 9-18.
Pick Track Button Enhancement
The Pick Track button now has a drop-down arrow on its right side that displays the Next Track/Previous Track menu.
Record Mode Saves with Each Project
In Pro Audio 9, when you save a project you also save the particular record mode (sound-on-sound, overwrite, etc.) that you chose for that project.
Open Patch Browser Directly from Track and Console Views
In Pro Audio 9, you can open the Patch Browser from the Track view by Right-clicking in the Bank or Patch columns, or from the Console view by Right-clicking a patch name or bank button in a MIDI track module.
Enhanced Patch Browser
See the bank each patch belongs to, as well as the patch number. You can sort patches by bank, patch name or patch number in either ascending or descending order.
The NTONYX Style Enhancer uses performance modeling to give MIDI tracks a more human feeling. The Style Enhancer models a wide variety of musical styles that you can apply to any selected MIDI data. For more information, see the online help.
Real-time Tempo Adjustment
In Pro Audio 9, you can use the spin buttons on the tempo dialog box to change tempo and hear the results immediately.
Minimum Clip Width
This viewing option in the Clips pane ensures that even the smallest clip is visible enough to edit. For more information, see Displaying Clips on page 5-6.
Must Arm Tracks to Record
Pro Audio 9 requires you to specically arm at least one track to start recording. This ensures that you dont accidentally record data to the wrong track. However, there is an option to allow MIDI recording without an armed track available in the Options-Global General tab.
To Write a Song to a Track
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Arrange patterns the way you want. Open the Track view. Patch Session Drummer into a track and create a song. Select the track. Open the Console view and click.
A dialog appears asking if you want to remove the plug-in from the track. If you do not, duplicate notes will play. 6. Make sure the Delete the effects from the track inserts checkbox is checked and click OK. The contents have been added to the track. Session Drummer data always begins one measure into the track regardless of the Now Time
Using Session Drummer in Real-time
To Apply Session Drummer as a Real-time Effect
1. 2. 3. Start a new project. Open the Console view. Right-click in the Aux bus and choose Add MIDI Track. A new module appears in the Console view. 4. Right-click in the Effects Patch area (the black window directly below the track name eld in Console view) and select Cakewalk FX-Session Drummer. Double-click on the Session Drummer plug-in. Choose a Style and select drum patterns to create a song. Click the Play button on the Transport toolbar. The drum track repeats, like a drum machine, as long as the play button is engaged. Open the Session Drummer template from the New Project dialog to save a few steps (1-4 above).
Arranging Patterns Into a Song
Playing patterns from the pattern pane is as easy to use as a drum machine. However, at some point you may get bored hearing the same pattern over and over again. This is where the Song pane comes in. You can add patterns to the song pane, control how many times and in what order they play. When you are nished, you can save the arrangement as a preset, or you can print the contents into the track.
To Create a Song
Select a style from the Style pane. Double click on a pattern in the pattern pane to move it to the song pane. You can also use the button in the toolbar. Click the Loop count eld and type a + or key to set the number of repetitions. Add other patterns using step 3 Re-order a pattern by selecting it and clicking the buttons. or
The contents have been added to the track. Session Drummer data always begins one measure into the track regardless of the Now Time When you click play in the transport toolbar, the arrangement of patterns that you just added to the song pane will play back in order. A dotted box shows you which pattern is playing so you can follow along. To remove a pattern from the song pane, select it and click the button or hit the Delete key. To remove all patterns from the Song pane, click the button in the toolbar.
Creating Drum Styles for the Session Drummer
The Session Drummer supports standard Type 0 MIDI les so that you can easily create or add new styles and patterns to it. Patterns are stored in a single track (10) and are separated by Markers. When you see the patterns listed in the Session Drummer, what you are really looking at is
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