Fagor 8025 T CNC
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Introduction - 11
The installation manual consists of the following chapters: Index Comparison table of FAGOR models: 8025 T CNCs New Features and modifications. Introduction Warning sheet prior to start-up: Declaration of Conformity. Safety conditions. Warranty terms. Material returning conditions. Additional remarks. FAGOR documentation for the 8025 T CNC. Manual contents. CNC configuration. Indicates the possible compositions: modular and compact. Description and dimensions of the Central Unit. Description and dimensions of the Monitor. Description and dimensions of the Operator Panel. Detailed description of all the connectors. Machine and Power connection Indicates how to connect the main AC power The ground connection. The characteristics of the digital inputs and outputs. The characteristics of the analog output. The characteristics of the feedback inputs. CNC set-up and start-up. System input/output test. Emergency input and output connection. Machine parameters. How to operate with the machine parameters. How to set the machine parameters. Detail description of the general machine parameters. Machine parameters for the axes. Detail description of the machine parameters for the axes. Machine Parameters for the spindle. Detail description of the machine parameters for the spindle. Concepts. Axes and coordinate systems. Nomenclature and selection. Feedback systems, resolution. Axis and gain adjustment. Reference systems; Reference points, search and adjustment. Software axis travel limits. Acceleration / deceleration. Unidirectional approach. Spindle: speed control, range change. Tools and tool magazine. Treatment of the Feed-hold and M-done signals. M, S, T auxiliary function transfer. Live tool and synchronized tool. C axis. Technical characteristics of the CNC. Enclosures. Recommended probe connection circuits. CNC inputs and outputs. 2-digit BCD spindle output conversion table. Machine parameters. Summary chart, sequential list and setting chart. Auxiliary M functions. Setting chart. Leadscrew error compensation and cross compensation tables. Maintenance.
Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6
Error codes. Introduction - 12
The CNC is prepared to be used in Industrial Environments, especially on milling machines, lathes, etc. It can control machine movements and devices. It can control machine movements and devices.
The 8025 CNC is an enclosed compact module whose front view offers:
1. 2. 3.
An 8" monochrome amber monitor or CRT screen used to display the required system information. A keyboard which permits communications with the CNC; being possible to request information or change the CNC status by generating new instructions. An operator panel containing the necessary keys to work in JOG mode as well as the Cycle Start/Stop keys.
Section: RS232C CONNECTOR
RECOMMENDED CONNECTIONS FOR THE RS232C INTERFACE * Complete connection
Simplified connection To be used when the peripheral or the computer meets one of the following requirements: - It does not have the RTS signal. - It is connected via DNC. - The receiver can receive data at the selected baudrate.
Nevertheless, it is suggested to refer to the technical manuals of the peripheral equipment in case there should be any discrepancy.
Page 22 Chapter: 1 CONFIGURATION OF THE CNC Section: RS232C CONNECTOR
It is a 9-pin SUB-D type female connector to connect the RS485 serial line. This serial line is used to integrate the CNC into the FAGOR LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) in order to communicate with other FAGOR CNCs and PLCs (FAGOR PLC 64).
PIN 9 SIGNAL ----TxD --------TxD --FUNCTION Not connected Not connected Transmit Data Not connected Not connected Not connected Not connected Transmit Data Not connected
Do not manipulate the connectors with the unit connected to main AC power Before manipulating these connectors, make sure that the unit is not connected to main AC power. For better immunity of the RS485 serial line against conducted electromagnetic disturbances, it is recommended to solder the cable mesh to the metal hood of the connector.
RECOMMENDED CABLE FOR THE RS485
SPECIFICATIONS Type: 02 AWG twisted 7x28 Material: Copper (only one stained wire) Conductor Resistance: Max 11 L per every 305m. (1000 ft) Material: Teflon Insulator Material Stained copper Type Braid 34 AWG. 8 ends / 16 carriers Shields Cover Minimum 95% Resistance Maximum 3L per every 305m. (1000 ft) Material: Teflon Covering Outside diameter Nominal 7mm. (0.257inches) Maximum 53,1 pF/m (16.2 pF/ft) Capacitance 107 5% Ohm at 1 MHz. Impedance
Section: RS485 CONNECTOR
Pin 5 6
CONNECTOR I/O 1
SIGNAL AND FUNCTION 0V. T Strobe S Strobe M Strobe Emergency Threading ON Cycle ON Z Enable Reset X Enable X home switch 3rd axis home switch Z home switch 4th axis home switch Emerg. Subroutine Emergency Stop Feed Hold Transfer inhibit M-done Stop Emergency subrout. Start Block Skip DRO MST80 MST40 MST20 MST10 MST08 MST04 MST02 MST01 CHASSIS 24V. 10V 0V. 10V 0V. 10V 0V. 10V 0V. Input from external power supply Output. The BCD outputs represent a tool code. Output. The BCD outputs represent a spindle speed code. Output. The BCD outputs represent an M code. Output. Output. Output. Output. Output. Input from machine reference switch. Input from machine reference switch. Input from machine reference switch. Input from machine reference switch. Activate the emergency subroutine. Input. Input. Input. Activate the emergency subroutine. Input Conditional Input Input. The CNC acts as a DRO BCD coded output, weight: 80 BCD coded output, weight: 40 BCD coded output, weight: 20 BCD coded output, weight: 10 BCD coded output, weight: 8 BCD coded output, weight: 4 BCD coded output, weight: 2 BCD coded output, weight: 1 Connect all cable shields to this pin. Input from external power supply. Analog output for X axis servo drive. Analog output for X axis servo drive. Analog output for live tool. Analog output for live tool. Analog output for Z axis servo drive. Analog output for Z axis servo drive. Analog output for the spindle drive. Analog output for the spindle drive.
These outputs provide the analog voltage for the Z axis servo drive. The cable used for this connection must be shielded. Spindle analog voltage 10V. Pin 36 Spindle analog voltage 0V. Pin 37 These outputs provide the analog voltage to govern the spindle when in open loop (S) and when working as "C" axis. The cable used for this connection must be shielded.
Page 30 Chapter: 1 CONFIGURATION OF THE CNC Section: CONNECTOR I/O1 (outputs)
1.3.7 CONNECTOR I/O 2
It is a 25-pin SUB-D type female connector to interface with the electrical cabinet.
PIN SIGNAL AND FUNCTION 0V. 0V. Output M1 Output M2 Output M3 Output M4 Output M5 Output M6 Output M7 Output M8 Output M9 Output M10 Output M11 4th axis Enable 0V 10V. CHASSIS 0V 10V. 24V. 24V. JOG Output M15 Spindle lock "C" axis Enable Output M14 G00 Output M13 Turret Rotation Output M12 3rd axis Enable Input from external power supply. Input from external power supply. Value of bit 1 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 2 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 3 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 4 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 5 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 6 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 7 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 8 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 9 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 10 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 11 of the decoded M function table. Analog voltage output for 4th axis servo drive. Analog voltage output for 4th axis servo drive. Connect all cable shields to this pin. Analog voltage output for 3rd axis servo drive. Analog voltage output for 3rd axis servo drive. Input from external power supply. Input from external power supply. Output. JOG mode is selected. Value of bit 15 of the decoded M function table.
Value of bit 14 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 13 of the decoded M function table. Value of bit 12 of the decoded M function table.
The machine manufacturer must comply with the EN 60204-1 (IEC-2041) regulation regarding the protection against electrical shock derived from defective input/output connection with the external power supply when this connector is not connected before turning the power supply on. Do not manipulate the connectors with the unit connected to main AC power Before manipulating these connectors, make sure that the unit is not connected to main AC power.
2.1 POWER INTERFACE
The rear of the 8025 CNC has a three-prong connector for AC and ground connection. This connection must be done through an independent shielded 110VA transformer with an AC output voltage between 100V and 240V +10% -15%. The power outlet to connect the equipment must be near it and easily accessible. In case of overload or overvoltage, it is recommended to wait for 3 minutes before powering the unit back up in order to prevent any possible damage to the power supply.
2.1.1 INTERNAL POWER SUPPLY
Inside the 8025 CNC there is a power supply providing the required voltages. Besides the 2 outside AC power fuses (one per line), it has a 5 Amp. fuse inside to protect it against overcurrent.
Chapter: 2 POWER AND MACHINE INTERFACE
Section: POWER INTERFACE
2.2 MACHINE INTERFACE 2.2.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The machine tool must have decoupled all those elements capable of generating interference (relay coils, contactors, motors, etc.). * D.C. Relay coils. Diode type 1N4000. * A.C. relay coils RC connected as close as possible to the coils. Their approximate values should be: R 220 Ohms/1W C 0,2 F/600V * A.C. motors. RC connected between phases with values: R 300 Ohms/6W C 0,47F/600V Ground connection. It is imperative to carry out a proper ground connection in order to achieve: * Protection of anybody against electrical shocks caused by a malfunction. * Protection of the electronic equipment against interference generated by the proper machine or by other electronic equipment near by which could cause erratic equipment behavior. Therefore, it is crucial to install one or two ground points where the above mentioned elements must be connected. Use large section cables for this purpose in order to obtain low impedance and efficiently avoid any interference. This way, all parts of the installation will have the same voltage reference. Even when a proper ground connection reduces the effects of electrical interference (noise), the signal cables require additional protection. This is generally achieved by using twisted-pair cables which are also covered with anti-static shielding mesh-wire. This shield must be connected to a specific point avoiding ground loops that could cause undesired effects. This connection is usually done at one of the CNC's ground points.
Section: MACHINE INTERFACE
Each element of the machine-tool/CNC interface must be connected to ground via the established main points. These points will be conveniently set close to the machine-tool and properly connected to the general ground (of the building). When a second point is necessary, it is recommended to join both points with a cable whose section is not smaller than 8 mm. Verify that the impedance between the central point of each connector housing and the main ground point is less than 1 Ohm. Ground connection diagram
It indicates whether it is necessary or not to wait for the down flank (change from 24V to 0V) of the M-DONE signal (at pin 15 of connector I/O 1) in response to an "S STROBE", "T STROBE" or "M STROBE" so the CNC resumes the execution of such functions. P602(7)=0 The CNC will send out to the electrical cabinet the BCD signals corresponding to the M S or T code for a period of 200 milliseconds. Then, if the "M-DONE" signal is low (0V), it will wait for it to be set high (24V) in order to consider the M, S or T function done.
P602(7)=milliseconds after having sent the M, S or T BCD signals out to the electrical cabinet, it sends out the corresponding "Strobe" signal. Then and if the "M-DONE" is high (24V), it waits for it to be set low (0V). Once the "M-DONE" signal is set low, the CNC maintains the "Strobe" signal active for another 100 milliseconds. After deactivating the Strobe signal, the M, S or T BCD signals are kept active for another 50 milliseconds. After that time and if the "M-DONE" signal is low, the CNC will wait until it becomes high so it can consider the auxiliary function M, S or T completed.
P603(4), P603(3), P603(2), P603(1), P608(1) Cancellation of feedback alarm for connectors: A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 The CNC will issue a feedback alarm for an axis when its corresponding feedback signals are not received properly. This parameter indicates whether this alarm is to be active or cancelled. 0 = Alarm active. 1 = Alarm cancelled. This parameter must be set to "1" when the feedback system installed uses only three square-wave signals (A, B, Io).
3.3.3 HANDWHEEL PARAMETERS
P609(1) The electronic handwheel is the FAGOR 100P
Indicates whether the electronic handwheel is or not a FAGOR handwheel model 100P (with axis selector button). 0 = It is not a FAGOR 100P. 1 = It is a FAGOR 100P. P500 Counting direction of the handwheel
It sets the counting direction of the handwheel. If correct, leave it as is; otherwise, assign the other value. 0 = NO and 1 = YES. P602(1) Feedback units for the handwheel It indicates whether the CNC considers the handwheel pulses to be in mm or in inches. 0 = Millimeters. 1 = Inches. P501 Feedback resolution of thehandwheel
It indicates the counting resolution of the handwheel. Possible values with square-wave signals: 1 = 2 = 5 = 10 = Resolution Resolution Resolution Resolution of of of of 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.010 mm, mm, mm, mm, 0.0001 0.0002 0.0005 0.0010 inch inch inch inch
Section: TOOL PARAMETERS
3.3.6 PARAMETERS RELATED TO THE EMERGENCY SUBROUTINE
P716 EMERGENCY subroutine
It indicates the number of the standard subroutine (not parametric) that will be executed when activating the EMERGENCY SUBROUTINE input (pin 13 or16 of connector I/O1). It is defined by an integer between 0 and 99. If set to "0", no emergency subroutine will be executed. P616(2) The Emergency subroutine executes M00
It indicates whether the CNC must execute an M00 after the Emergency subroutine or not. Function M00 interrupts program execution and is not output. 0 = M00 is executed. 1 = M00 is not executed. P616(1) Coordinate assignment to arithmetic parameter in Emergency subroutine
It indicates the coordinates to be assigned to an arithmetic parameter when executing a "P0=X" type block in the emergency subroutine. 0 = It assigns the coordinates of the beginning point of the block interrupted by the emergency. 1 = It assigns the coordinates of the point where the emergency input was activated. If at the beginning of the emergency subroutine we program the block: P0=X P2=Z, and after performing all the emergency operations we program, inside the emergency subroutine, a block with movement to point "XP0 ZP2", the tool will return to the point of program interruption or to the beginning point of the interrupted block.
Section: RELATED TO EMERGENCY SUBROUTINE
3.3.7 MACHINE PARAMETERS FOR THE RS232C SERIAL LINE
P0 Transmission speed (baudrate) It determines the transmission baudrate used in communications between the CNC and the peripheral devices. It is given by an integer (9600 maximum) and in baud units. Typical values: 1,200 2,400 4,800 9,600
P1 Data bits per transmitted character It determines the number of data bits used in each transmitted character. Possible values: 7 = Only the 7 least significant bits (out of 8) are used. Assign this value when transmitting standard ASCII characters. 8 = All 8 bits of the transmitted character are used. Assign this value when transmitting special characters (ASCII code over 127). P2 Parity It determines the type of parity check used in the transmission. Possible values: 0 = None. 1 = ODD parity. 2 = EVEN parity. P3 Stop bits It determines the number of stop bits used at the end of the transmitted word. Possible values: 1 = 1 stop bit. 2 = 2 stop bits. P605(5) DNC active
It indicates whether the CNC can work with the DNC protocol or not. 0 = DNC function not available. 1 = DNC function available.
Page 16 Chapter: 3 MACHINE PARAMETERS Section: RS232C PARAMETERS
Type of communication, FAGOR Floppy Disk Unit or Cassette Communication with a FAGOR Floppy Disk Unit. The CNC uses the settings of machine parameters P0, P1, P2 and P3. Communication with a FAGOR Cassette reader reader/recorder. The CNC ignores the setting of parameters P0, P1, P2 and P3 and it uses the following internal setting for the FAGOR Cassette reader/recorder: Baudrate = 13,714 Baud Number of data bits = 7 bits Parity = Even Stop bits = 1
This parameter makes the CNC "wait" for the axes on start-up by reducing the analog voltage for the axis and, therefore, its following error. Thus preventing the corresponding following error message from coming up. P705 Error if the axis feedrate is not between 50% and 200% of the one programmed.
It indicates whether or not the CNC verifies that the actual axis feedrate is between 50% and 200% of the programmed feedrate (F). It is defined by the time allowed for the feedrate to be out of this tolerance range. It is given by an integer between 0 and 255. Value Value Value Value of of of of = = = = This verification is not made. Error if out of tolerance range for more than 10 msec. Error if out of tolerance range for more than 100 msec. Error if out of tolerance range for more than 2550 msec.
4.6 MACHINE PARAMETERS FOR AXIS CONTROL
The section on "Gain adjustment " in the chapter on "concepts" of this manual describes how these parameters may be used. P114, P314, P214, P414 Proportional gain, K1 for X, Z, 3rd and 4th axes
They set the analog voltage corresponding to 1 micron of following error. It is given by an integer between 0 and 255 in such a way that a value of 64 corresponds to an analog voltage of 2.5mV. Analog (mV) = K1 x Following error (microns) x P115, P315, P215, P415 2.5mV. ----------64
Gain break-point for the X, Z, 3rd and 4th axes
They define the following error value from where the proportional gain K2 takes over and K1 is no longer applied. It is recommended to set these parameters to a value slightly greater than the following error corresponding to the maximum machining feedrate. (P110, P210, P310, P410). Value ranges: 1 thru 32766 microns 1 thru 12900 tenth-thousandths of an inch (=1.29inches) Proportional gain K2 for the X, Z, 3rd and 4th axes
P116, P316, P216, P416
They determine the analog voltage corresponding to 1 micron of following error from the gain break-point on. It is given by an integer between 0 and 255 in such a way that a value of 64 corresponds to an analog voltage of 2.5mV. Analog = (K1 x Ep) + [K2 x (Following error - Ep)] Where Ep is the value of the gain break-point. It is recommended to set these parameters to a value between 50% and 70% of K1 in order to prevent jerky transitions between K1 and K2 or between machining speeds and rapid traverse (in G00).
Section: AXIS CONTROL
P607(6) Apply only the proportional gain K1 or not during a threading operation. During a threading operation, the CNC may apply either both "K1" and "K2" or just "K1". 0= 1= P607(7) It applies both proportional gains: K1 and K2. during a threading operation. It applies only K1 during a threading operation. Apply only gain K2 in rapid positioning moves or both K1 and K2.
In rapid moves, it is possible to have the CNC apply either "K1" up to a set gain break-point of 256 microns and "K2" from that point on or just "K2" all the time. 0 = It applies both K1 and K2 gains with a set gain break-point of 256 microns. 1 = The whole rapid move is carried out with a gain of K2. P715 Recovery of programmed position of the axes without continuous control.
We want to obtain a 2m resolution with a square-wave encoder mounted on the X axis whose leadscrew has a 5mm/turn pitch. Since the multiplying factor applied by the CNC may be either x2 or x4 (depending on machine parameter setting). The resulting encoder line count will be: Leadscrew pitch Number of pulses = Multiplying Factor x Resolution For a factor of x4: 5000 m Number of pulses = 4 x 2 m P103= 2 P602(3)=0 P106=N P602(6)=0 For a factor of x2: 5000 m Number of pulses = 2 x 2 m P103= 2 P602(3)=0 P106=N P602(6)=1 If a FAGOR encoder is chosen, its pulse output frequency is limited to 200KHz (although the CNC admits square-wave pulses with a frequency of up to 200KHz). Therefore, the maximum feedrate for this axis will be: When using a x4 multiplying factor: 200,000 pulses/sec. Max. Feed = 625 pulses/rev. When using a x2 multiplying factor: 200,000 pulses/sec. Max. Feed = 1250 pulses/rev. x 5 mm/rev. = 800 mm/sec. = 48 m/min. x 5 mm/rev. = 1600 mm/sec. = 96 m/min. = 1250 pulses/rev. = 625 pulses/rev.
Resolution in mm with sine-wave encoder
We would like to get a 2m resolution with a sine-wave encoder mounted on to the X axis which has a 5mm/turn leadscrew pitch. We have the following options:
=1 (x2) =0 (x4)
2 microns 2 microns
Since the CNC always applies a x5 multiplying factor to the sine-wave feedback signals, we will need an encoder: Leadscrew pitch N of pulses = 5 x Multiplying factor x Resolution For P602(6)=1 (x2) 5000m/turn N pulses = 5 x 2 x 2m/pulse Therefore: If P619(1)=0 => If P619(1)=1 => For P602(6)=0 (x4) 5000m/turn N pulses = 5 x 4 x 2m/pulse Therefore: If P619(1)=0 => If P619(1)=1 => P602(3)=0 P602(3)=0 P106=Y P106=Y P602(6)=0 P602(6)=0 P103= 5 P103= 2 = 125 pulses/turn P602(3)=0 P602(3)=0 P106=Y P106=Y P602(6)=1 P602(6)=1 P103= 10 P103= 2 = 250 pulses/turn
Even when choosing a FAGOR encoder which outputs up to 200KHz, the actual usable frequency is this time limited by the CNC to 25KHz for sine-wave signals. Therefore, the maximum feedrate for this example will be: 25,000 pulses/sec. Max. Feed = 125 pulses/rev. and 30m/min for 250-line encoder. x 5 mm/rev. = 1000 mm/sec. = 60 m/min.
Section: AXIS ADJUSTMENT
6.4.1 ADJUSTMENT OF THE DRIFT (OFFSET) AND MAXIMUM FEEDRATE (G00)
These adjustments are performed on axis servo drives and spindle drives. Drift adjustment (offset) This adjustment will be made in two stages: Preadjustment of the drive offset * * Disconnect the analog voltage input of the drive and short-circuit it with a wire jumper. Turn the offset potentiometer of the drive until the voltage on the tacho terminals is 0V. This should be checked on the 200 mV DC scale of the volt-meter. Remove the wire jumper mentioned above.
Critical adjustment of the drive offset * Execute a CNC program moving the axis in G00 continuously back and forth. One such program could be the following: N10 G00 G90 X200 N20 X-200 N30 G25 N10 While the axis is moving, turn the offset potentiometer of the drive until the amounts of following error obtained in both directions are the same.
Adjustment of the maximum feedrate It is recommended to adjust the drives so the maximum feedrate is obtained with an analog voltage of 9.5V. Also, the maximum feedrate must be indicated in the corresponding machine parameter for that axis. Parameter P111, P211, P311, P411, P511. The maximum feedrate can be calculated from the motor rpm, the gear ratios and the type of leadscrew being used. Example for the X axis: A motor can turn at 3000 rpm and it is attached to a 5 pitch leadscrew (1/5 inch/turn). Therefore, the maximum feedrate to be assigned to machine parameter P111 is: Maximum feedrate (G00) = r.p.m. x leadscrew pitch P111 = 3000 rev./min. x 1/5 inch/rev. = 600 inches/rev. To make this adjustment, it is recommended to set P110 and P111 to the same value. Also, run a CNC program which moves the axis in G00 continuously back and forth. One such program could be the following: N10 G00 G90 X200 N20 X-200 N30 G25 N10 While the axis is moving, measure the analog voltage coming out of the CNC towards the servo drive and adjust the gain potentiometer at the servo drive (never at the CNC) until this analog voltage reaches 9.5V.
6.4.2 GAIN ADJUSTMENT
It is necessary to properly adjust the different gains for each axis in order to optimize the response of the whole system to the programmed movements. It is recommended to use an oscilloscope in order to obtain a finer adjustment of the axes by monitoring the signals provided by the tacho. The diagram on the left corresponds to the ideal signal shape and the other ones to an unstable start-up and brake-down.
The CNC has a series of machine parameters which permit adjusting the proportional gain for each axis. These parameters are: PROPORTIONAL GAIN K1. Defined by parameters: P114, P214, P314, P414, P514. PROPORTIONAL GAIN K2. Defined by parameters: P116, P216, P316, P416, P516. Value of the GAIN BREAK POINT Defined by parameters: P115, P215, P315, P415, P515. FEED-FORWARD GAIN or gain proportional to the feedrate. Defined by parameters: P732, P733, P734, P735, P736. The parameters corresponding to the proportional gain K1 and K2 as well as for the gain break point allow adjusting the Proportional Gain for the axis. The parameter for the Feed-Forward gain (proportional to feedrate) will be used when acceleration/deceleration control is being applied onto the corresponding axis.
PROBE RELATED MACHINE PARAMETERS P606(6) P710 P806 P902 P903 P904 P905 Type of probe pulse. 0= 0V, 1= 5V or 24V. M function associated with probing (G75) Probing feedrate in JOG mode Minimum X coordinate of the probe Maximum X coordinate of the probe Minimum Z coordinate of the probe Maximum Z coordinate of the probe
TOOL RELATED MACHINE PARAMETERS P700 P730 P617(2) P604(5) P609(3)
Number of tools (0.32) Subroutine associated with the T function Associated subroutine executed before (1) or after (0) the T function Tool offset value applied after executing T2.2 (0) or after executing M06 (1) The CNC displays the tool tip position (0) or that of the tool base (1).
EMERGENCY SUBROUTINE RELATED MACHINE PARAMETERS P716 P616(2) P616(1)
Emergency subroutine The emergency subroutine executes an M00 (interrupting the program). 1= No, 0= Yes. Assignment of position values to arithmetic parameters in emergency subroutine. (0= beginning, 1= current). Section 3.3.7
MACHINE PARAMETERS RELATED WITH RS232C SERIAL LINE P0 P1 P2 P3 P605(5) P605(6) P605(7) P605(8) P606(8)
Communication speed (baudrate). 110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600. Number of data bits per character (7/8) Parity. 0= No, 1= Odd, 2= Even. Stop bits. (1/2) DNC active. 0= No, 1= Yes. Communication with FAGOR cassette (0) or Floppy Disk Unit (1) DNC Protocol active on power-up. 0= No, 1= Yes. The CNC aborts DNC communications (program debugging). 1= No, 0= Yes. Status report by interruption. 0= No, 1= Yes.
DISPLAY RELATED MACHINE PARAMETERS P6 P606(4), P606(5) P612(8), P614(8) P611(7), P611(8) Theoretical (1) or Real (0) (actual) display Axis orientation in graphics representation The 3rd, 4th axis display. 1= No, 0= Yes. Monitor display color combination
JOG MODE RELATED MACHINE PARAMETERS P12 P600(2) P603(5) P603(6) P603(7) P619(8) P601(7)
Continuous (N) or pulsating (Y) axis jog Invert the JOG keys for X and Z. 0= No, 1= Yes. The S function can be executed in JOG mode. 1= No, 0= Yes. The T function can be executed in JOG mode. 1= No, 0= Yes. The M function can be executed in JOG mode. 1= No, 0= Yes. Constant Surface Speed possible in JOG mode. 1= No, 0= Yes. Recover initial conditions, issuing M30, when switching to JOG mode. 0= No, 1= Yes.
A movement of over 8388 mm or 330.26 inches has been programmed. Example: Being the Z axis position Z-5000, if we want to move it to point Z5000, the CNC will issue error 33 when programming the block N10 Z5000 since the programmed move will be: Z5000 - Z-5000 = 10000 mm. In order to make this move without issuing this error, it must be carried out in two stages as indicated below: N10 Z0 N10 Z5000 ; 5000 mm move ; 5000 mm move
S or F value too large. Not enough information for corner rounding, chamfering or compensation. Repeated subroutine. Function M19 programmed incorrectly. Function G72 programmed incorrectly. It must be borne in mind that if G72 is applied only to one axis, this axis must be positioned at part zero (0 value) at the time the scaling factor is applied.
This error occurs in the following cases: > More than 15 nesting levels when calling subroutines. > A block has been programmed which contains a jump to itself. Example: N120 G25 N120.
The programmed arc does not go through the defined end point (tolerance 0.01mm) or there is no arc that goes through the points defined by G08 or G09. This error is issued when programming a tangential entry as in the following cases: > There is no room to perform the tangential entry. A clearance of twice the rounding radius or greater is required.
> If the tangential entry is to be applied to an arc (G02, G03), The tangential entry must be defined in a linear block. 042 This error is issued when programming a tangential exit as in the following cases: > There is no room to perform the tangential exit. A clearance of twice the rounding radius or greater is required.
> If the tangential exit is to be applied to an arc (G02, G03), The tangential exit must be defined in a linear block. Polar origin coordinates (G93) defined incorrectly. Function M45 S programmed wrong (speed of the live tool). Function G36, G37, G38 or G39 programmed incorrectly. Polar coordinates defined incorrectly. A zero movement has been programmed during radius compensation or corner rounding. Start or cancel tool radius compensation while in G02 or G03. Chamfer programmed incorrectly. G96 has been programmed while the S output is in BCD as set by machine parameter. (AC spindle).
051 * "C" axis programmed incorrectly 056 There is floppy disk in the FAGOR Floppy Disk Unit or no tape in the cassette reader or the reader head cover is open. Parity error when reading or recording a cassette or a floppy disk. This error comes up in the following cases: > When the memory is locked and an attempt is made to generate a CNC program by means of function G76. > When trying to generate program P99999 or a protected program by means of function G76. > If function G76 is followed by function G22 or G23. > If there are more than 70 characters after G76. > If function G76 (block content) has been programmed without having programmed G76 P5 or G76 N5 before. > If in a G76 P5 or G76 N5 type function does not contain the 5 digits of the program number. > If while a program is being generated (G76 P5 or G76 N5), its program number is changed without cancelling the previous one. > If while executing a G76 P5 type block, the program referred to is not the one edited. In other words, that another one has been edited later or that a G76 P5 type block is executed while a program is being edited in background. 061 Write-protected floppy disk or tape. Problems in floppy disk movement or sluggish tape movement. Communication error between the CNC and the FAGOR Floppy Disk Unit or cassette reader. Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. Battery error. The memory contents will be kept for 10 more days (with the CNC off) from the moment this error occurs. The whole battery module located on the back must be replaced. Consult with the Technical Service Department. Due to danger of explosion or combustion: do not try to recharge the battery, do not expose it to temperatures higher than 100C (232F) and do not short the battery leads. 064 * External emergency input (pin 14 of connector I/O1) is activated. 065 * This error comes up in the following cases: > If while probing (G75) the programmed position is reached without receiving the probe signal. > If while executing a probing canned cycle, the CNC receives the probe signal without actually carrying out the probing move itself (collision). 066 * X axis travel limit overrun. It is generated either because the machine is beyond limit or because a block has been programmed which would force the machine to go beyond limits. 068 * Z axis travel limit overrun. It is generated either because the machine is beyond limit or because a block has been programmed which would force the machine to go beyond limits. 070 ** X axis following error. 071 ** Synchronized tool following error
Group of marks used by the CNC to update its internal data
It indicates the group of marks used by the CNC to update its internal data. It must have a value different from that of "P725"; otherwise, there will be redundant data.
If "P727=0", the CNC updates its internal data with the values corresponding to the inputs at connectors I/O1 and I/O2 as if there were no LAN. It must be borne in mind that the same information is also sent out via LAN to the group indicated by "P727". The following table shows the internal variables and their corresponding marks. It has been assumed that "P727=1", first group of marks. If "P727=3", the "Emergency Stop" signal will be M(4+128) = M132.
INTERNAL CNC VARIABLE Cycle Start Stop / Emergency Subroutine Feed-Hold Emergency Subroutine 4th axis home switch Z axis home switch "C" or 3rd axis home switch X axis home switch DRO mode Conditional Input (block skip) MARK M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10
P728 Group of marks used by the CNC to update its additional internal data Depending on the value assigned to P728, the CNC updates its additional internal data in one of the following ways: * If "P728=0", the CNC does not use the groups of marks. A system call must be made while using mark M1955 and register R155 at the PLC64. * If "P728<>0", the CNC uses the groups of marks. The number assigned to "P728" indicates the group of marks that the CNC uses to update its additional internal data. It must have a value different from that of "P725"; otherwise, there will be redundant data.
The next table shows the additional internal variables and the corresponding marks or register bits. As for the marks, it has been assumed that "P728=1", first group of marks. If "P728=3", the "M-done" signal will be M(50+128) = M178.
INTERNAL CNC VARIABLE Transfer-Inhibit M-done P728=0 PLC REGISTER R155 bit 0 R155 bit 1 P728=1 MARK M49 M50
Application example: An 8025 CNC and PLC64 are being used in such a way that the information received by the CNC from the outside (inputs at connectors I/O1 and I/O2) will be previously handled by the PLC64. The CNC outputs are also to be handled by the PLC64 which will update the outputs at connectors I/O1 and I/O2. To do this, both elements must be interconnected via RS485 and the LAN parameters set accordingly. In this example, the CNC occupies Node 0 and the PLC64 Node 1. CNC8025: PLC64: P611(5)=1 P611(4)=0, P611(3)=0, P611(2)=0, P611(1)=1 DS4=0 DS8=0, DS7=0, DS6=0, DS5=1
Section: ACCESS TO A PLC64
Assign the value of an arithmetic parameter of the CNC to a Single Register Programming format: G52 N2 R3 P3 N2 R3 P3 Indicates the node number of the PLC64. Possible values: N0 through N14. Indicates the number of the PLC64 register to be modified. Possible values: R1 through R255. Number of the arithmetic parameter. Possible values: P0 through P254.
Assign the value of an arithmetic parameter of the CNC to a Double Register Programming format: G52 N2 D3 P3 N2 D3 Indicates the node number of the PLC64. Possible values: N0 through N14. Indicates the number of the double register of the PLC64 to be modified. Only the first one must be defined. Possible values: R1 through R254. For example; R200 indicates that the double register consists of R200 and R201. Number of the arithmetic parameter. Possible values: P0 through P254.
Assign the value of a Single Register to an arithmetic parameter of the CNC Programming format: G52 N2 P3 R3 N2 P3 R3 Indicates the node number of the PLC64. Possible values: N0 through N14. Number of the arithmetic parameter to be modified. Possible values: P0 through P254. Indicates the number of the PLC64 register. Possible values: R1 through R255.
Assign the value of a Double Register to an arithmetic parameter of the CNC Programming format: G52 N2 P3 D3 N2 P3 D3 Indicates the node number of the PLC64. Possible values: N0 through N14. Number of the arithmetic parameter to be modified. Possible values: P0 through P254. Indicates the number of the double register of the PLC64. Only the first one must be defined. Possible values: R1 through R254. For example; R200 indicates that the double register consists of R200 and R201.
Note: When accessing a register of the integrated PLC itself, indicate the node occupied by the CNC+PLCI unit.
2.7 ACCESS TO AN 82, 101S, 102, 102S CNC FROM AN 8025 CNC
The 8025 CNC offers function G52 to get access to the internal variables of an 82, 101S, 102 or 102S CNC as well as for sending execution commands to any of these models.
2.7.1 ACCESS TO "READ" VARIABLES
The internal "read" variables of the 82, 101S, 102 and 102S CNCs have an associated register, at the CNC itself, which may be consulted by any 8025 CNC installed in the Local Area Network (LAN). These registers may be single or double. They are described later on and the way to access them is as follows: Assign the value of a Single Register to an arithmetic parameter of the 8025 Programming format: G52 N2 P3 R3 N2 P3 R3 Indicates the node number of the 82, 101S, 102 or 102S. Possible values: N0 through N14. Number of the arithmetic parameter to be modified at the 8025. Possible values: P0 through P254. Indicates the number of the 82, 101S, 102 or 102S register. Possible values: R1 through R11.
CNC 8025 T, TS
(Ref. 0107 in)
ERRORS FOUND IN THE PROGRAMMINGMANUAL (REF. 9701)
Page 64. Function G51. When working in diameters, the "I" value in the table is in diameters and the value to be assigned to parameter "I" in the G51 function must always be given in radius. Section 12.4. (Chapter 12 page 133) Nesting levels. The figure reads M02 M30 It should read: M02 or M30
TING MANUAL (REF. 9701) ERRORS FOUND IN THE OPERA
Page 46. Last paragraphs. It should say: The CNC asks which is the source program number and which is the new program number, after keying each one of them, press [ENTER]. If the number of the source program does not exist, or there is already a program in memory with the same number as the new one or if there is not enough when copying the new program , the CNC will issue a message indicating the cause.
ALLATION MANUAL (REF. 9707) ERRORS FOUNDS IN THE INST
Section 5.4 (chapter 5 page 7) Machine parameters for spindle control: Parameter P606(3) is missing: P606(3) Spindle counting direction It sets the spindle counting direction. If correct, leave it as it is or change it if otherwise. Possible values: "0" and "1".
MODIFICATIONS TO THE INSTALLATION MANUAL (REF. 9707)
Section 2.3.4 (chapter 2 page 9). Logic Outputs: In the table, the following output is missing: Output "C" Row 1: (pin 3 I/O 1) M strobe Row 2: (pin 5 I/O 2) output 3, decoded M function Section 3.3.3 (chapter 3 page 11). P602(4). Another example: Having a Fagor electronic handwheel (25 lines per turn) set as follows: P602(1)=0 Millimeters P501=1 Resolution 0.001 mm. P602(4)=0 x4 Multiplication factor Depending on the position of the MFO switch (Manual Feedrate Override), the selected axis will move: Position x 25 x 4 = 0.100 mm per turn Position x 25 x 4 = 1.000 mm per turn Position x 25 x 4 = 10.000 mm per turn
MODIFICATIONS TO THE LAN MANUAL (REF. 9701)
Section 2.2 (page 3). P616(7) The first 2 paragraphs change. They should say: If "P616(7)=0" the 8025 T CNC uses pin 15 of connector I/O1 as the input for the Feed-Hold, Transfer-Inhibit and M-done signals as described in the Installation manual, chapter 1 section "Inputs of connector I/O 1" If "P616(7)=1" the CNC behaves as follows: * The Feed-Hold input will be "taken".
1. EXPANSION OF THE INTEGRATED PLC RESOURCES 1.1 INPUTS 1.1.1 TYPE OF FEEDRATE (G94/G95)
PLCI input I86 will show at all times the type of feedrate (F) selected a the CNC. I86 = 0 I86 = 1 G94. Feedrate in millimeters (inches) per minute. G95. Feedrate in millimeters (inches) per revolution.
1.1.2 TYPE OF CUTTING SPEED (G96/G97)
PLCI input I87 will show at all times the type of cutter speed selected at the CNC. I87 = 0 I87 = 1 G97. Constant tool center speed. G96. Constant cutting-edge speed
1.1.3 AXIS BEING HOMED (REFERENCED)
Input I88 indicates whether a home search is taking place and inputs I100, I101, I102, I103 and I104 indicates which axis is being homed. I88 I100 I101 I102 I103 I104 Indicates whether any axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes) Indicates whether the X axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes) Indicates whether the 3rd axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes) Indicates whether the Z axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes) Indicates whether the 4th axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes) Indicates whether the C axis is being homed (0=No / 1=Yes)
1.1.4 AXIS MOVING DIRECTION
Inputs I42, I43, I44 and I45 will show, at all times, the moving direction of each axis. I42 I43 I44 I45 Indicates the moving direction of the X axis (0=Positive / 1=negative) Indicates the moving direction of the 3rd axis (0=Positive / 1=negative) Indicates the moving direction of the Z axis (0=Positive / 1=negative) Indicates the moving direction of the 4th axis (0=Positive / 1=negative)
3. NEW MODEL
From this version on, the new model TLI is now available. It offers the same features as the TGI model and it is sold together with the motors and ACS drives.
FAGOR 8025/8030 CNC
Models: T, TG, TS OPERATING MANUAL
Ref. 9701 (in)
ABOUT THE INFORMATION IN THIS MANUAL
This manual is addressed to the machine operator. It describes how to operate with this 8025 CNC. It includes the necessary information for new users as well as advanced subjects for those who are already familiar with this CNC product. It may not be necessary to read this whole manual. Consult the list of "New Features and Modifications" which will indicate to you the chapters and sections describing them. Consult the Comparison Table in order to find the specific features offered by your particular CNC model. There is also an appendix on error codes which indicates some of the probable reasons which could cause each one of them. Notes: The information described in this manual may be subject to variations due to technical modifications. FAGOR AUTOMATION, S.Coop. Ltda. reserves the right to modify the contents of the manual without prior notice.
Comparison table for Lathe Model FAGOR 8025/8030 CNCs.. ix New features and modifications... xiii INTRODUCTION Safety Conditions.... Intr. Material Returning Terms.... Intr. Fagor Documentation for the 800M CNC... Intr. Manual Contents.... Intr. 1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 3. 3.1. 3.1.1. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52. 3.1.2. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 3.1.3. 3.1.4. 3.1.5. 3.1.6. 3.1.7. 3.1.8. 3.2. 3.2.1 3.2.2. Overview.... 1 Front panel 8025/30 CNC.... 2 Monitor/keyboard for the 8030 CNC.... 2 Control panel for the 8030 CNC... 4 Monitor/keyboard/control panel for the 8025 CNC.. 5 Selection of colors.... 7 Cancellation of the monitor display... 7 Function keys (soft keys)... 7 OPERATING MODES.... mode: AUTOMATIC (Continuous cycle) / 1 mode: SINGLE BLOCK.. 10 Execution of a program... 10 Selection of the Automatic (0) Single Block (1) operating modes.. 10 Selection of the program to be executed.. 10 Selection of the first block to be executed... 11 Display of the contents of the blocks.... 11 Cycle Start.... 12 Cycle Stop.... 12 Changing the operating mode.... 13 Display modes..... 13 Selection of the display mode... 13 Standard display mode.... 14 Current position display mode.... 14 Following error display mode... 15 Arithmetic parameters display mode.... 15 Subroutine status, clock and parts counter display mode... 16 Graphics display mode.... 17 Programming during the running of a program. Background.. 18 PLC/LAN mode.... 18 Verification and modification of the values of the tool offset table without stopping the cycle.... 19 Tool inspection.... 20 CNC reset.... 21 Display and deletion of the Messages sent by the FAGOR PLC 64.. 21 Mode 2: PLAY-BACK.... 22 Selection of the operating mode PLAY-BACK... 22 Locking/Unlocking of memory... 7
220.127.116.11. ACTUAL POSITION display mode. The position of the axes is displayed with large characters. The number of the programme, the block, the status of the G, M, T, S and F functions, as well as PLC messages, if any, comments and the meaning of the function keys, are also displayed.
18.104.22.168. FOLLOWING ERROR display mode The axis following error is displayed, as well as the programme number, the block number, the status of the G, M, T, S and F functions, as well as PLC messages, if any, comments and the meaning of the function keys, are also displayed.
22.214.171.124. ARITHMETIC PARAMETERS display mode. If the [PARAMETERS] function key is pressed, on the upper part of the screen a list of parameters will appear with their corresponding value at that moment. By pressing either of the keys and the remaining parameters will appear with their values. For example: P46 = -1724.9281 P47 = -.10842021 E2 E-2 means ten to the power of minus two.
126.96.36.199. SUBROUTINE STATUS, CLOCK AND PARTS COUNTER display mode. Identical to the STANDARD display mode, except that instead of the following blocks to be run, the subroutines which are active at that moment appear with the following format:
Standard subroutines : N2.2 Subroutine number Number of times still to be run
Parametric subroutines : P2.2 Subroutine number Number of times still to be run
Repetition of subprograms (G25): G25.2 Indicates that it is a repetition of a subprogram by means of a G25, G26, G27,G28 or G29 function. Number of times still to be run
The following also appears on the screen in this display mode: The CLOCK which indicates in hours, minutes and seconds the operation time of the CNC in the AUTOMATIC, SINGLE BLOCK, TEACH IN and DRY RUN modes. When the running of a program is interrupted or finished, the counting of the clock is also interrupted.
To reset the clock, push the DELETE button and then the function key [TIME], this clock being displayed on the screen. On the right, the clock appears with 4 digits THE PARTS NO. COUNTER. This counter increments one unit every time the CNC runs the M30 function or the M02 function. To reset the parts no. counter the DELETE key must be pressed and then the function key [PART COUNT], this counter being displayed on the screen.
SECONDS PARTS COUNTER
188.8.131.52. GRAPHICS display mode. This mode is used for the graphic representation of the program and an explanation of it appears in paragraph 3.10 of this MANUAL.
3.10.2. Zooming (windowing) The CNC has a ZOOM function by which entire graphics or parts of them can be enlarged or reduced by this feature. To use this ZOOM function the program must be either interrupted or completed. Press the key which corresponds to the view in which the zooming is desired. Then press [ZOOM] and a rectangle identifying the window will be displayed over the existing graphic. Its dimensions can be altered pressing by using cursor moving keys. or on the front panel and its position
The coordinate values of the windows center and the width and the percentage are displayed on the CRT. The display of values can be useful to check the coordinate values of a particular point (by placing the center of the window over it) and also to measure distances between two points. If [EXECUTE] is pressed, the windowed area will fill the CRT. Using the FEEDRATE override knob, the graphic drawing speed can be altered. To repeat the whole ZOOM sequence, start by pressing [ZOOM] as before. To exit the ZOOM mode and continue, press [END]. 3.10.3. Redefinition of the display area by the ZOOM function With the ZOOM function active after pressing [ZOOM], if ENTER is pressed [EXECUTE] the position and width of the rectangle override the previous values given to the display area when it has been defined. The position and the size of the graphic can thus be altered.
It is recommended that a sufficiently large width be assigned to the display area the first time it is defined to guarantee that the complete graphic will be displayed on the screen and then ZOOM in to center it and enlarge it. When the ZOOM function is used, it is necessary to bear in mind that the CNC will keep information on approximately the last 500 blocks with movement which have been executed, therefore, if the programme has more blocks with movement, only those retained will appear in the new diagram.
3.10.4. Deletion of graphics Press DELETE to erase the graphic displayed, once the program has been executed or interrupted.
3.10.5 Graphic representation in colour (CNC 8030 TS) Whenever only one of the 4 views possible have been selected, every time the Tool (T2) is changed, the path will be drawn in a different color (3 colors).
This error occurs in the following cases: > When the first character of the block to be executed is not an "N". > When while BACKGROUND editing, the program in execution calls a subroutine located in the program being edited or in a later program. The order in which the part-programs are stored in memory are shown in the part-program directory. If during the execution of a program, a new one is edited, this new one will be placed at the end of the list.
072 ** Z axis following error. 073 ** 4th axis following error. 074 ** This error is issued in the following cases: > 3rd axis following error >"C" axis following error 075 ** Feedback error at connector A1. 076 ** Feedback error at connector A2. 077 ** Feedback error at connector A3. 078 ** Feedback error at connector A4. 079 ** Feedback error at connector A5. 081 ** 3rd axis travel limit overrun. 082 ** Parity error in 4th axis parameters. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 083 ** 4th axis travel limit overrun. 087 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 088 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 089 * All the axes have not been homed. This error comes up when it is mandatory to search home on all axes after power-up. This requirement is set by machine parameter. 090 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 091 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 092 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 093 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 094 Parity error in tool table or zero offset table G53-G59. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1.
095 ** Parity error in general parameters. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 096 ** Parity error in Z axis parameters. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 097 ** Parity error in 3rd or "C" axis parameters. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 098 ** Parity error in X axis parameters. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 099 ** Parity error in M table. The CNC initializes the RS232C serial line parameters: P0=9600, P1=8, P2=0, P3=1, P605(5)=1, P605(6)=1, P605(7)=1. 100 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department. 101 ** Internal CNC hardware error. Consult with the Technical Service Department.
The following error will normally produce incorrect pitches at the starting and ending points of the threadcut. The threading length should therefore be longer than required to avoid defective parts.
EXAMPLES: a) Longitudinal thread Cutting of a longitudinal thread of 5 mm pitch and 2 mm depth.
The tool is positioned at X60 Z60 (X in radius). Absolute coordinates N0 G00 G90 X18 Z53 N5 G33 Z7 K5 N10 G00 X60 N15 Z60 Incremental coordinates N0 N5 N10 N15 G00 G91 X-42 Z-7 G33 Z-46 K5 G00 X42 Z53
b) Tapered thread Cutting of a tapered thread of 5 mm pitch along Z axis and 2 mm depth.
Let us assume that the tool is positioned at X60 Z60 (X in radius). Absolute coordinates N0 N5 N10 N15 G00 G90 X12,75 Z52 G33 X18,25 Z8 K5 G00 X60 Z60
Incremental coordinates N0 N5 N10 N15 G00 G91 X-47,25 Z-8 G33 X6 Z-44 K5 G00 X41,75 Z52
c) Thread coupling Using G05, different threads can be coupled in a continuous way on the same part. A longitudinal and a tapered thread of 5 mm pitch and 2 mm depth must be coupled.
Let us assume the tool is positioned at X60 Z60 (X in radius). Absolute coordinates N0 G00 N5 G33 N10 X18 G90 X8 Z57 G05 Z35 K5
6.11. G36. AUTOMATIC RADIUS BLEND This function rounds the corners with a programmed radius, without the need to calculate the coordinates of the center and the initial and final points of the arc. G36 is not modal; i.e. it must be programmed every time a corner rounding is needed. It must be programmed in the same block as the movement whose end must be rounded. The rounding radius must be always positive (R 4.3 or R3.4). Examples: X in diameters 1. Straight-straight rounding
Starting point X20 Z60 N100 G90 G01 G36 R10 X80 N110 Z10
2. Straight-arc rounding
Starting point X20 Z60 N100 G90 G01 G36 R10 X80 N110 G02 X60 Z10 I20 K-30 3. Arc-arc rounding
Starting point X60 Z90 N100 G90 G02 G36 R10 X60 Z50 R28 N110 X60 Z10 R28
6.12. G37. TANGENTIAL APPROACH AT THE START OF MACHINING The preparatory function G37 can be used to link two paths tangentially without having to calculate the intersection points. Function G37 is not modal, i.e., it has to be programmed every time two paths are to be linked tangentially. There paths may be straight-straight or straight-arc. The radius, R4.3 in mm or R3.4 in inches, of the entry arc must be programmed following G37. The value of the radius must be positive. That programming has to be carried out in the block which incorporates the movement whose path is to be altered. The movement must be rectilinear (G00 or G01). When G37 R4.3 is programmed in a block in which a circular movement (G02 or G03) is incorporated, the CNC will display the error 41.
Tool radius compensation selection (G41/G42) can only be carried out when G00 or G01 (rectilinear movements) is active. If the first call for compensation is made when G02 or G03 are active, the CNC will display error code 41.
The next page illustrates various cases of initiation of tool radius compensation.
Compensated path Programmed path
6.15.2. Operating with tool radius compensation The graphs below illustrate the various paths followed by a tool controlled by a CNC programmed with radius compensation.
6.15.3 Tool radius compensation freeze with G00 When a change from G01,G02,G03 to G00 is detected by the CNC, the tool is positioned tangent to the line perpendicular to the path at the final point of the block previous to the one in which G00 is programmed.
The same precess is applied when a block with G40 without movement is programmed. The following G00 movements are carried out without tool radius compensation. When a change from G00 to G01,G02,G03 is detected the CNC applies the same process as when the tool radius compensation is initiated.
6.15.4. Cancellation of radius compensation Radius compensation cancellation is achieved by function G40. It should be borne in mind that radius compensation cancellation (G40) can only be carried out in a block in which a rectilinear movement is programmed (G00,G01). If G40 is programmed in a block containing G02 or G03, the CNC will give error 48. The following is a table of various cases of cancellation of compensation.
6.16. G47 - SINGLE BLOCK TREATMENT G48 - CANCELLATION OF SINGLE BLOCK TREATMENT As of the execution of function G47, the CNC executes all the blocks which come next as if it were a single block. This single block treatment is carried out until it is cancelled by means of the G48 function. In this way, with the G47 function active in the SINGLE BLOCK operation, these will be executed in continuous cycle until the G48 function is executed, i.e., the execution will not stop when a block is finished but will continue by executing the following one. In any operating mode, if execution is interrupted when the G47 function is active, the CNC stops axis feed as well as the spindle. It will also stop axis feed when the FEED HOLD input is activated, as long as machine parameter P610(1)=1. With the G47 function active, the M.F.O. switch and the spindle speed variation keys will be disenabled, the program being executed at 100% of the programmed F and S. The G47 and G48 functions are MODAL. When the CNC is switched on, after executing MO2, M30, Reset or Emergency, the CNC assumes the G48 function.
6.17. G49. PROGRAMMABLE FEEDRATE OVERRIDE With G49 the programmed working feedrate F can be overridden. The feedrate override Knob on the front panel will have no effect. The programming format is: G49 K (1/120). 1/120 meaning the percentage value between 1% and 120% of the previously programmed F value. Function G49 is modal, so it will remain active until another value is programmed or is cancelled by programming: G49 K0 or simply: G49. G49 will also be cancelled when M02, M30, RESET or EMERGENCY are executed. G49 K must be programmed alone in a block.
6.18. G50. LOADING OF THE VALUES IN THE TOOL OFFSET TABLE The different tool values can be either altered or entered in the table by using G50. There are many method to program the function G50: a) Entering of all the values By means of the block N4 G50 T2 X+/-4.3 Z+/-4.3 F1 R4.3 I+/-2.3 K+/-2.3 mm -3.4 Z+/-3.4 F1 R2.4 I+/-1.4 K+/-1.4 inches X+/
The values defined by X,Z,F,R,I,K are loaded in the tool offset table direction identified by T2. N4 G50 T2(T01-T32) X+/-4.3 (X+/-3.4) Z+/-4.3 (Z+/-3.4) F1 (F0-F9) R4.3 (R2.4) I+/-2.3 (I+/-1.4) K+/-2.3 (K+/-1.4) - Block number - Tool offsets loading code - Tool offset table direction - Tool length along X axis - Tool length along Z axis - Location code of the tool - Tool nose radius - Tool wear offset along X axis (diameters) - Tool wear offset along Z axis
The values of X,Z,F,R,I,K replace the values previously existing in the T2 direction.
b) If only one or some of the values are to be altered, program the mentioned values following G50 T2. The other values wont be altered. Programming this way, the following aspects must be taken into account: - When X or Z both are programmed without programming (I,K), the lengths (X,Z) are replaced in the table by the new values and the relevant wear offset values, I or K or both are reset. - When I+/-2.3 or I+/-2.3 K+/-2.3 are programmed following G50 T2, they are added or subtracted from the previous values recorded. No more information can be programmed in the block containing G50.
6.19. G51. ALTERATION OF THE I AND K VALUES OF THE ENGAGED TOOL By means of the G51 function the I,K values of the tool engaged may be artificially altered but the values recorded in the table are not affected. The block N4 G51 I+/-2.3 K+/-2.3 (mm) I+/-1.4 K+/-1.4 (inches) artificially alters the values of I,K. N4 G51 I+/-2.3 (I+/-1.4) - Block number - Tool dimensions alteration code - Value to be added to or subtracted from the value of I being actually used by the CNC to offset the engaged tool.
K+/-2.3 (K+/-1.4) -Value to be added to or subtracted from the value of K being actually used by the CNC to offset the engaged tool. These values do not modify the table; i.e. next time this particular tool is programmed the CNC will again assume the values recorded in the table disregarding the modification entered via G51. No more information can be programmed in the block containing G51.
6.20. G52. COMMUNICATION WITH THE FAGOR LOCAL AREA NETWORK The communication between the CNC and the rest of the LAN NODES is carried out to registers in complement to two. These registers may be double (D) or single (R). Next, the different command formats are described. a) Transfer of a constant to a register of another LAN NODE. G52 N2 R3 K5 or: G52 N2 D3 H8 G52 : Communication with the LAN. N2 : Address of the DESTINATION NODE (0/14). R3 : Number of the single register (0/255). D3 : Number of the double register (0/254). K5 : Integer value in decimal (+/-32767). H8 : Integer value in Hexadecimal (0/FFFFFFFF).
To access a PLCI register, indicate the number of the node occupied by the CNC+PLCI. b) Transfer of a value of an ARITHMETIC PARAMETER of the CNC to a register of another LAN NODE. G52 N2 R3 P3 or, G52 N2 D3 P3 G52 : Communication with the LAN N2 : Address of the DESTINATION node (0/14). R3 : Number of the single register (0/255). D3 : Number of the double register (0/254). P3 : Number of the arithmetic parameter (0/254).
To access a PLCI register, indicate the number of the node occupied by the CNC+PLCI.
c) Loading the value of a register of another LAN NODE into an arithmetic parameter of the CNC. G52 N2 P3 R3 or, G52 N2 P3 D3 G52 N2 P3 R3 D3 : Communication with the LAN. : Address of the ORIGIN node (0/14). : Number of the arithmetic parameter (0/254). : Number of the single register (0/255). : Number of the double register (0/254).
To access a PLCI register, indicate the number of the node occupied by the CNC+PLCI. d) Sending a text from the CNC to another LAN NODE. G52 N2 = (TEXT) G52 : Communication with the LAN N2 : Address of the DESTINATION node (0/14). ( ) : Text delimiters. Text : Text whose syntax is admitted by the DESTINATION node. Example: Let us suppose that the NODE 7 of the LAN is a FAGOR CNC 82 connected as slave and its X and Y axes are to be positioned at the X100, Y50 point. The block to be executed by the CNC will be: G52 N7 = (X100 Y50) e) Process synchronization between LAN NODES. G52 N2 This block will be completed when the LAN NODE N2 has ended the execution of the current operation. By using this type of blocks, the different operations of several LAN nodes can be synchronized.
Due to any error at the FAGOR LAN occurring during the execution, the CNC will display the corresponding error code. More information on the FAGOR LOCAL AREA NETWORK is found in the INSTALLATION AND START-UP MANUAL, chapter INCORPORATION OF THE 8025/30 CNC into the FAGOR LOCAL AREA NETWORK.
66 8025/8030 CNC PROGRAMMING MANUAL
6.21. G53-G59 ZERO OFFSETS 7 different zero offsets can be selected by functions G53,G54,G55,G56,G57,G58 and G59. The values of these offsets are stored in the CNC memory after the tool dimensions table and are referred to the machine reference zero. The values can be entered in operation mode 8 via the keyboard or by program, using codes G53-G59. To display the G53-G59 table press OP MODE 8, then key 8 and finally key G. Operation of G53-G59, these functions can be used in two different ways: Format a) To load the zero offset table. Absolute loading of the values Using a block like N4 G5? V+/-4.3 W+/-4.3) X+/-4.3 Y+/-4.3 Z+/- 4.3 (metric) or N4 G5? V+/-3.4 W+/-3.4) X+/-3.4 Y+/-3.4 Z+/-3.4 (inches) the values identified by 4th, 3rd,X,Z are loaded in the table address defined by G5? (G53-G59). N4 G5? : Block number : Offset code (G53,G54,G55,G56,G57,G58,G59).
4th+/-4.3 : Zero offset value referred to the machine 4th+/-3.4 reference zero on the 4th axis. 3rd+/-4.3 : Zero offset value referred to the machine 3rd+/-3.4 reference zero on the 3rd axis. X+/-4.3 X+/-3.4 Z+/-4.3 Z+/-3.4 : Zero offset value referred to the machine reference zero on the X axis. : Zero offset value referred to the machine reference zero on the Z axis.
G53 only : Called by part program Made active by program G53 X, Z, etc.: Modified and made active by the part program.
. Incremental loading of the values Block N4 G5? (H+/-4.3) L+/-4.3 H+/-4.3 I+/-4.3 J+/-4.3 K+/-4.3 in mm or N4 G5? L+/3.4 H+/-3.4 I+/-3.4 J+/-3.4 K+/-3.4 in inches, increments by an amount H, I, J, K, the table values indicated by G5? (G53-G59). N4 G5? L+/-4.3 L+/-3.4 H+/-4.3 H+/-3.4 I+/-4.3 I+/-3.4 K+/-4.3 K+/-3.4 : Block number : Zero offset code (G53, G54, G55, G56, G57, G58, G59). : Amount added or subtracted to the V value previously stored in the table. : Amount added or subtracted to the W value previously stored in the table. : Amount added or subtracted to the X value previously stored in the table. : Amount added or subtracted to the Z value previously stored in the table.
Format b) To apply a zero offset to the current program. According to the value assigned to the machine parameter P619(7) there are two cases: Case 1) P616(4)=0 A block like N4 G5? is used to carry out a zero offset on the current program, according to the values stored in the G5? position of the zero offset table (G53-G59). N4 : Block number G5?: (G53,G54,G55,G56,G57,G58,G59): (Memory address in which the zero offset values are stored.) Case 2) P616(4) = 1 When a function of the type G54. G58 is executed, the zero offset applied to each axis will be the value indicated in the table (G54. G58) plus the value indicated in position G59 of the table. It does not affect G53.
The tool is located in X200 Z530. X axis in radius and the machine-reference point is X0 Z0. In the G53/G59 table we will enter: G53 X0 Z340 G54 X0 Z170 G55 X0 Z0 The programming of the theoretical path will be: N10 N20 N30 N40 N50 N60 N70 N80 N90 N100 N110 N120 N130 N140 N150 N160 G90 G01 F250 G53 X140 Z170 Z150 X160 Z130 G03 X160 Z90 I0 K-20 G08 X160 Z50 G01 X180 Z30 Z0 X140 G54 G25 N30.100.1 G55 G25 N30.90.1 G00 X200 Z530 M30
6.21.1. G59 as additive zero offset If P616(4) =1 When a G64-G59 function is executed the zero offset applied to each axis will be the value indicated in the table (G54.G59) plus the value indicated in position G59 on the table. It does not affect G53. In this case, the zero offset which is applied to each axis will be the value indicated on the table.
INDEPENDENT AXIS EXECUTION
With function G65 it is possible to move one axis independently while other axes are being interpolated. In the following program: N0 G65 Y100 F1 N10 G01 X10 Z5 F1000 N20 G01 X20 When executing block "N0", the Y axis starts moving at a feedrate of F1. Then, block "N10" starts executing the XZ interpolation at F1000 while the Y axis keeps moving at F1. If "P621(4)=0", the CNC executes block "N20" once "N10" is completed regardless of whether "N0" is completed or not (Y axis has reached position or not). If "P621(4)=1", the CNC waits until blocks "N0" and "N10" are completed (all axes have reached position) before executing block "N20".
6.23. G70/G71 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT G70 : Programming in inches G71 : Programming in millimeters Depending on whether G70 or G71 is programmed, the CNC takes the subsequent coordinates as being in inches or millimeters respectively. Functions G70/G71 are modal and incompatible with one another. The CNC assumes the units set by parameter P13 when being turned on, after M02,M30, EMERGENCY or RESET.
6.24. G72. SCALING Code G72 allows the machining of parts of similar shape but different size using the same program. G72 must be programmed alone in a block. Format: N4 G72 K2.4 N4 : Block number G72 : Scaling code K2.4: Value of scaling factor Min. value K0.0001 (X0.0001) Max. value K99.9999 (X99.9999) All coordinate values programmed after G72 will be multiplied by K until the scaling is cancelled. To cancel the scaling factor one only has to define another K1 scaling factor or after M02,M30, EMERGENCY or RESET.
6.25. G74. MACHINE -REFERENCE SEARCH When G74 is programmed in a block, the CNC moves the axes to the machine-reference point. There are two possible cases: a) Two axes standard referencing (X Z). Only G74 programmed in the block. The CNC moves first the X axis and then the Z axis. b) One or two axes referencing (Z X). If machine reference search is required in an order other than the above, G74 is programmed, followed by the axes in the required order. No other function can be programmed in a block in which G74 is programmed. When the axis moved reaches the machine-reference point, the CRT displays the distance between the mentioned point and the last parts zero programmed, minus the tool dimension along the relevant axis (X or Z).
6.27.5. Examples of using G76. 1. Example G76: PATTERN DIGITIZING Creation of a program by copying the points of a part with a measuring probe (G75). Calling parameters: P0 = Minimum Z value to sweep. P1 = Maximum Z value to sweep. P4 = Minimum X value to sweep. P5 = Maximum X value to sweep. P6 = Maximum step value on Z. Parameters used for calculations P8 = X limit for G75. P9 = Number of steps on Z. P11= Starting points Z value. P13= Starting points X value. P14= Step counter for Z axis.
%00076 N10 G76 N12345.. computer) N20 G76 G1 F500 N30 P0=K P1=K.. P4=K P5=K P6=K N40 P8=P1F2P0 P9=P8F4P6 P10=F12P9 P9=F11P10 N50 G26 N80 N60 P9=P10F1K1 P6=P8F4P9. (P6=step Z, P9=No. of steps on Z) N80 P11=Z P13=X P8=P4F2K1.. (P8=X limit for G75) N90 G0 G5 G90 XP5 ZP0 N100 P14=K0.. (P14=Step counter on Z) (Parameter definition) (Program to be loaded into
N110 G90 G75 XP8.. (Probing on X) N120 G76 X Z.. N130 G0 XP5.. (Load values) (Withdrawal on X)
N140 P14=P14F1K1 P9=F11P14.. (Check for final point on Z) N150 G28 N180 N160 GP1 ZP6.. N170 G25 N110 N180 G0XP13ZP11.. N190 M30 (Back to initial point) (Next step on Z)
After the execution of this program, the CNC will have generated and loaded into the computer the following P12345 program: N100 G1 F500 N101 X Z N102 X Z N103 X Z N X Z Etc. If the machining must be done in various passes, the program will have to be executed applying successive zero-offsets or changes in tool length compensation. All preparatory functions (square corner, scaling factor) that will affect the whole program can be defined in a previous block. The CNC reserves automatically 100 blocks. Geometrical functions can also be included in a G76 type block:. G08 Arc tangent to the previous path. G09 Arc defined by three points. With these functions is possible to smoothen the point-to-point machining profile.
2. Example G76. CALCULATION OF POINTS WHEN THE MATHEMATICAL FUNCTION IS KNOWN. This is a parametric program which, when executed, will calculate the different points of an ellipse and load them into a new program by means of G76 for later machining. The calling parameters are the following: P0 P1 P3 P20 = Half the long axis (A). = Half the short axis (B). = Starting points angle. = Angular increment.
The XZ coordinates of the various points that compose the ellipse are calculated according to the formula: Z = P0 SIN P3 X = P1 COS P3
Let us suppose that the tools starting point is X27 Z43 and the X axis is programmed in radius. The calculation program is P761, shown below: N20 G76 P00098 N30 P0=K37 P1=K22 P3=K90 P20=K-0.5 N40 P4=F7P3 P5=F8P3 P6=P0F3P4 P7=P1F3P5 N50 G76 G0 G5 XP7 ZP6 (ellipses starting point) N60 P3=P3F1P20 P4=F7P3 P5=F8P3 P8=POF3P4 P9=P1F3P5 N70 P3=P3F1P20 P4=F7P3 P5=F8P3 P10=P0F3P4 P11=P1F3P5 N80 G76 G1 G9 XP11 ZP10 IP9 KP8 F250 N90 P3=P3F1P20 P4=F7P3 P5=F8P3 P10=P0F3P4 P11=P1F3P5 N100 G76 G8 XP11 ZP10 N110 P99=K176 N120 G25 N90.100.P99 N130 G76 G0 X27 Z43 N140 M30 When executing this program in DRY RUN program P00098 is generated and loaded into the CNC memory for later machining: N100 G0 G5 X Z N101 G1 G9 X Z I K F250 N102 G8 X Z N103 G8 X Z N104 N N? G0 X27 Z43
2. 3. 4.
The pattern can be made up of straight lines and arcs. All the blocks of pattern definition will be programmed with cartesian coordinates being mandatory to program the two axes in absolute, otherwise, the CRT will display error 21. If arcs are included in the definition, they must be programmed with the centers I,K coordinates, referred to the arcs starting point and with the relevant sign. If functions F,S,T or M are programmed in the definition, they will be ignored except for the finishing pass. No polar definitions can be used. The cycle is completed on the starting position of the tool 0. If the last movement prior to calling the canned cycle (G68) has been executed in G00, tool radius compensation (G41,G42) can be used. Otherwise error 35 will be displayed.
The figure shows the elemental cycle. The movements 1-2 and 2-3 will be performed at the programmed feedrate and the 0-1 and 3-0 in rapid.
N100 N110 G42 G00 X120 Z0 N120 G68 P0=K0 P1=K-10 P5=K2 P7=K0.8 P8=K0.8 P9=K100 P13=K200 P14=K250 N130 G40 X130 Z10 N140 M30 N200 G03 X40 Z-30 I-6 K-26 N210 G01 X40 Z-40 N220 G02 X80 Z-60 I25 K5 N230 G01 X80 Z-70 N240 X100 Z-80 N250 X100 Z-90
14.3. G69. STOCK REMOVAL ALONG THE Z AXIS (FACING)
Format: N4 G69 P0=K P1=K P5=K P7=K P8=K P9=K P13=K P14=K Meaning of the parameters: P0: P1: P5: P7: P8: P9: Coordinate X value of the starting point (A) in radius or diameters. Coordinate Z value of the starting point (A). Max. step. It must be greater than zero or error code 3 will be displayed. The real step calculated by the CNC will be smaller or equal to the max. step. Finishing stock allowance along X axis. It must be greater or equal to zero or error code 3 will be displayed. Finishing stock allonwance along Z axis. It must be greater or equal to zero or error code 3 will be displayed. Feedrate of the finishing pass. If P9=0, there will be no finishing pass; but there will be a final roughing pass maintaining the excess material indicated by P7 and P8. If it has a negative value, neither a final roughing pass nor a finishing pass will be carried out.
Number of the first block to define the pattern. Number of the last block to define the pattern. It must be higher than P13 or error code 13 will be displayed.
When programming this canned cycle, the following should be borne in mind: 1. The distance between the starting point 0 and B point along the Z axis must be equal or greater than P8. To avoid passes that are too thin or generating error P31 when operating with tool compensation the value of this distance (from 0 to B) should be equal to P8+NP5, N being an entire number (any multiple of P5). The distance from 0 to A along. The axis should be higher than P7. The definition of the pattern must not include point A because it is identified by P0 and P1. The machining conditions (feedrate, spindle rotation, etc.) must be programmed before calling the cycle. The parameters can be programmed in the calling block or in previous blocks. The exit conditions are G00 and G90.
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