Casio LK-70 S
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Casio LK-70 S
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|dululu||9:14pm on Saturday, October 9th, 2010|
|I am going to contact WD for a replacement. Relatively fast seek times when working Made noises from the beginning. Bad buy period. Fast Drive, cheap Bought 2, both failed within 60 days|
|brentgilroy||2:33am on Wednesday, September 15th, 2010|
|No Comment. It seems to be a good product to this point. Runs quiet and cool. No Comment. This series of disks from Seagate are reliable, quiet and suitable for personal and business use. Good balance for the price. Buffer size.|
|bogl||7:11am on Sunday, September 12th, 2010|
|Somewhat Satisfied After two years, this drive finally went South on me. I wish hard drives were not so short lived. I guess two years is not so bad. excellent item for the most part, ease of installation was my issue. inexperience with unformatted.|
|pfandler||10:36pm on Monday, August 2nd, 2010|
|I cloned a 250 GB drive to this one using Seagate Discwizard. Worked perfectly. No problems Quiet, fast, reasonably priced. This thing is a piece of work. I had this for only a little over a year.|
|pdumais||1:12pm on Friday, July 2nd, 2010|
|It seems to work pretty well. When I test it under Linux using the smartctl program. So far it works fine, however I noticed that it is not as quiet as the other disk I had before|
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Guy Bunce literature dealing indirectly with keyboards (Rogers, 1997; Hubmayer, 1999; BusenSmith, 1999; Mills & Murray, 2000; Airy & Parr, 2001; Byrne & Macdonald 2002; Macdonald & Byrne, 2002; Pitts & Kwami, 2002; Seddon & O 2003). The Neill, literature obtained for this dissertation can therefore be grouped into three categories: 1. Prescriptive specific literature (prescriptive writings examining the use and possible application of keyboards in music education), 2. Empirical non-specific literature (empirical research in which the use and possible application of keyboards in music education is discussed but is not the major focus of enquiry), 3. Empirical specific literature (empirical research in which one of the main focuses of enquiry relates to the use or application of keyboards in music education). Before reviewing the literature and proposing the research questions of the current study, it is first necessary to deal with contextual issues and look in detail at the focus of enquiry. Therefore, this first chapter will considers what is meant by the term keyboard describe key features as well as briefly examining the range of , and keyboards currently available. This will provide an overview of the current
environment and offer an explanation of the various terminologies that are associated with keyboards. The chapter will conclude by charting the keyboard s history from the early electronic synthesisers to portable keyboards in order to ascertain why it is now so popular in both the classroom and home. What is a keyboard? The term electronic keyboard a multitude of different instruments from toy-like covers instruments to advanced synthesisers (Salaman, 1997). The term can be broken down into five main categories (Cliff, 1998; Eales, 2002a):
Guy Bunce Synthesisers, Piano-based, Electones and Electronic Organs, Silent keyboards, Home or contemporary keyboards.
Synthesisers can be classified as a tool for designing, producing, and performing tailored sounds (Murray, 1997) most often employed by composers of contemporary musicmusicians involved in rock or popular groups (Eales, 2002a). Pianoart or based instruments are designed primarily as piano substitutes with the advantage of MIDI technology (Eales, 2002a) whilst Electronic organs attempt to emulate their acoustic equivalent, often employing multiple manuals, swell and foot pedals (Cliff, 1998). Silent keyboards are used in conjunction with external sound modules or
computers (Eales, 2002a); Cliff refers to this type as MIDI-controllers (1998). The Home or contemporary keyboard is the type which shall be the basis for this investigation. It is important at this point to note that even within this fifth category, the range and variety of instruments available is bewildering (Murray, 1997). Despite this, there are a number of key features and the operation of these instruments has not changed significantly (Eales, 2002a). The key features of the home or contemporary keyboard are that they have integral loudspeakers, a range of 4-5 octaves, auto-accompaniment features, a wide variety of tones (or voices) and rhythmic styles (Murray, 1997; Salaman, 1997, Cliff, 1998; Eales, 2002a). A quick examination of the websites of Casio and Yamaha (Casio, 2005; Yamaha, 2005) reveals that for under 100, a keyboard can be bought with the following features:
Guy Bunce up to 49 full-size keys, 16 note polyphony, 100 voices, 100 styles, 50+ built-in songs, MIDI ports.
Yamaha PSR 125
Casio CTK 230
Yamaha PSR 175
Polyphony, rather misleadingly, refers to the number of notes that a keyboard can play at once. Voices (sometimes called tones) relates to the various preset timbres available whilst Styles (sometimes called rhythms) refers to the auto accompaniment feature in which a backing is provided in a given style that can be altered using lefthand chord shapes. The built-in songs tend to act as supplementary demos although sometimes the written music is provided in the instructions manuals. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) allows a keyboard to be connected to another instrument or MIDI device such as a sequencer or computer (more on this later).
In the next price range of up to 200, the following features are added:
61 full-size keys, touch response, up to 24 note polyphony, key lights, up to 480 voices, up to 200 styles, 100 built-in songs, MIDI ports, microphone inputs, transposition features, split/dual voice functions,
Yamaha PSR 275
Casio CTK 591
Yamaha EZ 150
Casio LK 55
up to 2 track sequencers, built-in teaching packages, Smart media interaction.
Casio LK 70
Guy Bunce Touch response on a keyboard attempts to imitate the dynamic control possible on an acoustic piano. The feature is entirely velocity-based in that the keyboard
measures the speed at which the key is depressed (Eales, 2002a). The introduction of key lights allows the performer to learn a piece by tracking keys as they light up. Keyboards in this range often use this feature in conjunction with the built-in songs. When this feature is employed, the backing will wait until the correct key is depressed before moving on, thus allowing performers to learn at their own speed. A number of keyboards in this price range allow a microphone to be plugged in and for the performer to add various effects and amplify the voice. Transposition enables the performer to adjust the keyboard output in values of semitones making it possible to work s tonal alongside transposing instruments (Smith, 2003) or to pitch-shift accompaniments for singers. The dual/split feature enables the performer to play two or more voices The
simultaneously or split the keyboard at a given point to control two voices.
addition of built-in sequencers is an important step in this range. A 2-track sequencer would allow players to: record themselves playing once; record themselves playing a second separate part; and play both back simultaneously whilst performing a third part live. Purchasers must take into account the polyphonic capabilities of the keyboard when looking at this feature. Yamaha currently pride themselves on an Educational Suite which contains built in lessons (up to 700) teaching basic keyboard skills and songs. Many early keyboards came with disk-drives in order to preserve performances, settings and work. This has now been superseded by Smart Media and ports for Flash memory. Both forms of storage are relatively cheap and can store vast amounts of MIDI data.
research found that nearly all schools visited used keyboards (Odam, 2000: p.112), findings echoed by MacDonald & Byrne (2002) in their survey of Scottish schools. Whilst not showing how keyboards are employed in classrooms, these studies do confirm the eminent position that keyboards hold in the secondary music classrooms in
Guy Bunce the UK. But how has the keyboard s status and position in secondary music classrooms emerged? Before attempting to answer this question, it is worth briefly examining the history of the electronic keyboard. Apart from the notable exception of the Theremin, the history of early electronic instruments was dominated by keyboard interfaces based around the classic layout taken from the acoustic piano (Paradiso, 1998). The earliest documented electronic keyboard was developed by Elisha Gray in 1876 and was called the Musical Telegraph. It consisted of a series of buzzers operated by switches set out in an arrangement similar to the chromatic keyboard. At the turn of the twentieth century, many inventors
experimented with electronic keyboard instruments, a famous example being Thasseus Cahill s 200-ton Telharmonium of 1906. This instrument filled an entire floor at
Telharmonic Hall in New York and was operated by numerous unconventional keyboards with 36 notes per octave. Although the Telharmonium had the obvious drawback of its size and unconventional interface, it offered the performer a polyphonic, touch-sensitive keyboard; something that the early Moog synthesiser could not offer over half a century later. The principles behind the working of the
Telharmonium were to influence greatly the inventor of the Hammond organ in 1935. The use of a keyboard instrument as the interface for electronic instruments continued throughout the twentieth century. In some cases the keyboard only acted as a visual reference point over which players could move their hand as in Martenot s Ondes Martenot of 1928. The Ondes Martenot relied on a metal ribbon attached to a ring that the performer could wear. Like the Theremin on which it was based, it was
monophonic but had the added advantage of a dummy keyboard that acted as a visual reference. In later versions, this was replaced by a conventional keyboard. The Ondes Martenot was the first electronic keyboard to be produced in any quantity (Paradiso,
Guy Bunce 1998) and is still used in the concert hall today thanks to works by composers such as Messaien, Honegger, Milhaud, and Ravel. The big breakthrough came in the late 1960 s when synthesisers were made affordable to the general public. When Robert Moog and Wendy Carlos collaborated in the release of Switched on Bach , Moog became a household name. As with the Ondes Martenot, the majority of the early Moog synthesisers were monophonic. The famous hard-wired MiniMoog was released in 1970 and it size and affordability ($1,200) meant that it was instantly popular, with over 300 MiniMoogs being built each month in 1973. Yamaha synthesiser was s first released in 1974. The same year, they released the GX1 polyphonic synthesiser which was not very popular owing to its 30,000 price tag. Yamaha s CS80, which was in direct competition with the Polymoog, was developed along the same lines as the GX1, but at a more affordable price of 5,000 in 1976. Yamaha had its keyboard roots in making pipe organs in the 1930s and later the electric organ or the Electone, in the late 1950s. Their major breakthrough was the DX7, first sold in 1983 and selling over 180,000 units (Paradiso, 1998). Aside from its popularity, it was also one of the first synthesisers to be digital and to have MIDI ports. Digital synthesis was pioneered over a decade before the DX7 in the Allen electronic organ in 1971. Previous electronic organs (such as the Electone) had a selection of preset timbres that used a switch or organ stop to control filters in a predetermined manner. The conversion to digital synthesis marked a big development in the history of electronic instruments. In order to appreciate this, it is first necessary to examine the two types of synthesis. With analogue synthesis, the sound starts as an analogue signal generated by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In most cases the voltage, and therefore pitch, was controlled by some type of keyboard device. The tone from the oscillator was then fed into a voltage controlled filter (VCF) which had the
The millions world-wide who enjoy learning and playing the portable electronic keyboard are not collectively deluded. Rather, they have found a vehicle through which they are able to express musical ideas in language that appeals to them and which they and their audiences relate to. I would
Guy Bunce contend that this is the true reason that electronic keyboard playing has grown so considerably in popularity over the past two decades, rather than simple economic factors. In fact, if its current rise in popularity continues as at present, it is likely that before too long the portable electronic keyboard will establish itself as the most widely played of all instruments. (Eales, 2002a: p.16).
This ability to express musical ideas in language that appeal be the reason why might so many teachers utilise keyboards in their music curriculum. Research has shown that 75% of pupils like using keyboards and that 79% prefer using keyboards over pitched percussion (Odam, 2000). One teacher interviewed by Odam and Paterson went as far as to say: pupils get excited by the keyboard; it All s accepted as the modern instrument to play. If we don the cultural influences that children have had before t use they come to us we are bound to be counterproductive and we will lose them (Odam & Paterson, 2000: p.30). This is not to say that teachers in the study were without reservations: keyboards are a practical survival choice when you re under pressure, a means to an end but they can be very limited aesthetically p.30). The current (ibid study will in part examine this. Aside from the motivational aspect, it is possible that teachers are lured by the affordability of keyboards in a similar way as the general consumer (Adamson, 2001). As the survey of the Yamaha and Casio websites demonstrated, a keyboard with reasonable features can be bought for around the same price as some items of tuned classroom percussion. Two further views given for the popularity in schools relate to the educational value of keyboards. First, fundamental keyboard skills have become regarded as valued skills for all musicians (Hubmayer, 1999). This is true at both the
Guy Bunce basic level of exploring musical devices such as harmony, counterpoint, and texture, and at the more complex level of composing, arranging and accompanying. The
Guy Bunce that keyboards can be used to analyse the musical character of different autoaccompaniment styles and develop pupils understanding of the characteristics of musical sound (Murray, 1997: guide 1, p.2). Similarly, auto-accompaniments can help pupils to develop: a growing awareness of a very wide range of musical styles from different popular music cultures around the world (Eales, 2002a: p.7). A common trait of both the prescriptive and empirical literature is that suggestions are made as to how keyboards can be used effectively to develop transferable skills such as musical understanding and appreciation as well as performing (for more ideas see Odam & Paterson, 2000; Mills & Murray, 2000; Eales, 2002b). However keyboard-focused research is lacking in this area. Hubmayer (1999) observes how elementary keyboard skills are now deemed essential and valued skills for musicians in all levels of education. In addition to transferable skills listed above, he expresses the significant impact that fundamental keyboard skills can have on composing, arranging, and accompanying (1999: p.1). The significance of this becomes all the more apparent if pupils are going to use computers to aid their composition as the vast majority of MIDI controllers are keyboards. In a recent study by Airy & Parr (2001), 24 tertiary-level students were interviewed about their thoughts on the educational usefulness of computer sequencers. Pertinent to the current enquiry, a finding revealed that a third expressed doubt that they would be able to realise their musical ideas if the MIDI controller was not their first instrument. Likewise, over half the students felt that a major barrier to successful composition was a lack of keyboard skills (Airy & Parr, 2001: p.45). Secondary school students echo these sentiments with 81% feeling that keyboards make composing easier (Odam & Paterson, 2000). Interestingly, Odam also found that schools choosing to invest time in teaching detailed piano technique do not obtain the same composing attainment as those who do
Guy Bunce not (Odam, 2000: p.116). This finding appears to be an observation rather than a scrutinised result and would therefore require further study. The current study will therefore investigate teachers on keyboard skills and composing to determine views how keyboards are currently being used to develop transferable skills. To investigate further what transferable skill keyboards have to offer composition, it is necessary to return to the prescriptive literature. Crow has suggested that the single-fingered feature can be used by pupils to improvise easily over chord sequences (Crow, 2001). By minimising the complexity of the accompaniment
Guy Bunce Motivation: Three statements appeared on the questionnaire that teachers had to state whether they strongly agreed, agreed, not sure, disagree, or strongly disagree to (Q.Qu.10): the first was keyboards are a great motivational tool second was pupils love using ; the most keyboards third was novelty factor of keyboards for pupils soon wears off. ; the The The first question was designed to see if the respondent believed that keyboards are a motivational tool; the second question is less explicit and is designed to validate the first. The third question helps answer the long-term question. It was also possible for teachers to state their opinion on issues of motivation in the open end questions that asked for the greatest asset (Q.Qu.11) of keyboards or concerns (Q.Qu.12). The
interview asked teachers directly whether they felt that any motivational effect of using keyboards was long term (I.Qu.19) and teachers were required to justify their response.
Transferable skills: Transferable skills multifaceted area of research, and questions surrounding the is a issues required careful consideration. First it was necessary to understand how the various features of keyboards are employed in the classroom. Since this question required a large sample to gain an accurate picture it was reserved for the questionnaire (Q.Qu.9). Teachers were asked how often they planned to use various keyboard
features (Figure 2).
Don t know Touch response Single-fingered chords Fingered chord Auto-accompaniments Record function Built-in sequencers (if present) Pitch bend wheel Voices other than the default (usually piano) Drum pads Sustain pedal Never Rarely Often Most lessons
Figure 2: Q.Qu.9, frequency of keyboard features' use.
In addition, teachers were asked to rate the importance of each feature listed when buying keyboards for use in the classroom (Q.Qu.4). Both these questions help
ascertain whether keyboards are being used as piano substitutes. This theme was followed up in the interview (I.Qu.14). The interview also enabled teachers to respond to the idea that keyboards developed transferable skills (I.Qu.11-12), and specifically composing skills (I.Qu.13); a theme also responded to by the wider questionnaire sample (Q.Qu.10). Finally, teachers were asked during the interview if they gave pupils any specific resources to help them use keyboards more effectively (I.Qu.15)
Classroom management: This topic was assigned mainly to the interview part of the research as the predominately closed nature of the questionnaire was not conducive to eliciting detailed responses. During the interview, teachers were asked to describe how they employ keyboards in the classroom (I.Qu.1.1-3). Data from this question could be used to assess whether the five methods of keyboard use proposed in the literature review are relevant to this sample. The interview also elicited teachers views on headphones (I.Qu.2-4) and established how keyboards are powered and moved, if at all (I.Qu.1.4). Issues surrounding headphones raised by the interview questions could be supported by (51)
analysed individually. A coding system was devised in which the relevant number from the 8 themes was placed against relevant dialogue in the scripts. Individual strands of dialogue fell into four typographies: directly related to a theme; indirectly related to a theme; of interest, but not related to a theme; not relevant. In addition, a single strand of dialogue might have related to more than one theme either directly or indirectly. To illustrate, the following verbatim dialogue strands will be used:
1. Do you believe that keyboards a capable of musical expression? they [keyboards] can be expressive but I don it would ever be I think t think an instrument that got to the concert platform. I mean Iheard very ve
expressive performances by girls having keyboard lessons and are playing for their GCSE and using all the features properly and changing the voice and they can be very expressive when they are used in a very knowledgeable way. 2. Keyboards can be a useful tool in developing musical skills that are transferable either to other instruments or aspect of music. believe this to be the case? I certainly think so because if you can find your way around a keyboard Yes it is a tool which is more versatile than many, many instruments. Do you
Guy Bunce Strand 1 clearly relates directly to theme 7 (expression), whereas strand 2 bridges two themes: transferable skills, and teachers preferences. The relationship of strand 2 with transferable skills is direct in the sense that this strand was the direct response to a question on transferable skills. The strand also alludes to teachers preference indirectly in that it suggests why this particular teacher may favour keyboards over other instruments. Once coding had been placed in the margins of all scripts, each strand was copied into a new document according to its theme; some strands were copied into more than one theme. This resulted in 8 theme-tables containing related verbatim strands. Each one of the 8 themes was individually analysed by looking for indigenous categories (Coolican, 1996) under which strands could be grouped. For example,
within the teachers preference theme numerous categories emerged such as versatility, inclusive power, and classroom management.
Chapter 4: Results & Discussion
This chapter is organised according to the eight themes presented previously. When not otherwise indicated, the provenance of results will be denoted by the bracketed suffix or Qu.I (questionnaire, or interview) followed by the question number.
1: Teachers Preference
Teachers preference for buying keyboards over other instruments is indicated by the questionnaire data which showed that over half the schools questioned had more than 21 keyboards in their departments (Qu.Q.1). Their preference for using keyboards in music lessons was also demonstrated with the finding that 77% used keyboards most lessons at KS3, and 54% used them sometimes at KS4 (Qu.Q.5-6). There was no indication that keyboards were never used. These findings support previous research demonstrating the ubiquitous position of keyboards in secondary music classrooms of the UK (Mills & Murray, 2000; Odam & Paterson, 2000; Pitts & Kwami, 2002). In order to understand why teachers prefer keyboards to other instruments, two further questions were asked: do you think is the greatest asset that keyboards have to what offer secondary music teaching? (Q.Qu.11); and second, during the interview teachers were asked why they thought teachers favour keyboards over other instruments when buying for their classrooms. The data analysis from both questions yielded similar categories enabling the data to be validated through triangulation. Next the two data sets were combined to form a comprehensive list of four major categories and four minor ones. Figure 3 illustrates the categories that emerged; this section will now
movements and notes as they play with me playing out loud. The learning is interspersed with small practise
sessions in which a pupil with attention problems is allowed to use headphones, the rest play with their keyboards on. As a class, we play through all parts live and put the piece together before I teach the pupils how to approach the improvised part. They work on their
learnt the music, they unplug their headphones and play either to me or to the class. Some pupils will also learn
accompanying parts or might add beats on drums or play chords on guitars.
improvisations before moving into groups and putting the whole piece together. At this stage, they move to practice rooms and other instruments are added.
Figure 8: Case studies created from the interview data
Guy Bunce 4.2 Methods of keyboard use Salaman (1997) proposed three methods of employing keyboards in the classroom: with pupils working in pairs with headphones; with pupils working in pairs without headphones; and for whole-class performances. More recent literature suggests two further methods: keyboards with other acoustic instruments (Odam & Paterson, 2000; Byrne & MacDonald, 2002) and with pupils working in small groups (Crow, 2001; Mills & Murray, 2000). The interview data from the current study confirms that the most common method currently employed is with pupils working in pairs with or without headphones (for an example see case study 2 in Figure 8). All but one
interviewee stated that paired work was their most common method of using keyboards. Solitary keyboard work was reserved for smaller classes that tended to be either GCSE pupils or key-stage three pupils of lower ability. The questionnaire data verifies this finding as the mean average ratio of keyboards to pupils was 1:2 at KS3, and 1:1 at KS4. Keyboards were also used regularly for class performances but more rarely in groups with other instruments. In contrast, one teacher always used keyboards in groups with other instruments and never in a paired situation or as a whole class (see case study 1 in Figure 8). The reasons given for this view were resourcing, and to avoid the battery-chicken setup with all pupils working at stations in pairs wearing headphones and hearing nothing, [Interviewee 3]. The results suggest that Salaman s observations are still accurate: however most interviewees reported integrating other instruments or group work regularly. In
teachers who used headphones with whole classes had another aspect of classroom management in common: their main method of keyboard use was with pupils in pairs. The four teachers who used headphones gave as reasons for use enabling pupils to hear themselves to pupils to focus during class work , and enable. This is in accordance with Odam & Paterson s finding that pupils often complain about extraneous noise (2000). In the present study teachers were also asked to state
Guy Bunce problems associated with headphones. From their responses (and issues raised in the open-ended question in the questionnaire (Q.Qu.12)) the following list was created:
Cover a multitude of sins Expensive Fragile Logistical problems (time) Battery-chicken syndrome
Non-users gave covering a multitude of sinstheir top reason for not employing as headphones in the classroom stating that headphones lead to pupils losing focus and misbehaving. This is in agreement with the literature (Salaman, 1997; Mills & Murray, 2000; Crow, 2001). The questionnaire verified this finding as 66% of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that headphones cover a multitude of sins (Q.Qu.10). The fragility of cheap headphones and the cost of buying decent ones was also a popular reason for not using them. One teacher listed logistical problems such as the time it takes to give them out, the trailing wires, and the problems with them breaking during lessons. Another teacher used the analogy of battery chickens:
donuse them at all: itwhat I call We t s battery-chicken syndrome where they are all sitting in rows listening and nobody takes part in anything else. It s like battery chickens on a farm: they cansee each other and donknow what t t s going on.[Interviewee 3]
Guy Bunce This comment relates to the sociological issues raised by the literature. When these were broached with interviewees, those who used headphones extensively point to problems associated with the alternative, namely extraneous noise teacher who. The used headphones for long periods had never considered the problem and could not provide an answer. Others who used them for short focused periods stated:
Guy Bunce teaching of it into her scheme of work. All teachers felt that touch response gave an extra expressive dimension to keyboard playing and, of those who did not use it, most said they would always try to buy keyboards with the function on. This may well account the discrepancy between use and desirability. Aside from cost, other issues surrounding touch response given were control and the need for teaching how to employ the function. In agreement with Eales (2002a), many teachers complained that their pupils found it difficult to control the function and that it took a long time to get used to it. The inability to have a uniform set of keyboards (and therefore teach the function correctly) meant that most teachers told their pupils to turn touch response off; indeed if the teacher did not, most pupils turned it off themselves. The teacher who did use it extensively had the advantage of a uniform set of keyboards, again suggesting that a uniform set of keyboards is related to feature usage. In addition, this teacher had vast knowledge of keyboards owing to her past career as a peripatetic keyboard teacher. Despite the majority of teachers feeling that keyboards can be expressive to a point , most seem to think that touch response could add something to a pupil s performance if it was more manageable and featured on keyboards at the cheaper end of the market. However, two teachers put forward the interesting argument that both organs and (more obviously) harpsichords do not have touch response, but one does not hear of anyone calling either of these instruments unexpressive!
8: Development of notation reading skills
All teachers interviewed felt that they were using keyboards creatively and not solely to teach notation. A few teachers felt that teaching notation was very necessary and
Guy Bunce attempted to strike a balance between creative work and notation tasks. All teachers interviewed were able to give detailed examples of creative keyboard work from their own scheme of work. Whilst it is not the scope of this study to detail these examples here, some examples of creative keyboard use can be found in Figure 8, p.75.
7: Problems with Expression The majority of teachers believe that keyboards are capable of musical expression but some concluded that they are only expressive to a point. Most agreed with Salaman (1997) and Cliff (1998) that greater expressive control requires touch response, but 50% never used the function in their teaching. The issue of a homogenous set of keyboards was the dominant reason for not using the function widely. Teachers also stated that pupils have problems controlling the keyboard when touch response is used.
Implications It would seem that Salaman s concerns are still relevant to an extent. Even though the price of keyboards has steadily dropped since 1997, with the more advanced features appearing on cheaper models, many schools cannot afford to spend in excess of 100 on a keyboard. As a result, the majority of schools use keyboards without touch response. It seems that when touch response is present, focused tuition is required if pupils are to use it effectively. However, Salaman that the keyboard cannot be expressive s view without the function is opposed by the majority of teachers: no one would consider the pipe organ or harpsichord to be inexpressive despite them lacking touch response.
Guy Bunce 8: Development of notation reading skills Salaman s concerns that keyboards are primarily used to teach notation is not supported by the data from this study. Many teachers were able to give detailed examples of expressive and creative keyboard work from composing blues pieces to working with ground bass. Some teachers felt that notation was still a crucial part of musical learning and that it should feature in the scheme of work, but the idea of Tune a Day style learning was far removed from the practice observed in this study.
Three salient points were raised by the study that featured throughout the eight themes. These points related to progression, methods of employing keyboards, and finance. While teachers felt that keyboards enable pupils to progress musically, there was a concern about the effects of using access easy features on long-term progress. It has been suggested that teachers should endeavour to plan a course of progression that employs the keyboard features to the full. In order to demonstrate how this is possible, some examples shall be employed from EalesCommon Approach (cited in 2002a). sA Whilst this programme of study was designed primarily for keyboard teachers, classroom teachers could learn from it. On this course, pupils move from simple major and minor chords using the single-fingered function to complex augmented and slashchords using the fingered function; this leads onto the performances of left hand parts independent of the auto accompaniment. Many other keyboard features are treated in a similar way in A Common Approach using a carefully planned course of progression which is similar to that of the graded exams of the UK.
To summarise, this study has demonstrated that keyboards are being employed in many creative and diverse ways. However Eales states that: Portable electronic keyboards do not by any means solve all of the problems schools face in delivering quality music education (Eales, 2002a: p.16). Teachers should bear this in mind and consider
carefully how keyboards and their features are employed. In addition to Salaman s
Guy Bunce point that no established composers or distinguished educational thinkers have thrown their weight behind the keyboard, teachers are facing this evolutionary process with little opportunity for training. Yet one thing remains certain: keyboards are here to stay. The results of this study have shown how keyboards are currently viewed and how they are being employed by teachers. While some suggestions for improving practice have been alluded to, this study should act as a spring board for further research to establish standards.the meantime it will enable teachers to consider the advantages and gold In limitations of this musical tool.
Adamson, G.(2001) Electronic keybored. Music Teacher. February edition, pp.26-27. Airy, S. & Parr, J. M. (2001) MIDI, Music and Me: Students Perspectives on Composing with MIDI. Music Education Research, 3,1: pp.41-49 Allison, J. (2000) Naming of parts. Music Teacher. November edition, pp.29-30. Becta (2003) Entitlement to ICT in secondary music [website] http://www.ictadvice.org.uk/downloads/entitlement_doc/entitle_music_sec.d oc [8th April 2005]. Becta (2004) ICT in secondary Music [website] http://www.becta.org.uk/leaders/display.cfm?section=20&id=2112 [8th April 2005]. Bell, J. (1999) Doing your research project, a guide for first-times researchers in education and social science. (Maidenhead: Open University Press). Bunce, G. (2004) Information Communication Technology in Using Performing and Composing at Key Stages 3 and 4 Assignment. Med. University of Reading, UK. Busen-Smith, M. (1999) Developing strategies for delivering music technology in secondary PGCE courses. British Journal of Music Education, 16,2: pp197-213. Byrne, C. & Macdonald, R. A. R. (2002) The use of ICT in the Scottish music curriculum. Music Education Research, 4,2: pp.263-272. Cain, T. (2004) Theory, technology and the music curriculum, British Journal of Music Education, 21,2: pp.215-221 Casio (2005) [website] http://www.casio.co.uk/prod/product_landing.asp?LinkID=64 [27th April 2005]. Cliff, T. (1998) Board Games. Music Teacher. February edition, pp.25-27. Cliff, T. (2002) Weighing up keyboards. Music Teacher. August edition, pp.20-21.
Guy Bunce Walker, S. (2000) Composing for electronic keyboard. Music Teacher. October edition, pp.25-26. Yamaha (2005) [website] http://www.yamahaeurope.com/yamaha_europe/uk/10_musical_instruments/60_portable_keybo ards/10_keyboards/index.html [27th April 2005].
Becta (2000) Curriculum Software Initiative: Music [website] http://www.becta.org.uk/page_documents/support_staff/music.pdf [8th April 2005] Higgins, L. & Ross, G. (2000) ConCussion: a synthesis of old and new technologies. Music education research, 2,1: pp.87-93. Jennings, K. (2003) Symphony international music technology Toy : an project for children. Music Education International, 2: pp.3-21 Jennings, K. (2004) Music Technology in Irish Second Level Education - A Foobarian Approach. Journal of Music in Ireland. 4,4: [Available online] http://www.cs.tcd.ie/crite/publications/sources/JMIShort1.pdf [6th June 2005] Kinney, D. W. (2004) The effect of performing ensemble participation on the ability to perform and perceive expression in music International Society for Music Education, 22,1: pp.45-58. Savage, J. (1999) Approaches to Composition with Music technology in the KS2 and 4 curriculum [website] http://www.jsavage.org.uk/pdffiles/approachestocomposition.pdf Savage, J. & Challis, M. (2002) A Digital Arts Curriculum? Practical ways forward. Music Education Research, 4,1: pp.7-23. Savage, J. (2003) Viewpoints Informal Approaches to the Development of Young People s Composition Skills. Music Education Research, 5,1: pp.8185. Seddon, F. A. (2002) An interpretation of composition strategies adopted by adolescents with an without prior experience of formal instrumental music tuition (FIMT) engaging with computer-based composition. Presented at ISME 2002, 25th biennial conference in music education and music festival, 11th-16th August 2002, Bergen, Norway. Smith, A. (1998) Keyboards in Context, Becta, ISBN 418 X. Webster, P. R. (2002) Computer-Based Technology and Music Teaching and LearningColwell, R., & Richardson, C. (eds) The New handbook of , in research on music teaching and learning: A Project of the Music Educators National Conference. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Guy Bunce Weidenbach, V. (1994) Technology teaching the teacher: A study of keyboard instructional praxis in a computer-based learning environment, Research Studies in Music Education, 3:pp.44-53.
School Name: _________________________ Your Name: _____________________ School type (e.g. mixed comprehensive): ______________________________________________ Years of teaching experience: ____________
How many keyboards do you have in your department (by keyboard I mean a portable electronic keyboard instrument with built-in speakers): 30+ 25 30
This symbol indicates information that, if ignored or applied incorrectly, creates the danger of death or serious personal injury.
This indication stipulates matters that have the risk of causing death or serious injury if the product is operated incorrectly while ignoring this indication.
This indication stipulates matters that have the risk of causing injury as well as matters for which there is the likelihood of occurrence of physical damage only if the product is operated incorrectly while ignoring this indication.
Alkaline Batteries Perform the following steps immediately if fluid leaking from alkaline batteries ever gets into your eyes. 1. Do not rub your eyes! Rinse them with water. 2. Contact your physician immediately. Leaving alkaline battery fluid in your eyes can lead to loss of sight.
Smoke, Strange Odor, Overheating Continued use of the product while it is emitting smoke, a strange odor, or heat creates the risk of fire and electric shock. Take the following steps immediately. 1. Turn off power. 2. If you are using the AC adaptor for power, unplug it from the wall outlet. 3. Contact your original retailer or an authorized CASIO Service Provider. AC Adaptor G Misuse of the AC adaptor creates the risk of fire and electric shock. Always make sure you observe the following precautions. Be sure to use only the AC adaptor that is specified for this product. Use only a power source whose voltage is within the rating marked on the AC adaptor. Do not overload electrical outlets and extension cords.
G Misuse of the AC adaptors electric cord can damage or break it, creating the risk of fire and electric shock. Always make sure you observe the following precautions. Never place heavy objects on the cord or subject it to heat. Never try to modify the cord or subject it to excessive bending. Never twist or stretch the cord. Should the electric cord or plug become damaged, contact your original retailer or authorized CASIO Service Provider. G Never touch the AC adaptor while your hands are wet. Doing so creates the risk of electric shock. Use the AC adaptor where it will not be splashed with water. Water creates the risk of fire and electric shock. Do not place a vase or any other container filled with liquid on top of the AC adaptor. Water creates the risk of fire and electric shock. Batteries Misuse of batteries can cause them to leak, resulting in damage to nearby objects, or to explode, creating the risk of fire and personal injury. Always make sure you observe the following precautions. Never try to take batteries apart or allow them to become shorted. Never expose batteries to heat or dispose of them by incineration. Never mix old batteries with new ones. Never mix batteries of different types. Do not charge the batteries. Make sure the positive (+) and negative () ends of the batteries are facing correctly.
Cleaning Before cleaning the product, always unplug the AC adaptor from the wall outlet first. Leaving the AC adaptor plugged in creates the risk of damage to the AC adaptor, fire, and electric shock. Batteries Misuse of batteries can cause them to leak resulting in damage to nearby objects, or to explode, creating the risk of fire and personal injury. Always make sure you observe the following precautions. Use only batteries that are specified for use with this product. Remove batteries from the product if you do not plan to use it for a long time. Connectors Connect only the specified devices and equipment to the products connectors. Connection of a nonspecified device or equipment creates the risk of fire and electric shock. Location Avoid the following locations for this product. Such locations create the risk of fire and electric shock. Areas subject to high humidity or large amounts of dust. In food preparation areas or other areas subject to oil smoke. Near air conditioning equipment, on a heated carpet, in areas exposed to direct sunlight, inside of a vehicle parked in the sun, or any other area that subjects the product to high temperatures.
Display Screen Never push on the display screens LCD panel or subject it to strong impact. Doing so can cause the LCD panels glass to crack, creating the risk of personal injury. Should the LCD panel ever crack or break, never touch the liquid inside of the panel. LCD panel liquid can cause skin irritation. Should LCD panel liquid ever get inside your mouth, immediately wash out your mouth with water and contact your physician. Should LCD panel liquid ever get into your eyes or onto your skin, rinse with clear water for at least 15 minutes, and then contact a physician. Sound Volume Do not listen to music at very loud volumes for long periods. Particular care concerning this precaution is required when using headphones. High volume settings can damage your hearing. Health Precaution In extremely rare cases, exposure to strong sudden light or flashing light can cause momentary muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, or other physical problems with some individuals. If you suspect that you might be susceptible to any condition such as this, be sure to consult with your physician before using this product. Use this product in an area that is well illuminated. Should you ever feel any symptoms similar to those described above when using this product, stop using it immediately and contact your physician.
Heavy Objects Never place heavy object on top of the product. Doing so can make the product top heavy, causing the product to tip over or the object to fall from it, creating the risk of personal injury. Correct Stand* Assembly An incorrectly assembled stand can tip over, causing the product to fall and creating the risk of personal injury. Make sure you assemble the stand correctly, following the assembly instructions that come with it. Make sure you mount the product on the stand correctly. * Stand is available as an option.
When using batteries, be sure to replace them or shift to one of the alternate power sources whenever you notice any of the following symptoms. Dim power indicator Instrument does not turn on Display that is flickering, dim, or difficult to read Abnormally low speaker/headphone volume Distortion of sound output Occasional interruption of sound when playing at high volume Sudden power failure when playing at high volume Flickering or dimming of the display when playing at high volume Continued sound output even after you release a key A tone that is totally different from the one that is selected Abnormal rhythm pattern and Song Bank play Loss of power, sound distortion, or low volume when playing from a connected computer or MIDI device Abnormally low microphone volume Distortion of microphone input Dim power supply indicator when a microphone is used
On-screen fingering and timing indicators
Easy-to-understand on-screen indicators help to simplify keyboard play, even for novices.
100 amazingly realistic tones Enhanced auto-accompaniment function for greater versatility
50 built in auto-accompaniment patterns.
100 Built-in Song Bank tunes
A total of 100 built-in Song Bank tunes comes built in for playback enjoyment or play-along practice.
3-Step Lesson System
Develop your musical skills by following the keys as they light. First you become familiar with the timing of the notes by watching the keys light as you playback one of the 100 built-in Song Bank tunes. Next, practice playing along at a pace thats comfortable for you. Finally, try playing along at the normal tempo for the Song Bank tune. A simulated human voice is used during Step 1 or Step 2 play to call out the fingers you should use to play the required notes (Voice Fingering). The timing of notes is also indicated on the display screen.
Simply specify a chord and the keyboard automatically produces the matching rhythm, bass, and chord patterns. One-touch fill-ins make accompaniments sound interesting and natural.
An easy operation instantly changes the key of the keyboard.
Connecting to another MIDI device lets you sound notes on both this keyboard and the connected device by playing on this keyboard.
Connect a commercially available microphone and you can sing along with Song Bank tunes.
Safety Precautions. E-1 Main Features. E-6 General Guide. E-8
Attachment of Score Stand. E-9
3-Step Lesson System. E-21
Using 3-Step Lesson System. E-21 Voice Fingering Guide..E-23 Timing Indicator.. E-23 Step 1: Master the timing.. E-24 Step 2: Master the melody.. E-25
Quick Reference. E-10 Power Supply.. E-11
Using batteries... E-11 Using the AC Adaptor.. E-11 Auto Power Off...E-12 Power On Alert...E-12
Step 3: Play at normal speed. E-25 To practice the left hand part. E-26
What is MIDI?.. E-27 General MIDI.. E-27
Technical Reference. E-29
Troubleshooting.. E-29 Specifications.. E-31
Care of Your Keyboard. E-12 Connections.. E-13
Phones/Output Jack.. E-13 Sustain Jack.. E-13 Using the Microphone Jack. E-13 Accessories and Options.. E-14
GM Tone Map List.. A-1 Rhythm List..A-2 Fingered Chord Charts.. A-3
Basic Operations.. E-15
To switch power on and off..E-15 To change tones..E-15 Other Useful Functions..E-16 Playing the demo tunes.. E-17 Playing rhythms.. E-18 Using auto-accompaniment. E-18 Improvising with the preset patterns. E-20
MIDI Implementation Chart
1 MIC VOLUME slider 2 POWER/MODE selector 3 Power indicator 4 MAIN VOLUME slider 5 DEMO button 6 KEY LIGHT button
F 100 SONG BANK list G Display H 50 RHYTHMS list See Rhythm List on page A-2 for details. I 100 TONES list See GM Tone Map List on page A-1 for details. J Voice 1 to 5 K TRANSPOSE/TUNE/LOCAL CONTROL operation guide L Number buttons
G RHYTHM CONTROLLER
7 SYNCHRO/FILL-IN button 8 START/STOP button 9 TEMPO buttons 0 SONG BANK button A RHYTHM button B TONE button C Percussion instrument list D CHORD root names E Speakers
G 3-STEP LESSON
M STEP 1 button N STEP 2 button O STEP 3 button P PART SELECT button Q ONE KEY PLAY buttons R SPEAK button
* Rear Panel
S T U V W X S MIDI OUT terminal T MIDI IN terminal U SUSTAIN jack V DC 9V jack W PHONES/OUTPUT jack For connection of commercially available headphones. Output from the speakers is automatically cut when headphones are connected. X MIC IN jack
** Attachment of Score Stand Insert both ends of the music stand provided with the keyboard into the two holes on the top surface.
Always make sure you turn off the keyboard before loading or replacing batteries.
To load batteries
Remove the battery compartment cover. Load 6 AA-size batteries into the battery compartment.
Make sure that the positive (+) and negative () ends are facing correctly.
Misuse of batteries can cause them to leak resulting in damage to nearby objects, or to explode, creating the risk of fire and personal injury. Always make sure you observe the following precautions. Use only batteries that are specified for use with this product. Remove batteries from the product if you do not plan to use it for a long time.
Insert the tabs on the battery compartment cover into the holes provided and close the cover.
Using the AC Adaptor
Make sure that you use only the AC adaptor specified for this keyboard. Specified AC Adaptor: AD-5
DC 9V jack AC adaptor AD-5
The keyboard may not function correctly if you load or replace batteries with power turned on. If this happens, turning the keyboard off and then back on again should return functions back to normal.
Important Battery Information
I The following shows the approximate battery life. Alkaline batteries.. 4 hours Manganese batteries.. 1 hour The above value is standard battery life at normal temperature, with the keyboard volume at medium setting. Temperature extremes or playing at very loud volume settings can shorten battery life.
Note the following important precautions to avoid damage to the power cord. G During Use Never pull on the cord with excessive force. Never repeatedly pull on the cord. Never twist the cord at the base of the plug or connector. The power cord should not be stretched tight while it is in use. G During Movement Before moving the keyboard, be sure to unplug the AC adaptor from the power outlet. G During Storage Loop and bundle the power cord, but never wind it around the AC adaptor.
Care of Your Keyboard
Make sure that the keyboard is turned off before connecting or disconnecting the AC adaptor. Using the AC adaptor for a long time can cause it to become warm to the touch. This is normal and does not indicate malfunction.
Avoid heat, humidity or direct sunlight.
Do not overexpose the instrument to direct sunlight, or place it near an air conditioner, or in any extremely hot place.
Do not use near a TV or radio.
This instrument can cause video or audio interference with TV and radio reception. If this happens, move the instrument away from the TV or radio.
Auto Power Off
When you are using battery power, keyboard power turns off automatically whenever you leave it on without performing any operation for about 6 minutes. When this happens, move the POWER/MODE selector to the OFF position and then back to NORMAL, CASIO CHORD, or FINGERED to turn power back on.
Do not use lacquer, thinner or similar chemicals for cleaning.
Clean the keyboard with a soft cloth dampened in a weak solution of water and a neutral detergent. Soak the cloth in the solution and squeeze until it is almost dry.
Auto Power Off is disabled (it does not function) when you are using the AC adaptor to power the keyboard.
You may notice lines in the finish of the case of this keyboard. These lines are a result of the molding process used to shape the plastic of the case. They are not cracks or breaks in the plastic, and are no cause for concern.
Power On Alert
Keyboard keys light to alert you if you leave power on and do not perform any operation for about 6 minutes. Note that keys light only, and no sound is produced. When this happens, press any button or keyboard key to clear the power on alert.
Power on alert operates only when you are powering the keyboard using the AC adaptor. It does not operate when you are using batteries.
To disable Auto Power Off and power on alert
Hold down the TONE button while turning on the keyboard to disable Auto Power Off and power on alert.
When these functions are turned off, the keyboard does not turn off automatically and no alert is performed no matter how long it is left with no operation being performed. Auto Power Off and power on alert are enabled again when you manually turn off power and then turn it back on again.
Before connecting headphones or other external equipment, be sure to first turn down the volume settings of the keyboard and the connected equipment. You can then adjust volume to the desired level after connections are complete.
You can connect an optional sustain pedal (SP-3 or SP-20) to the SUSTAIN jack to enable the capabilities described below.
PHONES/OUTPUT Jack Stereo standard plug
Sustain Pedal With piano tones, depressing the pedal causes notes to linger, much like a pianos damper pedal. With organ tones, depressing the pedal causes notes to continue to sound until the pedal is released.
AUX IN or similar terminal of audio amplifier Keyboard amp, guitar amp, etc.
Connecting Headphones (Figure 1) Connecting headphones cuts off output from the keyboards built-in speakers, so you can play even late at night without disturbing anyone. Audio Equipment (Figure 2) Connect the keyboard to an audio equipment using a commercially available connecting cord with a standard plug on one end and two PIN plugs on the other end. In this configuration, you normally set the input selector of the audio equipment to the terminal (usually marked AUX IN or something similar) where the cord from the keyboard is connected. See the user documentation that comes with your audio equipment for full details. Musical Instrument Amplifier (Figure 3) Use a commercially available connecting cord to connect the keyboard to a musical instrument amplifier.
Playing the demo tunes
You can set up the keyboard to continually play its 100 builtin Song Bank tunes. Keyboard keys light to indicate the melody notes of the demo tune as it plays.
To tune the keyboard
A simple operation lets you tune the keyboard to another musical instrument.
To start demo tune play
While in any mode besides the Song Bank Mode (indicated when the SONG BANK indicator is lit), hold down the TONE button and press the SONG BANK button.
Switch power on and adjust the volume level. Press the DEMO button.
Demo tune play continues in a sequential endless loop until you switch it off. The number and name of the demo tune currently playing are shown on the display. You can play along on the keyboard while a demo tune is playing back.
Use the TEMPO buttons to change the tuning of the keyboard.
Example: To lower tuning by 20
You can change the demo tune play being played by pressing the number buttons.
The Song Bank tunes play back in tune number sequence, starting from the one you select.
To stop demo tune play
Press the DEMO button or START/STOP button again to stop demo tune play.
Only the following buttons are enabled while a Song Bank tune is being played. MAIN VOLUME slider Number buttons START/STOP button POWER/MODE selector (OFF) DEMO button KEY LIGHT button SPEAK button You cannot change the tone being used for the melody of a Song Bank tune.
Use the TEMPO buttons to adjust the tempo of the rhythm.
This keyboard features a collection of 50 exciting built-in rhythm patterns. Each pattern provides percussion back up for all your performances.
Each time you press one of the TEMPO buttons while the tempo value is displayed, the tempo setting changes one step, within the range of 040 to 255. The initial default tempo setting when you turn on power is 120. After displaying the current tempo setting by pressing the TEMPO button in step 6, you can also input the tempo setting you want by inputting a three-digit value with the number buttons. Holding down either of the TEMPO buttons changes the tempo setting at high speed. To reset the tempo to the standard value of each rhythm, press both TEMPO buttons.
To select and play a rhythm
To stop rhythm play, press the START/STOP button again.
Set the POWER/MODE selector to NORMAL. Find the rhythm you want to use in the Rhythm List (page A-2) and note its rhythm number. Press the RHYTHM button.
When you do, the RHYTHM indicator appears. The number and name that appear on the display indicate the currently selected rhythm.
This keyboard features 50 accompaniment patterns that let you add full accompaniments to your performances automatically. With auto-accompaniment, part of the keyboard is reserved as an accompaniment keyboard. As you play your chords on the accompaniment keyboard, the accompaniment pattern adjusts automatically to follow the progression you play. You get a choice between two different methods for chord play. FINGERED lets you play chords as you normally do, while CASIO CHORD makes it possible to play fully formed chords with one finger.
Use the number buttons to input the 2-digit rhythm number for the rhythm you want to use.
Example: To select 37 SAMBA, input 3 and then 7.
S amb a
Be sure to always specify a 2-digit number. If you discover a mistake before you input the second digit, press the RHYTHM button to return to the previously set rhythm number. You can change to another rhythm even while the current rhythm is sounding.
About the accompaniment keyboard
The lower (left) 1.5 octaves are reserved for use as an accompaniment keyboard whenever you select CASIO CHORD or FINGERED with the POWER/MODE selector. The panel above the accompaniment keyboard keys is marked with the names of the notes they play. The remainder of the keyboard (the part that is not included in the accompaniment keyboard) is called the melody keyboard. Please be sure to remember these terms, because they will be used throughout the rest of this manual.
Press the START/STOP button to start play of the rhythm.
When you do, the selected rhythm starts to sound.
Accompaniment keyboard Melody keyboard
The entire keyboard can be used for melody play while the POWER/MODE selector is set to NORMAL.
Using the CASIO CHORD system
The CASIO CHORD system lets you easily play the four main types of chords. Play of chords is simplified as shown in the chart below. Keys Type C (C Major Chord) Cm (C Minor Chord) C7 (C Seventh Chord) Cm7 (C Minor Seventh Chord) Example
CC DE E FF GA A B B CC DE E F
Continue pressing different keys on the accompaniment keyboard to play your chord progression. To stop auto-accompaniment play, press the START/STOP button again.
Pressing one Major accompaniment chord key Pressing two Minor accompaniment chord keys Pressing Seventh three chord accompaniment keys Pressing four Minor accompaniment seventh keys chord
Using standard fingerings
The FINGERED mode lets you play a wider variety of chords. In this mode, you can start play of an accompaniment pattern by pressing three or four of the accompaniment keyboard keys. This keyboard is capable of recognizing 15 different chords. The following shows the fingerings of these chords with a root of C. Note that you can omit the fifth notes (which are shown inside parentheses in the illustrations below) to produce 7, m7, M7, add9, madd9, and mM7 chords.
The bottom (leftmost) note that you play determines the name of the chord. If the bottom note is a C for example, the keyboard produces a C chord. When pressing more than one accompaniment key, it makes no difference whether the keys to the right of the bottom note are white or black.
To play a CASIO CHORD auto-accompaniment
Use the POWER/MODE selector to select CASIO CHORD. C(*1) Select an auto-rhythm as described under To select and play a rhythm on page E-18. Start play of the rhythm.
If you want to start play of the normal rhythm pattern, press START/STOP. You can also use synchro start (page E-20) to start rhythm play.
Press either one or up to four keys on the accompaniment keyboard, and the corresponding accompaniment starts to play automatically.
*1 With this chords, the lowest note in your fingering is always used as the root. Make sure that your fingering correctly identifies the root you want to use.
If you play one or two notes only in the left hand, or three notes that do not make up a recognizable chord formation, no sound will be produced. The FINGERED mode requires a conventional three or four-note chord formation to produce an auto-accompaniment. Also, note that autochords only work in conjunction with rhythm patterns, and not independently of them.
Improvising with the preset patterns
Pressing the START/STOP button to start rhythm play causes the normal version of the pattern to be played. You can also play a variation of the rhythm using the operation described below.
Using fill-in rhythm
You can insert a fill-in rhythm by pressing the SYNCHRO/ FILL-IN button while an auto-rhythm plays.
The above examples show only one of the possible fingerings for each chord. Note that you can play the notes that form a chord in any combination. Each of the following fingerings for example, produces the same C chord.
Using Synchro start
You can start the rhythm and accompaniment pattern at the same time, with your play of the accompaniment keyboard. To do this, follow the steps below.
Set the POWER/MODE selector to the CASIO CHORD or FINGERED position. Select an auto-rhythm. Press the SYNCHRO/FILL-IN button. Press the accompaniment keys to play the first chord. As soon as you do, the autoaccompaniment pattern begins to play.
See the Fingered Chord Charts on page A-3 for information on the fingerings of chords for all roots.
To play a FINGERED auto-accompaniment
Use the POWER/MODE selector to select FINGERED. Select an auto-rhythm as described under To select and play a rhythm on page E-18. Start play of the rhythm.
If you want to start play of the normal rhythm pattern, press START/STOP. You can also use synchro start (on this page) to start rhythm play.
To stop the auto-accompaniment pattern play, press the START/STOP button.
If you set the POWER/MODE selector to NORMAL in step 1 on page E-18, the operation in step 4 starts play of the rhythm (percussion instruments) only.
Play a chord on the accompaniment keyboard to start play of the auto-accompaniment.
Continue pressing keys on the accompaniment keyboard to play your chord progression. To stop auto-accompaniment play, press the START/STOP button again.
3-Step Lesson System
KEY LIGHT SONG BANK TONE ONE KEY PLAY SPEAK
STEP 1 STEP 2
PART SELECT STEP 3
Using 3-Step Lesson System
Even individuals who cannot play the keyboard at all can follow along with the 100 built-in Song Bank tunes with the ONE KEY PLAY buttons. You can also use the 3-Step Lesson System to learn at your own pace. Play slowly at first until you are able to play along at normal speed. Of the 100 built-in tunes, numbers 00 through 83 feature autoaccompaniment (auto-accompaniment tunes), while 84 through 99 are played using both hands (two-hand tunes). The 3-Step Lesson System can be used with the following 3step lesson plan to master keyboard play.
You may not be able to see the keyboard keys light under direct sunlight or in other brightly lit areas. You can press the ONE KEY PLAY, STEP 1, STEP 2, and STEP 3 buttons at any time, except while a demo tune is playing. To return the keyboard to its normal mode, press the SONG BANK button.
Number of Simultaneously Lit Keys
Up to four keyboard keys can be lit at the same time.
Press the ONE KEY PLAY buttons to play each note of the tune.
The accompaniment (left hand) part of the tune follows along as you play the melody (right hand) part. The keyboard key that corresponds to the next note to be played flashes, and lights when you play the note. The rhythm (percussion) part does not sound.
To change the tone used for the melody of a Song Bank tune
Following step 3 of the procedure on page E-21, press the TONE button.
Both the SONG BANK indicator and TONE indicator appear, along with the tone number and name of the tone that is currently assigned to the keyboard.
Try pressing any one of the keyboard keys in place of the ONE KEY PLAY buttons.
Pressing any keyboard key plays the correct melody (right hand part) note. Pressing more than one key at the same time counts as a single melody note. Pressing a key while another key is held down is counted as two melody notes.
Input a value to select the tone you want to use.
Selecting another Song Bank tune switches the tone setting to the newly selected tunes preset melody tone. The tone assigned to the keyboard is the same one specified for the melody of the Song Bank tune. The above procedure can be used to change the Song Bank melody tone before starting play or while play is already in progress. You can also change the tone of two-hand tunes (tune numbers 84 to 99). Note however, that selecting a sustainable tone (like an organ tone) when using 3-Step Lesson Step 1 or Step 2 (in which accompaniment waits for correct input from you before proceeding), can cause notes of the auto accompaniment to be sustained while the keyboard is waiting for your input. If this happens, play something on the keyboard to stop the sustained note.
The correct note is played even if you do not press the key that is lit.
To stop play at any time, press the START/STOP button.
When you do, the STEP 1 indicator goes out.
Press the STEP 2 button.
When you do, the STEP 2 indicator appears. After a count sounds, the keyboard stands by and waits for you to play the first note of the tune. If the tune includes intro measures, the keyboard enters standby after the intro measures are complete.
Press the STEP 3 button.
When you do, the STEP 3 indicator appears. Play starts after a count sounds.
Play along on the keyboard, following the keys as they light.
The accompaniment (left hand) part of the tune plays at normal speed, regardless of what you play on the keyboard. With an auto-accompaniment tune, the keyboard key that corresponds to the next note to be played flashes, and lights when the note should be played. With a two-hand tune, the applicable keyboard key remains lit as long as its note plays. In this case, however, the key for the next note to be played does not flash. Keys light when their notes start to play.
To turn on LOCAL CONTROL/To turn off GM mapping
While in any mode besides the Song Bank Mode (indicated when the SONG BANK indicator is lit), hold down the RHYTHM button and press the SONG BANK button.
Use the TEMPO button ( ) to turn on local control.
This also turns off GM mapping.
Note that LOCAL CONTROL is also turned on automatically whenever you turn on power, or when you press any of the following buttons. START/STOP (to start rhythm or Song Bank tune play) ONE-KEY PLAY STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 DEMO (to start demo tune play) See the GM Tone Map List at the back of this manual for information about tone assignments while GM mapping is turned on.
When you are using this keyboard in a stand-alone configuration, keyboard keys do not light while local control is turned off.
To turn off LOCAL CONTROL/To turn on GM mapping
Use the TEMPO button ( ) to turn off local control.
This also turns on GM mapping.
Be sure to check the following table whenever you experience problems with keyboard operation. Symptom No sound when keyboard keys are pressed. Cause 1. Power supply problem. Action 1. Correctly attach the AC adaptor, make sure that batteries (+/) are facing correctly, and check to make sure that batteries are not dead. 2. Use the MAIN VOLUME slider to increase volume. 3. Unplug the headphones from the PHONES/OUTPUT jack. 4. Normal play is not possible on the accompaniment keyboard while the POWER/MODE selector is set to CASIO CHORD or FINGERED. Change the POWER/MODE selector setting to NORMAL. 5. While 99 PERCUSSION is selected, you can use only keys that are marked on the console with illustrations of percussion instruments. 6. Turn on LOCAL CONTROL. Replace the batteries with a set of new ones or use the AC adaptor. See Page Page E-11
2. Volume setting is too low. 3. Headphones are plugged into the keyboard. 4. The POWER/MODE selector is in the CASIO CHORD or FINGERED position.
Page E-15 Page E-13 Page E-18
5. Tone 99 PERCUSSION is selected and you are pressing keys that are not assigned tones.
6. LOCAL CONTROL is off. Any of the following symptoms while using battery power. Low battery power
Page E-28 Page E-11
DVP-NS530 Deskjet 840C Of Doom Recettes DEQ230D Roadmate 1424 EOS 30D YP-Q1AB 5100TX AFE325 Professional 2007 Vista HCX FTR9955 SG341I 2493HM LTV853A MG-583MC KDC-1023 PS42A451 Video C521I Asko 7703 CR-8530 Fifa 2001 Edition KX-TCD755 LX8000SA LTV1070A RL40egsw Keypad Teddy Tutorials DEQ830 Audiogram6 42LC2D-UD XTR-400 Expedition-2002 HTX-11 CDX-F7715X KH 2000 MX-2700N Deere 6015 WD-N12155D Ry30120 WF8702NDW GT-S7230E PM-850PT Roland ME-6 BD-SP807 Review UX-D70CW TS25PSP20G LE32B650t2P Techwood PL66 5055E 46B8000 LS1016 MPA160 Avic-X1BT AP-U70 Of Ages KDV-5241U XC-L5 FWD-32LX1R Ehs VP-MX20R Minolta 7085 LC-19A1E Asko 1402 Soccer 2005 SUP 012 GX-24 RMR383HG B212D LE Cube 15200 Samsung A400 LAV73639-W WFF 1301 Powershot A450 Cessna 182 UE-40B7000 RH399D HDR-SR8 PI 3650 Recorder 50PG10 DPL950VD Sofa BED LP260 Super MF-P01 Terror M1100 L KX-TS2365RUW Dacmagic EFW 6225 XP1500 Canon A480 Travelmate 5320
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