Asus P4SGX-mx QSG
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Asus P4SGX-mx QSG
User reviews and opinions
|vitronah22||4:41pm on Saturday, October 23rd, 2010|
|Easy to use and great tech support to fix a user created problem. battery life, bright screen, easy to use, Fast/High Speed, Memory, size & weight. Getting on the phone to send this thing back. Performance slow, weird issues like the keyboard and touchpad freezing. I absolutely loved this product. I truly feel it was everything I needed and expected.|
|kloveridge||5:01am on Tuesday, August 10th, 2010|
|It came with WinXP loaded, and if that is all you need, then it performs as Windows always does.... deal with the viruses and spyware.|
|e-clips||11:39am on Friday, July 2nd, 2010|
|Easy to use and great tech support to fix a user created problem. battery life, bright screen, easy to use, Fast/High Speed, Memory, size & weight. I bought this for my wife to use to communicate with friends and kids at college. This gets used all the time in front of the TV.|
|ald55432||8:29am on Friday, May 28th, 2010|
|Recertified product arrived with a dead battery. When I contacted ASUS, they told me that my new warranty had expired 6 months ago. great little device for travelling. very functional for browsing and word processing Power supply died after a year of use.|
|Leers||8:22am on Friday, May 7th, 2010|
|Asus Eee PC It is nice size for travel. Has a hard time playing HD videos. Battery life is very good. Great for surfing the net. Very cheap build. Very cheap build. From the first days the ENTER key did not worked properly. There are also other visible cheap finish.|
|Kerry Lange||10:01am on Tuesday, April 27th, 2010|
|The Asus Eee PC 701 SD is a remarkable evolution of what was already an excellent product, and I already own the 701 SD. Therefore.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Intel Chipset 4 GB System Memory Support
February 2005 Revision 1.0
INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTELS TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. This document contains information on products in the design phase of development. The information here is subject to change without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked "reserved" or "undefined." Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. Intel Chipsets may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. Contact your local Intel sales office or your distributor to obtain the latest specifications and before placing your product order. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright 2004-2005, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.
1 Preface..... 5 1.Key Takeaways.... 5
Platform Memory Subsystem Usage.... 7 2.1 2.2 2.3 Definition of Address Ranges... 7 Memory Initialization and Assignment of Resources.. 7 Microsoft Operating System Memory Support.. 9
Recommended System BIOS Updates and Documentation Changes.. 11 3.1 3.2 System BIOS Display of Available vs. Populated Memory.. 11 Documenting Chipset Capabilities... 11
Memory Remapping.... 13 4.1.1 Memory Re-mapping Algorithm.. 13 4.1.2 Example: Greater than 4 GB of Physical Memory:. 14 4.1.3 Interaction with Other Overlapping Address Space.. 15 4.1.4 Implementation Notes... 15 4.1.5 Unmapped Addresses between TOLM and 4 GB.. 15 Experimental Data.... 17
Figure 1: Example BIOS Information Screen... 12
Table 1. E820h Table from Reference Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Internal Graphics... 17 Table 2. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Microsoft Windows* XP and Service Pack 2.... 18 Table 3. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Microsoft Windows* XP 64-Bit Edition.... 18 Table 4. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with RedHat* Enterprise Linux. 19
Revision Number 0.5 1.0 Initial Release Redesignated as public document Description Revision Date September 2004 February 2005
This document addresses potential customer questions that may arise when a system is populated with the maximum memory configuration (e.g., 4 GB for an Intel 915G Express chipset), and the operating system (OS) reports less available memory than that populated (OS reports approximately 3.2 GB of available memory). It is intended for training of customer support and field personnel at hardware system manufacturers and for software developers of applications, operating system, and tools. This document outlines the division and potential overlap of the addressable physical and virtual memory ranges by system BIOS for required system and PC architectural resources and operating system usage. It offers background on ways that system developers may mitigate the potential overlaps and better describe the memory usage to the end customer. The first method used to decrease potential overlaps is memory remapping, used today by some workstation and server chipsets to maximize the amount of populated system memory that can be allocated to operating systems. Possible solutions that the system BIOS may incorporate to clearly delineate via setup menus include: populated, system resource, and operating system available memory. This document also provides experimental results using a current desktop platform as a base line and a mid-range server platform that incorporates memory remapping to show the potential gains with multiple operating systems and varying amounts of system memory. Experimental data is not inclusive of all available or potentially available chipset solutions, memory sizes platform configurations, or operating system variations.
Due to PC architectural requirements such as motherboard resources and OS limitations, desktop platforms using larger memory may be unable to take full advantage of all memory populated on the system. When systems with chipsets that support 4 GB or less of system memory are populated with the maximum system memory of 4 GB, the operating system (OS) may report a lower amount of available memory Standard PC Architecture System Resources require addressing which overlaps physical memory below 4 GB: System BIOS Motherboard Resources (I/OxAPIC) Memory Mapped I/O PCI Express* Configuration Space Additional PCI Device Memory (Graphics Aperture) VGA Memory Others as included, etc. These requirements may reduce the addressable memory space available to and reported by the operating system
These memory ranges, while unavailable to the OS, are still being utilized by subsystems such as I/O, PCI Express and Integrated Graphics and are critical to the proper functioning of the PC
Platform Memory Subsystem Usage
Definition of Address Ranges
Current PC memory usage model and memory mapping architecture are based on 32-bit CPUs, and can support up to 4 GB of physical memory. Addressable memory is defined as memory that the processor addresses on the front side bus. Current Intel CPUs support a 36-bit addressable front side bus giving a maximum potential physical address space of 64 GB. Physical memory is the actual memory hardware installed in the system. Each byte of physical memory is assigned a unique address, called a physical address. The addressable physical memory that chipsets support varies depending upon market segment requirements, but will normally be designed to be less than, or equal to, the addressable range of the processor bus. Any task or program running on an IA-32 processor can address a linear address space of up to 4 GB and a physical address space of up to 64 GB.
Memory Initialization and Assignment of Resources
When the system is powered on, system BIOS initializes all of the populated memory on the system, enables onboard and add-in devices, assigns Memory and IO resources (internal graphics, IOxAPICs, PCI Space, or other memory mapped IO ranges), and dynamically builds industry standard tables (Int 15h E820h, and ACPI Tables) that describe the memory range usage to the operating system. In uni-processor based systems for mobile, desktop, workstation, and entry level servers, chipsets may be limited to 4 GB of maximum memory. In todays dual processor Intel server chipsets and workstations, maximum system memory size can be upwards of 16 GB. BIOS Table locations, memory ranges, and IO space by definition must be less than 4 GB. In platforms populated with physical memory sizes approaching 4 GB and greater, onboard system resource requirements will likely not allow the operating system to take advantage of all physical memory populated due to PCI specification requirements and other memory mapped IO resources. Portions of physical memory may overlap with the memory space dedicated to other subsystems and become unavailable to the operating system. While some memory ranges required for addressing IO devices (PCI add in cards, system BIOS flash, IOxAPIC ranges, ACPI ranges) are unused, other ranges (integrated graphics shared memory and system management memory ranges) which the operating system does not report as available, are utilized by the platform. Future generations of Intel chipset products and commercially available OS will allow more flexibility for system designers to use memory resources more efficiently.
Below is an example of memory use in a system with 4 Gbytes and 3 Gbytes of physical memory installed.
Physical Memory Remaining (4 GB Total System Memory)
Physical Memory Remaining (3 GB Total System Memory)
Firmware Hub flash memory (the BIOS) Local APIC Area available to the chipset IO APIC (4kBytes) PCI Enumeration Area 1 PCI Express* area (256 MB) PCI Enumeration Area 2 (if needed)
1 MB 4 KB 3.MB 4 KB 256 MB 256 MB 512 MB 3.76 3.51 3.01 2.85 2.84 2.84 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.85 2.84 2.84 3.00
(aligned on 256-MB boundary) VGA memory TSEG Memory available to BIOS, OS, and applications 16 MB 1 MB
In the above example, the size of the firmware hub (FWH) is set to 1 MB (or 8 Mbit). Below the FWH is the Local APIC area, the IO APIC, and other areas used by the chipset. The chipset requires the PCI Express area to be aligned on a 256-MB boundary, and it is 256 MB in size. Therefore, the area was placed at 3.5 GB. For some BIOS this may be a hard coded address. The PCI enumeration algorithm may scan the buses to determine how much memory is needed for the different PCI devices in the system. If the amount of memory requested is less than 0.23 GB, the BIOS will assign that memory to PCI Enumeration Area 1. However, if the amount of memory required for PCI is larger than this size, the BIOS may allocate memory for PCI devices below the PCI Express area in PCI enumeration Area 2. This area is aligned on a 256-MB boundary and rounded up to the nearest multiple of 256 MB. Note that the enumeration will ask for a contiguous memory area for all the devices below the host bridge. Therefore, if PCI needs greater than 256 MB of memory, the BIOS will put it at 3.0 GB 3.5 GB, since 300 MB is rounded up to 512 MB. (For example, some video adapters will require 256 MB, or more, memory for graphics aperture) If the system graphics device requires less than 0.23 GB, all the PCI devices should fit within PCI Enumeration Area 1. In that case the top amount of usable DRAM would move up to 3.5 GB increasing the amount of available memory by 512 MB.
While some memory ranges required for addressing IO devices (PCI add in cards, system BIOS flash, IOxAPIC ranges, ACPI ranges) are unused, other ranges (integrated graphics shared memory and system management memory ranges) which the operating system does not report as available, are utilized by the platform. Note, that in the above example, the system BIOS reports the same amount of physical memory to the operating system in both scenarios even though one is populated with 4 GB of memory.
Microsoft Operating System Memory Support
The various Microsoft operating system releases and different versions of those releases support a varied maximum amount of physical memory. Below is a chart listing this maximum memory support:
Microsoft Operating System Windows* 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Advanced Server Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Windows XP Professional Windows XP 64 bit Edition Windows Server 2003 Web Edition Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition Windows Server 2003 Enterprise 64-bit Edition Windows Server 2003 Datacenter 64-bit Edition
Maximum Physical Memory Supported 4 GB 4 GB 8 GB 32 GB 4 GB 32 GB 2 GB 4 GB 32 GB 64 GB 64 GB 512 GB
The memory support information, above, was gathered from a number of public Microsoft web pages. They are listed here: http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/platform/server/PAE/PAEmem.mspx http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/evaluation/features/compareeditions.mspx#2ram http://www.microsoft.com/WindowsXP/64bit/evaluation/overviews/extended.mspx
Recommended System BIOS Updates and Documentation Changes
System BIOS Display of Available vs. Populated Memory
Many Intel chipset product specifications state support of 4 GB of physical memory. Since the chipsets comprehend 4 GB of memory in the system, then BIOS should indicate on the information screens and/or setup menu option the breakdown of memory sizes: 1. The amount of physical memory populated in the system; 2. The amount of populated memory dedicated to motherboard resources; and 3. The amount being reported as available to the operating system. This information should align to the INT15 E820h standard that BIOS uses to communicate memory usage to the operating system. Where the sum of the amount of memory available to the operating system and the memory dedicated to system resources equals the total amount of physical memory on the system. By enumerating how populated memory is utilized and accounting for all physical memory populated, this BIOS feature will clarify the memory subsystem support and usage for the enduser.
Documenting Chipset Capabilities
Regarding 4 GB support with Intel chipsets that support up to (and not exceeding) 4 GB, Intel recommends a suitable memory space notification be included in all documentation.
Figure 1: Example BIOS Information Screen
Intel enterprise chipsets have remapping capability to recover addressable memory space lost to MMIO space. Details on this remapping capability on Intel enterprise chipsets can be found in product-specific datasheets at www.intel.com. In order to use remapping, the operating system must be able to address ranges higher than 4 GB of memory; enterprise operating systems have this capability. By comparison, todays mainstream desktop operating systems have limited address support. As mainstream client operating systems evolve to support greater than 4 GB of memory space, Intel will provide solutions as markets require in either the mobile, desktop, workstation, or low end server chipsets as well as offering similar remapping mechanisms to those included on Intel enterprise chipsets today. While this will improve performance on the system, and help ensure full physical memory usage, there will still be ranges of memory that will be dedicated to and actively used by other platform subsystems (such as integrated graphics), remaining unavailable to the operating system. The following Memory Mapped IO devices and ranges are typically located just below 4 GB: High BIOS H-Seg XAPIC Local APIC FSB Interrupts EXPA0 through EXPC1 M, PM and BAR regions In uni-processor MCH architectures, the physical DRAM memory overlaps by the logical address space allocated to these Memory Mapped IO devices was unusable. In dual-processor MCH systems and potentially in upcoming uni-processor MCH based systems the memory allocated to memory mapped IO devices could easily exceed 1 GB. This creates the possibility of a large amount of physical memory populated in the system becoming usable.
Memory Re-mapping Algorithm
First we need to clarify some terminology. The address presented to the MCH is traditionally called a physical address, because Intel architecture processors contain both segmentation and paging hardware, and all compatible software differentiates between logical addresses, virtual addresses, and physical addresses. The algorithm for re-mapping addresses presented to the MCH to reclaim DRAM address space must be implemented such that the mechanism is invisible to compatible software. This creates yet another type of address internal to the MCH, which is referred to in this document as a system address. The system address applies to the internal MCH interface to physical DRAM memory, and is not directly visible to software, other than through certain internal logging registers used to store decoded DRAM address information for error isolation.
An incoming address (referred to as a physical address) is checked to see if it falls in the memory re-map window. The re-map window is defined by chipset registers which are programmed by the BIOS. An address that falls within this window is remapped to the system address by offset from the base of the remap window to the top of memory populated in the system.
Example: Greater than 4 GB of Physical Memory:
Physical Address Space 64GB System Address Space
REMAPBASE = TOM
MMIO Remap DRAM
Example: 5 GB of system Memory, with 1 GB allocated to Memory Mapped IO TOM = 5 GB TOLM = 3 GB
Amount of system Memory to be Remapped = 1 GB REMAPBASE = 5 GB REMAPLIMIT = 6 GB-1
In this example, the amount of memory remapped is the range between TOLM and 4 GB. This system memory will be mapped to the physical address range defined between the REMAPBASE and REMAPLIMIT.
Interaction with Other Overlapping Address Space
The following Memory Mapped IO address spaces are all logically addressed below 4 GB where they do not overlap the physical address of the re-mapped memory region: H-Seg T-Seg High BIOS XAPIC Local APIC FSB Interrupts PCI memory spaces PCI BARs At fixed address below 4 GB At (TOLM-TSEGSIZE) to TOLM Reset vector just under 4-GB boundary At fixed address below 4 GB At fixed address below 4 GB At fixed address below 4 GB At relocatable addresses below 4 GB and above TOLM 32-bit BARs used by PCI and PCI Express devices restricted below 4 GB
Remapping applies to transactions from all interfaces. All coherent inbound transactions are remapped by the host interface logic (necessary to ensure that the correct physical address is issued on the FSB for the snoop cycle). Non-coherent inbound transactions (hit non-coherent address window or non-snoop attribute set) get remapped within the inbound/outbound arbiter block. Note: Accesses from PCI Express ports and from HI should be decoded to determine their type before they are remapped. For instance a PCI Express write to FEEx_xxxx is an interrupt transaction, but there is a physical PCI Express address (above 4 GB) that will be re-mapped to the system address of FEEx_xxxx. This is true of HighSMM and other ranges that lie between 4G and TOLM. In all cases the remapping of the address is done only after all other decodes have taken place, and a destination has been determined.
Unmapped Addresses between TOLM and 4 GB
Accesses that dont hit DRAM or PCI space should be treated the same as they are by other chipsets. This means that they are subtractively decoded to downstream PCI devices. Because the TOLM register is used to mark the upper boundary of DRAM space below the 4 GB boundary, no physical address between TOLM and 4 GB (inclusive of TOLM, but exclusive of 4 GB) ever decodes to main memory. Thus even if remapping is disabled, any address in this range has a nonmemory destination. All interfaces that generate or propagate traffic into the MCH must properly decode and route transactions based on their destination addresses.
EXAMPLE DATA: For todays desktop platforms, such as the 915G/P and 925X Express chipset-based platforms, memory mapped IO (MMIO) and other system resources may utilize upwards of 512 MB of the 4 GB of linear addressable space. When the maximum physical memory supported is populated, MMIO will overlap with physical memory. Standard PCI Architecture limitations have prevented end users from taking advantage of all memory when 4 GB of memory populated. The following E820h table was captured from a reference 915G Express chipset-based platform with Internal Graphics enabled. This table indicates to the operating system how much memory is available to the system. Table 1. E820h Table from Reference Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Internal Graphics
Start 0000 0000h 0009 FC00h 000E 0000h 0010 0000h CF63 0000h CF64 0000h CF70 0000h CF80 0000h FEC0 0000h FEE0 0000h Length (bytes) 9FC00h 0400h 020000h CF530000h 010000h 0C0000h 100000h 800000h 1000h 1000h Size (bytes) Status Available Reserved Reserved Available Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved
The operating system uses the available memory regions above to determine the available memory on the system. For example: 654336 Bytes + 347832300 Bytes = 3,478,977,536 Bytes = 3,397,439 KB = 3.24 GB Note that in the examples below, the value of 3.24 GB is reported by the operating system.
The following data was collected on a reference 915G Express chipset-based platform with Microsoft Windows* XP with Service Pack 2. The configurations shown below are using 2 GB and 4 GB of total physical memory. In order to show differences in system resources, three different video solutions are shown. Table 2. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Microsoft Windows* XP and Service Pack 2
2 GB (Int Gfx) MTRR: Total WB Memory SysINFO: Total Physical Mem SysINFO: Available Physical Mem TaskMan: Total Physical Mem TaskMan: Available Mem SysProp: Total RAM 2 GB (PCI Gfx) 2 GB (PCIEx Gfx) 4 GB (Int Gfx) 4 GB (PCI Gfx) 4 GB (PCIEx Gfx)
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1.73 GB 2086636 KB 1832568 KB 1.99 GB
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1,75 GB 2086636 KB 1840935 KB 1.99 GB
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1.73 GB 2094828 KB 1826628 KB 2.00 GB
4 GB 4096.00 MB 2.99 GB 3397356 KB
4 GB 4096.00 MB 2.97 GB 3397356 KB
4 GB 4096.00 MB 3.01 GB 3405548 KB
3148444 KB 3.24 GB
3122688 KB 3.24 GB
3158026 KB 3.25 GB
NOTES: 1. Corresponds to BIOS E820h table of available memory.
The following data was collected on a reference 915G chipset-based platform with Microsoft Windows* XP 64-Bit Edition. The configurations shown below are using 2 GB and 4 GB of total physical memory. In order to show differences in system resources, three different video solutions are shown. Table 3. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with Microsoft Windows* XP 64-Bit Edition
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1.77 GB 2086636 KB 1874576 KB 1.99 GB
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1.78 GB 2086636 KB 1872544 KB 1.99 GB
2 GB 2048.00 MB 1.77 GB 2094828 KB 1875440 KB 2.00 GB
4 GB 4096.00 MB 3.02 GB 3397356 KB
4 GB 4096.00 GB 3.03 GB 3405548KB
3169716 KB 3.24 GB
3179044 KB 3.24 GB
3186524 KB 3.25 GB
The following data was collected on a reference 915G Express chipset-based platform with RedHat* Enterprise Linux. The configurations shown below are using 2 GB and 4 GB of total physical memory. Table 4. Intel 915G Express Chipset-Based Platform with RedHat* Enterprise Linux
2 GB (Int Gfx) FREE: Total Physical Mem FREE: Used Physical Mem FREE: Free Physical Memory 2051772 KB 4 GB (Int Gfx) 3343188 KB 101872 3241316
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