# Casio FX-991ES Plus

# Manual

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# Video review

## Casio fx 991ES

### User reviews and opinions

KTAS |
10:46am on Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 |

NICE AND WELL MADE PRODUCT.. | |

Qaseem |
8:07am on Wednesday, September 29th, 2010 |

updated calculator so far! | |

ssk1 |
12:16pm on Monday, September 20th, 2010 |

Una calcolatrice completa. Una calcolatrice che permette di fare tutto il necessario, esclusi i grafici, per gli studi ingegneristici. Casio FX-991ES Calculator Recommended for GCSE and A level maths. I bought one for my son a while ago and now a second one for my daughter. | |

lornajane |
9:49am on Sunday, August 1st, 2010 |

My mother recently saw a woman selling items on the road for very cheap prices, and one of them was several fx-991MS Scientific Calculator. | |

Graeme Higgins |
9:31am on Monday, July 26th, 2010 |

I bought this calculator for my A level examinations. It is terribly handy, I do a lot of maths and be it calculus, vectors. Grand Theft Auto had been one of my favourite series ever since the first one was released. I had played GTA 3 a bit late. |

Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.

### Documents

Never try to take the calculator apart. Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the calculator. Whenever discarding the calculator or batteries, be sure to do so in accordance with the laws and regulations in your particular area. * Company and product names used in this manual may be registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective owners.

#### Removing the Hard Case

Before using the calculator, slide its hard case downwards to remove it, and then affix the hard case to the back of the calculator as shown in the illustration nearby.

#### Turning Power On and Off

Press Press to turn on the calculator. (OFF) to turn off the calculator. Auto Power Off Your calculator will turn off automatically if you do not perform any operation key to turn the calculator for about 10 minutes. If this happens, press the back on.

Adjusting Display Contrast

Display the CONTRAST screen by performing the following key operation: (SETUP) ( CONT ). Next, use and to adjust. contrast. After the setting is the way you want, press Important: If adjusting display contrast does not improve display readability, it probably means that battery power is low. Replace the battery.

#### Key Markings

Pressing the or key followed by a second key performs the alternate function of the second key. The alternate function is indicated by the text printed above the key. The following shows what the different colors of the alternate function key text mean. If key marking text is this color: Yellow Red Purple (or enclosed in purple brackets) It means this: and then the key to access the Press applicable function. and then the key to input the Press applicable variable, constant, or symbol. Enter the CMPLX Mode to access the function.

#### Alternate function

Keycap function

#### sin1 D

Green (or enclosed in Enter the BASE-N Mode to access the function. green brackets)

#### Reading the Display

The display of the calculator shows expressions you input, calculation results, and various indicators.

#### Input expression

Indicators

#### Calculation result

If a indicator appears on the right side of the calculation result, it means and to the displayed calculation result continues to the right. Use scroll the calculation result display. If a indicator appears on the right side of the input expression, it means and to scroll the the displayed calculation continues to the right. Use input expression display. Note that if you want to scroll the input expression while both the and indicators are displayed, you will need to press and to scroll. first and then use Display indicators This indicator: Means this: The keypad has been shifted by pressing the key. The keypad will unshift and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. The alpha input mode has been entered by pressing the key. The alpha input mode will be exited and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. There is a value stored in independent memory. The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to assign a value to the variable. This indicator appears after you press (STO). The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to recall the variables value. This indicator appears after you press. The calculator is in the STAT Mode. The calculator is in the CMPLX Mode. The calculator is in the MATRIX Mode. The calculator is in the VECTOR Mode. The default angle unit is degrees. The default angle unit is radians. The default angle unit is grads. FIX SCI Math A fixed number of decimal places is in effect. A fixed number of significant digits is in effect. Natural Display is selected as the display format. Calculation history memory data is available and can be replayed, or there is more data above/below the current screen.

Calculation Priority Sequence

The priority sequence of input calculations is evaluated in accordance with the rules below. When the priority of two expressions is the same, the calculation is performed from left to right.

#### 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Parenthetical expressions Functions that require an argument to the right and a closing parenthesis ) following the argument. Functions that come after the input value (x2, x3, x1, x!, , , r, g, %, t), powers (x ), roots ( ) Fractions Negative sign (), base-n symbols (d, h, b, o) Note: When squaring a negative value (such as 2), the value being squared must be enclosed in parentheses ( 2 ). Since x2 has a higher priority than the negative sign, inputting 2 would result in the squaring of 2 and then appending a negative sign to the result. Always keep the priority sequence in mind, and enclose negative values in parentheses when required. Metric conversion commands (cm in, etc.), STAT Mode estimated values ( , , 1, 2) Multiplication where the multiplication sign is omitted Permutation (nPr), combination (nCr), complex number polar coordinate symbol ( ) Dot product () Multiplication, division ( , ) Addition, subtraction (+, ) Logical AND (and) Logical OR, XOR, XNOR (or, xor, xnor)

6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th

Inputting with Natural Display

Selecting Natural Display makes it possible to input and display fractions and , , x1, 10 , e , , d/dx, , Abs) just certain functions (log, x2, x3, x , , as they are written in your textbook. 2+' 2 1+' 2

Important: Certain types of expressions can cause the height of a calculation formula to be greater than one display line. The maximum allowable height of a calculation formula is two display screens (31 dots 2). Further input will become impossible if the height of the calculation you are inputting exceeds the allowable limit. Nesting of functions and parentheses is allowed. Further input will become impossible if you nest too many functions and/or parentheses. If this happens, divide the calculation into multiple parts and calculate each part separately. and obtain a calculation result using Natural Note: When you press Display, part of the expression you input may be cut off. If you need to view and then use and to the entire input expression again, press scroll the input expression.

#### Basic Calculations

Fraction Calculations

Note that the input method for fractions is different, depending upon whether you are using Natural Display or Linear Display. 2 + 1 = or 43 = 4 ( )2

Note: Mixing fractions and decimal values in a calculation while Linear Display is selected will cause the result to be displayed as a decimal value. Fractions in calculation results are displayed after being reduced to their lowest terms. To switch a calculation result between improper fraction and mixed ( ) fraction format: Perform the following key operation: To switch a calculation result between fraction and decimal format:. Press

#### Percent Calculations

Inputting a value and pressing a percent. 150 20% = 30 (%) causes the input value to become

#### 2875 2625

Calculate what percentage of 880 is 660. (75%) Increase 2500 by 15%. (2875) Discount 3500 by 25%. (2625) 3500 3500

Degree, Minute, Second (Sexagesimal) Calculations

Performing an addition or subtraction operation between sexagesimal values, or a multiplication or division operation between a sexagesimal value and a decimal value will cause the result to be displayed as a sexagesimal value. You also can convert between sexagesimal and decimal. The following {minutes} is the input format for a sexagesimal value: {degrees}. {seconds} Note: You must always input something for the degrees and minutes, even if they are zero. 22030 + 3930 = 20 30

#### 2.255 21518

Convert 21518 to its decimal equivalent. 18 (Converts sexagesimal to decimal.) (Converts decimal to sexagesimal.)

#### Multi-Statements

You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or more expressions and. execute them in sequence from left to right when you press 3+3:(:) 3 3

Using Engineering Notation

A simple key operation transforms a displayed value to engineering notation. Transform the value 1234 to engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the right. 1234 1234

#### 1.E-11

Transform the value 123 to engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the left. ( ) 0.123103 ( ) 0.000123106

#### Calculation History

In the COMP, CMPLX, or BASE-N Mode, the calculator remembers up to approximately 200 bytes of data for the newest calculation. You can scroll and. through calculation history contents using 1+1=2 2+2=4 3+3=3 (Scrolls back.) (Scrolls back again.)

, r, g : These functions specify the angle unit. specifies degrees, r radians, and g grads. Input a function from the menu that appears when you perform the following key operation: (DRG ). See 3. , : Exponential functions. Note that the input method is different depending upon whether you are using Natural Display or Linear Display. See 4. log : Logarithmic function. Use the key to input logab as log (a, b). Base key also 10 is the default setting if you do not input anything for a. The can be used for input, but only while Natural Display is selected. In this case, you must input a value for the base. See 5. ln : Natural logarithm to base e. See

#### x2, x3, x ,

, , , x1 : Powers, power roots, and reciprocals. Note , , and are different depending upon that the input methods for x , whether you are using Natural Display or Linear Display. See 7.

x3, x , x1. If you input 2

Note: The following functions cannot be input in consecutive sequence: x2, , for example, the final will be ignored. To 2 , press the key, and then press. input 22 , input 2

: Function for performing numerical integration using the Gauss-Kronrod method. Natural Display input syntax is b f (x), while Linear Display input a syntax is ( f (x), a, b, tol). tol specifies tolerance, which becomes when nothing is input for tol. Also see Integration and Differential Calculation Precautions and Tips for Successful Integration Calculations for more information. See 8. : Function for approximation of the derivative based on the central difference method. Natural Display input syntax is Linear Display input syntax is

d , while dx ( f (x)) x = a d ( f (x), a, tol). tol specifies tolerance, dx which becomes when nothing is input for tol. Also see Integration

and Differential Calculation Precautions for more information. See : Function that, for a specified range of f(x), determines sum = f(a) + f(a+1) + f(a+2) +.+ f(b). Natural Display input syntax is

#### ( f (x))

( f (x)) , x=a while Linear Display input syntax is ( f(x), a, b). a and b are integers that can be specified within the range of a b 1 10. See 10. Note: The following cannot be used in f(x), a, or b: Pol, Rec, , d/dx,. Pol, Rec : Pol converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates, while Rec converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates. See 11. Pol(x, y) = (r, ) Rec(r, ) = (x, y) Specify the angle unit before performing calculations. The calculation result for r and and for x and y are each assigned respectively to variables X and Y. Calculation result is displayed in the range of 180 180.

Rectangular Coordinates (Rec)

#### Polar Coordinates (Pol)

x ! : Factorial function. See

Abs : Absolute value function. Note that the input method is different depending upon whether you are using Natural Display or Linear Display. See 13. Ran# : Generates a 3-digit pseudo random number that is less than 1. The result is displayed as a fraction when Natural Display is selected. See 14. RanInt# : For input of the function of the form RanInt#(a, b), which generates a random integer within the range of a to b. See 15.

nPr, nCr : Permutation (nPr) and combination (nCr) functions. See

Rnd : The argument of this function is made a decimal value and then rounded in accordance with the current number of display digits setting (Norm, Fix, or Sci). With Norm 1 or Norm 2, the argument is rounded off to 10 digits. With Fix and Sci, the argument is rounded off to the specified digit. When Fix 3 is the display digits setting, for example, the result of is displayed as 3.333, while the calculator maintains a value of 3.33333333333333 (15 digits) internally for calculation. In the case of Rnd(103) = 3.333 (with Fix 3), both the displayed value and the calculators internal value become 3.333. Because of this a series of calculations will produce different results depending on whether Rnd is used (Rnd(103) 3 = 9.999) or not used (3 = 10.000). See 17. Note: Using functions can slow down a calculation, which may delay display of the result. Do not perform any subsequent operation while waiting for the calculation result to appear. To interrupt an ongoing calculation before its result appears, press.

Integration and Differential Calculation Precautions

Integration and differential calculations can be performed in the COMP Mode ( ) only. The following cannot be used in f(x), a, b, or tol: Pol, Rec, , d/dx,. When using a trigonometric function in f(x), specify Rad as the angle unit. A smaller tol value increases precision, but it also increases calculation time. When specifying tol, use value that is or greater. Precautions for Integration Calculation Only Integration normally requires considerable time to perform. 1 For f(x) 0 where a x b (as in the case of 0 3x= 1), calculation will produce a negative result. Depending on the content of f(x) and the region of integration, calculation error that exceeds the tolerance may be generated, causing the calculator to display an error message. Precautions for Differential Calculation Only If convergence to a solution cannont be found when tol input is omitted, the tol value will be adjusted automatically to determine the solution. Non-consecutive points, abrupt fluctuation, extremely large or small points, inflection points, and the inclusion of points that cannot be differentiated, or a differential point or differential calculation result that approaches zero can cause poor precision or error.

Tips for Successful Integration Calculations

When a periodic function or integration interval results in positive and negative f(x) function values Perform separate integrations for each cycle, or for the positive part and the negative part, and then combine the results.

#### (SOLVE)

Prompts for input of a value for Y

#### Current value of Y

Current value of X

Input an initial value for X (Here, input 1):

#### Solution screen

To exit SOLVE:

Note: During the time from when you press (SOLVE) until you exit SOLVE by pressing , you should use Linear Display input procedures for input. Important: Depending on what you input for the initial value for X (solution variable), SOLVE may not be able to obtain solutions. If this happens, try changing the initial value so they are closer to the solution. SOLVE may not be able to determine the correct solution, even when one exists. SOLVE uses Newtons Law, so even if there are multiple solutions, only one of them will be returned. Due to limitations in Newtons Law, solutions tend to be difficult to obtain for equations like the following: y = sin(x), y = ex, y = '. x

#### Solution Screen Contents

Solutions are always displayed in decimal format.

Equation (The equation you input.)

#### Variable solved for

Solution

(Left Side) (Right Side) result

(Left Side) (Right Side) result shows the result when the right side of the equation is subtracted from the left side, after assigning the obtained value to the variable being solved for. The closer this result is to zero, the higher the accuracy of the solution.

#### Continue Screen

SOLVE performs convergence a preset number of times. If it cannot find a solution, it displays a confirmation screen that shows Continue: [=], asking if you want to continue. Press to continue or to cancel the SOLVE operation. To solve y = x2 x + 1 for x when y = 3, 7, and 13 (Y) (X) (X) (=) 1

Statistical Calculations (STAT)

To start a statistical calculation, perform the key operation (STAT) to enter the STAT Mode and then use the screen that appears to select the type of calculation you want to perform. To select this type of statistical calculation: (Regression formula shown in parentheses) Press this key: Single-variable (X) Paired-variable (X, Y), linear regression ( y = A + Bx) Paired-variable (X, Y), quadratic regression ( y = A + Bx + Cx2) Paired-variable (X, Y), logarithmic regression ( y = A + Blnx) Paired-variable (X, Y), e exponential regression ( y = AeBx) Paired-variable (X, Y), ab exponential regression ( y = ABx) Paired-variable (X, Y), power regression ( y = Ax )

(1-VAR) (A+BX) ( _+CX2) (ln X) (e^X) (AB^X) (AX^B) (1/X)

Paired-variable (X, Y), inverse regression ( y = A + B/x)

Pressing any of the above keys ( to ) displays the Stat Editor. Note: When you want to change the calculation type after entering the STAT Mode, perform the key operation (STAT) (Type) to display the calculation type selection screen.

#### Inputting Data

Use the Stat Editor to input data. Perform the following key operation to display the Stat Editor: (STAT) (Data). The Stat Editor provides 80 rows for data input when there is an X column only, 40 rows when there are X and FREQ columns or X and Y columns, or 26 rows when there are X, Y, and FREQ columns.

Note: Use the FREQ (frequency) column to input the quantity (frequency) of identical data items. Display of the FREQ column can be turned on (displayed) or off (not displayed) using the Stat Format setting on the setup menu. 1 To select linear regression and input the following data: (170, 66), (173, 68), (179, 75)

#### (STAT)

(A+BX)

Important: All data currently input in the Stat Editor is deleted whenever you exit the STAT Mode, switch between the single-variable and a pairedvariable statistical calculation type, or change the Stat Format setting on the setup menu. The following operations are not supported by the Stat Editor: , (M), (STO). Pol, Rec, and multi-statements also cannot be input with the Stat Editor. To change the data in a cell: In the Stat Editor, move the cursor to the cell that contains the data you want to change, input the new data, and then. press To delete a line: In the Stat Editor, move the cursor to the line that you want. to delete and then press To insert a line: In the Stat Editor, move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the line and then perform the following key operation: (STAT) (Edit) (Ins). To delete all Stat Editor contents: In the Stat Editor, perform the following key operation: (STAT) (Edit) (Del-A).

Obtaining Statistical Values from Input Data

To obtain statistical values, press while in the Stat Editor and then recall the statistical variable (x n, x2, etc.) you want. Supported statistical variables and the keys you should press to recall them are shown below. For single-variable statistical calculations, the variables marked with an asterisk (*) are available.

x2*, x*, y2, y, xy, x3, x2y, x4 (STAT) (Sum) to Number of Items: n*, Mean: *, , Population Standard Deviation: x n*, y n, Sample Standard Deviation: x n1*, y n1 (STAT) (Var) to Regression Coefficients: A, B, Correlation Coefficient: r, Estimated Values: , (STAT) (Reg) to Regression Coefficients for Quadratic Regression: A, B, C, Estimated Values: 1, 2, (STAT) (Reg) to

See the table at the beginning of this section of the manual for the regression formulas. , 1, 2 and are not variables. They are commands of the type that take an argument immediately before them. See Calculating Estimated Values for more information. Minimum Value: minX*, minY, Maximum Value: maxX*, maxY (STAT) (MinMax) to Note: While single-variable statistical calculation is selected, you can input the functions and commands for performing normal distribution calculation from the menu that appears when you perform the following key operation: (STAT) (Distr). See Performing Normal Distribution Calculations for details. 2 To input the single-variable data x = {1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5}, using the FREQ column to specify the number of repeats for each items ({xn; freqn} = {1;1, 2;2, 3;3, 4;2, 5;1}), and calculate the mean and population standard deviation. (SETUP) (STAT) (ON) STAT (STAT) (1-VAR) 2 (STAT) (STAT) Results: Mean: (Var) (Var) ( ) (x n)

Population Standard Deviation: 1.154700538

To calculate the linear regression and logarithmic regression correlation coefficients for the following paired-variable data and determine the regression formula for the strongest correlation: (x, y) = (20, 3150), (110, 7310), (200, 8800), (290, 9310). Specify Fix 3 (three decimal places) for results. (SETUP) (SETUP) (STAT) (OFF) (Fix) (STAT) (A+BX) (STAT) (STAT) (STAT) (STAT) (STAT) (Reg) (Type) (Reg) (Reg) (Reg) (r) (In X) (r) (A) (B)

Results: Linear Regression Correlation Coefficient: 0.923 Logarithmic Regression Correlation Coefficient: 0.998 Logarithmic Regression Formula: y = 3857.984 + 2357.532lnx

Calculating Estimated Values

Based on the regression formula obtained by paired-variable statistical calculation, the estimated value of y can be calculated for a given x-value. The corresponding x-value (two values, x1 and x2, in the case of quadratic regression) also can be calculated for a value of y in the regression formula. 4 To determine the estimate value for y when x = 160 in the regression formula produced by logarithmic regression of the data in 3. Specify Fix 3 for the result. (Perform the following operation after completing the operations in 3.) 160 (STAT) (Reg) ( )

Result: 8106.898 Important: Regression coefficient, correlation coefficient, and estimated value calculations can take considerable time when there are a large number of data items.

Performing Normal Distribution Calculations

While single-variable statistical calculation is selected, you can perform normal distribution calculation using the functions shown below from the menu that appears when you perform the following key operation: (STAT) (Distr). P, Q, R: These functions take the argument t and determine a probability of standard normal distribution as illustrated below.

#### P (t) Q (t) R (t)

t: This function is preceded by the argument X, and determines the

#### normalized variate.

5 For the single variable data {xn ; freqn} = {0;1, 1;2, 2;1, 3;2, 4;2, 5;2, 6;3, 7;4, 9;2, 10;1}, to determine the normalized variate ( t) when x = 3, and P(t) at that point up to three decimal places (Fix 3). (SETUP) (STAT) (ON) (SETUP) (Fix) (STAT) (1-VAR) STAT FIX 2 1

#### STAT FIX

(Distr)

Results: Normalized variate ( t): 0.762 0.223 P(t):

Base-n Calculations (BASE-N)

Press (BASE-N) to enter the BASE-N Mode when you want to perform calculations using decimal, hexadecimal, binary, and/or octal values. The initial default number mode when you enter the BASE-N Mode is decimal, which means input and calculation results use the decimal number format. Press one of the following keys to switch number modes: (DEC) for decimal, (HEX) for hexadecimal, (BIN) for binary, or (OCT) for octal. To enter the BASE-N Mode, switch to the binary mode, and calculate 112 + 12 (BASE-N) (BIN) 11 1

Continuing from above, switch to the hexadecimal mode and calculate 1F16 + 116 (HEX) 1 (F) 1

Continuing from above, switch to the octal mode and calculate 78 + 18 (OCT) Note: Use the following keys to input the letters A through F for hexadecimal values: (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), (F). In the BASE-N Mode, input of fractional (decimal) values and exponents is not supported. If a calculation result has a fractional part, it is cut off. The input and output ranges is 16 bits for binary values, and 32 bits for other types of values. The following shows details about input and output ranges. Base-n Mode Binary Octal Decimal Input/Output Ranges Positive: 0000000000000000 Negative: 1000000000000000 Positive: 00000000000 Negative: 20000000000 2147483648

0111111111111111 1111111111111111

#### 17777777777 37777777777

2147483647

#### Hexadecimal

Positive: 00000000 Negative: 80000000

#### 7FFFFFFF FFFFFFFF

Specifying the Number Mode of a Particular Input Value

You can input a special command immediately following a value to specify the number mode of that value. The special commands are: d (decimal), h (hexadecimal), b (binary), and o (octal). To calculate 1010 + 1016 + 102 + 108 and display the result as a decimal value (DEC) (BASE) (d) 10 (BASE) (h) 10 (BASE) (b) (BASE) (o) 10

Converting a Calculation Result to another Type of Value

You can use any one of the following key operations to convert the currently displayed calculation result to another type of value: (DEC) (decimal), (HEX) (hexadecimal), (BIN) (binary), (OCT)(octal). To calculate in the decimal mode, and then convert the result to hexadecimal, binary, and octal (DEC) 555 (HEX) 0000022B (BIN) 0000001000101011 (OCT) 00000001053

Logical and Negation Operations

Your calculator provides you with logical operators (and, or, xor, xnor) and functions (Not, Neg) for logical and negation operations on binary values. Use the menu that appears when you press (BASE) to input these logical operators and functions. All of the following examples are performed in the binary mode ( (BIN)).

3. Use the Matrix Editor that appears to input the elements of the matrix.

#### 1 to MatC 2 To assign 1

(MATRIX) (Dim) (MatC) (2 3) 1 1

To edit the elements of a matrix variable: (MATRIX) (Data), and then, on the menu that appears, 1. Press select the matrix variable you want to edit. 2. Use the Matrix Editor that appears to edit the elements of the matrix. Move the cursor to the cell that contains the element you want to change, input the new value, and then press. To copy matrix variable (or MatAns) contents: 1. Use the Matrix Editor to display the matrix you want to copy. If you want to copy MatA, for example, perform the following key operation: (MATRIX) (Data) (MatA). If you want to copy MatAns contents, perform the following to display the (MATRIX) (MatAns). MatAns screen: (STO), and then perform one of the following key operations 2. Press to specify the copy destination: (MatA), (MatB), or (MatC). This will display the Matrix Editor with the contents of the copy destination.

Matrix Calculation Examples

The following examples use MatA = and MatC =

1 from 1 and MatB = from 1 2

1, 2. You can input a matrix variable into a key

operation by pressing following number keys:

(MATRIX) and then pressing one of the (MatA), (MatB), (MatC).

MatA (Matrix scalar multiplication). 3 MatA

4 Obtain the determinant of MatA (det(MatA)). (MATRIX) (det) MatA

5 Obtain the transposition of MatC (Trn(MatC)). (MATRIX) (Trn) MatC

6 Obtain the inverse matrix of MatA (MatA1). Note: You cannot use for this input. Use the MatA key to input 1.

7 Obtain the absolute value of each element of MatB (Abs(MatB)). (Abs) MatB 8 Determine the square and cube of MatA (MatA2, MatA3). Note: You cannot use for this input. Use to specify squaring, and (x3) to specify cubing. MatA MatA (x3)

Creating a Number Table from a Function (TABLE)

TABLE generates a number table for x and f(x) using an input f(x) function. Perform the following steps to generate a number table. 1. Press (TABLE) to enter the TABLE Mode. 2. Input a function in the format f(x), using the X variable. (X)) when generating a number Be sure to input the X variable ( table. Any variable other than X is handled as a constant. The following cannot be used in the function: Pol, Rec, , d/dx,. 3. In response to the prompts that appear, input the values you want to use, pressing after each one. For this prompt: Input this: Start? End? Input the lower limit of X (Default = 1). Input the upper limit of X (Default = 5). Note: Make sure that the End value is always greater than the Start value. Input the increment step (Default = 1). Note: The Step specifies by how much the Start value should be sequentially incremented as the number table is generated. If you specify Start = 1 and Step = 1, X sequentially will be assigned the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on to generate the number table until the End value is reached.

Inputting the Step value and pressing generates and displays the number table in accordance with the parameters you specified. while the number table screen is displayed will return to Pressing the function input screen in step 2. 1 To generate a number table for the function f (x) = x2 + for the 2 range 1 x 1, incremented in steps of 0.5

#### (TABLE)

Note: You can use the number table screen for viewing values only. Table contents cannot be edited. The number table generation operation causes the contents of variable X to be changed. Important: The function you input for number table generation is deleted whenever you display the setup menu in the TABLE Mode and switch between Natural Display and Linear Display.

Vector Calculations (VECTOR)

Use the VECTOR Mode to perform 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional vector calculations. To perform a vector calculation, you first assign data to special vector variables (VctA, VctB, VctC), and then use the variables in the calculation as shown in the example below. 1 To assign (1, 2) to VctA and (3, 4) to VctB, and then perform the following calculation: (1, 2) + (3, 4) (VECTOR) to enter the VECTOR Mode. 1. Press 2. Press (VctA) (2). This will display the Vector Editor for input of the 2-dimensional vector for VctA.

#### A stands for VctA.

3. Input the elements of VctA: 1 2. 4. Perform the following key operation: (VECTOR) (Data) (VctB) (2). This will display the Vector Editor for input of the 2-dimensional vector for VctB. 4. 5. Input the elements of VctB: 3 to advance to the calculation screen, and perform the calculation 6. Press (VctA + VctB): (VECTOR) (VctA) (VECTOR) (VctB). This will display the VctAns screen with the calculation results.

#### VCT VCT

Ans stands for VctAns.

Note: VctAns stands for Vector Answer Memory. See Vector Answer Memory for more information.

#### Vector Answer Memory

Whenever the result of a calculation executed in the VECTOR Mode is a vector, the VctAns screen will appear with the result. The result also will be assigned to a variable named VctAns. The VctAns variable can be used in calculations as described below. To insert the VctAns variable into a calculation, perform the following key operation: (VECTOR) (VctAns). Pressing any one of the following keys while the VctAns screen is displayed will switch automatically to the calculation screen: , , ,. The calculation screen will show the VctAns variable followed by the operator for the key you pressed.

Assigning and Editing Vector Variable Data

Important: The following operations are not supported by the Vector Editor: , (M), (STO). Pol, Rec, and multi-statements also cannot be input with the Vector Editor. To assign new data to a vector variable: (VECTOR) (Dim), and then, on the menu that appears, 1. Press select the vector variable to which you want to assign data. 2. On the next menu that appears, select dimension (m). 3. Use the Vector Editor that appears to input the elements of the vector. 2 To assign (2, 1, 2) to VctC (VECTOR) (Dim) 2 (VctC) (3) 1 2

To edit the elements of a vector variable: (VECTOR) (Data), and then, on the menu that appears, 1. Press select the vector variable you want to edit. 2. Use the Vector Editor that appears to edit the elements of the vector. Move the cursor to the cell that contains the element you want to change,. input the new value, and then press To copy vector variable (or VctAns) contents: 1. Use the Vector Editor to display the vector you want to copy. If you want to copy VctA, for example, perform the following key operation: (VECTOR) (Data) (VctA). If you want to copy VctAns contents, perform the following to display the VctAns screen: (VECTOR) (VctAns). (STO), and then perform one of the following key operations 2. Press to specify the copy destination: (VctA), (VctB), or (VctC). This will display the Vector Editor with the contents of the copy destination.

Vector Calculation Examples

The following examples use VctA = (1, 2) and VctB = (3, 4) from 1 , and VctC = (2, 1, 2) from 2. You can input a vector variable into a key operation by pressing (VECTOR) and then pressing one of the following number keys: (VctA), (VctB), (VctC).

VctA (Vector scalar multiplication), 3 VctA VctB (Calculation example using VctAns) 3 VctA

4 VctA VctB (Vector dot product) VctA (VECTOR) (Dot)VctB

#### 5 VctA

VctB (Vector cross product) VctA VctB

6 Obtain the absolute values of VctC. (Abs)VctC

7 Determine the angle formed by VctA and VctB to three decimal places (Fix 3). (A B) (A B) , which becomes = cos1 ) (cos = A B A B (SETUP) (Fix) VctA (VECTOR) (Dot)VctB

#### VCT FIX

(Abs)VctA VctB

#### (cos1)

Scientific Constants

Your calculator comes with 40 built-in scientific constants that can be used in any mode besides BASE-N. Each scientific constant is displayed as a unique symbol (such as ), which can be used inside of calculations. To input a scientific constant into a calculation, press (CONST) and then input the two-digit number that corresponds to the constant you want.

Math format causes fractions, irrational numbers, and other expressions to be displayed as they are written on paper. Linear format causes fractions and other expressions to be displayed in a single line.

#### Math Format

Linear Format

Specifying the Default Angle Unit

To specify this as the default Perform this key operation: angle unit: Degrees Radians Grads 90 = 1N3(Deg) 1N4(Rad) 1N5(Gra) radians = 100 grads

Specifying the Number of Display Digits

To specify this: Number of Decimal Places Number of Significant Digits Exponential Display Range Perform this key operation: 1N6(Fix)09 1N7(Sci)09 1N8(Norm)1(Norm1) or 2(Norm2)

Calculation Result Display Examples Fix: The value you specify (from 0 to 9) controls the number of decimal places for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed. Example: = 14.286 (Fix3) 14.29 (Fix2) Sci: The value you specify (from 1 to 10) controls the number of significant digits for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed. Example: = 1.(Sci5) 1.(Sci4)

Norm: Selecting one of the two available settings (Norm1, Norm2) determines the range in which results will be displayed in nonexponential format. Outside the specified range, results are displayed using exponential format. Norm1: 102 > x, x > 1010 Norm2: 109 > x, x > 1010 Example: = 0.005 (Norm1) (Norm2)

Specifying the Fraction Display Format

To specify this fraction display format: Mixed Improper Perform this key operation: 1Nc1(ab/c) 1Nc2(d/c)

Specifying the Complex Number Display Format

To specify this complex Perform this key operation: number format: Rectangular Coordinates 1Nc3(CMPLX)1(a+bi) Polar Coordinates 1Nc3(CMPLX)2(r)

Specifying the Statistical Display Format

Use the following procedure to turn display of the frequency (FREQ) column of the STAT Mode STAT editor screen on or off. To specify this: Show FREQ Column Hide FREQ Column Perform this key operation: 1Nc4(STAT)1(ON) 1Nc4(STAT)2(OFF)

Specifying the Decimal Point Display Format

To specify this decimal point display format: Dot ( ) Comma ( ) Perform this key operation: 1Nc5(Disp)1(Dot)

#### 1Nc5(Disp)2(Comma)

The setting you configure here is applied for calculation results only. The decimal point for input values is always a dot ( ).

k Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings

Performing the following procedure initializes the calculation mode and other setup settings as shown below. 19(CLR)1(Setup)=(Yes) This setting: Calculation Mode Input/Output Format Angle Unit Display Digits Fraction Display Format Complex Number Format Statistical Display Decimal Point Is initialized to this: COMP MthIO Deg Norm1 d/c a+bi OFF Dot

While a calculation result is on the display, you can press A and then d or e to edit the expression you used for the previous calculation. If you are using Linear format, you can display the expression by pressing d or e, without pressing A first. Appendix <#014>

#### Using Calculator Memory

Memory Name Description Calculation results can be added to or subtracted from independent memory. The M display indicator indicates data in independent memory. Six variables named A, B, C, D, X, and Y can be used for storage of individual values. Answer Memory Stores the last calculation result obtained. Independent Memory Variables

This section uses the COMP Mode (N1) to demonstrate how you can use memory.

#### k Answer Memory (Ans)

Answer Memory Overview

Answer Memory contents are updated whenever you execute a calculation using any one of the following keys: =, 1=, m, 1m(M ), t, 1t(STO). Answer Memory can hold up to 15 digits. Answer Memory contents are not change if an error occurs during the current calculation. Answer Memory contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. If a CMPLX Mode calculation produces a complex number result, both the real part and imaginary part are stored in Answer Memory. In this case, however, the imaginary part will be cleared from Answer Memory if you change to another calculation mode.

Using Answer Memory to Perform a Series of Calculations

Example: To divide the result of by 30 LINE 3*4=

#### (Continuing)/30=

Pressing / automatically inputs Ans command.

With the above procedure, you need to perform the second calculation immediately after the first one. If you need to recall Answer Memory contents after pressing A, press the G key.

Inputting Answer Memory Contents into an Expression

Example: To perform the calculations shown below: 123 + 456 = 579 = 210 LINE 123+456=

#### 789-G=

k Independent Memory (M)

You can add calculation results to or subtract results from independent memory. The M appears on the display when independent memory contains a value.

Independent Memory Overview

The following is a summary of the different operations you can perform using independent memory. To do this: Add the displayed value or result of the expression to independent memory Subtract the displayed value or result of the expression from independent memory Recall current independent memory contents Perform this key operation: m

#### 1m(M) tm(M)

You can also insert the M variable into a calculation, which tells the calculator to use the current independent memory contents at that location. The following is the key operation for inserting the M variable. Sm(M) The M indicator appears in the upper left of the display when there is any value other than zero stored in independent memory. Independent memory contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator.

Calculation Examples Using Independent Memory

If the M indicator is on the display, perform the procedure under Clearing Independent Memory before performing this example. Example: 23 + 9 = 32 23+9m = 47 53-6m )= 90 45*21m(M) = 33 99/3m (Total) 22 tm(M)

Clearing Independent Memory

Press01t(STO)m. This clears independent memory and causes the M indicator to disappear from the display.

k Variables (A, B, C, D, X, Y)

#### Variable Overview

You can assign a specific value or a calculation result to a variable. Example: To assign the result of 3 + 5 to variable A. 3+51t(STO)y(A) Use the following procedure when you want to check the contents of a variable. Example: To recall the contents of variable A ty(A) The following shows how you can include variables inside of an expression. Example: To multiply the contents of variable A by the contents of variable B Sy(A)*Se(B)= Variable contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. Appendix <#015>

Clearing the Contents of a Specific Variable

Press 01t(STO) and then press the key for the name of the variable whose contents you want to clear. To clear the contents of variable A, for example, press 01t(STO)y(A).

k Clearing the Contents of All Memories

Use the following procedure to clear the contents of Answer Memory, independent memory, and all of the variables. Press 19(CLR)2(Memory)=(Yes). To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press A(Cancel) instead of =.

#### Using CALC

The CALC feature lets you input a calculation expression that contains variables, and then assign values to the variables and perform the calculation. You can use CALC in the COMP Mode (N1) and in the CMPLX Mode (N2).

k Expressions Supported by CALC

The following describes the types of expressions that can be used with CALC.

u Expressions that contain variables Example: 2X + 3Y, 5B + 3 i, 2AX + 3BY + C u Multi-statements

Example: X + Y : X (X + Y)

u Expressions with a single variable on the left

Example: {variable} = {expression} The expression on the right of the equals sign (input using Ss(=)) can contain variables. Example: Y = 2X, A = X2 + X + 3

k Example Calculation Using CALC

To start a CALC operation after inputting an expression, press the s key. Example: LINE 3*Sy(A)

SOLVE uses Newtons Method, so even if there are multiple solutions, only one of them will be returned. Newtons Method can have problems obtaining solutions for the following types of functions. - A periodic function (y = sin(x), etc.) - A function whose graph includes a steep slope (y = e x, y =1/x, etc.) - A discontinuous function (y = ', etc.) x

#### Solution Screen Contents

Input equation

#### Solution variable

Solution

(left side) (right side) form result

The (left side) (right side) form result shows the result when the obtained solution is assigned to the solution variable. The closer this value is to zero, the higher is the precision of the obtained solution.

#### Continue Screen

SOLVE performs convergence a preset number of times. If it cannot find a solution, it displays a confirmation screen that shows Continue: [=], asking if you want to continue. Press = to continue or A to cancel the SOLVE operation. Appendix <#017> Solve y = x2 x + 1 for x when y = 3, 7, 13, and 21. (Solutions: x = 2, 3, 4, 5 when y = 3, 7, 13, 21 respectively) *1 Assigns 3 to Y. *2 Assigns an initial value of 1 to X.

#### Function Calculations

This section explains how to use the calculators built-in functions. The functions available to you depends on the calculation mode you are in. The explanations in this section are mainly about the functions that are available in all calculation modes. All of the examples in this section show operation in the COMP Mode (N1). Certain function calculations may take some time to display calculation results. Before performing an operation, be sure to wait until execution of the current operation is complete. You can interrupt an ongoing operation by pressing A.

k Pi () and Natural Logarithm Base e

You can input pi () or natural logarithm base e into a calculation. The following shows the required key operations and the values this calculator uses for pi () and e. = 3.14159265358980 (15()) e = 2.71828182845904 (S5(e)) You can use and e in any calculation mode except for BASE-N.

k Using S-D Transformation

You can use S-D transformation to transform a value between its decimal (D) form and its standard (S) form (fraction, ).

Formats Supported for S-D Transformation

S-D transformation can be used to transform a displayed decimal calculation result to one of the forms described below. Performing S-D transformation again converts back to the original decimal value.

When you transform from decimal form to standard form, the calculator automatically decides the standard form to use. You cannot specify the standard form. Fraction: The current fraction display format setting determines whether the result is an improper fraction or mixed fraction. : The following are the forms that are supported. This is true only in the case of Math format. n (n is an integer.) d a b (depending on fraction display format c or c setting) Transformation to a fractional form is limited to inverse trigonometric function results and values that are normally expressed in radians. After obtaining a calculation result in ' form, you can convert it to decimal form by pressing the f key. When the original calculation result is in decimal form, it cannot be converted to ' form.

Examples of S-D Transformation

Note that S-D transformation can take some time to perform. Example: Fraction Decimal MATH '5c6= Each press of the f key toggles between the two forms. f f Appendix <#046> Fraction Decimal <#047> ' Decimal

Complex Number Calculations

#### (CMPLX)

Your calculator can perform the following complex number calculations. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division Argument and absolute value calculations Reciprocal, square and cube calculations Conjugate complex number calculations All calculations in this section are performed in the CMPLX Mode (N2). Appendix <#048> (1 + 3i) (2i) = i 2 2

k Inputting Complex Numbers

In the CMPLX Mode, the W key changes function to become an imaginary number i input key. In this section, the W key is referred to as the i key. Use the i key when inputting a complex number of the format a + bi. The key operation below shows how to input 2 + 3i, for example.

#### CMPLX Math

2+3i You can also input complex numbers using polar coordinate format (r ). The key operation below shows how to input 5 30, for example.

51y()30 The angle unit for argument input and result display is the calculators default angle unit.

k Calculation Result Display Format

Your calculator can display complex number calculation results in rectangular coordinate or polar coordinate format. You can select the coordinate format by configuring the calculators setup. For more information, see Specifying the Complex Number Display Format.

Examples of Calculation Results Using Rectangular Coordinate Format (a + bi ) Example 1: 2 (' + i ) = 2'+ 2i = 3.464101615 + 2i 3 3

#### MATH 2*(!3e+i)=

With Linear format, the real part and imaginary part are shown in two different lines. Example 2: ' 45 = 1 + i 2 MATH !2e1y()45=

Examples of Calculation Results Using Polar Coordinate Format (r ) Example 1: 2 ('+ i) = 2'+ 2i = (Angle Unit: Deg)

With Linear format, the absolute value and argument are shown in two different lines. Example 2: 1 + i = ' (Angle Unit: Deg) MATH 1+i= Argument is output in the range of 180< < 180.

Specifying the Calculation Result Display Format

You can override complex number display settings and specify the format that should be used to display calculation results. To specify rectangular coordinate format for the calculation result, perform the following key operation at the end of the calculation. 12(CMPLX)4('a+bi ) To specify polar coordinate format for the calculation result, perform the following key operation at the end of the calculation. 12(CMPLX)3('r ) Appendix <#049> 1 + i (= ' 45) = 1.2

k Conjugate Complex Number (Conjg)

You can use the following operation to obtain a conjugate complex number. 12(CMPLX)2(Conjg) Appendix <#050> Determine the conjugate of the complex number 2 + 3i.

k Absolute Value and Argument (Abs, arg)

You can use the following procedure to obtain the absolute value (|Z|) and argument (arg) on the Gaussian plane for a complex number of the format Z = a + bi. 1w(Abs); 12(CMPLX)1(arg) Appendix <#051> Obtain the absolute value and argument of 2 + 2i. *1 Absolute Value *2 Argument

#### Statistical Calculation

(STAT)

All calculations in this section are performed in the STAT Mode (N3).

Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type

In the STAT Mode, display the statistical calculation type selection screen.

k Statistical Calculation Types

Key Menu Item 1-VAR A+BX _+CX2 In X Statistical Calculation Single-variable Linear regression Quadratic regression Logarithmic regression

#### AB^X AX^B 1/X

e exponential regression ab exponential regression

Power regression Inverse regression

#### k Inputting Sample Data

Displaying the STAT Editor Screen

The STAT editor screen appears after you enter the STAT Mode from another mode. Use the STAT menu to select a statistical calculation type. To display the STAT editor screen from another STAT Mode screen, press 11(STAT)2(Data).

#### STAT Editor Screen

There are two STAT editor screen formats, depending on the type of statistical calculation you selected.

#### STAT STAT

Single-variable Statistics

Paired-variable Statistics

The first line of the STAT editor screen shows the value for the first sample or the values for their first pair of samples.

#### FREQ (Frequency) Column

#### P (t) Q (t) R (t)

Appendix Single-variable Statistical Calculation <#053> Select single-variable (1-VAR) and input the following data: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (FREQ: ON) <#054> Edit the data to the following, using insert and delete: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10} (FREQ: ON) <#055> Edit the FREQ data to the following: {1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1} (FREQ: ON) Examples <#056> through <#059> all use the same data as Example <#055>. <#056> Calculate sum of squares of the sample data and sum of the sample data. <#057> Calculate number of samples, mean, and population standard deviation. <#058> Calculate minimum value and maximum value. <#059> Performing standard normal distribution approximation on the input sample data (from Example <#055>) produces the probabilities shown below. Distribution probability that is a value less than the normalized variate when the sample value is 3 (P value for normalized variate when X = 3) Distribution probability that is a value greater than the normalized variate when the sample value is 7 (R value for normalized variate when X = 7)

Commands when Linear Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is Selected

With linear regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation.

#### y = A + BX

The following are the commands that appear on the sub-menus that appear when you select 4(Sum), 5(Var), 6(MinMax), or 7(Reg) on the STAT menu while linear regression is selected as the statistical calculation type. See Appendix <#060> for information about the calculation formula used for each command. Sum Sub-menu (11(STAT)4(Sum)) Select this menu item: 1x2 2x 3y2 4y 5xy 6x3 7x2y 8x4 Select this menu item: 1n 2o 3xn 4xn1 5p 6yn 7yn1 Select this menu item: 1minX 2maxX 3minY 4maxY When you want to obtain this: Sum of squares of the X-data Sum of the X-data Sum of squares of the Y-data Sum of the Y-data Sum of products of the X-data and Y-data Sum of cubes of the X-data Sum of (X-data squares Y-data) Sum of biquadrate of the X-data

Var Sub-menu (11(STAT)5(Var)) When you want to obtain this: Number of samples Mean of the X-data Population standard deviation of the X-data Sample standard deviation of the X-data Mean of the Y-data Population standard deviation of the Y-data Sample standard deviation of the Y-data

MinMax Sub-menu (11(STAT)6(MinMax)) When you want to obtain this: Minimum value of the X-data Maximum value of the X-data Minimum value of the Y-data Maximum value of the Y-data

k Number Base Setting and Value Input

Use the keys listed below to specify the number base. The key markings used in this section are the ones that are above each key, on the right. Key U c b q Number Base Decimal Hexadecimal Binary Octal Screen Indicator Dec Hex Bin Oct

The current number base setting is indicated in the second line of the display. The initial default number base setting when you enter the BASEN Mode is always decimal (DEC).

#### Inputting Values

In the BASE-N Mode, you can input values using the currently selected number base. A Syntax ERROR occurs if you input values that are not allowed for the currently selected number base (such as inputting 2 while binary is selected). You cannot input fractional values or exponential values in the BASE-N Mode. If a calculation produces a fractional value, the decimal part is cut off.

Inputting Hexadecimal Values

Use the keys shown below to input the alphabetic letters (A, B, C, D, E, F) required for hexadecimal values.

#### {A} {B} {C} {D} E F

y e w s

#### Value Ranges

Base Binary Octal

Range Positive: 0000000000000000 < x < 0111111111111111 Negative: 1000000000000000 < x < 1111111111111111 Positive: 00000000000 < x < 17777777777 Negative: 20000000000 < x < 37777777777 Positive: 00000000 < x < 7FFFFFFF Negative: 80000000 < x < FFFFFFFF

Decimal 2147483648 < x < 2147483647 Hexadecimal

The allowable calculation range is narrower from binary (16 bits) than it is for the other number systems (32 bits). A Math ERROR occurs when a calculation result is outside the applicable range for the number system being used.

Specifying the Base during Input

The BASE-N Mode lets you override the current default number base setting and input a particular value using a different base. When inputting the value, press 13(BASE) c to display page two of the BASE menu, and then press the number key that corresponds to the base you want to specify. Press this key: To specify this number base: 1(d) 2(h) 3(b) 4(o) Decimal (Base 10) Hexadecimal (Base 16) Binary (Base 2) Octal (Base 8)

The key operation below shows how to input a value of 3 using the decimal number base, for example. Ab13(BASE)c1(d)3

The value you input here is decimal number base.

Appendix <#080> Calculate 12 + 12 in binary. <#081> Calculate 78 + 18 in octal. <#082> Calculate 1F16 + 116 in hexadecimal. <#083> Convert the decimal value 3010 to binary, octal, and hexadecimal. <#084> Transform the result of 510 + 516 to binary.

k Negative Number Calculations and Logical Operations

To input a negative number calculation or logical operation command, press 13(BASE) to display page one of the BASE menu, and then press the number key that corresponds to the command you want to specify. Press this key: When you want to input this: 1(and) 2(or) 3(xor) Logical operator and (logical product), which returns the result of a bitwise AND Logical operator or (logical sum), which returns the result of a bitwise OR Logical operator xor (exclusive logical sum), which returns the result of a bitwise XOR Logical operator xnor (exclusive negative logical sum), which returns the result of a bitwise XNOR

#### 4(xnor)

Press this key: When you want to input this: 5(Not) 6(Neg) Not( function, which returns the result of a bitwise complement Neg( function, which returns the result of a twos complement

Negative binary, octal, and hexadecimal values are produced by taking the binary twos complement and then returning the result to the original number base. With the decimal number base, negative values are displayed with a minus sign. Appendix Examples <#085> through <#090> show examples of calculations with negative binary values and examples of logical operations. Before starting each calculation, be sure to press Ab first.

#### Equation Calculations

All calculations in this section are performed in the EQN Mode (N5).

#### k Equation Types

An equation type menu appears when you press N5(EQN) and enter the EQN Mode. Key 1 Menu Item anX + bnY = cn Equation Type Simultaneous Linear Equations with Two Unknowns Simultaneous Linear Equations with Three Unknowns Quadratic Equation Cubic Equation

anX + bnY + cnZ = dn aX2 + bX + c = 0 aX3 + bX2 + cX + d = 0

Changing the Current Equation Type Setting

Press N5(EQN) to re-enter the EQN Mode. This clears all current EQN Mode input and displays the equation type menu described above.

#### k Inputting Coefficients

Use the coefficient editor screen to input the coefficients of an equation. The coefficient editor screen shows input cells for each of the coefficients required by the currently selected equation type.

#### Matrix Calculations

(MATRIX)

You can save matrices under the names MatA, MatB, and MatC in matrix memory. Matrix calculation results are stored in a special Matrix Answer Memory named MatAns. All calculations in this section are performed in the MATRIX Mode (N6).

k Creating and Managing a Matrix

Creating a Matrix and Storing It in Matrix Memory

(1) In the MATRIX Mode, press 14(MATRIX)1(Dim). This displays the matrix selection screen.

Note that the matrix selection screen also appears whenever you enter the MATRIX Mode. (2) Press a number key (1, 2, or 3) to specify the name of the matrix you want to select. This displays a screen for configuring dimension settings. c

(3) Press a number key (1 through 6) to specify the matrix dimension you want to use. Pressing a number key to specify the matrix dimension causes the matrix editor screen to appear.

#### A stands for MatA.

(4) Use the matrix editor screen to input each of the elements into the matrix. Input is subject to the same rules as those that govern the coefficient editor screen in the EQN Mode. For more information, see Rules for Inputting and Editing Coefficients. If you want to create another matrix, repeat this procedure from step (1).

Copying the Contents of One Matrix to Another Matrix

(1) Use the matrix editor screen to display the matrix you want to copy, or display the Matrix Answer Memory screen. If you want to copy Matrix A, for example, press 14(MATRIX) 2(Data)1(MatA). (2) Press 1t(STO). This causes the STO indicator to appear on the display. (3) Specify the destination of the copy operation. To specify this destination: Matrix A Matrix B Matrix C Press this key: y(MatA) e(MatB) w(MatC)

Pressing e(MatB) copies the matrix to Matrix B, and displays the matrix editor screen for Matrix B.

k Performing Matrix Calculations

Pressing A while the matrix selection screen or matrix editor screen is on the display switches to the matrix calculation screen.

Matrix Answer Memory Screen

The Matrix Answer Memory (MatAns) screen shows the results of matrix calculations.

The procedure below configures the number table generation function with the following settings. 1 Function: f(x) = x2 + 2 Start Value: 1, End Value: 5, Step Value: 1 LINE (1) Press N7(TABLE).

#### (2) Input the function.

(3) After making sure the function is the way you want, press =. This displays the start value input screen.

Indicates the initial default start value of 1.

If the initial value is not 1, press 1 to specify the initial start value for this example.

(4) After specifying the start value, press =. This displays the end value input screen.

Indicates the initial default end value of 5.

Specify the end value. (5) After specifying the end value, press =. This displays the step value input screen.

Indicates the initial default step value of 1.

Specify the step value. For details about specifying the start, end, and step values, see Start, End, and Step Value Rules. (6) After specifying the step value, press =.

Pressing the A key returns to the function editor screen.

k Supported Function Types

Except for the X variable, other variables (A, B, C, D, Y) and independent memory (M) are all treated as values (the current variable assigned to the variable or stored in independent memory). Only variable X can be used as the variable of a function. The derivative (d/dx), integration (), coordinate conversion (Pol, Rec), and sum () functions cannot be used for a number table generation function. Note that the number table generation operation causes the contents of variable X to be changed.

k Start, End, and Step Value Rules

Linear format is always used for value input. You can specify either values or calculation expressions (which must produce a numeric result) for Start, End, and Step. Specifying an End value that is less than the Start value causes an error, so the number table is not generated. The specified Start, End, and Step values should produce a maximum of 30 x-values for the number table being generated. Executing a number generation table using a Start, End, and Step value combination that produces more than 30 x-values causes an error. E-61

Certain functions and Start, End, Step value combinations can cause number table generation to take a long time.

#### k Number Table Screen

The number table screen shows x-values calculated using the specified Start, End, and Step values, as well as the values obtained when each x-value is substituted in the function f(x). Note that you can use the number table screen for viewing values only. Table contents cannot be edited. Pressing the A key returns to the function editor screen.

#### k TABLE Mode Precautions

Note that changing the input/output format settings (Math format or Linear format) on the calculators setup screen while in the TABLE Mode clears the number table generation function.

0 x x 9.x 230.x 4.x 4.9999999991099

Functions tanhx tanh1x logx/lnx 10x

Input Range 0 x 9.x 9.x 9.9999999991099 9.9999999991099 x 99.99999999 9.9999999991099 x 230.x x x ; x G 0 x 0 x 69 (x is an integer) 0 n 11010, 0 r n (n, r are integers) 1 {n!/(nr)!} n 11010, 0 r n (n, r are integers) 1 n!/r! 110100 or 1 n!/(nr)! 110100 x, y 9.9999999991099 x2+y2 9.r 9.9999999991099 : Same as sinx a, b, c b, c x110100 Decimal Sexagesimal Conversions 00'0" x 999999959'59"

ex ' x x2 1/x 3' x x! nPr nCr

#### Pol(x, y) Rec(r, )

y ^(x )

x0: 110100 ylogx100 x0: y0 x0: yn, m (m, n are integers) 2n+1 However: 110100 ylogx100 y0: x G 0, 1101001/x logy100 y0: x0 y0: x2n1, 2n+1 (m G 0; m, n are integers) m However: 110100 1/x logy100

Total of integer, numerator, and denominator must be 10 digits or less (including division marks).

Precision is basically the same as that described under Calculation Range and Precision, above. y ^(xy), x', 3', x!, nPr, nCr type functions require consecutive internal calculation, which can cause accumulation of errors that occur with each calculation. Error is cumulative and tends to be large in the vicinity of a functions singular point and inflection point.

#### k Error Messages

The calculator will display an error message when a result exceeds the calculation range, when you attempt an illegal input, or whenever any other similar problem occurs.

When an error message appears.

The following are general operations you can use when any error message appears. Pressing d or e displays to the calculation expression editing screen you were using before the error message appeared, with the cursor located at the position of the error. For more information, see Displaying the Location of an Error. Pressing A clears the calculation expression you input before the error message appeared. You can then re-input and re-execute the calculation, if you want. Note that in this case, the original calculation will not be retained in calculation history memory.

#### Math ERROR

Cause The intermediate or final result of the calculation you are performing exceeds the allowable calculation range. Your input exceeds the allowable input range (particularly when using functions). The calculation you are performing contains an illegal mathematical operation (such as division by zero). Action Check the input values, reduce the number of digits, and try again. When using independent memory or a variable as the argument of a function, make sure that the memory or variable value is within the allowable range for the function.

#### Stack ERROR

Cause The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the numeric stack or the command stack to be exceeded. The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the matrix stack to be exceeded. The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the vector stack to be exceeded. Action Simplify the calculation expression so it does not exceed the capacity of the stack. Try splitting the calculation into two or more parts.

#### Syntax ERROR

Cause There is a problem with the format of the calculation you are performing. Action Make necessary corrections.

#### Argument ERROR

Cause There is a problem with the argument of the calculation you are performing.

Action Make necessary corrections.

Dimension ERROR (MATRIX and VECTOR Modes only)

Cause The matrix or vector you are trying to use in a calculation was input without specifying its dimension. You are trying to perform a calculation with matrices or vectors whose dimensions do not allow that type of calculation. Action Specify the dimension of the matrix or vector and then perform the calculation again. Check the dimensions specified for the matrices or vectors to see if they are compatible with the calculation.

Variable ERROR (SOLVE feature only)

Cause You did not specify a solution variable, and there is no X variable in the equation you input. The solution variable that you specified is not included in the equation you input. Action The equation you input must include an X variable when you do not specify the solution variable. Specify a variable that is included in the equation you input as the solution variable.

Cant Solve Error (SOLVE feature only)

Cause The calculator could not obtain a solution. Action Check for errors in the equation that you input. Input a value for the solution variable that is close to the expected solution and try again.

#### Insufficient MEM Error

Cause There is not enough memory to perform your calculation. Action Narrow the table calculation range by changing the Start, End, and Step values, and try again.

#### Time Out Error

Cause The current differential or integration calculation ends without the ending condition being fulfilled. Action Try increasing the tol value. Note that this also decreases solution precision.

k Before assuming malfunction of the calculator.

Perform the following steps whenever an error occurs during a calculation or when calculation results are not what you expected. If one step does not correct the problem, move on to the next step. Note that you should make separate copies of important data before performing these steps. (1) Check the calculation expression to make sure that it does not contain any errors. (2) Make sure that you are using the correct mode for the type of calculation you are trying to perform. (3) If the above steps do not correct your problem, press the O key. This will cause the calculator to perform a routine that checks whether calculation functions are operating correctly. If the calculator discovers any abnormality, it automatically initializes the calculation mode and clears memory contents. For details about initialized settings, see Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings under Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup. (4) Initialize all modes and settings by performing the following operation: 19(CLR) 1(Setup) =(Yes).

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