Canon EOS 3000V Date
Canon EOS 3000V Date Digital Camera, size: 1.4 MB
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User reviews and opinions
|Mayland||7:46am on Sunday, May 30th, 2010|
|Canon EOS 3000N This camera is one off the best lookin and at a great price for all types of user.|
|BLins123||10:19pm on Wednesday, April 7th, 2010|
|Canon EOS 3000N This camera is one off the best lookin and at a great price for all types of user.|
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Attaching the Strap
Pass the end of the strap through the cameras strap mount from the bottom. Then pass it through the straps buckle as shown in the illustration. Pull the strap to make sure it does not slip out of the buckle. The eyepiece cover is also attached to the strap. (p.24) 4 Eyepiece cover
Shutter speed ISO film speed Date **FE lock DATE Model <?> Manual focus Aperture value Red-eye reduction setting AEB amount Date
<;> Date AF point mark Film advance mode <J> Single frame <H> Continuous shooting <> Self-timer/ Remote control Battery level mark <D> ISO film speed <F> Red-eye reduction <<> Multiple exposures <L> AEB <>> Function pointer Frame counter Multiple-exposure setting Self-timer operation Remote control operation Exposure level indicator Exposure compensation amount AEB level Red-eye reduction lamp-on indicator Film transport indicator
<=> Film mark Non-DATE Model
**With an EX-series Speedlite. The actual display will show only the applicable items.
AF points (7) Focusing screen
<j> AE lock / **FE lock AEB in progress <M> Flash-ready **Improper FE lock warning <|> **High-speed sync (FP flash) Shutter speed **FE lock
<n> Focus confirmation light Exposure level indicator Exposure compensation amount AEB level Red-eye reduction lamp-on indicator AF point mark Aperture value
The dial is divided into two zones.
Im a g e Zon
B a sic Zone
1 Basic Zone
Fully automatic mode where the camera takes care of everything. Y : Full Auto (p.18) Basically, all you do is point and shoot. Image Zone (p.20) Fully automatic modes for a particular subject. U : Portrait I : Landscape O : Close-up P : Sports A : Night Portrait S : Flash off
2 Creative Zone
Semi-automatic and manual modes enable you to take control of the camera to obtain the desired result. T : Program AE (p.32) R : Shutter-priority AE (p.34) E : Aperture-priority AE (p.35) W : Manual exposure (p.36) Q : Automatic Depth-offield AE (p.37)
3 : : OFF
1 Before You Start
Installing the Batteries
Batteries are not included in camera body only (not kit) sold in North America. Obtain batteries separately.
The camera uses two CR2 lithium batteries. 2
1 Open the battery compartment cover.
Slide the release lever in the
direction shown by the arrow in the diagram, and open the cover. 1
2 Install the batteries. contacts (+ Make sure the battery
If you want to zoom, do it before focusing. Turning the zooming ring after achieving focus may throw off the focus. If the built-in flashs pop-up operation is obstructed, the <> icon will blink on the LCD panel. Press the shutter button halfway to resolve the problem. When focus is achieved, the autofocus and auto exposure setting will also be locked. If the focus confirmation light <n> blinks, the picture cannot be taken. (p.30) Out of the seven AF points, the one covering the closest subject is selected automatically to achieve focus. If multiple AF point marks will light, it means that all of them have achieved focus at the respective points. In the Basic Zone modes (except <I> <P> <S> ), the built-in flash will pop up and fire automatically in low-light or backlit conditions. To retract the flash, push it back down.
AF-Assist beam with the Built-in Flash
Under low-light conditions, the built-in flash fires a brief burst of flashes when you press the shutter button halfway. This is to illuminate the subject to enable easier autofocusing.
The AF-assist beam does not function in the <I> <P> <S> modes. The built-in flashs AF-assist beam is effective up to about 4 meters/13.1 feet. In the Creative Zone modes when the built-in flash is popped up with the <M> button, the AF-assist beam may be emitted.
Programmed Image Control Modes
Select a shooting mode to suit the target subject, and the camera will be set to obtain the best results.
This mode blurs the background to make the human subject stand out.
Holding down the shutter button executes continuous shooting. To improve the background blur, use a telephoto lens and fill the frame with the subject or have the subject stand farther away from the background.
This is for wide scenic views, night scenes, etc.
Using a wide-angle lens will further enhance the depth and breadth of the picture.
Use this mode to take close-up shots of flowers, insects, etc.
As much as possible, focus the subject at the lens closest focusing distance. To obtain a larger magnification, use the telephoto end of a zoom lens.
A blinking shutter speed indicates that the shutter speed is too slow to prevent a blurred picture due to camera shake. Be careful to hold the camera steady and press the shutter button smoothly, or use a tripod. (The shutter speed indicator still blinks when you use a tripod, but camera shake will not be a problem.)
This is for fast-moving subjects when you want to freeze the action.
The camera will first track the subject with the center AF point. Focus tracking will then continue with any of the seven AF points covering the subject. While you hold down the shutter button, focusing will continue for continuous shooting. Using a telephoto lens and ISO 400 or higher speed film is recommended.
This mode is for taking pictures of people at twilight or at night. The flash illuminates the subject while a slow sync speed obtains a natural-looking exposure of the background.
If you want to photograph only a night scene (without people), use the <I> mode instead. Tell the subject to keep still even after the flash fires.
S Flash off
You can disable the flash when you do not want it to fire.
The built-in flash or any external Speedlite will not fire.
In the <A> mode, use a tripod to prevent camera shake.
FUsing Red-eye Reduction (with the built-in flash)
When flash is used in a low-light environment, the subjects eyes may come out red in the photograph. To reduce this Red eye the red-eye reduction lamp shines a light into the subjects eyes before the flash is fired. Red-eye reduction works in all shooting modes except <I> <P> <S>.
arrow to the 1 Move the <>>the LCD panel. <F> icon on
Look at the LCD panel and press
the <\> button to move the arrow. ()
Turn the <l> dial 2 on the LCD panel. to set
Press the shutter button halfway to return to normal camera operation. To cancel red-eye reduction, set
on the LCD panel.
When you press the shutter button halfway, the red-eye reduction lamp-on indicator will appear in viewfinder and on the LCD panel. Red-eye reduction will not work unless Red-eye reduction the subject looks at the red-eye reduction lamp-on indicator lamp. Tell the subject to look at the lamp. For maximum effectiveness, press the shutter button fully after the red-eye reduction lamp turns off (after 1.5 sec.). You can take a picture even while the red-eye reduction lamp is lit. The effectiveness of red-eye reduction varies depending on the subject. To further increase the effectiveness of red-eye reduction, go to a brighter environment or move closer to the subject.
You can use self-timer in any Basic mode or Creative mode. We recommend using a tripod when you use the self-timer.
button. 1 Press the <^> LCD panel, While looking at the
press the <^> button to select <>.
2 Take the picture. procedure is the The picture-taking
same as with the <Y> Full Auto mode on page 18. Look through the viewfinder and press the shutter button fully to start the self-timer. s The picture will be taken about 10 sec. later. First 8 sec.: Self-timer lamp blinks slowly. Final 2 sec.: Self-timer lamp blinks quickly. s During the self-timer operation, the LCD panel counts down the seconds until the picture is taken.
Do not stand in front of the camera when you press the shutter button to start the self-timer. Doing so prevents the camera from focusing on the subject. To cancel the self-timer after it starts, press the <^> button. When using the self-timer to take a picture of only yourself, first lock the focus (p.29) on an object at the same distance where you will be in the picture.
KWireless Remote Control (DATE Model only)
With Remote Controller RC-5 (optional), wireless operation is possible up to 5 m/16.4 ft away from the front of the camera.
2 Take the picture. toward the Point the controller
Remote control sensor
cameras remote control sensor and press the transmit button. s Taken about 2 sec. later. The indicator will be the same as during the last 2 sec. of the self-timer.
Certain types of fluorescent lights might cause the remote control operation to work improperly. Place the camera away from any fluorescent lights as far as possible. If you set <> and do nothing for four minutes, the remote control mode will be canceled automatically to save battery power.
Using the Eyepiece Cover
During self-timer or remote control operation when your eye does not cover the viewfinder eyepiece, stray light may enter the eyepiece and affect the exposure when the picture is taken. To prevent this, use the eyepiece cover to cover the eyepiece. (p.7)
1 Remove the eyecup from the eyepiece. the eyepiece cover. 2 Attachthe eyepiece cover down into Slide
the eyepiece groove to attach it.
When you reattach the eyecup, press it with your fingers so that it is attached tightly to the camera.
3Selecting an AF point
The AF point is used for focusing. The AF point can be selected automatically by the camera or manually by you. In the Basic Zone modes and <Q> mode, the AF point selection is automatic only. In the <T> <R> <E> <W> modes, the AF point can be selected either automatically or manually. Automatic AF point Selection The camera selects the AF point automatically according to situation. Manual AF point Selection You can select any of the seven AF points manually. This is best when you want to be sure to focus on a particular subject, or to compose a particular shot quickly.
the <3> button. 1 Presscurrent AF point will be The
indicated on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder.
2 Select the desired AF point. or While looking at the LCD panel
viewfinder, turn the <l> dial.
After selecting the AF point, press
the shutter button halfway. The camera will then be ready to take pictures.
Manual AF Point Selection
Automatic AF Point Selection
After achieving focus, you can lock the focus on a subject and recompose the shot. This is called focus lock.
1 Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode.
Set a Creative Zone mode except
Select the desired AF point.
2 the 3 Focusthe AFsubject. the subject, point on Aim
then press the shutter button halfway.
4 Keep pressing the shutter button halfway and recompose
the picture as desired.
5 Take the picture.
If focus has not been achieved, the focus confirmation light <n> in the viewfinder will blink. In this case, you cannot take a picture even when you press the shutter button fully. Recompose the shot and focus again or see When Autofocus Fails (p.30). If you use an external, EOS-dedicated Speedlite and focus cannot be achieved with the AF-assist light, select the center AF point. Focus lock also works in the Basic Zone modes (except <P>). Just start from step 3 above.
When Autofocus Fails (Manual Focusing)
Autofocus can fail to achieve focus (the focus confirmation light <n> blinks) with certain subjects such as the following:
Difficult Subjects for Autofocusing
Low-contrast subjects. Example: Blue sky, flat surface with a solid color. Subjects in very low light. Extremely backlit or reflective subjects. Example: Automobile with a strong reflection. Overlapping near and far objects. Example: Animal behind bars in a cage. In such cases, do one of the following: (1) Focus lock an object at the same distance as the subject and recompose. (2) Set the lens focus mode switch to <MF> and focus manually.
? Manual Focusing
the lens 1 Set<MF>. focus mode switch to subject. 2 Focus theturning the lens focusing Focus by
ring until the subject is in focus in the viewfinder.
If you hold down the shutter button halfway while focusing manually, the active AF point mark and the focus confirmation light <n> will light when focus is achieved.
HSelecting the Film Advance Mode
Two film advance modes are provided: single-frame and continuous shooting (Max. 1.5 frames per sec.).
Press the <^> button.
the <^> button.
: Single frame : Continuous shooting : Self-timer/ Remote control
The camera has three metering modes: Evaluative, partial, and center-weighted average metering.
This is the cameras standard metering mode suited for most shooting including backlit conditions. Based on the subjects position in the viewfinder, brightness, background, front or back lighting conditions, etc., the camera always calculates the proper exposure for the subject.
This mode is set automatically when AE lock is used in a Creative Zone mode. It is effective for backlit subjects when there is a strong light behind the subject. The viewfinder center covering about 9.5% of the viewfinder area is used for metering. The partial metering area is shown on the left.
Center-weighted average metering
This is set automatically in the <W> mode. The metering is weighted at the center and then averaged for the entire scene.
T Program AE
Like the <Y> (Full Auto) mode, this is a general-purpose mode to make picture-taking easy. It sets the shutter speed and aperture value automatically to suit the subjects brightness.
<T> stands for Program. AE stands for auto exposure.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <T>.
AF point subject. 2 Focus the AF point over the subject Move the
and press the shutter button halfway.
the 3 Checkshutterdisplay.and aperture The speed
value are set automatically and displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. If the shutter speed and aperture value do not blink, a correct exposure will be obtained.
4 Take the picture. and press the Compose the shot
If and the maximum aperture value blink, it indicates underexposure. Use flash. If and the minimum aperture value blink, it indicates overexposure. Use an ND filter to reduce the light entering the lens.
The Difference Between <T> and <Y>
The shutter speed and aperture value are set in the same way in both modes. The following features can be used in the <T> mode, but not in the <Y> mode. Manual AF point selection Film advance mode selection Program shift Exposure compensation AEB AE lock with the <j> button Multiple exposures Built-in flash manual firing and flash OFF FE lock, high-speed sync (with EX-series Speedlites)
About Program Shift
In the Program AE mode, you can freely change the shutter speed and aperture value combination (program) set by the camera while retaining the same exposure. This is called program shift. To shift the program, press the shutter button halfway and turn the <l> dial until the desired shutter speed or aperture value is displayed. Program shift is canceled automatically after the picture is taken. Program shift cannot be set when the built-in flash is used.
R Shutter-Priority AE
In this mode, you set the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture value automatically to suit the subject brightness. A fast shutter speed can freeze the motion of a fast-moving subject and a slow shutter speed can blur the subject to give the impression of motion.
<R> stands for Time value which is the shutter speed.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <R>. 2 Select the desired shutter speed.
Turn the <l> dial. The shutter speed can be set in
Focus the subject.
aperture value is set automatically.
viewfinder 4 Check thethe picture. display and take
If the aperture value display is not
blinking, a correct exposure will be obtained.
If the maximum aperture value blinks, it indicates underexposure. Turn the <l> dial to set a slower shutter speed until the blinking stops. If the minimum aperture value blinks, it indicates overexposure. Turn the <l> dial to set a faster shutter speed until the blinking stops. Shutter Speed Display The shutter speeds from to indicate the denominator of the fractional shutter speed. For example, indicates 1/125 sec. Also, indicates 0.7 sec, and indicates 15 sec.
E Aperture-Priority AE
In this mode, you set the desired aperture value and the camera sets the shutter speed automatically to suit the subject brightness. The larger or brighter the aperture value (lower f/number) the more blurred the background will become. This effect is ideal for portraits. The smaller or darker the aperture value (higher f/number), the clearer the focus will be for both near and far objects (wider depth of field).
<E> stands for aperture value.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <E>. 2 Select the desired aperture value.
Turn the <l> dial. The aperture value can be set in
shutter speed is set automatically.
If the shutter speed display does
<Q> stands for Auto-depth of field.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <Q>.
subject. 2 Focus the AF point over the subject Move the
and press the shutter button halfway. Focus is achieved at all the AF point marks that light.
3 Take the picture.
The <Q> mode cannot be used if the lens focus mode switch is set to <MF>. If the aperture value blinks, it indicates that the exposure level is correct but the desired depth of field cannot be achieved. Either use a wide-angle lens or move further away from the subjects. In this shooting mode, you cannot freely change the shutter speed and aperture value. If the camera sets a slow shutter speed, hold the camera steady or use a tripod. If flash is used, the result will be the same as using flash in the <T> mode.
Exposure compensation is used to alter the cameras standard exposure setting. You can make the picture look lighter (increased exposure) or darker (decreased exposure). The exposure compensation amount can be set up to +/2 stops in half-stop increments.
to a Creative 1 Turn the Mode Dial <W>. Zone mode except exposure setting. 2 Check the shutter button halfway Press the
and check the display.
Standard exposure index
Set the exposure compensation amount.
Hold down the <> button and turn the <l> dial. To cancel the exposure
compensation, set the exposure compensation amount to <~>.
4 Take the picture.
Exposure level mark
The exposure compensation amount set is retained even after the Mode Dial is set to <:>. The exposure compensation amount is canceled automatically when you turn the Mode Dial to a Basic Zone mode. Assuming that a shutter speed of 1/125 sec. and an aperture value of f/5.6 will give a correct exposure, setting the exposure compensation amount to plus or minus 1 stop will change the shutter speed or aperture value as follows: 1 stop 0 +1 stop Shutter speed 60 Aperture value 8.0 5.6 4.0
LAuto Exposure Bracketing (AEB)
With AEB, the camera automatically changes the exposure within the set range (up to +/2 stops in 1/2-stop increments) for three successive frames. AEB amount
1 Move the <>> arrow to the <L> icon.
Set the desired AEB amount.
2 Turn the <l> dial.
AEB range standard exposure decreased exposure
Press the shutter button halfway to
Take the picture.
return to normal camera operation.
three bracketed shots will be exposed in the following sequence: standard exposure, decreased exposure, and increased exposure. s As shown on the left, the respective bracketing amount will be displayed as each bracketed shot is taken. The picture will be taken in the current film advance mode. After the three AEB shots are taken, the AEB will not be canceled automatically. To cancel AEB, set the AEB amount back to .
During AEB shooting, the <>> arrow will appear next to the <L> icon and the AEB level <> will be displayed. In the viewfinder, the <j> icon will blink. In the <H> film advance mode, the camera stops shooting automatically after taking the three AEB shots. In the <J> (single frame) mode, press the shutter button completely three times to take the three AEB shots. If you use the self-timer or remote control, the three AEB shots will be taken continuously automatically. AEB can be combined with exposure compensation. AEB cannot be used with flash or bulb exposures.
AE lock enables you to lock the exposure at a different place from the point of focus. After locking the exposure, you can recompose the shot while maintaining the desired exposure level. This feature is useful for backlit and spotlighted subjects. For AE lock, partial metering is used automatically.
the subject. 1 Focusexposure setting will be The
2 Aim the center of the viewfinder
Press the <j> button. ()
over the subject where the exposure is to be locked, then press the <j> button. s The <j> icon will light in the viewfinder to indicate that the exposure setting has been locked (AE lock). Each time you press the <j> button, it locks the current exposure setting.
AE lock indicator
3 Compose the shot and take the picture.
while taking more pictures, hold down the <j> button and press the shutter button to take another picture.
If you want to maintain the AE lock
When bulb is set, the shutter is open during the time you keep pressing the shutter button fully. Bulb exposures are useful when long exposures are required for night scenes, fireworks, astronomical photography, etc.
1 Turn the Mode Dial to <W>. to 2 Set theatshutter speedand turn the. dial to select <l> Look the LCD panel
the 3 Selectdowndesired aperture value. the <l> dial. the <> button and turn Hold Start the bulb exposure. 4 During the bulb exposure, blinks on the LCD panel.
The bulb exposure continues as long as you hold down the
Remote Controller RC-5 (optional) can also be used for bulb exposures (p.24). When you press the transmit button, the exposure will start 2 sec. later. To stop the exposure, press the button again. (DATE Model only) With a new set of batteries, the maximum bulb exposure time (at 20C) will be about 4 hours.
Flash Distance Range (With EF28-80mm f/3.5-5.6) [m/ft] 28mm 80mm ISO Negative Film Slide Film Negative Film Slide Film - 4.8 / 3.3 - 15.- 3.4 / 3.3 - 11.- 3.0 / 3.3 - 9.- 2.1 / 3.3 - 7.1 - 9.7 / 3.3 - 31.8 1.2 - 6.8 / 3.9 - 22.- 6.0 / 3.3 - 19.- 4.2 / 3.3 - 13.9
When using the built-in flash, stay at least 1 meter/3.3 feet away from the subject. Otherwise, part of the photo will look dark. When using the built-in flash, detach any hood attached to the lens. A lens hood will partially obstruct the flash coverage. When a super telephoto lens or a fast, large-aperture lens is attached, the built-in flash coverage might be obstructed. The built-in flashs flash coverage is 28mm lens angle. If you use a flash unit (with multiple contacts) dedicated to another camera brand or a high-voltage flash, the camera may not work properly or malfunction may result. To retract the built-in flash, push it down. If more light is required, use an external, EOS-dedicated Speedlite (optional).
Feature Availability Table
: Set automatically. : User-selectable/settable. Mode Dial Mode Y U I O P A S T RE W Q One Shot AI Servo AI Focus AF Point Auto Selection Manual Single frame Continuous Self-timer/ Remote control
AF Mode and Film Advance Mode
AF Mode Single frame Continuous
The same conditions explained on the left apply during continuous shooting. (Max. 1.5 frames per sec.) The picture cannot be taken until focus is achieved. When focus is achieved, it also locks at the same One Shot AF time. The evaluative meterings exposure setting is also locked. (The exposure setting is retained until the picture is taken.) The subject is focus-tracked for continuous autofocus. The AI Servo AF exposure is set when the picture is taken.
AI Focus AF
The same conditions explained on the left apply during continuous shooting. Autofocusing continues during continuous shooting. (Max. 1.3 frames per sec.) Automatically switches between One Shot AF and AI Servo AF according to the subject status.
If there is a problem, first refer to this Troubleshooting Guide.
Nothing is displayed on the LCD panel. The picture looks blurred.
The batteries are exhausted. / The batteries have been installed incorrectly. s Replace the batteries with new ones. / Install the batteries correctly. (p.11)
The lens focus mode switch is set to <MF>. s Set the lens focus mode switch to <AF>. (p.13) There was camera shake when the picture was taken. s Hold the camera steady or use a faster shutter speed. (p.14) On the LCD panel, the frame count is not displayed and the <=> icon blinks. s Take out the film and load it correctly. (p.15) The focus confirmation light <n> in the viewfinder blinks and focus cannot be achieved. s Select another AF point. (p.28) If focus still cannot be achieved, focus manually. (p.30) The battery level is very low. s Replace the batteries with new ones. (p.11) A misoperation has occurred. s Press the shutter button halfway. (p.14) / Remove the batteries and reload it. (p.11) If the blinking <> icon does not turn off, consult your nearest Canon dealer.
The shutter does not work.
The <> icon blinks on the LCD panel.
Type..35 mm AF/AE SLR camera with built-in flash Recording media.35 mm film Image size..24 x 36 mm Compatible lenses.Canon EF lenses Lens mount..Canon EF mount
Type..Eye-level pentamirror Coverage..Approx. 90% vertically and horizontally Magnification..0.7x (1 diopter with 50mm lens at infinity) Eyepoint..18.5 mm Focusing screen.Fixed, all-matte screen Mirror.Quick-return half mirror (Transmission: reflection rate of 40:60, No mirror cut-off with EF300mm f/2.8L plus Extender 2x or shorter lens) Viewfinder information..AF (AF point/mark, focus confirmation light); Exposure (shutter speed, aperture value, exposure level, AE lock); Flash (flash ready, hi-speed sync, FE lock, red-eye reduction)
Type..TTL-CT-SIR with a CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) sensor AF points.7 AF points AF working range..EV 1 - 18 (ISO 100) Focusing modes.One Shot AF, AI Servo AF, AI Focus AF, manual focusing (MF) AF point selection..Automatic/manual Selected AF point display..AF point mark in the viewfinder and on LCD panel AF-assist beam.Intermittent firing of the built-in flash Working distance: Approx. 4 m/13.1 ft at center, Approx. 3.5 m/11.5 ft at outer edge
Exposure metering modes.TTL full aperture metering with 35-zone SPC Evaluative metering (linkable to any AF point) Partial metering (approx. 9.5% of viewfinder at center) Center-weighted average metering (automatically set in manual exposure mode) Metering range..EV 1 - 20 (normal temperature, 50mm f/1.4, ISO 100) Exposure control.Program AE (Full Auto, Portrait, Landscape, Close-up, Sports, Night Portrait, Flash off, Program), shutter-priority AE, aperture-priority AE, depth-of-field AE, manual exposure, E-TTL/A-TTL/TTL autoflash Film speeds.ISO 6 - 6400 (Set automatically for DX-coded film within ISO 25 - 5000) Exposure compensation.Manual exposure compensation: +/ 2 stops in 1/2-stop increments (can be used with AEB) Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB): +/ 2 stops in 1/2-stop increments AE lock..Auto AE lock: Operates in One Shot AF mode with evaluative metering when focus is achieved Manual AE lock: By AE lock button in partial metering mode Multiple exposures.Max. 9 exposures
Type..Electronically controlled focal-plane shutter Shutter speeds..1/2000 - 30 sec. in 1/2-stop increments, bulb, X sync at 1/90 sec. Shutter release.Soft touch electromagnetic release Self-timer..Shoot after 10 sec. delay Remote control.Remote Controller RC-1/RC-5 (DATE Model only)
Built-in flash.AF point-linked, 3-zone autoflash Guide No. 12 (ISO 100, in meters), 39 (ISO 100, in feet) Recycling time: Approx. 2 sec. Flash coverage: 28 mm lens angle covered Red-eye reduction: Lamp External EOS-dedicated flash.E-TTL / A-TTL / TTL autoflash
Film loading.Automatic prewind Film advance modes.Single-frame/continuous shooting Continuous shooting speeds.One Shot AF: Max. 1.5 fps AI Servo AF: Max. 1.3 fps Film rewind..Automatic. Mid-roll rewind
Date imprinting (DATE Model only)
Automatic dating.Automatic calendar to 2099 Power source.Two CR2 lithium batteries Dimensions (W x H x D).130 x 88 x 64 mm/5.1 x 3.5 x 2.5 in Weight.340 g/12.0 oz (body only) All the specifications above are based on Canons testing and measuring standards. Specifications and physical appearance are subject to change without notice.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Do not make any changes or modifications to the equipment unless otherwise specified in the instructions. If such changes or modifications should be made, you could be required to stop operation of the equipment. This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help. This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the interference-causing equipment standard entitled Digital Apparatus, ICES-003 of the Industry Canada. The CE Mark is a Directive conformity mark of the European Community (EC)
CANON INC. 30-2, Shimomaruko 3-chome, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501, Japan
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This Instruction booklet is current as of June 2003. For information on using the camera with system accessories introduced after this date, contact your nearest Canon Service Center.
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The easiest way to soften the lighting in your flash photos is to bounce the light from the flash unit off a large white surface. Walls and ceilings work for this, as do portable folding reflectors. You can also buy diffusers that attach to your flash that help a little bit as well. For more information have a look at the section on quality of light. 3) Are my friends possessed by demonic powers? Their eyes are glowing an evil red! This is the redeye effect; a common problem with the internal flash units built into cameras. Its caused by the light from the flash unit reflecting off the red blood vessels lining the interior of the eye. The light shines back into the camera, resulting in the famous red glow. The easiest way to minimize the risk of redeye is to use an external flash unit rather than a built-in flash. The problem is fully explained in the redeye section of this document, as is the related problem of greeneye in cats and dogs. If, however, your friends eyes glow an evil red in real life and not just in your flash photos of them then youre reading the wrong document and probably should do a Web search on exorcism. 4) I took a flash photo and theres a curved shadow at the bottom of the photo. Youre using the cameras internal flash and you also have a very large lens installed or a lens with a big lens hood. Either way, something is blocking the light from the internal flash. To fix the problem you could try a different lens, zoom wider if the lens is extended (ie: shorten the lens if its a zoom lens), remove the lens hood or use an external flash unit. Its also possible that youre too close (a metre or less) to the subject. 5) I took two flash photos in rapid succession and the second one is totally dark. All flash units take a number of seconds to charge up between flash bursts. Some flash units have rapid-fire abilities which let them fire the flash even if the internal capacitor is not yet fully charged - but others dont. So if your second photo is dark it probably means that your flash unit lacks rapid-fire capabilities. You have to wait for the unit to charge up fully (and the pilot light on the back of the unit goes on) before taking the second photo. However, if your flash does have rapid-fire capabilities then you probably took the second photo too quickly and the flash unit hadnt enough time to recharge to an adequate power level. Note that different types of batteries charge up the flash at different speeds, so if this is a consistent problem you should look into your battery options. 6) Ive put a diffuser or reflector on my flash. Do I have to compensate for this somehow?
the subject and then set the flash duration time yourself; a cumbersome and errorprone process. Modern flash units automate this process completely through the use of computer-controlled electronics. Controlling flash exposure. In regular photography you have two basic ways by which to control the amount of ambient (available) light entering the camera and exposing the film. You can adjust the shutter speed, which affects the duration of the exposure since ambient light is essentially constant in this context. And you can adjust the lens aperture - the physical diaphragm on most lenses which governs the quantity of light that enters the lens. (you can also use different lenses, add filters to the lens and so on, but were talking about the fundamental issues here) However, flash photography is quite different since it involves split-second bursts of light. A key point to remember in flash photography is that the shutter speed of the camera normally does not have any bearing on flash exposure - an exception being FP mode, mentioned later. Light from a continuous source is affected by shutter speeds, but flash bursts are so brief - in the milliseconds - that a mechanical shutter mechanism has no way of limiting the amount of light from a flash unit that hits the film. Shutter speed only affects the amount of ambient light. You therefore have four basic ways to control how much light from a flash unit exposes the film. First, you can adjust the lens aperture. However, lens apertures also affect the amount of ambient light striking the film as well, so it would obviously be hugely inconvenient if that were the only option at our disposal. Second, you can adjust the distance from the flash unit to the subject. Light falloff follows known physical laws and so can reliably be calculated, but of course itd be very inconvenient if you had to move the flash unit around all the time just to adjust flash exposures. That sort of thing is fine in a studio setting, but not for casual or photojournalist photography. Additionally, altering flash unit/subject distances affects the relative size of the flash light source, which results in different qualities of light (hard vs soft). Third, you can put various diffusers or light baffles between the flash unit and the subject, which would be a nuisance to carry around and deal with. Fourth, you can adjust the duration of the flash pulse as mentioned above, which thereby affects the intensity of the light produced. And this is the primary method of control we use for electronic flash.
P mode the camera sets the shutter speed to a value between 1/60 and Xsync. In the other modes it meters normally. (except on certain cameras which have a custom function that can lock the camera to X-sync in Av mode) When the shutter release is pressed all the way the camera flips up the mirror and opens the shutter, exposing the film. The flash unit sends power to the flash tube, illuminating the scene. The start time of the flash triggering depends on whether first or second curtain sync has been set. Duration of the flash pulse is determined by the OTF sensor, which meters for an average scene. If the photo is being taken under bright lighting conditions (10 EV or brighter), auto fill reduction is applied. (unless it has been disabled by a custom function, as is possible on some bodies) This can reduce the flash output by anywhere from 0.5 to 1.5 stops. As soon as the flash unit determines that the foreground subject has been adequately lit - by this realtime measurement of reflected flash light - it cuts off the power to the flash tube and the light from the flash unit is immediately quenched. The shutter stays open for the full duration of the shutter speed time. The mirror flips down and the shutter closes. If the flash unit has a flash exposure confirmation light and if the flash metering was deemed adequate then the light glows. One note - since the sensor records light reflecting off the surface of the film itself it will of course react differently to film with very different reflective properties. According to B&Hs Henry Posner on the EOS list, all cameras with TTL flash are calibrated to work with the emulsion characteristics of typical colour print film and there may, therefore, be very subtle differences in flash metering when you use slide film. Since slide film has very narrow exposure tolerances (latitude) this might be an issue for you. Cameras which support TTL flash: The T90 and all EOS film cameras except the EF-M. The digital D30, D60, 1D, 1Ds, 10D, 300D/Digital Rebel/Kiss Digital and 1D mark II cameras do not support TTL. Flash units which support TTL flash: All E series Speedlites plus the 300TL: 160E, 200E, 220EX, 300EZ, 380EX, 420EZ, 420EX, 430EZ, 540EZ, 550EX, 480EG, MR-14EX, MT-24EX and 300TL.
Refinements to TTL flash, including Canon AIM. TTL metering is more reliable than systems which rely on external sensors, but it can still be fooled. For example, a highly reflective subject or a subject in white surroundings can result in a lot of light reflecting back, so the resulting picture may well be underexposed as the camera quenches the flash too soon. An off-centre subject poses similar problems. Another issue is that the flash metering occurs while the shutter is open, so the camera cant accurately factor flash in with ambient light metering. Canon refined TTL control on their multiple focus point cameras by adding a feature they call AIM, (Advanced Integrated Multi-point Control System) which is basically multiple-segment flash metering. This lets the camera bias the flash exposure to the
along with the EOS 10/10S - the 35-135mm 4-5.6 USM, 70-210mm 3.5-4.5 USM, and 100-300mm 4.5-5.6 USM. Its also not clear what the resolution is of a typical lens distance decoder. Photos Ive seen of the decoder rings (not quite like childrens toys in a cereal packet) in one lens suggest that the distance data is fairly approximate, with each combination of distance contacts returning a certain distance range. I have no information as to whether any third-party lenses compatible with the EF lens mount are capable of returning distance data. EF 14mm 2.8L USM EF 20mm 2.8 USM EF 24mm 1.4L USM EF 28mm 1.8 USM EF 35mm 1.4L USM MP-E 65mm 2.8 1-5x Macro EF 85mm 1.8 USM EF 100mm 2 USM EF 100mm 2.8 Macro USM EF 100mm 2.8 Macro (discontinued) EF 135mm 2L USM EF 180mm 3.5L Macro USM EF 200mm 2.8L II USM EF 200mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) EF 300mm 2.8L IS USM EF 300mm 4L IS USM EF 300mm 4L USM (discontinued) EF 400mm 2.8L IS USM EF 400mm 4 DO IS USM EF 400mm 5.6L USM EF 500mm 4L IS USM EF 600mm 4L IS USM EF 1200mm 5.6L USM EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF 16-35mm 2.8L USM 17-35mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) 17-40mm 4L USM 20-35mm 3.5-4.5 USM 24-70mm 2.8L USM 24-85mm 3.5-4.5 USM 28-70mm 2.8L USM (discontinued) 28-80mm 3.5-5.6 USM (discontinued) 28-105mm 3.5-4.5 USM (discontinued) 28-105mm 3.5-4.5 II USM 28-105mm 4-5.6 USM 28-105mm 4-5.6 28-200mm 3.5-5.6 USM 28-200mm 3.5-5.6 (discontinued) 28-300mm 3.5-5.6L IS USM 35-135mm 4-5.6 USM (discontinued) 70-200mm 2.8L IS USM 70-200mm 2.8L USM
EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
70-200mm 4L USM 70-210mm 3.5-4.5 USM (discontinued) 70-300mm 4.5-5.6 DO IS USM 90-300mm 4.5-5.6 USM 90-300mm 4.5-5.6 100-300mm 4.5-5.6 USM 100-400mm 4.5-5.6L IS USM
EF-S 18-55mm 3.5-5.6 USM (Japan only) EF-S 18-55mm 3.5-5.6 If your lens doesnt appear on the list above then it may not have distance data capabilities. Here are a few current lenses in the EF lineup which dont have distance data. Note the 50mm 1.4 USM and the 85mm 1.2L USM are in this list. EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF 15mm 2.8 fisheye 24mm 2.8 28mm 2.8 35mm 2.0 50mm 1.4 USM 50mm 1.8 II 85mm 1.2L USM 135mm 2.8 SF 28-80mm 3.5-5.6 II 28-90mm 4-5.6 II USM 28-90mm 4-5.6 II 35-80mm 4-5.6 III 55-200mm 4.5-5.6 II USM 75-300mm 4-5.6 IS USM 75-300mm 4-5.6 III USM 75-300mm 4-5.6 II 80-200mm 4.5-5.6 II
Flash units which end with Z, such as the 430EZ, are flash units with zooming motors and support for A-TTL but not E-TTL. The 480EG flash has a built-in grip. Flashes end in E only, such as the 200E, are basic models with neither zooming heads nor E-TTL support. Although this naming system is very reasonable it does mean its easy to confuse different models which happen to have identical guide numbers. For example, the 420EZ and 420EX flash units are very different indeed. The former was top of the line for its time, but supports only TTL and A-TTL and is now quite dated. The latter is considered a midrange flash unit in todays lineup, and although is technologically much more sophisticated as it supports both E-TTL and wireless flash slave mode, it lacks stroboscopic mode and has no manual controls. Older Canon Speedlite flash units. Older Canon Speedlite flash units which lack the letter E in their product name were not designed for EOS cameras. There were Speedlite A models (eg: 199A) for old Aseries Canons such as the A1 and AE1 and Speedlite T models (eg: 277T) for Tseries Canons such as the T50 (but not the T90) and various other special-purpose models. You can put these older flashes on your EOS camera and theyll trigger OK when you take a photo, but they cant use modern automated flash metering. So you have to either use them in auto mode if they have such a setting (set your camera to a shutter speed up to the cameras X-sync), dial in manual power and calculate the flash distance yourself if they have manual controls or else expect the flash to fire at full power. I dont know if all earlier Speedlite products have safe triggering voltages or not. The list maintained by Kevin Bjorke on his Web site suggests that T series flash units are OK and most A series and older flash units are in a grey zone, but you should probably check for yourself. The one exception is the 300TL flash unit. It was designed for the old Canon T90 camera, and its more advanced features (such as its versions of FEL and secondcurtain sync) are not supported by EOS cameras. However it can be used with EOS cameras as a basic TTL flash unit even though it lacks an E designation. Hotshoe flashes. Canon sell and have sold a number of different standard hotshoe flash units, which can be divided into three basic categories. Have a look here for a brief comparison of E and EZ (ie: non-EX) flash units. Basic flash units - 160E*, 200E, 220EX. These small devices have very limited power output - you could think of them as little flash units for those cameras which lack built-in flash. The 160E and 200E support TTL only, but the 220EX supports both TTL and E-TTL. They do not zoom, swivel or tilt, but are extremely compact and lightweight. The tiny 160E is the only Canon flash unit which does not use four AA cells - it uses a lithium 2CR5 battery
Not recommended: The 380EX* can tilt but cant swivel. It also cant be used as a wireless slave. Unless money is a serious concern and you find a 380EX on sale for a really good price Id get the 420EX instead, since the 420EX usually doesnt cost much more.
I have specialized requirements: Macro photography with a type B body: the ML-3*. Macro photography with a type A body: the MR-14EX. Macro photography with a type A body and a huge budget: the MT-24EX. News or wedding photography for which massive light output is important and subtle control is not: the 480EG. Though Metz offer many high-powered grip models which offer more control over the Canon unit. What about third party units? A number of companies other than Canon sell EOS-compatible flash units. The vast majority, however, are TTL only. There is also a small risk of compatibility problems with both current and future EOS camera bodies. If youre satisfied with TTL operation (particularly if you have a type B camera with no plans to upgrade to a type A) and youve tested the flash unit to ensure that it works with your existing camera body, then an inexpensive third party unit may be the way to go if youre on a tight budget. But I cant offer any recommendations for such cheap units because there are so many different brand names which sell them. Many of these units are actually the same basic product, rebadged and sold by different distributors. So if a cheap third-party product is of interest to you Id recommend you go to your local camera shop and look around.
There are some better units worth considering as well. Metz make a wide range of well-featured and powerful flash units with interchangeable adapter modules (including an E-TTL capable module for type A cameras), and Sigma sell the popular EF 500 Super, which supports E-TTL and wireless E-TTL operation.
On to Part II.
- NK Guy, tela design. Disclaimer and copyright: This site is copyright 2001-2004 NK Guy, tela design. This information is provided with neither warranties nor claims of accuracy or completeness of any sort. Use this information at your own risk. All trademarks mentioned herein belong to their respective owners. I wrote this document in the hope that others in the Internet community might find it useful or interesting. However, I dont think its reasonable for anyone else to earn money from - or take credit for - my work. Therefore you may copy and print this document for your own personal use. You may not, however, reprint or republish this work, in whole or in part, without prior permission from me, the author. Such republication includes inclusion of this work in other Web sites, Web pages, FTP archives, books, magazines or other periodicals, CD-ROM and DVD-ROM compilations or any other form of publication or distribution. Please do not frame this site within another. Please send feedback if you find this article to be of interest or value or if you have any comments, corrections or suggestions. Please also consider making a donation to help defray some of the costs of building and maintaining this site. Thanks! Thanks to Jim Strutz, Mark Overton, Gerard Maas, Steve Dunn, Julian Loke, Lewis Macdonald and Martijn Stol for valuable suggestions to this document. Any errors or omissions are purely my own, however.
As noted in the section on X-sync, Canon EOS cameras (and basically all SLRs) have two moving curtains in the shutter mechanism. The first curtain opens the shutter and the second curtain closes it. Lets say you take a flash photo of a static object combined with a long shutter speed. Normally the shutter opens, the flash fires, time passes and then the shutter closes. Now lets say youre taking a photo of a moving object. The object is illuminated enough to leave light trails recorded on the film as the object moves along. But if you fire the flash immediately after the shutter opens then youve got a bit of a problem, since the light trails will appear to be moving in front of the flashilluminated object. The object will actually sort of look like its moving backwards. Second-curtain sync. To solve the first-curtain sync problem mentioned above, and to get the light trails looking like theyre following behind the moving object as they should, you need to fire the flash right before the shutter closes. This is called second curtain or rear curtain sync flash since the flash is fired about 1.5 milliseconds before the second curtain of the shutter starts to close. The result is a photo which expresses motion nicely - it will show light trails following the moving object. The Canon T90/Speedlite 300TL was apparently the first camera/flash combination to support this feature. The drawback to second curtain sync is that it can make it harder to take a photo if youve got a really long shutter period. With first curtain sync you can see the moving object in the viewfinder and can thus trigger the shutter at the exact moment. But with second curtain sync you a) cant see the moving object when the shutter is open, because with SLRs the mirror flips up out of the way and b) you have to predict accurately whether or not the object will still be in the frame at the end of the exposure period. For these two reasons EOS cameras ship with first curtain sync as the default. Theres one minor issue to be aware of if you use E-TTL flash with second-curtain sync. The E-TTL preflash occurs prior to the shutter opening, and so the flash will visibly fire twice when youre using long shutter speeds and second-curtain. (the preflash always fires before the shutter opening - its just that with a long shutter speed and second curtain sync, the time delay between the two flashes is increased and thus more noticeable) This delay between preflash and subject-illuminating flash usually doesnt have any negative side-effects, but there are two cases in which it might be a problem. First, if the subject is moving then the preflash metering obviously wont be right for the final exposure - FEL may be required. And second, the preflash might confuse human subjects if theyre expecting just one flash. They might assume youve taken the photo and walk off or look away from the camera. See the section on how to enable second-curtain sync, if its available on your particular camera and flash combination. Colour temperature theory.
Canon do not build any flash units specifically intended for use as studio equipment. However, you can buy hotshoe adapters - optical or wired - to turn any flash you want into a slave, and the 480EG can be slaved via the optional Synchro Cord 480. Hotshoe adapters arent always reliable with every camera and flash unit combination, so its worthwhile doing some testing first. In particular, a lot of people have reported problems with small optical slaves not being able to trigger Canon Speedlite flash units more than once without the flash being turned off and turned on again between each shot. The Ikelite Lite-Link is one device designed to work with Canon flash units that apparently does not have this problem. It also has a sort of simulated TTL feature - it can cut the light from the slave flash as soon as the master flash has quenched its light, rather than simply firing at full power. Finally, Canon state in their literature that a sync speed of perhaps 1/60 or 1/125 is required for studio flash. There are two reasons why they suggest speeds this low, even if the cameras capable of higher flash sync with TTL-metering portable Speedlite flash units. First, many older studio units take quite a while to attain full brightness or have slight colour shifts depending on the flash duration. And second, the triggering delay (the time that elapses between the camera triggering the flash and the flash unit actually firing) with slaved studio flash units is often longer than the very brief and known triggering time with TTL flash units. For these reasons youre probably best off doing a series of tests with a new slaved flash unit setup at different shutter speeds to determine what the top shutter speed for your configuration is going to be. Particularly with optical and radio slave units or older flash units. Note that Canon do sell a number of flash units that can serve as slave units in a wireless E-TTL setup - see the section on wireless E-TTL for details. Flash meters. Regular light meters cannot measure the split-second burst of light from a flash unit. For that you need a specialized flash meter, though of course many devices can meter for both ambient and flash light. These are useful in studio situations, when youre using flash units that dont have any TTL or E-TTL capabilities. You might, for example, have a large studio flash unit bouncing light onto the subject by means of a flash umbrella. You could use the handheld flash meter to determine accurately the correct flash output settings to expose the subject properly. Since this article deals primarily with automated through-the-lens metered flash I dont deal with flash meters. There are many other online resources and books to help you learn more about flash metering, however. Flash sync trivia. I havent been able to find out why shutter sync with electronic flash is referred to as X sync. Some random reason lost in the mists of time, no doubt. Really old cameras also had M-sync connectors, which were designed for non-electronic single-
Camera bodies which only support FEC when used with an external Speedlite flash unit which has FEC controls: EOS 600/630, RT, 700, 1, 10/10s, all EOS 1000 series cameras, all EOS Rebel series cameras, all EOS Kiss series cameras, 300, 300V, 500, 500N, 5000/888, 3000/88, 3000N, IX Lite/IX 50/IX 7, EOS 300D/Digital Rebel/Kiss Digital. Camera body which supports FEC on the internal flash but not on external flash units unless they have external FEC controls: EOS Elan/100. Camera bodies which support FEC on internal flash units and can also control FEC on any external Speedlite flash unit: EOS 5/A2(E), Elan II(E), 50(E)/55, IX, Elan 7(E), 30/33/7, D30, D60, 10D. Camera bodies which lack internal flash units but which can control FEC on any external Speedlite flash unit: EOS 1N, 1NRS, DCS 1/3/5, D2000, D6000, 3, 1V, 1D, 1Ds, 1D mark II. Camera bodies with a flash exposure level scale on the right side of the viewfinder: EOS 1N, 1V, 1D, 1Ds, 1D mark II. Flash units with external FEC controls: Speedlites 430EZ, 540EZ, 550EX, MR-14EX, MT-24EX.
Faking flash exposure compensation. Its possible to fake FEC if your camera and flash combination lacks the ability. It basically involves fiddling with your cameras manual ISO (film speed) override. You cant simply adjust exposure compensation because doing so affects both ambient exposure settings and flash exposure settings simultaneously. The workaround is thus to do the ambient metering first and locking it into place by going into manual metering mode. This puts both the shutter speed and aperture under your direct control. Once thats done you can manually alter the ISO setting of the camera (if your camera supports this, as the vast majority of EOS cameras do). If you lower the film speed rating youre essentially tricking the camera into producing more flash output - halving the ISO results in one stop more flash output. If you raise the film speed rating then the camera will produce less flash output doubling the ISO results in one stop less flash output. The drawbacks to this technique are obvious and threefold. First, its rather fiddly since altering ISO isnt a commonly changed thing and thus the interface isnt the easiest to use. Second, you have to be certain to set the ISO value back to its correct setting when youre done or else you risk messing up the exposure settings for the rest of the roll. And third, you cant really use it if your camera lacks manual ISO controls altogether. Flash exposure lock (FEL). EOS cameras (type A) which support E-TTL also support flash exposure lock when used with EX flash units. This feature lets you lock flash settings in, then optionally recompose the image before taking the final photo. This allows you to adjust the flash settings in certain difficult to meter cases. Canon first introduced FEL in 1986 with their T90 camera and 300TL flash, but dropped the feature with the first EOS
cameras. It wasnt until 1995, with the introduction of the Elan II(E)/50/55 and ETTL, that FEL made its return. FEL works by issuing a preflash when the AE lock button or, if the camera has one, when the FEL button is pressed. (on most EOS cameras the AE lock and flash exposure features are tied together, but top of the line EOS cameras have separate FEL buttons which allow you to set AE lock and FEL independently) The camera then stores flash exposure data, biased towards either the current focus point or the central focus point, for a 16 second period or for as long as you keep the shutter release pressed halfway. During this time you can recompose the photo or you can adjust the aperture and shutter speed (overriding AE lock, which is set when you press the AE lock button, if you like). FEL is thus useful for taking photos in which the subject is not covered by one of the focus points or photos containing reflective surfaces which can fool flash metering or certain cases in which the subject is moving. Its also useful for scenes in which you want to bias the flash exposure to something other than the current focus point. A major drawback with FEL is that the E-TTL preflash occurs when the AE lock or FEL button is pressed, which can confuse your photographic subjects who may think that the photograph is already taken. If you lock focus on a scene and recompose you will likely have poor flash metering, since E-TTL biases flash metering to the current focus point. Use FEL instead to avoid this problem. Some cameras have a custom function (CF 8 on the Elan II(E)/EOS 50/55 and Elan 7(E)/EOS 30/33/7) which lets you specify whether you want partial metering and FEL tied to the central focus point - the default - or to the active focus point instead. Cameras that support FEL: All type A bodies. Cameras with separate FEL buttons: EOS 3, 1V, 1D, 1Ds, 1d mark II. Flash units which support FEL with type A bodies: All EX series flash units. The T90 and the 300TL flash unit support FEL, but only with each other. Their FEL protocols are not compatible with E-TTL, and so putting an EX series flash unit on a T90 will not give you FEL. Flash exposure bracketing (FEB). Recent high-end EOS flashes - the 550EX, MR-14EX and MT-24EX - support flash exposure bracketing. Its a function of the flash unit - the Canon Flash Work brochure says that these recent high-end flash units can do FEB on any EOS camera except the 650, 620, 750, 850 - and EF-M. This is a similar concept to auto-exposure bracketing (AEB), only instead of changing ambient exposure settings you shoot a series of three photographs with normal,
positive flash compensation and negative flash compensation. You can apply the bracketing value in half, third or full stop values. Enabling second curtain sync. This depends very much on the camera and flash unit that youre using. Early on, Canon put control for this feature on the flash unit. Later they switched to putting control for this feature on the camera body. So whether you have second-curtain sync available to you depends on a complicated set of permutations. Many mid to high end Canon flash units, listed below, have a button or switch which lets you enable second curtain sync. Its usually marked with a triple triangle ( >>> ) symbol or the word SYNC. For instance, on the 430EZ and 540EZ you press the + and - buttons together simultaneously to turn on second-curtain sync. When you do so a triple triangle symbol appears in the LCD. On the 300EZ and 300TL theres a small slide switch - left is first-curtain sync and right is second-curtain. Most midrange and professional EOS bodies from the A2(E)/5 onwards have a custom function that lets you specify whether you want first or second curtain flash. The exception is the original Elan/100, which had a custom function that can only control the internal flash and not external flash units. In the case of a camera with a custom function and an external flash unit which has a second curtain switch it appears the physical switch on the flash takes priority, though this may vary from model to model. Low-end EOS cameras, such as the 1000 series or Rebel series, do not have any custom functions and so cannot control second curtain sync options directly. So to take advantage of second curtain sync on such cameras you must have an external flash which has externally-available controls to operate it. Second-curtain sync cannot be used with any EOS camera in a PIC (icon) mode - you have to be set in P, Av, Tv or M modes. And you cant set second-curtain sync in stroboscopic mode or FP mode, since that wouldnt make any sense. Finally, secondcurtain sync requires a dedicated Speedlite flash unit - it isnt supported on flash units connected via a PC socket. List of which flash units and camera bodies have second-curtain sync. Note: verifying this information is difficult, since its not listed on all product specs, and I dont have access to every camera and flash unit that Canon have ever built. I believe this list is accurate, but please let me know if there are any errors. Flash units which do not support second-curtain sync: Speedlites 160E, 200E, 480EG, ML-3. Flash units with external second-curtain sync controls: Speedlites 300EZ, 420EZ, 430EZ, 540EZ, 540EZ, 550EX, MR-14EX, MT-24EX. Flash units which can use second-curtain sync when used with any EOS body that has a second-curtain sync custom function other than the Elan/100: Speedlites 220EX, 380EX, 420EX, 550EX, MR-14EX, MT-24EX.
Another important thing to remember is that you do not have to adjust flash compensation when using a diffuser in any automatic flash metering mode that works through the lens (TTL, A-TTL or E-TTL) - just put the diffuser on the flash unit and shoot away. The camera will adjust automatically for the stop or two that the diffuser costs you, up to the limits of the flash units light output. Of course, if you plan on shooting in manual flash metering mode youll need to factor in the reduced light output yourself through testing. Finally, dont think you have to spend the money on these accessories. You can always just slap together a homemade flash diffuser out of a white translucent milk jug or tracing paper or thin fabric or whatever else you have lying around. A common trick is to angle the flash unit vertically, then use an elastic band to wrap an index card around the back of the flash head. This provides some forward light in addition to the light bouncing off the ceiling. The expensive accessories are mainly just more convenient and professional-looking. Flash brackets. As noted above, the large metal brackets from companies such as Stroboframe and Newton, and designed for mounting external flash units to a camera, are commonly used by wedding photographers and the press for reducing the risk of the redeye effect. However they also serve other purposes as well. By raising the flash up above the lens you also reduce ugly flash shadows cast onto walls behind a subject. The shadows still occur; theyre simply lowered down below the subject and thus may not appear in the final picture. Many flash brackets also have rotating attachments which allows you to keep the flash centred above the lens at all times rather than having it on the side when you take photos in portrait orientation rather than landscape. The primary drawbacks of flash brackets are that theyre very large and cumbersome and that they make you look like youve got a huge gigantic camera rig - which can frighten your human subjects or make them feel much more self-conscious than they would normally. Another drawback involves AF assist lights. If you raise the flash off the camera you may find that the assist light on the flash unit no longer lines up correctly with the cameras focus points, thanks to simple geometry. Ironically this isnt a problem for A2/5 and 10/10s users, because those cameras never activate the AF assist light on external flash units. External battery packs. Most of Canons high-end flash units have sockets on the side which can accommodate external high-voltage (270 volts) battery packs. These packs have two basic functions - they speed up the flashs recycle time between shots to a second or two (critical for news or wedding photography) and extend the time you can go between changing batteries. Theyre also useful in cold weather (battery performance always drops precipitately at freezing temperatures) since you can stuff the pack inside your jacket to keep the cells warm if necessary.
Here is a handful of tips and potential pitfall areas. To begin with, however, a brief discussion about the quality of light (the kind; not a value judgement) involved in flash photography. Quality of light. Im sure weve all had the experience - getting a roll of film back from the lab, only to find that the photos are all harshly lit and disappointing. How is that the professionals get such wonderful looking photos? Well, there are many reasons for this, but since this is an article about flash photography Im going to discuss just one very common reason why amateur photographs can look terrible - flash.
The problem comes down to the quality of light. For a professional-looking photo of a person you generally want very soft light; light which lacks distinct shadows. Hard light, by contrast, tends to produce sharp-edged shadows, emphasizes facial blemishes and generally looks very unflattering. The difference between hard and soft lighting essentially comes down to the relative size of the light source compared to the subject. Soft lighting is light which originates from a large area. Think of an overcast day, when the suns light is filtered through clouds covering the entire sky - shadows are very soft. By contrast, a stage spotlight will cast a perfectly sharp circle. And so this is the crux of the matter. Portable camera flashes are essentially designed to work like spotlights and have pretty small light-emitting areas - just a few square centimetres. This is partly for portability reasons and partly because flash units are designed to achieve the maximum distance range possible, by concentrating their light output with a reflector and lens. Any softening of the light necessarily involves a reduction in efficiency and range. So the light from a flash unit is, therefore, very hard-edged and harsh. Sometimes you want light like that - for illuminating glittery objects and emphasizing specular highlights. But for many things you dont. The easiest way to soften the lighting in your flash photos is to bounce the light from the flash unit off a large white surface. White walls and ceilings work very well for this, as do large portable folding reflectors. You can also buy diffusers that attach to your flash that can help as well, either by distributing the light in more directions so the light can bounce off walls and ceilings, or by increasing the light-producing area somewhat. Remember that coloured surfaces will add a colour cast to the light something you should always be aware of when bouncing light in interior spaces. A blood-red wall is going to reflect red light onto your subject. Studio flash units (the big kind that plug in the wall) are frequently used with photographic umbrellas or softboxes to give the light source a larger surface area. Umbrellas are large folding umbrellas lined with white or silver, off which the light from the flash unit is bounced. (ie: the flash unit is mounted in the middle of the umbrella facing away from the subject, and the light bounces outwards) Softboxes are large boxes with reflective interiors and diffused white fabric front panels. Portable battery-operated flash units dont really have the power required to illuminate large studios when used with umbrellas and large panel diffusers. But if youre on a budget and working in a smaller space, a photo umbrella - or even a regular umbrella painted silver on the inside and taped to a stand - can be a handy tool. So can directing the light from your flash unit through a simple frame with thin white fabric stretched over it. Experiment to find out what works for you. Here again, incidentally, digital cameras have a huge advantage - you can move things around and experiment constantly and get immediate feedback on the screen as to whether the new configuration works or not. Remember that its the relative size of the light source compared to the subject thats important. A huge softbox a long way away from a subject has the same kind of hard light as does a small diffused flash close up. So placing the diffused lightsource close to the subject is important as well. In studio situations softboxes are often positioned just outside the frame of the image area.
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