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Version 1.1 May 2000
s 8 mono input channels with gold plated XLRs s 4 stereo input channels s 2 additional multi-functional stereo Aux Returns
Ultra-Low Noise 20 Channel, 4-Bus Mic/Line Mixer
s Pre and post-fader Aux Sends for external effects and monitoring s Master Aux Sends with gain control s Extremely high headroom offering more dynamic range s Ultra-low noise discrete Mic pre-amps with +48 V Phantom Power s Balanced inputs and Main outputs s Peak LEDs and switchable Low Cut filter on all mono channels s Ultra-musical 3-band EQ on all channels s Mute / Alt 3-4, Solo-In-Place and Pre-Fader-Listen function on all channels s Separate Main Mix, Control Room and Headphone outputs
s 2-Track inputs assignable to Main Mix or Control Room / Headphone outputs s Highly accurate Bargraph Meters on output s High quality faders and sealed potentiometers s Rugged design power supply ensures superior transient response s State-of-the-art 4580 ICs and high quality components ensure crystal-clear Audio Performance and excellent noise figures
s Rugged construction ensures long life even under the most demanding conditions s Manufactured under ISO9000 certified management system 2
Input channels Mic input Mic E.I.N. (22 Hz - 22 kHz)
Distortion (THD&N) Gain range Max input (Mic) Line input Sensitivity range Max input (Line) Channel fader range Aux Send gain range Equalization Hi shelving Mid bell Lo shelving Lo Cut (High Pass) filter Main Mix Section Noise
electronically balanced, discrete input configuration -129.5 dBu, 150 Ohm source -117.3 dBqp, 150 Ohm source -132.0 dBu, input shorted -122.0 dBqp, input shorted 0.007% at +4 dBu, 1 kHz, Bandwidth 80 kHz +10 dB to +60 dB +12 dBu electronically balanced +10 dBu to -40 dBu +22 dBu +10 dB to -85 dB off to +15 dB 12 kHz +/- 15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. 100 Hz - 8 kHz +/- 15 dB, Q fixed at 1 oct. 80 Hz +/- 15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. -3 dB at 75 Hz, 18 dB/oct. bus noise, fader 0 dB, channels muted: -100.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu), fader 0 dB, all input channels assigned and set to Unity Gain: -88.5 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu) +28 dBu balanced XLR, +22 dBu unbalanced, 1/4" jacks off to Unity to +20 dB +22 dBu 0.007 %, at +4 dBu, 1 kHz, bandwidth 80 kHz below 0.02 %, 22 Hz - 22 kHz normal operating levels, any input to any output, bandwidth 80 kHz 10 Hz - 120 kHz +/- 3 dB, any input to any output
Max output Aux Returns gain range Aux Sends max out General Distortion (THD&N)
Frequency Response Physical Dimensions (H * W * D) Net Weight
app. 1 1/2" / 3 1/2" (40 / 90 mm) * 16 1/4" (410 mm) * 15 1/4" (385 mm) app. 5.4 kg (PSU not included)
BEHRINGER is constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a result of these efforts, modifications may be made from time to time to existing products without prior notice. Specifications and appearance may differ from those listed or illustrated.
The information contained in this sheet is subject to change without notice. No part of this sheet may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any purpose, without the express written permission of BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER and EURORACK are registered trademarks. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2000 BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH, Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38, 47877 Willich-Mnchheide II, Germany Tel. +49 (0) / 92 06-0, Fax +49 (0) / 92 06-30
Version 1.1 March 2001
CAUTION: To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not remove the cover (or back). No user serviceable parts inside; refer servicing to qualified personnel.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electrical shock, do not expose this appliance to rain or moisture. This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage inside the enclosurevoltage that may be sufficient to constitute a risk of shock. This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to important operating and maintenance instructions in the accompanying literature. Read the manual.
DETAILED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS: All the safety and operation instructions should be read before the appliance is operated. Retain Instructions: The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference. Heed Warnings: All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to. Follow instructions: All operation and user instructions should be followed. Water and Moisture: The appliance should not be used near water (e.g. near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool etc.). Ventilation: The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa rug, or similar surface that may block the ventilation openings, or placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through the ventilation openings. Heat: The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other appliance (including amplifiers) that produce heat. Power Source: The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the appliance. Grounding or Polarization: Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated. Power-Cord Protection: Power supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles and the point where they exit from the appliance. Cleaning: The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer. Non-use Periods: The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time. Object and Liquid Entry: Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings. Damage Requiring Service: The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: - The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or - Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or - The appliance has been exposed to rain; or - The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or - The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged. Servicing: The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that is described in the Operating Instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel.
Dear Customer, Welcome to the team of EURORACK users and thank you very much for expressing your confidence in BEHRINGER products by purchasing this unit. It is one of my most pleasant tasks to write this letter to you, because it is the culmination of many months of hard work delivered by our engineering team to reach a very ambitious goal: To produce a compact mixer, which fully satisfies your and our expectations and delivers a superior sound quality, easy operation and technical specifications. In addition to that the mixer is affordable for almost every musician. The task to design the EURORACK certainly meant a great deal of responsibility, which we assumed by focusing on you, the discerning user and musician. It also meant a lot of work and night shifts to accomplish this goal. But it was fun, too. Developing a product usually brings a lot of people together, and what a great feeling it is when everybody who participated in such a project can be proud of what weve achieved. It is our philosophy to share our joy with you, because you are the most important member of the BEHRINGER family. With your highly competent suggestions for new products youve greatly contributed to shaping our company and making it successful. In return, we guarantee you uncompromising quality (manufactured under ISO9000 certified management system) as well as excellent technical and audio properties at an extremely favorable price. All of this will enable you to fully unfold your creativity without being hampered by budget constraints. We are often asked how we can make it to produce such high-grade devices at such unbelievably low prices. The answer is quite simple: its you, our customers! Many satisfied customers means large sales volumes enabling us to get better conditions of purchase for components, etc. Isnt it only fair to pass this benefit back to you? Because we know that your success is our success, too! I would like to thank the following people, whose help on Project EURORACK MX2004A has made it all possible: L The existing users of BEHRINGER equipment (whose comments and suggestions have made them the most important members of the BEHRINGER design team), L Thorsten (for this marvellous manual layout), L Bernhard (Rammi) (whose technical ingenuity is unique), L C.W. for the fine mechanics (key-phrase Tooling modification), L and all the others, who have made very personal contributions. My friends, its been worth the trouble!
1.2 Before you begin
1.2.1 PSU (power supply unit) Any amplifier circuit is limited in its transient response by the available current. Every mixer has numerous line level operational amplifiers (op-amps) inside. When being driven hard, many desks begin to show signs of stress due to power supply limitations. Not so with the EURORACK MX2004A. The sound will always stay clean and crisp right up to the operating limits of the op-amps themselves, thanks to our generous 40 W external power supply unit. Please connect the PSU with the EURORACK MX2004A PSU connector and switch on your MX2004A with the POWER switch. on the rear panel of your mixer
Do not connect the PSU to the EURORACK while the PSU is connected to the mains supply. Connect switched-off desk and PSU first before you connect the PSU to the mains supply. Lastly switch on desk.
1.2.2 Warranty Please take the time to have the warranty card filled out completely by your specialized dealer, and return it within 14 days after the date of purchase, so as to be entitled to benefit from our extended warranty. You may also use our online registration option available on the Internet at www.behringer.com. You will find the serial number of your MX2004A on the rear panel. 1.2.3 Packing Your BEHRINGER EURORACK was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit.
If the unit is damaged, please do NOT return it to us, but notify your dealer and the shipping company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must be made by the consignee.
1.2.4 Rack mounting the MX2004A Enclosed in the shipping box you will find a 19" rackmount kit. If you want to make your MX2004A a rack mixer, loosen the screws from the side panels and use them to fix the rack ears (note, that there is a left and a right one).
Be sure that there is enough space around the unit for cooling and please do not place the MX2004A on high temperature devices such as power amplifiers etc. to avoid overheating. When switched on, parts of the desk and the power supply unit will become very warm, which is normal during operation.
2. MONO INPUT CHANNEL
Each channel is equipped with a balanced line input 1/4" TRS connector. Phantom powering is switchable from the back panel. , and an XLR microphone input
When using the microphone input please make sure nothing is connected to the same channels line input, and vice versa.
The gain circuit has an unusually wide range, obviating the need for mic/line switching. The crucial operating levels +4 dBu and -10 dBV are clearly and accurately marked.
3.1 Input level setting
The stereo inputs are designed for any line level signal. Most line level sources such as MIDI instruments and FX units will have their own output level control. Those that dont, for example CD players, all have an output level within the scope of the MX2004A. When the channel and master fader are set to unity gain the meters should read between -4 and +7 dB. Remember that there is 15 dB gain on both the channel as well as master fader.
The stereo input channels are fitted with 4-band EQ. The upper and lower shelving controls have their frequencies fixed at 12 kHz and 80 Hz. The peaking high midrange and low midrange / are fixed at 3 kHz and 500 Hz respectively. A stereo equalizer is generally preferable to using two mono equalizers when EQ-ing a stereo signal, as often discrepancies between left and right settings can occur.
3.3 Aux sends
These are the same as for mono channels (see 2.3). Note that a mono sum is taken from the stereo input.
The only difference here from the mono channel described in 2.4 is in the implementation of the balance control. When a channel is run in stereo, this control functions as a balance control, determining the relative balance of the left and right channel signals being sent to the left and right main mix buses. For example, with the balance control turned fully clockwise, only the right portion of the channels stereo signal will be routed to the main mix. Balance also determines the relative amount of left and right channel signals being sent to buses 3 and 4 respectively when Mute/Alt 3-4 is engaged.
4. MAIN SECTION
4.1 Aux sends
Master aux send levels are determined by and. These controls have a centre detent indicating unity gain. Dont worry if your effects unit has no input gain controlyou have a further +15 dB available from these outputs.
4.2 Stereo aux returns
There are two additional stereo line inputs (aux returns 1 and 2) on your MX2004A. Aux returns 1 is permanently assigned to the main mix. If you connect a jack to the left socket only, the aux return 1 operates in mono. Aux return 2 can be switched between the main mix and the cue feed (aux send 1) via a switch FX TO AUX 1. This enables you to provide a wet (signal with effect i.e. reverb) cue mix for the headphones or foldback speakers. If no connection is made to aux return 2, the signal is normalled (connected directly) to aux return 1. Depressing the FX TO AUX 1 switch will then feed the signal from aux return 1 into the cue feed (aux send 1) and can be controlled in level independently with aux return 2. This feature is primarily useful when you are using one effect for the main mix and for the foldback speakers.
When using aux send 1 as a second (pre-fader) effects send and aux return 2 as the effect input, do not engage FX TO AUX 1 switch. The connection from aux return 2 to aux send 1 could cause feedback.
However, there are exceptions: For instance if you deliberately want to send one effect into another, e.g. delay into chorus etc. The aux returns are multifunctional. They may be used for returning the outputs of effect units. You can use them as tape returns from a multitrack recorder. They may also be used as extra instrument inputs, especially if your MIDI keyboard or rack supplies a pre-mixed stereo signal. Certain stereo effects produce a perceived imbalance between the left and right channel levels. To correct for this you will have to bring your stereo effect back on a stereo channel, which has a balance control. When applying short left and right delays, the shortest one will always seem loudest. When pitch shifting up and down in wide stereo to thicken a sound, the signal shifted upwards will seem louder than one that goes down. In both cases use the balance control to compensate. When performing any stereo imaging exercise, dont just rely on the control room monitors. Get a pair of headphones and listen in stereo and in reverse stereo, just in case you have any significant hearing discrepancies. Sometimes an engineer wants to narrow the stereo width of a reverb field. To do this you will have to come back on two mono channels to get independent pan for the left and right signals.
Main mix/PFL/solo level is displayed on a pair of highly-accurate 13-segment bargraph peak meters. Additional LEDs indicate POWER ON , +48 V phantom power present , and whether the mono PreFader-Listen bus or the stereo solo bus is engaged.
4.4 Solo function
The CHANNEL MODE switch channel Solo buttons. determines whether Solo-In-Place or Pre-Fader-Listen is assigned to the
Solo Solo is the preferred method for auditioning an isolated signal, or group of signals. Whenever a PFL/SOLO button is pressed, all unselected channels are muted in the monitors. Stereo panning is maintained. The solo bus is derived from the output of the channel pans, aux sends and stereo line inputs. It is always post-fader. PFL Pressing once disengages the stereo solo bus, and replaces it with a separate mono PFL (Pre-FaderListen) bus. All solo signals are reconfigured to PFL. PFL should always be used for gain-setting (see also the essential chapter 5 SETTING UP). The L/R meters follow whatever source is being auditioned (the meters wont make much sense if more than one source is selected!). Selecting PFL/solo does not affect the signal from the L/R recording outputs. Just as well, or every time you wanted to do a quick Solo check during a mix, youd have to start again!
4.5 2-track input and output
Input A 2-track input, on RCA connectors semi-professional audio equipment. / , provides easy connection to DAT and other professional or routes this signal to
The 2-track input is primarily for auditioning mix playback from tape. The switch 2 TK the monitors and/or phones.
However, it can also be routed to the main mix via the switch 2 TK TO MIX and will act as an additional input for tape playback, MIDI instruments etc. Here switch should be disengaged, or you will be listening to the 2-track signal twice over! With depressed you have another stereo line input available to the mix, useful e.g. for adding the output of a second EURORACK or a BEHRINGER ULTRALINK PRO MX882 to your mix. Output The main mix output is delivered by XLR connectors as by RCA connectors on the front.
and TRS connectors.
on the back panel as well
Level is ultimately determined by a pair of precision faders
Although the 2-track output is primarily designed for recording, it can also be used as a PA feed, or as a send to the input of your sampler. Depressing on the rear panel will lower the level at the XLR connectors by 20 dB.
Though most of you will want to audition the main mix most of the time include the Alt 3-4 bus and 2-track playback. there are exceptions. These.
A single stereo volume control sends the level to the headphones and main monitors
If you want to audition external sources very often, you could connect a hi-fi pre-amp (or tape out) to your 2-track input, allowing you to monitor a variety of extra sources such as vinyl, cassette, CD etc.
4.7 Alt 3-4 output
By depressing the MUTE/ALT 3-4 button the main mix. a channels output will be routed to the Alt 3-4 output instead of. Use to have the
Level to the Alt 3-4 outputs (phone connectors on the back panel) is adjusted by signal PFL-ed ( and up).
Alt 3-4 is likely to bewilder newcomers. We want to illustrate how this feature may be used most effectively. Subgroups are commonly used as a mixing aid both live and in the studio, e.g. to combine the outputs from all drum channels onto just 1 or 2 submaster faders. They are also used to route to multitrack recorders (see also sections 9.2 and 12.3). There are no fully-fledged subgroups on the MX2004A. However, the Alt 3-4 bus offers you a second independent stereo submix with its own submaster stereo fader. E.g.: If you want to generate two mono subgroups in addition to the normal main mix stereo bus, patch Alt 3-4 outs back into two mono channels, and use these as Subgroup masters (the subgroup return channels must not be routed to the Alt 3-4 bus themselves, as this would constitute a feedback loop). Engaging mute on any input channel routes to the Alt 3-4 bus. Channel pan now selects between Alt 3-4 outputs (left = 3, right = 4).
Subgroups can be mixes of several channels of sound: dont be surprised if, once you have set up the input gain correctly, the submaster faders are set higher than normal channels.
Remember that when Alt 3-4 is in use, you do not have a channel mute facility on your desk: you will have to pull down the fader to silence any channel.
5. SETTING UP
5.1 Selecting inputs
1) Mono channels accept microphone or line inputs. If you are using the microphone input, make sure nothing is connected to the line input (and vice-versa). The microphone inputs are more sensitive than the line inputs. Do not connect microphones with phantom power switched on. Never use unbalanced mic cables with the phantom power switched on ever! Shorting 48 V to earth can cause serious damage. Stereo channels accept -10 dBV or +4 dBu line level signals. Any stereo channel can be run in mono simply by connecting into the left connector only. These channels are suitable for a variety of line-level sources including MIDI instruments and tape returns from multitrack. Stereo line inputs are primarily designed for returning effects units, though these too may be given over to multitrack returns or MIDI instrument outputs.
5.2 Initializing channels for gain setting
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Set GAIN to minimum and all aux sends to off (fully counter-clockwise). Set EQ to flat (all knobs at 12 oclock). Where applicable, set LOW-CUT switch very low frequency content. Set CHANNEL MODE to PFL Depress PFL/SOLO switch. ON for most microphones, OFF for signals with desired
5.3 Auditioning a signal and setting up a channel
1) Provide an input signal i.e. roll the tape. There should also be some activity at the main L/R bargraph meters , indicating the PFL level. 2) For microphone/line inputs: Adjust the GAIN control Continuous signals should not exceed 0 dB. until transient peaks are regularly hitting +6 dB.
3) For stereo line inputs: Adjust the sources output gain until transients are regularly hitting +6 dB. Continuous signals should not exceed 0 dB. 4) If EQ is used, repeat steps 1 to 3. 5) If an insert is used to patch in a compressor, gate, EQ etc, use the outboard processors bypass or effect off switch to A/B monitor the effect. If it does not have a bypass switch or equivalent, you will have to keep connecting and disconnecting the device until you complete the following procedure: Adjust the processors output level so that effected and bypassed signals are of comparable level, i.e. unity gain. 6) PFL/solo switch UP. Move onto next channel.
5.4 Desk normalization
All board settings should be set to the normal default condition before or after every session. Usually faders are set to zero (minus infinity) EQs set flat and switched out, trimpots and channel aux sends turned fully counterclockwise etc. Many controls have a natural initial setting. For EQ cut and boost this is centre position. However, some settings, such as selecting pre or post for channel aux sends, will depend on the operating environment (e.g. studio or live), or on a particular engineers preferred way of working.
Experience tells us that the cables in a studio environment get tangled very quickly (inviting mistakes). A patchbay will facilitate patching and repatching considerably. The BEHRINGER ULTRAPATCH PRO PX2000 makes patching easier and trouble free, increasing both ergonomics and productivity.
6.1 Keyboard mixing, live or in the studio
This is relatively simple to achieve. Simply use the line inputs to mix stereo or mono outputs from your keyboards. It may be useful to use the Alt 3-4 outs e.g. to control the level of drums versus music. Aux sends may be used either to feed on-stage monitors, artists headphones or effects units. The main mix output should feed the FOH or studio mixer. A typical comprehensive live setup is shown below.
Keyboard Mixer Mic/Line Mono/Stereo Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Mono Line Stereo Line Stereo Line Stereo Line Stereo Stereo Stereo > Effect (post-fader) > Effect (post-fader) > P.A. > P.A. > Monitor system > Monitor system
Source MIDI Instrument #1 MIDI Instrument #2 MIDI Instrument #3 MIDI Instrument #4 MIDI Instrument #5 MIDI Instrument #6 MIDI Instrument #7 MIDI Instrument #8 MIDI Sampler #1 MIDI Sampler #2 MIDI Synth #1 MIDI Synth #2 Effect #1 Effect #2 Aux out 1 Aux out 2 Main Mix out L Main Mix out R Monitor out L Monitor out R
Input 9/10 11/12 13/14 15/16 Aux 1 Aux 2
Tab. 6.1: Keyboard mixing, live or in the studio
6.2 Live gig with simultaneous 2-track recording
Live Gig with 2-TK recording Source Routing Mic/Line Mono/Stereo Vocals Main Mix Mic Mono Vocals Main Mix Mic Mono Vocals Main Mix Mic Mono Vocals Main Mix Mic Mono Alt 3-4 out Main Mix Line Mono Alt 3-4 out Main Mix Line Mono Bass Drum Alt 3-4 Mic Mono Drum Overhead Alt 3-4 Mic Mono Guitar Alt 3-4 Line Stereo Bass Alt 3-4 Line Stereo Keyboard #1 Main Mix Line Stereo Keyboard #2 Main Mix Line Stereo Effect Stereo CD player Stereo Alt 3-4 out (Instruments) > 2-TK input Aux out 1 > Cue 1 (pre-fader) Aux out 2 > Effect (post-fader) Main Mix out L > Recording (DAT L) Main Mix out R > Recording (DAT R) Monitor out L > P.A. Monitor out R > P.A.
Tab. 6.2: Live gig with 2-track recording Here some or all mono channels are likely to be tied up with stage microphones. Carefully position these so as to minimize feedback. Try to keep the stage volume as low as possible, as stage sound can interfere with and 6. APPLICATIONS 15
EURORACK MX2004A muddy FOH sound, as well as causing a reduction in feedback thresholds. Dont forget to notch out troublesome frequencies using a graphic or parametric equalizer, or feedback destroyer (see the BEHRINGER ULTRA-CURVE PRO DSP8024 or the FEEDBACK DESTROYER PRO DSP1124P, which do all of these and more). Use the low-cut filters to eliminate floor rumble, mics popping etc. Switching logic for this setup is: and up, and down, down for channels 1 to 8 except 6.
6.3 Project studiolaying vocals to tape
8-track MIDI project studio with sampler, 8-track recording system, one vocal mic and two effects units:
Projekt Studio, laying vocal tracks Source Routing Mic/Line Mono/Stereo Input Vocals Alt 3-4 M Mono 1 Band Main Mix L Mono 2 Band Main Mix L Mono 3 Band Main Mix L Mono 4 Band Main Mix L Mono 5 Band Main Mix L Mono 6 Band Main Mix L Mono 7 Band Main Mix L Mono 8 Sampler #1 Main Mix L Stereo 9/10 Sampler #2 Main Mix L Stereo 11/12 Sampler #3 Main Mix L Stereo 13/14 Sampler #4 Main Mix L Stereo 14/15 Effect #1 Stereo Aux 1 Effect #2 Stereo Aux 2 MX 882 Mix out > 2-Track input Alt 3-4 out > Available Aux out 1 > Effect 1 Aux out 2 > Effect 2 Main Mix out L > Recording (DAT L) Main Mix out R > Recording (DAT R) Monitor out L > Monitor system Monitor out R > Monitor system
Tab. 6.3: MX2004A example "Project studio, laying vocals to tape" With largely computer-generated music you will want to have plenty of Line inputs, and an ability to take vocals quickly, efficiently, and with minimal desk disturbance. Often a vocal line is added after the music is almost complete. For this we try not to use a valuable aux send as a cue feed. In general, the mix in the artists headphones can be the same as that going into the control room monitors: basically a stereo mix with 1) the vocal channel raised above the mix level in volume and 2) any off-putting channels muted. If you intend to take several tracks in quick succession, you can route the channel via the Alt 3-4 bus simultaneously into all tape tracks via a simple junction box, splitter lead, line mixer like our MX882, or patchbay. Note: When using Alt 3-4 to send to tape, you can either audition the signal via the tape recorder track, or by assigning Alt 3-4 to the control room monitors , or both. If you are auditioning the vocalist via both routes, the voice should appear louder to you (and the singer) during a take, but be set properly in the mix during playback. By a benign twist of fate, this is usually exactly what you (and they) want. Note that there are two aux sends and two stereo aux returns. If you want to use more than two effects units, these can either be 1) patched across insert points, 2) inserted between the samplers outputs and desk inputs, or 3) driven from the channel insert. If you have invested in the 8-channel BEHRINGER ULTRALINK PRO MX882 for tape monitoring purposes, you can turn the 2-track input into eight line inputs for accepting stereo or mono effects or synths etc. during mixdown.
Fig. 6.1: Project studio setup example
A patchbay allows to patch the audio signals of most components in your studio from a central point and send them to other units, which makes your entire cabling better structured and is indispensable for professional work. If you want to use your studio as effectively as possible then it is preferable to use a complete patchbay wiring scheme, but even less sophisticated patchbay solutions will benefit smaller studio configurations. 6.4.1 Patchbay configuration The majority of commercially available patchbays include two rows with 24 phone jacks each in a 19" 1 U rack panel. On the rear, either a corresponding number of phone jacks or contacts for soldering signal leads can be found. Each group of four of these phone jacks forms one module. The configuration of some Patchbays can be changed by inserting jumpers or turning individual modules. With the help of our ULTRAPATCH PRO PX2000, an easy-to-use 24-patchbay offering phone jacks throughout, you can easily understand the four different modes. With the ULTRAPATCH PRO you can select between the four different operating modes simply by setting a switch on the upper panel (example: module 17):
EURORACK MX2004A 6.4.2 Parallel
Fig. 6.2: Patchbay mode parallel In this mode, all terminals of one module are interconnected. This configuration doesnt make sense at first glance but is used to split up and send one audio signal (e.g. aux send) to several destinations (e.g. effects devices). 6.4.3 Half-normalled
Fig. 6.3: Patchbay mode half-normalled In this configuration, the contacts of the two jacks on the rear are interconnected. When you insert a plug into the upper front jack, the signal routed through the rear path is not interrupted. Only when the lower front jack is used will the rear panel route be split up, so that the two upper and the two lower phone jacks are connected to one another. This configuration is called input break and is used mainly for insert paths. So you can easily patch the signal from a mixing console channel at the Patchbay without interrupting the signal flow in the channel. 6.4.4 Normalled
Fig. 6.4: Patchbay mode normalled Here, and in contrast to the half-normalled setup, the signal route of the rear phone jacks is interrupted when you insert a plug both into the upper and lower front jacks. 6.4.5 Open
Fig. 6.5: Patchbay mode open This mode is used to connect devices such as sound modules or CD players having no inputs of their own. This saves space, as you can route the left and right outputs to one module (left - top; right - bottom) or patch two devices to one module (top and bottom). Effects devices and 2-tracks can be configured this way, so the inputs 18 6. APPLICATIONS
EURORACK MX2004A and outputs are positioned on top of each other. Basically, the inputs are routed to the bottom and the outputs to the top rear-wall connectors. Avoid routing digital signals over a patchbay as the pulse signal used for the transmission of such signals causes heavy interference in analog signals. Additionally, normal patchbays change the impedance of the digital cable route, which causes interference in the digital path. Use the BEHRINGER ULTRAMATCH SRC2000 specifically designed for this and other digital signal-related functions. Microphone inputs operate at a level several orders of magnitude lower than line levels (+4 dBu or -10 dBV). Therefore, they should never be routed via a patchbay. In any case, patching in a field with 48 VDC (phantom power) flying about is to be avoided at all costs. It is best to plug mics directly into the mixing console or via special XLR-type wall boxes connected to the mic inputs of the console by good-quality balanced multicore cables (2-cond. + shield). 6.4.6 Patchbay organization Let us give you an example configuration that shows how you can most effectively use your patchbays. We assume you own a mixing console with 16 mic/line inputs plus inserts, 8 direct outputs, 8 subgroups with 4 inserts, 4 aux paths with 2 stereo returns and one stereo master output including insert jacks. Added to this we have an 8-track recorder (digital or analog), a few pieces of outboard equipment (FX, dynamics & EQs), a CD player, tape deck, HiFi system and a headphones amp:
Fig. 6.6: Example of a studio organization with four patchbays
In the first eight modules of patchbay 1 the subgroup outputs are directly connected to the corresponding multitrack inputs. In addition to that it is also possible to record the signals coming from a subgroup on a different track of the multitrack. To save space and provide a clearly structured configuration, the direct outputs are connected both to the top and bottom jacks. Modules 17 & 18 are the stereo master output, which is half-normalled and 6. APPLICATIONS 19
You will need a lot of cables for different purposessee the following figures to make sure you have the right ones. Unbalanced equipment may be connected to balanced inputs/outputs. Either use mono 1/4" phone connectors or connect ring and sleeve of 1/4" TRS connectors.
Fig. 8.1: Different connector types 8. INSTALLATION 23
The following modifications require you to do some soldering. Attempt only if you are experienced in using an iron on PCBs. Otherwise, refer to qualified personnel. After modification the BEHRINGER warranty becomes discretionary. Links should not be threaded into holes on the PCB. They should be soldered to the tinned areas around the holes, and bowed slightly upwards in between. Mono channel aux send 2 > pre-fader Mono channel aux sends 2 are post-fader. If you want to convert them, carry out the modification described below to each mono channel you want to be altered. The right PCB area is indicated by a yellow printing (see figures below). 1) 2) 3) Switch desk off and disconnect it from the mains supply! Cut the post track. Add in a pre link.
Repeat for all mono channels you want to be modified.
Modification on Mono Channels AUX PRE AUX PRE
Add a pre link Cut the post track
JPn POST POST
Fig. 8.2: Modifications
When the EURORACK is your main mixer, you may find that you run out of inputs as your system expands. It is possible to expand your mixing system by combining two or more mixers. Adding extra Line inputs to your EURORACK: A small line mixer (such as the BEHRINGER ULTRALINK PRO MX882) can inexpensively add extra line inputs to your console. With the ULTRALINK PRO, any stereo, line-level input on your EURORACK can become a stereo line input plus a further 6 panable mono line inputs. Great for adding tape monitor returns etc. Linking two EURORACK: Simply take the main mix output of one, and feed it into a suitable stereo line input of the second. Linking the EURORACK to a master console: Feed any or all of the main mix, Alt 3-4 and aux outputs from your EURORACK into separate channels of the master console. The aux outputs should be routed only to individual aux send buses on the master console. Now the aux sends from the EURORACK can access effects currently used by the master console. The EURORACK outputs are essentially submixes of several channels of sound, and are therefore likely to be considerably higher than the typical source signals (coming from mics, MIDI instruments or tape) seen by the remaining channels of the master console or the 2nd EURORACK. A usefull feature here is the 20 dB pad buttons on the back panel. These buttons enable you to feed the balanced output of the MX2004A to the microphone input of another console. This way it is possible to make for instance a separate keyboard or drum kit mix and feed that to the front of house console (without having to use XLR to jack adapters to feed the Line inputs which may also be unbalanced). 24 8. INSTALLATION
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any purpose, without the express written permission of BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER, EURORACK, VIRTUALIZER, FEEDBACK DESTROYER, ULTRA-CURVE und ULTRA-Q are a registered trademarks. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2001 BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH, Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38, 47877 Willich-Mnchheide II, Germany Tel. +49 (0) / 92 06-0, Fax +49 (0) / 92 06-30
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