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Behringer MX2442A Manual

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Users Manual

Version 1.1 May 2002




CAUTION: To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not remove the cover (or back). No user serviceable parts inside; refer servicing to qualified personnel.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electrical shock, do not expose this appliance to rain or moisture. This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage inside the enclosure - voltage that may be sufficient to constitute a risk of shock. This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to important operating and maintenance instructions in the accompanying literature. Read the manual.
DETAILED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS: All the safety and operation instructions should be read before the appliance is operated. Retain Instructions: The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference. Heed Warnings: All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to. Follow instructions: All operation and user instructions should be followed. Water and Moisture: The appliance should not be used near water (e.g. near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool etc.). Ventilation: The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa rug, or similar surface that may block the ventilation openings, or placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through the ventilation openings. Heat: The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other appliance (including amplifiers) that produce heat. Power Source: The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the appliance. Grounding or Polarization: Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated. Power-Cord Protection: Power supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles and the point where they exit from the appliance. Cleaning: The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer. Non-use Periods: The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time. Object and Liquid Entry: Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings. Damage Requiring Service: The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: - The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or - Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or - The appliance has been exposed to rain; or - The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or - The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged. Servicing: The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that is described in the Operating Instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel.


Dear Customer, Welcome to the team of EURODESK users and thank you very much for expressing your confidence in BEHRINGER products by purchasing the MX2442A. It is one of my most pleasant tasks to write this letter to you, because it is the culmination of many months of hard work delivered by our engineering team to reach a very ambitious goal: creating an outstanding device that will become a standard tool used by studios and PA companies. The task to design the MX2442A certainly meant a great deal of responsibility, which we assumed by focusing on you, the discerning user and musician. It also meant a lot of work and night shifts to accomplish this goal. But it was fun, too. Developing a product usually brings a lot of people together, and it really is a great feeling when everybody who participated in such a project can be proud of what weve achieved! It is our philosophy to share our joy with you, because you are the most important member of the BEHRINGER family. With your highly competent suggestions for new products youve greatly contributed to shaping our company and making it successful. In return, we guarantee you uncompromising quality (manufactured under ISO9000 certified management system) as well as excellent technical and audio properties at an extremely affordable price. All of this will enable you to fully unfold your creativity without being hampered by budget constraints. We are often asked how we are able to produce such high-grade devices at such unbelievably low prices. The answer is quite simple: its you, our customers! Many satisfied customers means large sales volumes enabling us to get better conditions of purchase for components, etc. Isnt it only fair to pass this benefit back to you? Because we know that your success is our success, too! I would like to thank all people whose help on Project MX2442A has made it all possible. Everybody has made very personal contributions, starting from the designers of the unit via the many staff members in our company to you, the user of BEHRINGER products.

5.1 Subgroups..... 11 5.2 Insert Points..... 11 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Aux Masters.... Monitoring..... Headphones..... SOLO/PFL.... 2-Track In- and Output.... Talkback.....

6. MAIN SECTION.... 13

7.1 EURODESK MX2442A Back Panel/Serial Number.. 15 7.2 EURODESK MX2442A Patchfield and Plug Wiring Scheme... 16 7.3 Audio Connections.... 16 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Selecting Inputs.... Initializing Channels for Gain Setting... Auditioning a Signal and Setting Up a Channel.... Desk Normalization.... 18 19

8. SETTING UP.... 18

9.1 Equalization..... 19 9.2 Gain Optimization.... 20


Thank you for expressing your confidence in us by purchasing the EURODESK MX2442A. Our first task in writing this manual is to make you feel comfortable with the special terms that are used to describe your EURODESK MX2442A and its proper use.
Reading this manual will make you aware of the many possibilities the EURODESK MX2442A offers you. Please keep this manual safely for future reference.
Your BEHRINGER MX2442A was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred during transit.
If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to BEHRINGER, but notify your dealer and the shipping company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must be made by the consignee.

1.1 Nomenclature

Most specialist subjects are not really all that difficult provided you understand the language used, and the vocabulary of mixing is pretty straight-forward. Nevertheless, it should be clear what certain terms mean. A slot in a recorder will always be referred to as a track, while that in a mixer will invariably be a channel. A group will always refer to a sub-mix of channels. Similarly the term band will be mentioned only in conjunction with frequency.

1.2 Structure

Working with complex systems like live or studio mixing consoles, it is impossible to deal with all the features and possibilities at the same time. Therefore, we have divided the EURODESK manual into separate chapters to make it easier to find any kind of information and tips. Sometimes you will find cross references where subjects overlap. You will, for example, find information about channel EQs in chapters 3.2 and 4.2 while the general use of equalizers has, according to its importance, its own chapter.

1.3 The Separate View Sheet
On a separate sheet you will find drawings showing the front, the connector panel and the rear panel of your EURODESK. The block diagram is shown, too. Always keep this sheet available while studying this manual. All EURODESK functions will be numbered consistently throughout the manual, whether they be in the text or in an illustration.


2.1 Architecture
The MX2442A is a typical split console. As such, the inputs and outputs occupy separate areas of the board. This makes it easier to visualize the signal path compared to an in-line design which uses combined input/ output channels. The main section on the right hand side handles all the outputs (as well as 4 stereo aux returns and a 2-track tape input) while the input channels are located on the left.
EURODESK MX2442A The configuration is 24 into 4 into 2. This means that there are 24 channel inputs in total (there are 16 mono and four stereo channels), assignable to four subgroup buses (plus the main mix) which in turn may be blended into the main mix stereo output. The subgroups (configurable as stereo pairs if required) are provided for connecting to a multitrack tape recorder, or for use as a mixing aid during mix-down or during a live concert. Every channel, and both stereo aux returns can access at least one of the four existing subgroups, or the main mix directly, via comprehensive routing matrices. Four out of six aux sends can be accessed simultaneously. Every single input channel can be routed in two ways to the aux send buses: two pre- and four post-, or six post-fader, for live or studio operating environments respectively. Input channels The first 16 input channels are mono, with a choice of balanced mic (XLR, +48 V phantom power switchable) or line (1/4" TRS) inputs, both with exceptional gain architecture. Inputs 17/18 to 23/24 are configured as stereo input channels, accepting all line level signals. Every channel has MUTE, SOLO/PFL and comprehensive EQ. A high-quality 60 mm fader feeds the main mix and/or subgroup buses depending on the assign switch position. A constant-power channel PAN also selects between odd and even-numbered subgroup buses. Subgroups For ease and flexibility, four mono subgroups with PAN and SOLO functions are provided. Each has its own individual output, and each may also be assigned to the main mix. Aux sends The MX2442A provides six master aux send outputs, each with separate SOLO switch. Stereo aux returns In the mid-upper section you will find two stereo aux returns, each of them equipped with a SOLO switch, BALANCE and LEVEL controls. Main mix outputs/additional features The main mix output level is being controlled via a pair of high-quality 60 mm faders. The main section also includes assignable headphones or control room outputs. The monitor (or control room) outputs are independently adjustable in level, and the integral talkback mic is routable to 4 of the 6 aux buses, i.e. all possible pre-fader (cue) sends. A BNC connector is provided for a gooseneck lamp for those dark winters night mixes. Inserts All mono channels, subgroups and the main mix have insert points for the connection of dynamics processors etc.

This feature is disabled, if the inputs and outputs of the EURODESK are wired permanently to a patchbay.
The channel input sensitivity is variable between +/- 20 dB by adjusting GAIN , enabling a perfect match with all common line-level sources including multitrack tape outputs, MIDI and other electronic instruments and effects units, all of which are normally designed to operate at either -10 dBV or +4 dBu.

4.1 Input Level Setting

Input level setting works in the same ways as on mono channels (see section 3.1).

4.2 Equalizer

All stereo input channels are fitted with four-band, fixed-frequency EQ. Bands 1 and 4 are shelving, while bands 2 and 3 have a peaking response, with their Q set at 2 octaves.The upper and lower shelving controls have their turnover frequencies fixed at 12 kHz and 80 Hz, whereas the midrange controls and have their bell center frequencies set at 3 kHz and 500 Hz. All bands have up to 15 dB of cut and boost, with a center detent for off.
A stereo equalizer is generally preferable to using two mono equalizers when EQ-ing a stereo signal, as often discrepancies between left and right settings can occur.

4.3 Aux Sends

These are the same as for mono channels (see section 3.3). Please note that first the stereo signal is turned into a mono sum before entering aux send.

4.4 Routing & Muting

The only difference here from the mono channel described in 3.4 is in the substitution of the pan control by the BALANCE control ( ). As long as a channel is run in mono, there is no difference at all. In stereo operation however, this control functions as a BALANCE control , determining the relative balance of the left and right channel signals which are being sent to the left and right main mix, or odd and even subgroup buses. For example, with the BALANCE control turned fully clockwise, only the right portion of the channels stereo signal will be routed to the selected buses, the left portion is faded out.


5.1 Subgroups
The principal routes to multitrack are via the subgroup outputs. There are four mono (or two stereo) subgroups. All channels can access all of them, as can aux returns 1 and 2 ( & ). The subgroup level is determined by the SUBGROUP fader , while the signal level may be accurately checked by solo-ing ( ). Subgroup outputs can also be assigned to the main mix during mixdown by pressing the MAIN MIX switch , in which case stereo position in the L/R mix is determined by the subgroups PAN pot.
Try inserting compression/de-essing/an exciter or a noise gate on grouped signals (e.g. backing vocals, drums, layered synths). Try merging a dry signal with a little wet, then compressing the sum heavily. Though the reverb proportion will be low when a signal is present, the resultant reverb tail pumped up by the compressor at the start of each silence will give the illusion that the reverb was massive at the time. (The listener will be left wondering how the singer could sound so dear in such wet acoustics!)

5.2 Insert Points

Insert points are useful for adding dynamic processing or equalization to a channel, a group, or the mix. Unlike reverbs etc., which are usually added to the dry signal, dynamic processing is normally applied across an entire signal. Here, an aux send would be inappropriate. Instead, the signal is intercepted somewhere along the channel, fed through the dynamics processor and/or EQ, then returned to the console at the same point where it left. The insert point is normalized, i.e. the signal is only interrupted when a jack is plugged into it. All mono input channels have got insert points, as have the subgroups and the main mix. Each insert point is accommodated on a single TRS jack socket wired tip = send, ring = return, sleeve = ground/screen. Inserts are always pre-fader, and also pre-EQ/pre-aux sends for channels.
The insert points may be used as pre-EQ-outputs without interrupting the signal. By switching them to a patchbay the insert points can be used in a more complex manner since the sends and returns dispose of separate inserts. If you want to insert a dynamics processor etc. into one of the stereo channels, it must be done between the source output and the EURODESK, since these channels have no bona-fide insert point.
Fig. 5.1: Inserting into a stereo channel
EURODESK MX2442A Please note that we didnt draw the ground/screen connection in the following graphics to keep them as simple as possible. If you want to insert an external EQ or dynamics processor post-EQ, a subgroup insert should be used as follows:

This feature is disabled if all line-level l/Os from the EURODESK are wired permanently to a patchbay.
Aux returns 1 & 2 Aux returns 1 and 2 have full group routing matrices to enable returning FX to be sent to tape, plus main mix bus assignment. The functions for aux return 1 (mirrored by aux return 2) are: routing-switches , , , LEVEL , BALANCE and SOLO. Level controls the amount of signal being blended into the mix or a group, while balance controls the relative amounts of left and right processed signal. Be sure to have BALANCE control in center-position, if youre not actually working with it.
As always, there are exceptions to the rule above. Some short stereo delay effects (say 30 ms to left, 50 ms to right) cause a psycho acoustic effect where the earlier delay seems louder. A similar effect is noticeable when harmonizing in stereo: A slight pitch shift upwards will seem louder than one that goes down. In both cases use BALANCE to compensate. (An analogy comes from greece: the columns of the Parthenon in Athens are slightly bowed so as to appear straight.) When carrying out the setup mentioned above or any other stereo imaging exercise, dont just rely on the control room monitors. Get a pair of headphones and listen in stereo and in reverse stereo, to allow for any hearing discrepancy between your ears.
SOLO Below the aux returns lies a local SOLO LED is pressed.
. This flashes whenever a SOLO button in the column above

6.2 Monitoring

Though most of you will want to audition the main mix most of the time there are exceptions. These include SOLO/PFL and 2-TRACK playback. The bargraph meters follow whatever source is being auditioned (the meters wont make much sense if more than one source is selected).
Altering what goes into the control room monitors does not affect the signal from the main mix outputs. That offers to you the opportunity to do a quick SOLO during a mix whenever you want without having to start again!
The MONITOR/CTRL LEVEL pot sets the level to the control room monitors. This is sourced post the main mix stereo fader setting. Your fades couldnt be heard otherwise. Dont rely on a single pair of loudspeakers to audition your mix. Youd better use a variety of different speakers. Lastly, there is a MONO button , useful for checking the phase correlation and/or coherence of a stereo signal. Again, this does not affect the main mix outputs.

6.3 Headphones

The headphones may be sourced from the monitor/control room mix , and/or the pre/post-fader switchable aux sends 1/2 and/or the post-fader aux sends 3/4. Two headphones sockets are provided on the connector panel. The headphone mix level is controlled by a LEVEL pot , and the gain is sufficient to drive headphones directly. This is fine for a MIDI suite with overdub booth, but for the bigger studios headphone network using a separate headphones distribution amplifier like the BEHRINGER POWERPLAY PRO HA4600 is recommended: This allows independent level and EQ-settings for four headphone mixes; a total of 12 headphones can be connected.


SOLO SOLO is short for Solo-in-Place, and is the preferred method for auditioning an isolated signal, or group of signals. Whenever a SOLO button is pressed, all unselected channels are muted in the monitors. Stereo panning is maintained. The SOLO bus is derived from the output of the channel pans, aux sends, stereo line inputs and subgroups, and is always post-fader. PFL Pressing the channel mode switch once disengages the stereo solo bus, and replaces it with a separate mono PFL (Pre-Fader Listen) bus. Now any channel which is solo-ed, isnt. It is PFL-ed instead. PFL should always be used for gain-setting. The channel mode (PFL or SOLO) is indicated by a pair of status LEDs (located below the bargraph meter ), pot controls the SOLO level, which will normally be set to unity gain (center detent) to match the inthe-mix level.
6.5 2-Track In- and Output
2-track input The 2-track input is on unbalanced RCA plugs, and is primarily made for auditioning mix playback from tape. The 2-track switch routes this signal to the control room monitors. With the MON/CTR LEVEL control fully clockwise, your 2-track input will be matched to the semiprofessional level -10 dBV. For higher output recording sources (e.g. +4 dBu) turn the level of down.
The 2-track input could usefully be connected to the output of a hi-fi pre-amp or integrated amplifier, allowing you to easily audition a variety of sources (e.g. CD, phono etc.).
2-track output A pair of balanced XLR and jack connectors deliver the main mix output to your 2-track recorder (or PA system) at +4 dBu. Alternative RCA (-10 dBV) connectors are provided, too. 14 6. MAIN SECTION
EURODESK MX2442A The level to tape is ultimately determined by precision faders. Main mix insert points are provided for patching a gate, a compressor etc. pre-fader. This is important: Connecting a compressor or gate after the 2-track output would disrupt any attempt to acquiring a smooth fade using the output faders. Although the 2-track output is primarily designed for recording, it can also be used as a PA feed, or as a send to the input of your sampler. In fact, up to three simultaneous destinations can be serviced without resorting to a patchbay or splitter leadsthere are three separate 2-track outputs on your EURODESK!

6.6 Talkback

The built-in flush-mounted mic is activated by depressing the non-latching TALK switch just above the MAIN MIX faders. Engaging talkback dims the control room monitors, (not lights!) by -20 dB to avoid feedback. This does not affect the other talkback routes. Talkback level is set by , and the mic can be routed to any or all of auxes 1/2 and 3/4 ( , )in other words, every possible pre-fader (cue) aux sendto enable you to talk to artists remotely through their headphones or personal stage mixes. Sometimes you will want a much higher rejection of feedback than a flush-mounted talkback mic could ever provide. When running a live concert mix, a dynamic mic plugged into a spare channel and routed to all the pre-fader sends only will do the job.


7.1 EURODESK MX2442A Back Panel/Serial Number
DC power in This circular multiway connector distributes the different DC operating voltages delivered by the PSU: +/-18 V (audio circuits), +48 V (mic phantom power), +12 V (lamp) and +5 V (LEDs). Phantom power switch When using capacitor mics, +48 V DC can be switched globally on or off by (also see Mic inputs).
Care should be taken NOT to plug mics into the console (or stagebox) while the phantom power is on. Also mute the monitor / PA speakers when turning phantom power on or off. Allow 1 minute after powering up for the system to equilibrate before setting input gains.
Serial number Please complete and return the warranty card within 14 days of the date of purchase. Otherwise, you will lose your right to the extended warranty. Alternatively, you can register online at our website under Your BEHRINGER MX2442A was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred during transit.
If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to BEHRINGER, but notify your dealer and the shipping company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must be made by the consignee. Before you connect your MX2442A to the mains, please make sure that your local voltage matches the voltage required by the unit. Please note that the PSU and mixer heat up during operation. This is absolutely normal.
7.2 EURODESK MX2442A Patchfield and Plug Wiring Scheme
Most of the inputs (inserts being the major exception) are balanced.

Unbalanced equipment may be connected to balanced inputs/outputs. Either use mono 1/4" jacks or connect ring and barrel of TRS jacks (or pin 1 and 3 of XLR plugs).
Mono input channels 1 - 16 Insert points: unbalanced send and return on a single 1/4" TRS socket, wired tip = send, ring = return, sleeve = ground/screen. Line inputs: balanced 1/4" TRS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), ring = cold (-ve), sleeve = ground/screen. Mic inputs: XLR-type connectors, wired pin 1 = ground/screen, 2 = hot (+ve), 3 = coid (-ve), for balanced low-level operation. Stereo input channels 17 - 24 Four stereo pairs. Unbalanced 1/4" TRS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), sleeve = ground/screen. Aux sends Unbalanced 1/4" TRS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), sleeve = ground/screen. Stereo aux returns Two stereo pairs on balanced 1/4" sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), ring = cold (-ve), sleeve = ground/ screen. Subgroup inserts For inserting into a subgroup signal. Unbalanced send and return on a single 1/4" TRS socket, wired tip = send, ring = return, sleeve = ground/screen. Subgroup outputs Primarily designed for feeding a multitrack recorder. Unbalanced 1/4" TRS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), sleeve = ground/screen. 2-track in-/outputs RCA sockets for use with tape recorders etc., signal = main mix. Use custom-made RCA cables for the 2-track in/out traffic (center post = signal (+ve), sleeve = ground/screen). Monitor & control room outputs Will feed a pair of speakers (via an amp, of course). Balanced 1/4" TRS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), ring = cold (-ve), sleeve = ground/screen. Phones outputs Will feed two headphones. 1/4" TRS socket, wired tip = left signal, ring = right signal, sleeve = ground/screen. Main inserts For inserting into the main mix signal. Unbalanced send and return on a single 1/4" TRS socket, wired tip = send (out), ring = return (in), sleeve = ground/screen. Main outputs (TS sockets) Unbalanced 1/4" TS sockets, wired tip = hot (+ve), sleeve = ground/screen. Main outputs (XLR) Balanced XLR, wired pin 1 ground/screen, pin 2 hot (+ve), pin 3 cold (-ve). Maximum level is +28 dBu.

7.3 Audio Connections

You will need a lot of cables for different purposes. On the next page you will find some figures to make sure you have got the right ones.

All outputs are ground-compensated (decoupled from the mains supply earth) to eliminate the possibility of ground loops. Please make sure that every part of your equipment is connected to the mains earth. To avoid any risk of electric shock never disconnect the mains earth from any part of your equipment! Please ensure that only qualified persons install and operate the EURODESK. During installation and operation the user must have sufficient electrical contact to earth. Electrostatic charges might affect the operation of the EURODESK! 7. CONNECTIONS
Fig. 7.1: Different plug types


8.1 Selecting Inputs
1) Mono channels accept mic or line level inputs. If you are using the mic input, make sure nothing is connected to the line input (and vice-versa). Please note that mic inputs are many times more sensitive than line inputs!
Do not connect mics with phantom power switched on. NEVER ever use unbalanced mic cables with phantom power switched on! Shorting +48 V DC to earth can cause serious damage.
2) Stereo channels accept line level signals. Any stereo channel can be run in mono simply by connecting it into the left jack socket only.
This feature is disabled if all line level in-/outputs from the EURODESK are wired permanently to a patchbay.
The stereo channels are suitable for a variety of line level sources including MIDI instruments, effects outputs, and tape returns from multitrack. 3) Stereo aux inputs are primarily designed for returning effects units, though these too may be given over to multitrack returns or MIDI instrument outputs.
8.2 Initializing Channels for Gain Setting
1) Set gain to minimum and all aux sends to off (fully counterclockwise). 2) Set EQ to flat (all knobs at 12 oclock). 3) Where applicable, set the LO CUT switch content. 4) Set CHANNEL MODE to PFL ( 5) Depress the SOLO switch. up). on for most mics, off for signals with desired low-frequency
8.3 Auditioning a Signal and Setting Up a Channel
1) Make a typical noise, or roll the tape. There should now be some activity at the main bargraph meters indicating the PFL level. 2) Adjust the GAIN control exceed 0 dB. ,
until transient peaks are regularly hitting +2 dB. Continuous signals should not
3) With FX units, MIDI instruments and multitrack tape recorders (pro +4 dBu, semi-pro -10 dBV), it is important to match the operating level of the desk to that of your machine. If you are not sure which level your external equipment requires, try a 0 dB setting first. If the signal is too low, turn the GAIN pot to the right.
A -10 dBV nominal operating level for an effects processor almost certainly means 0 dB on the units input or output meter. If the FX processor has indication only for input level, ensure that the output gives comparable, i.e. unity, gain.

Use the Lo Cut filter to tighten up channels in a mix: maybe remove it only for the bass, kick drum, toms, tablas, didgeridoo and other deliberate subsonics (when recording classical music ignore this advice). Combining the 75 Hz Lo Cut filter with an increase at 80 Hz will produce a bell-type EQ that has a more focused impact than simply increasing the bass. Please keep in mind that the EQ can also be used to cut frequencies.
After each change at the EQ settings, always check and, if necessary, adjust the input gain.

9.2 Gain Optimization

PFL (Pre-Fader-Listening) is the way to set a desk level. Setting up the channel input gain is discussed in the essential sections 3 & 4. Optimum master aux send levels will be dependent on the sensitivity of the FX device being driven, but unity gain is a useful starting point. As the mix progresses, more and more channels are likely to be sending to effects via the aux buses, and its best to PFL all sends (aux, subgroup) just before setting up for the final mix. Outboard reverbs etc. should all be made to work hard. Theres no point in having an 85 dB dynamic range if the input meter of your reverb is barely flickering. On the other hand, digital distortion is not one of the nicer noises around. Fortunately, you can SOLO the FX returns. Here, youll have to trust your ears to detect digital distortion, since different outboard processors calibrate their meters differently, and their dynamic range is not sufficient to allow, say, 15 dB of headroom (as is the case with DAT etc.). The PFL/SOLO meter, on the other hand, looks only at the desks analog aux input level, if you hear distortion, but the meter says youre just hitting 0 dB, then it must be coming from the aux send amp or the FX unit. If PFL on the aux send reveals nothing amiss, turn down the input on the FX unit, and turn up the desks aux return.

+ + + + +

In most of the cases, distortion in the aux send > FX > aux return loop will come from the FX unit (FX GAIN TOO HIGH), and the same goes for a high noise level (FX GAIN TOO LOW). Noisy FX (or synth) returns can be greatly improved by the addition of single-ended noise reduction between FX output and aux (or channel) returns. The BEHRINGER DENOISER SNR2000 is ideally suited for this purpose. Weve found that using analog single ended noise reduction can help warm the sound of certain digital reverbs which sound too cold/metallic, and also give that Echoplex sound to digital delay decays. Analog multitrack tape should be driven quite hard, since its dynamic range (without noise reduction) is likely to be 20 to 30 dB worse than other elements in the recording chain. Try to record bright. You can always mix back duller. Brightening up an off-tape signal will bring up the level of tape noise. When mixing or recording, keep the channel fader levels around or below 0 dB. If you do find the faders creeping up or down, apply a suitable offset over all channel faders, and try to control your bad habit in future!


The following modifications require some knowledge in soldering. Only attempt that if you are experienced in using an iron on PCBs. Otherwise, refer to qualified personnel. After modification the BEHRINGER warranty becomes discretionary. Links should not be threaded into holes on the PCB. They should be soldered to the tinned areas around the holes, and bowed slightly upwards in between. Aux sends 1/2 > pre-EQ All channel aux sends are post-EQ. If you want to convert them, carry out the modification described below to each channel. The right PCB area is indicated by a yellow printing (see figures below). 1) Disconnect power supply. 2) Cut the post track. 3) Add in a pre link. 4) Repeat for all channels you want to be modified.
Fig. 10.1: Aux send > pre-EQ modification on mono channels
Fig. 10.2: Aux send > pre-EQ modification on stereo channels


Input channels Mic input Mic E.I.N. (22 Hz - 22 kHz) Electronically balanced, discrete input configuration 129.0 dBu, 150 Ohm source 117.3 dBqp, 150 Ohm source 132.0 dBu, input shorted 122.0 dBqp, input shorted 0,007% @ +4 dBu, 1 kHz, bandwidth 80 kHz +10 dB to +60 dB +12 dBu Electronically balanced Unity to +40 dB +22 dBu +10 dB to -85 dB From off to Unity to +15 dB 12 kHz +/-15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. 3 kHz +/-15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. 100 Hz - 8 kHz +/-15 dB, Q fixed at 1 oct. 500 Hz +/-15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. 80 Hz +/-15 dB, Q fixed at 2 oct. 75 Hz, 18 dB/oct. +22 dBu -95 dB @ 1 kHz Bus noise @ fader 0 dB: -105.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu); -92.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu, all input channels assigned, Unity gain, channels muted); -87.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu, all input channels assigned, Unity gain) +22 dBu balanced/unbalanced +10 dB to -85 dB Bus noise @ fader 0 dB: -102.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu); -92.0 dBr (ref.: +4 dBu, all input channels assigned, Unity gain, channels muted); -87.0 dBr (ref. +4 dBu, all input channels assigned, Unity gain) +28 dBu balanced, +22 dBu unbalanced From off to Unity to +20 dB +22 dBu 0.007 %, @ +4 dBu, 1 kHz, bandwidth 80 kHz 20 Hz - 40 kHz +/-1 dB any input to any output; 10 Hz -120 kHz +/-3 dB
Distortion (THD & N) Gain range Max input (Mic) Line input Gain range Max input (line) Channel fader range Aux send gain range Equalization Hi shelving Hi mid bell (Ch 17-24) Mid sweep (Ch 1-16) Lo mid bell (Ch 17-24) Lo shelving Low-cut (high pass) filter Channel insert Max in/out Channel to channel crosstalk Subgroup section Noise

The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any purpose, without the expressed written permission of BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER, EURODESK, DENOISER, ULTRA-DYNE, ULTRA-CURVE, ULTRA-Q, ULTRAPATCH and POWERPLAY are registered trademarks ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2002 BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH, Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38, 47877 Willich-Mnchheide II, Germany Tel. +49 (0) / 92 06-0, Fax +49 (0) / 92 06-30


The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any purpose, without the expressed written permission of BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER and EURODESK are registered trademarks. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2002 BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH. BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH, Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38, 47877 Willich-Mnchheide II, Germany Tel. +49 (0) / 92 06-0, Fax +49 (0) / 92 06-30



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