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|John Hardy||10:23pm on Saturday, March 13th, 2010|
|I bought one of these elsewhere and I just ordered another one from here. It was an easy setup and everything is stable.|
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DOC No.: M03403 Rev. Date : A0 : 6, 2003
Part No. : 25-11663-00
Notice Handling Precautions
Warning: 1. Static electricity may cause damage to the integrated circuits on the motherboard. Before handling any motherboard outside of its protective packaging, ensure that there is no static electric charge in your body. 2. There is a danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or an equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. 3. Discard used batteries according to the manufacturer s instructions. 4. Never run the processor without the heatsink properly and firmly attached. PERMANENT DAMAGE WILL RESULT!
Observe the following basic precautions when handling the motherboard or other computer components: n Wear a static wrist strap which fits around your wrist and is connected to a natural earth ground. n Touch a grounded or anti-static surface or a metal fixture such as a water pipe. n Avoid contacting the components on add-on cards, motherboards, and modules with the golden fingers connectors plugged into the expansion slot. It is best to handle system components by their mounting brackets. The above methods prevent static build-up and cause it to be discharged properly.
All trademarks mentioned in this manual are registered properly of the respective owners.
This manual may not, in whole or in part, be photocopied, reproduced, transcribed, translated, or transmitted in whatever form without the written consent of the manufacturer, except for copies retained by the purchaser for personal archival purposes.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Overview Package Checklist... The KT-748 Mainboard... Main Features... FIC Unique Innovation for Users (NOVUS) Enhanced Mainboard Features and System Support. Chapter 2 Installation Procedures 1). Set System Jumpers... Clear CMOS... BIOS Anti-Reflash Protect.. 2). Install Memory Modules... 3). Install the CPU... Connect ATX Power.. 4). Install Expansion Cards.. 5). Connect Devices... Floppy Diskette Drive Connector.. IDE Device Connectors... Fan Connectors... Power Connectors.. Front Panel Block Connector.. SPDIF_IN/SPDIF_OUT Connector.. CD Audio-In Connectors.. 1394 Connectors (optional).. PS/2 Keyboard and Mouse Connector.. RJ45 LAN Connector... Serial Port Connectors.. Printer Connector... Audio I/O Jacks... Front Audio Connector... Universal Serial Bus Connectors.. 5.1 Audio Channel Feature..
1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5
2-2 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-6 2-7 2-9 2-9 2-9 2-10 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-13 2-14 2-14 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-18
KT-748 Mainboard Manual Chapter 3 BIOS Setup CMOS Setup Utility... Standard CMOS Setup... Advanced BIOS Features.. Advanced Chipset Features... Integrated Peripherals.. Power Management Setup... PnP/PCI Configurations... PC Health Status... Frequency/Voltage Control... Load Fail-Safe Defaults... Load Optimized Defaults... Supervisor/User Password.. Save and Exit Setup... Exit without Saving...
3-1 3-2 3-4 3-7 3-9 3-12 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-20 3-20
Overview Chapter 1
The new mainboard is an ATX sized motherboard supporting the latest generation of AMD processors at industry leading speeds. By utilizing DDR ( Double Data Rate ) transfer rate effectively reaches Front Side Bus speeds of 200/266/333/400 MHz. The board provides users with an ATA133 data transaction for hard drives and has 3 PC2100/PC2700/PC3200* DIMMs for up to 3 GB. (* Only two PC3200 SDRAMs at most are allowed on board.) The board is based around the high performance SiS 748 as North Bridge and SiS 963/L (as South Bridge. Its AGP 8X functions supported AGP 3.0 interface and the most robust 3D games with software environments. The AGP slot onboard supports 0.8/1.5 volt AGP card. The board comes with a versatile range of I/O features such as 2 serial ports, 1 parallel port, 1 LAN, 2 optional IEEE 1394, 1 PS/2 mouse and keyboard connector, 6 USB ports, 1 media connector (front audio, Line-in, Line-out and Mic-in). In addition, the board is equipped with 5.1 audio channel enhanced PCI bus master IDE connectors. Ample expansion is available through 5 PCI* and 1AGP to meet the requirement for enjoying the CPU benefits in internet applicatons, video/3D graphics performance, and so forth. (* PCI1 to 4 are master; PCI5 slot is slave.) Other key features are Remote On/Off, Auto Power Failure Recovery, integrated temperature monitoring and system fan control. Included also is lst Utilities CD with enhanced drivers and a few bundled soft-ware solutions.
KT-748 Mainboard Manual
If you discover any item below was damaged or lost, please contact your vendor.
NOTE: lst Utilities CD that contains patch files, onboard video/audio chip drivers, related online help and other useful information can be found in your mainboard package. Please install it right after your Windows operating system installation is done.Place your lst Utility in the drive, an operating menu will appears in your monitor. Please select Auto Installation. It will automatically detect which software tools (patch files, drivers) that the mainboard needs. Press OK button to go through the whole installation procedure in a very straight forward and easy way. It also provides you with a custom way to select wanted patch files and software drivers that for onboard chips use. The top menu of lst Utilities lists all the functions that allowed by this board.
The KT-748 Mainboard
Duron: 900 - 1.3 GHz at FSB 200 MHz Athlon : 900 - 1.4 GHz at FSB 200/266 MHz Athlon XP: Polomino Core: 1500+ - 2100+ at FSB 266 MHz Thorughtbred Core: 1700+ - 2600+ at FSB 266 MHz Barton Core: 2500+ - 3000+ at FSB 333 MHz (Those speed exceed above were not test yet when this book pressed.)
North Bridge: SiS 748 South Bridge: SiS 963L
3 memory sockets : support 184-pin PC2100/PC2700/PC3200 DDR SDRAM memory size totally upto 3 GHz
n Expansion Slots
1 AGP Slot : Spec. 3.0 4X/8X; 5 PCI Slots
n IDE Connections
2 IDE connectors - PIO mode, Ultra DMA 66/100/133 up to 4 devices
n Audio Features
Realtek ALC655 controller; AC97 Link LINE_IN, LINE_OUT, MICROPHONE_IN Jack 5.1 audio channel; front audio pinheaders
n Mounting Holes
n Mainboard Size
12 x 9 (unit: inch) 1-4
n I/O Ports
2 IDE connectors PIO, Bus Master, Ultra DMA 66/100/133 up to 4 devices 2 serial ports COM1 and COMparallel port PS/2 mouse and PS/2 keyboard 6 USB 2.0 ports
RTL8100C/8110S 10/100/1000 Ethernet
n IEEE 1394 Ports (optional)
VT6307L; 2 ports; 1 bracket with cable
FIC Unique Innovation for Users (NOVUS) Enhanced Mainboard Features and System Support
A user friendly GUI supporting Windows 95/98SE (not Windows 2000/ NT/ME/XP), LogoGenie allows you to customize, create or select a Logo which will be displayed when the system is booting.
NOTE: 1. LogoGenie supports Award BIOS only. 2. If you create a Logo file (.bmp) by LogoGenie, the file size must ||||be 640 x 464 x 256 colors.
To enable this utility, please proceed as follows: 1. Insert software CD. Select LogoGenie from the Menu and follow the installation instructions. 2. After LogoGenie has been installed, go to Windows Start Box. In Programs Menu, select LogoGenie, then select LogoGenie. 3. Press F1 to read Help file to understand how to use this software if it is new to you.
n BIOS Guardian
BIOS Guardian effectively acts as a fire-wall against viruses that can attack the BIOS while the system is running and by default is enabled.
BIOS Guardian must be disabled before reflash BIOS.
NOTE: Please read Page 3-6 for detail information. n Easy Key
Instead of completing the multi-layered BIOS setup process these 3 Easy Key functions provide direct access to Sub-Menu when completing BIOS settings adjustments. Easy-Keys are as follows: Ctrl + c: To enter clock settings menu. Ctrl + p: To load Performance Default settings and restart. Ctrl + f: To load Fail-Safe Default settings and restart.
Installation Chapter 2 Procedures
The mainboard has several user-adjustable jumpers on the board that allow you to configure your system to suit your requirements. This chapter contains information on the various jumper settings on your mainboard. To set up your computer, you must complete the following steps:
Step 1 - Set system jumpers Step 2 - Install memory modules Step 3 - Install the Central Processing Unit (CPU) Step 4 - Install expansion cards Step 5 - Connect ribbon cables, cabinet wires, and power supply Step 6 - Set up BIOS software Step 7 - Install supporting software tools
WARNING: Excessive torque may damage the mainboard. When using an electric screwdriver on the mainboard, make sure that the torque is set to the allowable range of 5.0 ~ 8.0kg/cm. Mainboard components contain very delicate Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. To prevent static electricity from harming any of the sensitive components, you should follow the following precautions whenever working on the computer: 1. Unplug the computer when working on the inside. 2. Hold components by the edges and try not to touch the IC ||||chips, leads, or circuitry. 3. Wear an anti-static wrist strap which fits around the wrist. 4. Place components on a grounded anti-static pad or on the bag that came with the component whenever the components are separated from the system.
KT-748 Mainboard Manual Affix the CPU by pressing the lever downward and locking it beside the socket. 3. Place the fan with heatsink on the CPU top and press down two plastic clips to hook up with the holes on the retention module on two sides.
4. Press down the white bar on each clip to fasten the fan set on the retention module.
Connect ATX Power
The 20-hole power plug (top right) is connected to the ATX power 20-pin pinheaders. The 4-hole 12V power plug (bottom right) is inserted in the ATX_12V power connector. The plug from the power supply will only insert in one orientation because of the different hole sizes. Find the proper orientation and push down firmly making sure that the pins are aligned.
NOTE: 1. Insert the CPU (with fansink and retention module) on socket. 2. Connect the 4-pin plug of the power supply 3. Connect the 20-pin plug of the power supply. To remove the processor, please do it in reverse order.
4). Install Expansion Cards
This section describes how to connect an expansion card to one of your system expansion slots. Expansion cards are printed circuit boards that, when connected to the mainboard, increase the capabilities of your system. For example, expansion cards can provide video and sound capabilities. The mainboard features one AGP and five PCI bus expansion slots.
CAUTION: 1.Make sure to unplug the power supply when adding or removing expansion cards or other system components. Failure to do so may cause severe damage to both the mainboard and expansion cards. 2. Always observe static electricity precautions. 3. Please read Handling Precautions at the start of this manual.
KT-748 Mainboard Manual 1. Select an available expansion slot.
2. Remove the corresponding slot cover from the computer chassis. Unscrew the mounting screw that secures the slot cover and pull the slot cover out from the computer chassis. Keep the slot cover mounting screw nearby. 3. Push the card firmly into the slot. Push down on one end of the expansion card, then the other. Use this rocking motion until them card is firmly seated inside the expansion slot. Secure the card with the screw removed in Step 2.
5). Connect Devices
Floppy Diskette Drive Connector
This connector provides the connection with your floppy disk drive. Insert the floppy ribbon cable (below) onto the floppy connector.
The colored stripe (indicated by the arrow head, right) of the ribbon cable must be the same side with the Pin 1.
IDE Device Connectors
The two connectors, PRIMARY and SECONDARY, are used for your IDE hard disk drives, CD drives, LS-120|drives, or IDE ZIP drives.
Insert the floppy ribbon cable (below) onto the floppy connector.
The colored stripe (indicated by the arrow head, right) of the ribbon cable must be the same side with the Pin 1. 2-9
The two connectors, CPU_FAN, SYSTEM_FAN are linked to the CPU fan, case fan, respectively. CHIP_FAN can be used with North Bridge chip fan.
The 20-pin male block connector is connected to the ATX power supply. The 4-pin male block connector is for the ATX_12V power use. All two connectors are linked with your ATX power supply. The plug from the power supply will only insert in one orientation because of the different hole sizes. Find the proper orientation and push down firmly making sure that the pins are aligned.
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Front Panel Block Connector
This block connector includes the connectors for linking with Power LED (3-pin), HDD LED, power button, power/sleep/ message waiting button, reset buttonon the front panel of the system case. Please identify polarities of plug wires for the case speaker and LEDs. Please ask vendor about this information when you buy them and install the system by yourself. The plug wires polarities of these buttons will not affect the function.
NOTE: Users that want to use IR port must adjust BIOS feature UART Mode Select to set COM2 at some IR mode upon your IR device.
(1) Reset Switch is connected to the reset button. Push this switch to reboot the system instead of turning the power button off and on. (2) HDD LED is connected to the IDE device indicator. This LED will blink when the hard disk drives are activated. (3) Power (Single and Dual) /Sleep LED Please refer to the tables below for the representations of LED states. There is another 3-Pin Power LED connector on board for some cases that with a 3-pin plug. 2 - 11
(4) Power Button is connected with power button. Push this switch allows the system to be turned on and off rather than using the power supply button. IR is a pinheader that is used for linking with your ID device to allow transmission of data to another system that also supports the IR feature. Speaker is connected with the case speaker.
The figure below is the pin assignments of the USB4_5.
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5.1 Audio Channel Feature
The 5_1_AUDIO sound feature are offered via the pinheaders with an optional A73 bracket with ribbon cable. The pinheaders pin assignments are shown below left.
When use the daughter board, plug in the LINE_OUT jack for the front speaker audio output (right and left).
NOTE: If you do not have A73 bracket, the LINE_IN, LINE_OUT, MICROPHONE jacks can be used the 5.1-channel audio output with its software tool.
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BIOS Setup Chapter 3
The mainboard comes with the chip that Award BIOS that contains the ROM Setup information of your system. (This chip serves as an interface between the processor and the rest of the mainboard components.) This section explains the information contained in the Setup program and tells you how to modify the settings according to your system configuration.
CMOS Setup Utility
The Setup utility program allows updates to the mainboard configuration settings. The BIOS setup values will be saved in the CMOS. It is executed when the user changes system configuration; user changes system backup battery; or the system detects a configuration error and asks the user to run the Setup program. Use the arrow keys to select and press Enter to run the selected program. 3-1
Standard CMOS Setup
The Standard CMOS Setup screen is displayed above. Each item may have one or more option settings. The system BIOS automatically detects memory size, thus no changes are necessary. Use the arrow keys to highlight the item and then use PgUp or PgDn keys to select the value you want in each item. Date To set the date, highlight the Date field and then press Page Up/Page Down or +/- keys to set the current date. Follow the month, day and year format. Time To set the time, highlight the Time field and then press Page Up/Page Down or +/- keys to set the current time. Follow the hour, minute, and second format.
BIOS Setup Hard Disks This field records the specifications for all non-SCSI hard drives installed in the system. The onboard PCI IDE connectors provide Primary and Secondary channels for connecting up to four IDE hard disks or other IDE devices. Each channel can support up to two hard disks, the first of which is the Master and the second is the Slave. Hard Disk Configurations Capacity: The hard disk size. The unit is Bytes. Cylinder: The cylinder number of the hard disk. Head: The read/write head number of hard disk. Precomp: The cylinder number at which the disk drive changes the write current. Landing Zone: The cylinder number that the disk drive heads (read/write) are seated when the disk drive is parked. Sector: The sector number of each track defined on the hard disk. Drive A / Drive B This field records the types of floppy drives installed in the system. To enter the configuration value for a particular drive, highlight its corresponding field and then select the drive type using the left- or right-arrow key. Floppy 3 Mode Support This is a Japanese standard floppy type drive. The standard stores 1.2MB in a 3.5 inch diskette. Video Set this field to the type of video display card installed in the system. Halt On This field determines which types of errors will cause the system to halt.
Advanced BIOS Features
Virus Warning This feature starts the virus scan tool to detect if boot virus in boot sector of the first hard disk drive when booting up. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. CPU Internal Cache This controls the status of the processors internal cache area. The default is Enabled. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. External Cache This controls the status of the external (L2) cache area. The default is Enabled. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Quick Power On Self Test When enabled, allows the BIOS to bypass the extensive memory test. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. First/Second/Third Boot Device This feature allows user to select the boot device priority. The options are: Floppy, LS120, HDD-0, SCSI, CDROM, HDD-1, HDD-2, HDD-3, ZIP100, LAN, Disabled. 3-4
BIOS Setup Boot Other Device Enable the system to boot from other devices if the system fails to boot from the devices that selected from above three features. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Swap Floppy Drive Allows you to switch the order in which the operating system accesses the floppy drives during boot up. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Boot Up Numlock Status When set to On, allows the BIOS to automatically enable the Num Lock Function when the system boots up. The options are: On, Off. Typematic Rate Setting The term typematic means that when a keyboard key is held down, the character is repeatedly entered until the key is released. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec) This feature is available only if the above item, Typematic Rate Setting, is set at Enabled. Sets the rate of a character repeat when the key is held down. The options are: 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30. Typematic Delay (Msec) This feature is available only if the item, Typematic Rate Setting, is set at Enabled. Sets the delay time before a character is repeated. The options are: 250, 500, 750, 1000 millisecond. Security Option Allows to set the security level of the system.The options: Setup, System. APIC Mode Allows you to decide if the system enters the APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller) mode or not for more IRQs can be released. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
KT-748 Mainboard Manual MPS Version Control For OS When two CPUs onboard (not this board) this feature allows you to select MPS (Multi-Processor Spec.) version control for OS when logo test executes. The options are: 1.1, 1.4. OS Select For DRAM > 64MB If your operating system (OS) is OS/2, select the option OS2. Otherwise, stay with the default setting Non-OS2.The options are: Non-OS2, OS2. HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability S.M.A.R.T. stands for Self-Monitoring and Analysis Reporting Technology which allows your hard disk drive to report any read/write errors and issues a warning with LDCM installed. The options: Disabled, Enabled. Report No FDD For WIN 95 When the field under the Standard CMOS Setup Menu for Drive A and/or Drive B is set at None, users must set this field is set at Yes for it to function properly. Otherwise, set at No, even if field for Drive A and/or Drive B is set at None, system will still detect and recognize of a floppy drive(s). The options are: Yes, No. Video BIOS Shadow Enabling this feature will copy the video BIOS to shadow RAM, it will improve the system performance. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. BIOS Guardian It allows the system to prevent computer viruses. Users will need to disable it to update BIOS. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
NOTE: Please disable this BIOS feature about BIOS Guardian before you start to reflash BIOS. BIOS Guardian and Reflash BIOS
BIOS Guardian by default is enabled, thus effectively acts as a firewall against viruses that can attack the BIOS while the system is running. It must be disabled before reflash BIOS.
BIOS Setup The steps below show you how to off and on BIOS Guardian when reflash BIOS: 1. Press Del key while booting. Go to CMOS Setup Utility menu. 2. Go to Advanced BIOS Features submenu. 3. Set the feature BIOS Guardian at Disabled. 4. Save the setting and exit. The system restarts. 5. POST screen holds. A message about BIOS Guardian shows. 6. Press Space bar. 7. Reflash BIOS. Restart the system after complete it. 8. POST screen holds. A message about BIOS Guardian shows. 9. Press G key. The feature BIOS Guardian will be enabled again. Full Screen LOGO Show It decides whether or not the full screen logo is shown during system booting up. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
Advanced Chipset Features
KT-748 Mainboard Manual Advanced DRAM Control 1 Auto Configuration The feature allows users to decide the performance of the memory CAS/ LAS cycle. The options are: Normal, Performance. DDR SDRAM CAS Latency This feature allows users to set the DDR SDRAM CAS latency timing cycle, when the above feature set at Performance. The options are: Auto, 2.0T, 2.5T, 3.0T. CPU/DRAM Bypass Ctrl The item Auto allows the memory access latency of those requests which are from Host may be reduced in certain condition detected automatically. When set at Disabled, this function will not work. The options are: Auto, Disabled. AGP Aperture Size This item defines the size of the aperture if you use an AGP graphics adapter. It refers to a section of the PCI memory address range used for graphics memory. The options are: 4 MB, 8 MB, 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB. AGP Fast Write Support This feature allows you to disabled AGP fast write mode. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. AGP Data Transfer Rate This item allows users to decide the AGP data transfer rate. The options are: Auto, 1X, 2X, 4X. System BIOS Cacheable Setting at Enabled will allow the caching of the BIOS ROM F0000H-FFFFFH, resulting in better system performance. It may cause system error when some programd try to access the memory area. The options are: Disabled, Enabled.
BIOS Setup Video RAM Cacheable When enabled, allows the video RAM area to be cacheable. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
SIS OnChip IDE Device Internal PCI/IDE This item allows users to disable either or both PCI and IDE channels. The options are: Disabled, Primary, Secondary, Both. IDE Primary Master/Slave PIO It allows an automatic or a manual configuration of the PCI primary IDE hard drive (master/slave) mode. The options are: Auto, Mode 0, Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3, Mode 4.
KT-748 Mainboard Manual IDE Secondary Master/Slave PIO Allows an automatic or a manual configuration of the PCI secondary IDE hard drive (master/slave) mode. The options are: Auto, Mode 0, Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3, Mode 4. Primary Master/Slave UDMA Allows you to select the first PCI IDE channel of the first master/slave hard disk mode or to detect it by the BIOS if the hard disk supports UDMA (Ultra DMA, faster than DMA). The options are: Auto, Disabled. Secondary Master/Slave UDMA Allows you to select the second PCI IDE channel of the secondary master/ slave hard disk mode or to detect it by the BIOS if the hard disk supports UDMA (Ultra DMA, faster than DMA). The options are: Auto, Disabled. IDE Burst Mode Allows you to disable the IDE channel burst mode. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. SIS OnChip PCI Device SIS USB Controller Disable this option if you are not using the onboard USB feature. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. USB 2.0 Support Disable this option if you are not using the onboard USB 2.0 feature (USB 1.1 not effected). The options are: Disabled, Enabled. USB Keyboard Support When a USB keyboard is installed, please set at Enabled. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. Onboard SuperIO Device Onboard FDC Controller When enabled, the floppy diskette drive (FDD) controller is activated. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
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BIOS Setup Onboard Serial Port 1/2 If the serial port 1/2 uses the onboard I/O controller, you can modify your serial port parameters.The options are: 3F8/IRQ4, 3E8/IRQ4, 2F8/IRQ3, 2E8/ IRQ3, Disabled. UART Mode Select Allows you to select the IR modes if the serial port 2 is used as an IR port. Set at Standard, if you use COM2 as the serial port as the serial port, instead as an IR port. The options are: Normal, IrDA, ASKIR, SCR. UR2 Duplex Mode Allows you to select the IR modes. The options are: Half, Full. Onboard Parallel Port Allows you to select from a given set of parameters if the parallel port uses the onboard I/O controller. The options are: Disabled, 378/IRQ7, 278/IRQ5, 3BC/IRQ7. Parallel Port Mode Allows you to connect with an advanced printer via the port mode it supports. The options are: SPP, EPP, ECP, ECP+EPP. ECP Mode Use DMA This feature allows you to select Direct Memory Access (DMA) channel if the ECP mode selected. The options are: 1, 3. Onboard Lan Device This feature allows users to enable or disable the onboard Lan device. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Onboard Lan Boot ROM This feature allows users to enable or disable the onboard Lan boot ROM to boot system. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Init Display First When you install a PCI VGA card on the board, this feature allows you to select the first initiation of the monitor display from PCI or onboard AGP. The options are: PCI Slot, AGP. 3 - 11
KT-748 Mainboard Manual Onboard 1394 Device It allows users to disable the onboard 1394 feature. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. AC97 AUDIO This feature auto detects if you use a card that with a CODEC to enable or disable the AC97 audio function. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. IDE HDD Block Mode Block mode is also called block transfer, multiple commands, or multiple sector read/write. If your IDE hard drive supports block mode (most new drives do), select Enabled for automatic detection of the optimal number of block read/writes per sector the drive can support. The options are: Enabled, Disabled.
Power Management Setup
ACPI function This item allows you to disable the ACPI function. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. ACPI Suspend Type This item allows you to select ACPI suspend types. The options are: S1(POS), S3 (STR), S1&S3. 3 - 12
BIOS Setup Power Management This item allows you to adjust the power management features. Select User Define for configuring your own power management features. Min Saving initiates all predefined timers in their minimum values. Max Saving, on the other hand, initiates maximum values. The options are: User Define, Min Saving, Max Saving. Suspend Mode When disabled, the system will not enter Suspend mode. The specified time option defines the idle time the system takes before it enters Suspend mode. The options are: Disable, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40 Min, 1 Hour. Video Off Option This feature provides the selections of the video display power saving mode. The option Suspend - >Off allows the video display to go blank if the system enters Suspend mode. The option All Modes -> Off allows the video display to go blank if the system enters Doze mode or Suspend mode. The option Always On allows the video display to stay in Standby mode even when the system enters Doze or Suspend mode. The options are: Suspend -> Off, All Modes -> Off, Always On. Video Off Method The option V/H SYNC+Blank allows the BIOS to blank off screen display by turning off the V-Sync and H-Sync signals sent from add-on VGA card. DPMS Supported allows the BIOS to blank off screen display by your addon VGA card which supports DPMS (Display Power Management Signaling function). Blank Screen allows the BIOS to blank off screen display by turning off the red-green-blue signals. The options are: V/H SYNC+Blank, DPMS Supported, Blank Screen. MODEM Use IRQ This feature allows you to select the IRQ# to meet your modem IRQ#. The options are: NA, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11.
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KT-748 Mainboard Manual HDD Off After The option lets the BIOS turn the HDD motor off when system is in Suspend mode. Selecting 1 Min.15 Min allows you define the HDD idle time before the HDD enters the Power Saving Mode. The options 1 Min.15 Min will not work concurrently. When HDD is in the Power Saving Mode, any access to the HDD will wake the HDD up. The options are: Disable, 1 Min.15 Min. Power Button Override The selection Delay 4 Sec. will allow the system shut down after 4 seconds after the power button is pressed. The selection Instant-Off will allow the system shut down immediately once the power button is pressed. The settings are: Instant-Off, Delay 4 Sec. Power State Resume Control The item allows you to select the state that your personal computer returns to after a power failure. The settings are: Keep Pre-State, Always Off, Always On. PM Wake Up Events IRQ[3-7,9-15], NMI Enable this feature will keep the system not in the Suspend mode when IRQ3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, NMI. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. IRQ 8 Break Suspend Enable this feature will make IRQ8 to resume the system from Suspend mode. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. RING Power Up Control An incoming call via modem awakes the system from its soft-off mode. The options are Disabled, Enabled. PCIPME Power Up Control When set at Enabled, a Power Management Event (PME) come from PCIMAC will make the system from soft-off state. The options are Disabled, Enabled.
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BIOS Setup Month Alarm/Day of Month Alarm/Time (hh:mm:ss) Alarm This feature allows you to set the time of the alarm starts. ** Reload Global Timer Events ** Primary IDE When the primary master/slave HDD is working, the system timer will be reloaded and the system will not be into the suspend mode. The options are: Disabled , Enabled. Secondary IDE When the secondary master/slave HDD is working, the system timer will be reloaded and the system will not be into the suspend mode. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. FDD, COM, LPT Port When FDD, COM, or LPT is working, the system timer will be reloaded and the system will not be into the suspend mode. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. PCI PIRQ[A-D]# When the PCI PIRQ[A-D]# has been alerted, the system timer will be reloaded and the system will not be into the suspend mode. The options are: Disabled, Enabled.
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Reset Configuration Data Enabling it to reset the system Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) when you exit Setup if you have installed a new add-on card and the system reconfiguration has caused such a serious conflict that the operating system can not boot. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. Resources Controlled By If set at Auto(ESCD), the BIOS arranges all system resources. If there exists conflict, select Manual. The options are: Auto (ESCD), Manual. If the manual option is selected, after the featrue IRQ Resources being pressed, of IRQ- Assigned To are: PCI Device, Reserved. When resources were controlled manually, assign each system interrupt a type, depending on each device type to use the interrupt. PCI/VGA Palette Snoop Set this feature to be enabled if any ISA adapter card installed in the system requires the VGA palette snoop function. The options are: Disabled, Enabled.
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PC Health Status
Shutdown Temperature This feature helps to shutdown the system when the system temperature is as high as the selected temperature to prevent from the overheat problem. The option list presents all the temperatures that supported by the board and Disabled. VCORE / 3.3V / +5V / +12V / -12V / Voltage Battery / CPU Temperature / SYSTEM Temperature / CPU FAN / SYSTEM FAN These items allow end users and technicians to monitor data provided by the BIOS on this mainboard. It is not user-configurable.
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Auto Detect DIMM/PCI Clk When enabled, BIOS will detect the PCI slot and DIMM slot. If no any device in, BIOS will auto disable its clock. The options are: Enabled, Disabled. Spread Spectrum This item reduces the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) generated by modulating the pulses so that the spikesof the pulses are reduced to flatter curves. If you do not have EMI problems, set it at Disabled for optimal systme stability and performance. Set at Enabled for EMI reduction. Please set at Disabled if you are overclocking because even a 0.25% jitter can introduce a temporary boost in clockspeed of 25MHz (with a 1GHz CPU) which may just cause your overclocked CPU to lock up. The options are: Disabled, Enabled. CPU Frequency This feature allows you to select the CPU clock frequency. The default setting, Default, will detect your CPU clock frequency automatically. If you set a unappropriate option which leads to a booting problem, keep pressing the Insert key until the display appears will solve it. The options lists all provided by the system BIOS. 3 - 18
Buckton, Annalen, 1859,109, 219, 221; Jahresber., 1858, p. 390; Prankland, Annalen, 1859, i n , 57; Jahresber., 1859, p. 413; Krassowski, ZeitschHft fur Chemie, 1870, p. 528; BPT., 1870, 3, 625 ; Oppenheim, Ber., 1871, 4, 671. 2 Frankland, Annalen, 1862, 122, 132, 144 ; Jahresber., 1876, p. 469. 3 Buckton and Odling, Annalen Spl., 1861, 4, 110, 112 ; Cahours, Annalen, 1860, 114, 242 ; Hallwacks and Schafarik, Annalen, 1859, 109, 207 ; Fiirstenhofi, Chem. Zenir., 1904, i. 785; Buckton and Odling, Proc. Boy. Soc, 1865, 14, 19 ; Cahours, Jahresber., 1873, p. 518 ; Ber., 1873, 6, 567 ; Compt. rend., 1873, 76, 133, 748, 1383. 4 Hartwig, Ber., 1874, 7, 298 ; Annalen, 1875, 176, 264. 5 Eriedel and Crafts, Annalen, 1865, 136, 203 ; 1863, 127, 31 ; Ladenburg, Annalen, 1872, 164, 302, 327 ; Pape, Annalen, 1884, 222, 359, 370 ; Ladenburg, Annalen, 1874, 173, 148; Friedel and Ladenburg, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1880, , 19, 1 ; Annalen, 1880, 203, 251. 6 Winkler, J. prahi. Chem., 1845, , 36, 204. 7 Cahours, Annalen, 1862, 122, ; Jahresber., 1873, p. 519; Frankland, Annalen, 1859, i n , 50 ; Frankland and Lawranee, Trans. Chem. Sac, 1879, 3$, 130; Morgunow, Annalen, 1867, 144, 157; Buckton, Annalen, 1859, 109, 225; Pope and Peachey, Proc. Chem. Soc, 1912, 28, 42, 116. 8 Cahours, Annalen, 1862, 122, 67 ; Buckton, Annalen, 1859, 109, 222 ; 1859,112,226 ; Erankland and Lawranee, J. Chem. Soc, 1879, 35, 245. 9 Cahours and Hofmann, Annalen, 1857, 104, 1 ; Hofmann, Annalen Spl, 1861, I, 7 ; Dreehsel and Pinkelstein, Ber., 1871, 4, 352 ; Wichelhaus, Ber., 1868, I, 80. 10 Cahours and Hofmann, Compt. rend., 1855, 41, 834; Jahresber., 1855, p. 538; Cahours, Annahn, 1862, 122, 219 ; Hofmann, Annalen, 1857, 103, 357. " Buckton, Trans. Chem. Soc, 1863, 16, ; Jahresber., 1863, p. 470. 12 Marquardt, Bert, 1887, 20, 1517 ; ibid., 1888, 21, 2038. *3 Hilpert and Griittner, Ber., 1913, 46, 1675. 14 Chambers and Scherer, J. Amer, Chem. Soc, 1926, 48, 1054. 15 Lohr, Annalen, 1853, 87, 55. 16 Krause, Ber., 1917, 50, 1813.
OB.GANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS. 14 decomposed by water, the process takes some hours to reach completion. As in the case of magnesium and zinc, only one aryl compound of cadmium is known, cadmium diphenyl. It is prepared by heating mercury diphenyl and metallic cadmium in an atmosphere of hydrogen, but the product appears to be very unstable in the dry state, discolouring in a vacuum desiccator even when allowed to stand for an hour. 1 The cadmium may be replaced by mercury or zinc under suitable conditions. The only "remaining metal in the group to be discussed is mercury. This element forms such an enormous variety of organic compounds that they are dealt with in subsequent chapters. No other element is known which will replace the hydrogen of organic derivatives with such ease. All other metals of the periodic classification are only introduced singly into organic residues, whereas two to five mercury residues may become attached to a molecule in a single operation, e.g. penta-acetoxymercuriaoetanilide. Like the other members of Group II., it forms compounds of the type R 2 M, but these are far more stable than any previously described. A second type, RMX, is also known, which resembles the Grignard reagent RMgX in formula only, showing no other relation to the magnesium compounds. These two types of mercury compounds are dealt with in the subsequent chapter.
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS. The reactions between zinc diethyl and various compounds have been collected together in the following table : REACTIONS OF ZINC DIETHYL.
Reacting Substance. Resulting Products.
Chlorine, bromine, or iodine. | Bromine or iodine in ether solution. Air passed through etlter solution of zinc diethyl.
Decomposition with violence, inflaming in the case of chlorine. Ethyl halide, zino halide. Compound EtZn.O.O.Et.
Frankland, Annalen, 51. do.
Demuth and Meyer, Ber., 1890, 23, 394; see also Frankland, Annalen, 1855, 95, 42 ; Frankland and Duppa, Annalen, 1865, 135, 30. Frankland, Annalen, 360. 1853, 85,
Water. Sulphur dioxide or trioxide. Nitric oxide.
Zinc hydroxide, ethane. Ethane sulphinic acid. Compound ZnEU.Zn (C a H s O a N 3 ) a.
Wischin, Annalen, 1866, 139, 367 ; see also Hobson, Annalen, 1857, 102, 76. Frankland, Annalen, 1856, 99, 345. Frankland, Jahrzsber., 1857, p. 8 ; J, proB. Chem., 1858, , 73, 35. Frankland and Graham, Trans, Chem. 80c, 1880, 37, 740. Gal, Compi. rend., 1868, 66, 49 ; Annalen, 1868, 147, 27. Calmels, Compi. rend., 1884, 99, 9 ; Bull, Soc. chim., 1885, , 43, 82. Schmitt, J. praH. Chem., 1847, [21, 42, 568. Wanklyn, Annalen, 1858, 107, 125 ; 1858, lo8, 70. Cahours and Hofmann, Compt. rend,, 1855, 41, 832 ; Jahresber., 1855, p. 537 ; Annalen, 1857, 104, 7 ; Annalen fipl, 1861, 1, 2. do. Hofmann, Annalen, 1857, 103, 357. Friedel and Crafts, Ann. Chim. Phys., 1870, , 19, 5 ; Annalen, 1863, 127, 31.
Ammonia gas passed into ether solution of zinc diethyl. Cyanusen.
Ethyl cyanide. Etlryl cyanide. Zinc cyanide, ethyl iodide. Zinc propionate. Compound ZnEt 2.NaEt.
I Cyanogen chloride.
Cyanogen iodide. Liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. Sodium.
j Phosphorus trichloride. Compound of zinc chloiide t and triethylphoaphine. 1
| Arsenic trichloride. Antimony trichloride. Silicon tetrachloride.
Triethylarsinc. Trie thylsti bine. Silicon tetraethyl.
ORUANOMETALLIC DERIVATIVES OF ELEMENTS OF GROUP IT. 21
Phenyl diethyl arsine, me- Michaelis and Schulte, he. cit.; tallic mercury. Ber., 1881, 14, 1952. Sodium ethyl. Equal volumes of ethane and ethylene. Schorigin, Ber., 1910, 43, 1931; cf. Buckton, Annate?), 1859, 112, 220. Schorigin, Ber., 1908, 41, 2722.
Sodium and carbon dioxide.
Substances Propionic acid (sodium salt). heated in ether solution and gas passed in.
Sodium and ben- Ether solution in Ethyldiphenylcarbinoi. hydrogen or zophenone. nitrogen atmosphere. Bo. Die thylphenylcarbinol. Sodium and methyl ester of benzoic acid. Ethylphenylcarbinol. Sodium and benzaldehyde.
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS. Reactions of Mercury Diethylcontinued,
Reacting Substance. Magnesium. "Beryllium cinum). Cadmium.
Heat at 130 C. Magnesium cury. for 30 hours.
mer- Lohr, Awnalm, 1891, 261, 4 Fleck, Annalen, 1893, 276, IS Cahours, Compt. rend., 1873, 7 1383; Jahresbcr., 1873, rm,
Heat at 135 C. Beryllium diethyl. in scaled tube. Heat at 130 C.
100- Cadmium diethyl (not free Frankland and Duppa, Tra n Chew. Hoc, 1864, 17, 2f from mercury). Annaten, 1804, 130, 117. do. do. Cahours, Avnaleri, 1800, II, 242; "Buckton and Odlinj AnnalenSup pi, I860,109i I' Proc. Roij. Hoc, 1805, 14, 19. Frankland and Duppa, Joe. eit.
Zinc. Copper. Aluminium.
Heat at 100 C. Zinc diethyl, mercury. for 36 hours. Heat at 150 C. Slight amalgamation and a gas evolved. for 5-0 hoius. Aluminium triethyl.
Iron (reduced from sesrjuioxide by hydrogen). Bismuth.
Metallic mercury, no trace of organic compound.
Heat at 120- Bismuth triethyl. 140" C L No organic compounds. Tellurium diethyl.
do. do. Zeiser, Ber., 1895, 28, 1G70,
Silver, gold, zir- Heat at 150 C. conium. Tellurium.
Mercury di-n-propyl, Hg(C 3 H 7 ) 2 , may be obtained: 1. Two hundred grams of n-propyl iodide are treated with 0-2 per cent, sodium amalgam, in presence of 30 grams of methyl acetate. The resulting paste when treated with dilute potassium hydroxide, then steam distilled, yields an oil which is impure mercury dipropyl. 1 2. By the interaction of magnesium propyl bromide and mercuric chloride or bromide. 2 24-3 grams of mercuric bromide are added in small portions to the Grignard reagent from 23 grams of n-propyl bromide and 4-3 grams of magnesium in 100 c.c. of ether. All the mercuric bromide goes into solution and the reaction is accompanied by violent boiling, the mixture after boiling on the water-bath for one hour being decomposed by water. Extraction with ether yields 4-5 grams of mercury propyl bromide and 6-0 grams of mercury dipropyl, B.pt. 189 to 191 C. A small quantity of metallic mercury is also obtained.
Oimroth, Ber., 1921, 54, [B], 1504. Hantzsch and Anld, Ber., 1906, 39,1105. Raiziss and Proskouria&off, J. Amen Ohem. 80c,, 1922, 44, 787: see Hodgson, ibid., S 1027,49.2840. ^ 4 Hodgson, loc. ciL
MERCURY. 145 C. during one hour, then kept at 140 to 150 C. with frequent shaking for four hours. The reaction mixture is then treated with a saturated solution of sodium chloride and steam distilled. From the non-volatile residue 2 grams of 6-chlorom,ercuri-2~nitrophenol is obtained by extraction with boiling alcohol. The light brown colourless residue is dissolved in dilute sodium hydroxide, filtered and re-precipitated by acetic acid. Crystallisation from acetic acid gives a pale brownish-yellow product, unmeited below 300 C. The product is transformed by iodine in potassium iodide to 6-iodo-2-nitrophenol. The melting-points and crystalline forms of the 6- and 4-halidemercuri-2-nitrophenols is as follows : 6-fluoro-, pale yellow plates, M.pt. 187 C.; 6-chloro-, pale yellowish-brown rectangular plates, M.pt. 135 C.; 6-bromo-, pale yellow plates, M.pt. 177 C. ; 64odo-, deep yellow needles, M.pt. 215 C.; 4>-ftuGro~, micro-crystalline plates, M.pt. 195 C.; 4>-ckloro~, creamy yellow micro clusters, M.pt. 205 C. ; 4hromo-, needles, M.pt. 236 C.; 4^-iodo-, bright yellow needles, M.pt. above 300 C. Sodium - 6 - hydroxymercuri - 2 - nitrophenolate gives scarlet crystals; the 4-compound is deeper red. 1 Anhydride of 2-hydroxymercuri-4-aci-nitrophenol, 2
This product is a yellow powder, formed by prolonged boiling of a dilute alcoholic solution of mercuric acetate with sodium p-nitrophenoxide. I t yields a double salt with pyridine, which is a scarlet powder decomposing at 190 C. into its constituents. The mercury must be ortho to the hydroxyl group, since 2 : 6-dibromo-p-nitrophenol does not yield a corresponding derivative. The anhydride does not react with potassium iodide or hydrogen sulphide, but with iodine it gives mercuric iodide and o-iodo-p-nitrophenol. 2-Chloromercuri-4-nitrophenol occurs as colourless crystals, M.pt. 175 C. I t may be obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to the anhydride, or by treating the mixture used in the preparation of the acetoxymercuri compound with warm dilute sodium hydroxide, when an orange deposit of the monosodium salt appears on cooling. This is filtered off, dissolved in water, and the solution acidified with hydrochloric acid, when the chloride is deposited as a white precipitate, which is recrystallised from 50 per cent, alcohol. The chloride is soluble in alcohol and ethyl acetate. 2-Hydroxymercuri-4-nitrophenol, obtained from the sodium salt, is an amorphous powder, M.pt. 206 C, soluble in acetone, alcohol, or acetic acid, giving colourless solutions, but a slightly yellow solution in pyridine. Its sodium salt contains 0-5 mol, of water of crystallisation, is easily soluble in water, and darkens when heated. 2-Acetoxymercuri-4-nitrophenoLAqueous solutions of equiFor compounds from o-nitrophenol with mercuric nitrate and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol with mercuric oxid, see German Patent, 234851. 2 Raiziss and Proakoari&fcoff, he. cit. VOL. x i. : i. 10
Mamcli, UazzeUa, 1922, 52, ii. IS. Homy and Sharp, J, Ohem. SOG., 1926, p. 2436. Henry and Sharp, he. cii*
MERCURY. 153 position to a hydroxyl group, these compounds are probably 4- or timonoacetoxymercuri and 4 : 6-diacetoxymercuricarvacrols (OH in position 1). 5 - Chloromercuri - 4 - hydroxy - 3 - methyl - 6 - isopropylbenzaldehyde.Molecular proportions of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzaldehyde (p-carvacrolaldehyde) and mercuric acetate in alcohol containing acetie acid are boiled for 1-25 hours. The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of 10 per cent, aqueous sodium chloride, when a pale cream-coloured precipitate is thrown down. This is filtered off, dried, and recrystallised from acetone containing one drop of hydrochloric acid, small, four-sided plates being deposited, which sinter and darken about 209 C. and decompose indefinitely about 260 C. A 50 per cent, yield of the corresponding 5-acetoxymercuri derivative is obtained when molecular proportions of p-earvacrolaldehyde and mercuric acetate are heated for 1-5 hours on the water-bath. A yellow oil is formed, and this after extraction with hot ligroin is dissolved in a little acetic acid and the solution filtered. On cooling, colourless needles of 4-hydroxy - 5 - acetoxymercuri - 3 - methyl - 6-isopropylbenzaldehydc separate, M.pt. 120 C. These crystals contain 1 mol. of acetic acid, which is not lost on drying in vacuo. When treated with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, a product is obtained which crystallises from alcohol in long, colourless needles, M.pt. 157 C. I t is probably 5-iodo4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzaldehyde.
DERIVATIVES OF ALKYL PHENOLS.
2-Acetoxymercuri-p-tert.-butylphenol.Two molecules of the phenol and 1 mol. of mercuric acetate in 50 per cent, alcohol containing a little acetic acid are allowed to stand; a test portion dissolves in sodium hydroxide after about twenty hours. In three days 2*53 grams of product rich in monomercurated compound crystallises out in white needles. The nitrate on concentration gives some unchanged butylphenol, and a clear yellow oil which solidifies on standing. The latter, after steam distillation and drying, weighs 3-6 grams. I t crystallises from ligroin, saturated with acetic acid, in colourless, shining plates, M.pt. 180 C, :6-Diacetoxymercuri-p-tert.~butyIphenol.Six grams of the phenol in 10 c.c. of alcohol and 25-6 grams of mercuric acetate in 160 e.e. of alcohol containing 4 c.c. of acetic acid, are mixed and boiled for one hour. After standing overnight the mixture is filtered, concentrated to half-bulk, and 200 c.c. of water added. A white, sticky solid is precipitated, which becomes crystalline when warmed with alcohol. The total yield, taking into account recovery from mother-liquors, is 23-35 grams. I t melts a t 224 C. with decomposition, and is readily soluble in the usual organic solvents. When nitrated with concentrated acid at 0 C. it yields 2 ; 6-dinitro~p-tert.-butylphenol, thus proving the positions of the mercury in the compound. 2 -Acetoxymercuri -p-isoamylphenol is prepared in a similar manner to the above monomercurated product. I t crystallises in white flakes, M.pt. 176 to 177 C. with decomposition. 2 :6-Diacetoxymercurip-isoamylphenol crystallises from acetic acid in shining prisms, M.pt. 123 to 125 C , containing 1 mol. of
* Henry m d Sharp, J. Chem. Soc, 1926, p. 2434.
solvent. With twice its weight of ice-cold, concentrated nitric acid it yields 2:6-dinitro-p-isoarnylphenol.
DERIVATIVES OF GUAIACOL. 1
Mercuric acetate reacts with guaiacol in methyl alcohol or ethyl alcoholacetic acid solution to yield principally diacetoxymercuri guaiacol and possibly some monomercuri compound. 4 ; 6-Diacetoxymercuri guaiacol, OH_Hg.OAc OMe<( ^> Hg.OAc forms white crystals which turn yellow, then red when heated, but do not melt. Nitric acid converts the compound to 4:6-dinitroguaiacol. This diacetate with 5 per cent, sodium hydroxide yields an oxide, OH__Hg.OAc OMe/ \
an Infusible, heavy powder, turning brown at 200 to 210 C. The chloride is formed in the usual manner, and is a crystalline powder, decomposing at 179 to 1S0Q C, and the nitrate is an infusible, white, crystalline compound. 5-Iodo-acetylguaiacol is also stated to give a diacetate. Vanillin on mercuration yields a crystalline monoacetate, which may be converted to the chloride, the latter giving iodovanillin on treatment with iodine.2
DERIVATIVES OF SAFROL. 3
Mercuration of safrol by mercuric acetate yields a syrup containing two isomeric acetates, one of which eventually crystallises out, the other remaining as a sticky mass. Both isomers are reduced to safrol when treated with zinc and sodium hydroxide. The crystalline form yields a merciirichloride, a white crystalline powder, insoluble in water and very slightly soluble in boiling alcohol. When heated it blackens towards 170 C. The syrupy isomeric acetate yields a chloride, which crystallises from alcohol in rosettes of hard, glistening, prismatic needles, M.pt. 138 C. This form can be more conveniently prepared as follows : 8*1 grams of safrol in a stoppered flask are shaken with 16 grams of mercuric acetate (1 mol.) in 160 c.c. of water for about two and a half hours at 50 C. When the reaction is complete the mixture is shaken with 10 per cent, sodium chloride solution, a crystalline precipitate of the chloride being deposited. Yield about 12 grams. Recrystallisation from alcohol gives long, white, stellate, monoclinic prisms, M.pt. 136 to 137 C. The compound gives no reaction with ammonium sulphide, hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide,' but if warmed with dilute hydrochloric acid the smell of safrol becomes evident. It is only slightly
DERIVATIVES OF RESORCINOL. 2
Chloromercuri resorcinol, C e H 3 (OH) 2.HgCl.To a solution of 28-3 grams of mercuric acetate (1 mol.) in 60 c.c. of water at room temperature, a solution of 29-7 grams of resorcinol (3 mols.) in 25 c.c. of water is added with frequent shaking. The reaction is completed in fifteen minutes. White flocks appear, which are filtered and quickly dissolved in concentrated sodium chloride solution, from which the chloride separates in needles. These are placed for a short time in ice, then filtered off, washed with ice-cold water, and dissolved in a large volume of ether. Removal of the solvent, and drying of the residue in vacuo, gives 16 grams of product. This consists of a mixture
Balbiano and Paolini, loc. cU,; Balbiano, loc. cit.; M&nchob, loc. cU. Dhnroth, Ber., 1902,35, 2853 ; see Leys, J. Phartn. Chitn., 1905, [YL], 21, 388.
ORGAKOMETALLIO COMPOUOT)S. of mono and dimercurated compounds, from which the mono is removed by boiling with chloroform, in which it is soluble. From this solution prisms are deposited. M.pt. 305 C, the compound containing chloroform of crystallisation, which may be removed in vacuo, when the melting-point rises to 123; at 170 the colour changes to blood red. Yield 11-7 grams. It is soluble in ether, but only with difficulty in water, the aqueous solution becoming turbid after a short time. When warmed with a little water a clear solution is obtained, but a fine yellow powder rapidly separates out and decomposes. The solution in sodium hydroxide after a short time becomes yellow, then green, then brown, and a black precipitate finally appears ; these changes are accelerated by warming the solution. With ammonium sulphide the substance is immediately decomposed. Dichloromercuri resorcinol is the insoluble residue left after the chloroform extraction, and is purified by crystallisation from ether. Yield 2-5 grams. It is a fine powder, becoming dark towards 200 C.9 but does not melt. In alcohol it is soluble with difficulty and is decomposed by sodium hydroxide even more rapidly than the mono compound. 4~Acetoxymercuri-2-nitroresorcinoI 1 is prepared by heating together equimolecular quantities of mercuric acetate and 2-nitroresorcinol on a water-bath for thirty minutes. The orange precipitate is filtered, washed with water, alcohol, and ether, then dried over calcium chloride for forty-eight hours. Yield 75 per cent. 4-Chloromercuri-2-nitroresorcinol.Freshly precipitated mercuric oxide and 2-nitroresorcinol suspended in water are heated on the water-bath for two hours, and the orange precipitate filtered off, washed with water, alcohol, and ether, then converted to the chloride by the addition of 10 per cent, hydrochloric acid. The product when washed and dried is a pale orange powder, soluble in dilute sodium hydroxide, methyl or ethyl alcohol, ether, benzene; only slightly in. water. 4 :6-Diacetoxymercuri-resorcinoI-dimethyl ether,
Hofmann and Sand, Ber.t 1901, 34, 1385, 2906. * 8&tod and Singer, Ber.t 1902, 35, 3180
MERCURY. Mercurodiethylene oxide, O : (C 2 H 4 ) 2 : Hg^. -Ethyl ether mercuric bromide dissolved in 10 per cent, potassium hydroxide is treated with an alkaline stannite solution until no further precipitate is obtained. The grey-violet product is decanted, washed, and dried over sulphuric acid. Yield nearly quantitative. I t is a bluish-black precipitate, sintering at 80 C. and melting at 140c to 150 CM insoluble in water, alkalies, and the usual organic solvents. It is completely decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid, and when heated with benzene in a sealed tube at ] 40 C. is converted into mercury and the mercuric compound. Mercuridiethylene oxide, 0<
\ CH2 C H /
Prepared as just described, it crystallises from benzene in glistening, colourless needles, M.pt. 145 C , insoluble in water, alkali, or dilute mineral acids, but readily soluble in most organic solvents, except ether and acetone. It is not decomposed when heated with potassium hydroxide, iodide, or cyanide, but with fuming hydrochloric acid it gives a theoretical yield of ethylene. 2 Manchot and Klug 3 criticise the above work of Hofmann and Sand, and advance arguments against the structures given above, in favour of additive formulae. Their points are : 1. Hofmann and Sand's formula does not explain why the compound of the type CH 2 OH.CH 2.HgX is immediately decomposed by halogen acids with the evolution of ethylene, whereas it is stable towards other acids. According to Manchot, a similar result is obtained by potassium cyanide or thiocyanate in the presence of acids. 2. The reaction is caused by all those substances which combine with mercuric halides to yield additive compounds of the type HgCl2. 2HC1, and may be expressed by the equations : C 2 H 4.OH.HgCl+HCL^= 2 H 1.HgCl 2 +H and C 2 H 4.HgCl 2 +2HCl^=HgCl 2.2HCi+C 2 H 4 3. I t was shown by Sand that the complex C 2 H 4.Hg(OH) is univalent and that the dichromate was prepared by Manchot and expressed as [C 2 H 4.Hg(OH)] 2 CrA 4. The decomposition by iodine of the ethylenic compounds containing mercury is more readily explained by the additive formula. I t is assumed that the iodine displaces the oxygen, followed by the addition of oxygen at the double bond, thus yielding CH 2 I.CH 2.OH and O (CH2. CH2 I) 2 respectively. 5. According to Sand's formula, the ethanol mercuric iodide should yield propyl alcohol when treated with methyl iodide, whereas methyl alcohol, ethylene, and mercuric iodide are obtained,
* Smith and Mitchell, Tram. Ckem. JSoc., 1908,93,847; Dimroth, Btr., 1902,35, 2853. 2 Dimroth's memoir aim* describes further reactions of benzene diazonium chloride with nwrcurated phenols and p-civsols. 3 Mitchell and Smith, Tram. Ckem. &*., 1009, 95* 1430. 4 JYuskouriakoff and Kaiziss, J. Atmr, Ckem. tfoc.t 1925, 47, 1974.
MERCURY. 205 acetic acid with 2 equivalents of mercuric acetate. It is a red. amorphous powder. D i h y d r o x y m e r c u r i - h y d r o x y a z o b e n z e n e sulphonic acid, brownish-red powder. Mercuri-bis (nitrobenzene-azosalicylic acid) is a light brown powder. Compounds formed by diazotising p-acetoxymcrcurianiline, and coupling it with various compounds:* 4-Acetoxymercuri-4'-dimethylaminoazobenzene yields brickred crystals having a violet reiiex, M.pt. 215 C. With sulphuric acid it forms reddish-brown solutions having a green fluorescence, and with nitric and hydrochloric acids sparingly soluble salts arc formed. 4 - A c e t o x y m e r c u r i - 4 ' - d i e t h y l a m i n o a z o b e n z e n e consists of flittering orange-brown plates, becoming red at 120' ('. and melting at 151-5 to 156 C. (corr.). p-Acetoxymercuribenzeneazo-phenol, orange crystals, M.pt. 218 to 210 C. (corr.). p-Acetoxymercuribenzeneazo-resorcinol.Dark brown powder, sintering at 160 C. and melting with decomposition at 190' to 105' C. 4 - p - Acetoxymercuribenzeneazo - 1 - naphthyiamine - 5 - sulphonic acid, brownish-black, micro-crystalline powder, decomposing at 280 C. 5 - Acetoxymercuritoluene - 2 - azophenol is obtained from 5acetoxymercuri-o-toluidine, M.pt. 204*5 to 205 C. (corr,). DERIVATIVES OF HYDR0XYAZOBEXZEXES* Sodium - 3 - chloromercuri - 4 - hydroxy - azobenzene - 4' sulphonate is formed by diazotising sulphanilic acid and adding the diazotised solution to a cold solution of o-chloromereuriphenol in sodium hydroxide. The coupling requires about four hours for completion. The mixture is then acidified with acetic acid, when the sodium salt of the azo compound separates as a heavy, orange-yellow precipitate. The product is recrystallised from hot water, air-dried, and then dried in a vacuum dryer at 50 C. Since the CHg linkage is easily split it is impossible "to obtain the free acid. The reaction is represented as follows : HO-/ HgCl = HG<( HgCl In a similar manner o-chloromercuriphenol has been coupled with the following diazotised aromatic acids:
Krause and Nitsche, Ben, 1922, 5& [B], 1261; Krause, German Patent, 371467; Chem. Zenfr., 1923, ii. 1089. 3 Michaelis, Ben, 1894, 27, 244 a Michaelis, ibid. * iCkotmsky and Mekwaed, Ber*9 1909,42,3000.
ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS. p-Tolyl boric acid, M.pt. 240 C., yields p-tolyl mercuric chloride by the usual treatment. An alkaline solution of potassium permanganate oxidises the niethvi <?roup to carboxyl, when p-carboxy-phenyl boric acid is formed, IIOOC.CflH4,B(OH )a, as white, glistening, refractive needles, M.pt. 225" C. The crystals arc easily soluble in hot water or alcohol, less soluble in ether or benzene, and when heated no anhydride is formed. Rapid heating decomposes the compound to benzoic acid and meta-borie acid: X'OOH C 6 II / C 6 II 5 COOH +BO(OII) X B(OH) 2 this reaction being similar to that of the related phosphorus derivative, namely: X'OOH CfiH4< =C8H5COOH+HP03 NPO(OII), The reaction with mercuric chloride takes a somewhat different course in the case of this compound : /COOH JCQOll Cell/ +HgCl2+H20-C6H,< +HCl+B(OH) 3 X x B(OH) 2 HgCl This chloromcrcuri benzoic acid is a white, crystalline powder, M.pt. 272" C , soluble in absolute alcohol and insoluble in water, dissolves in aqueous alkalies, but is reprecipitated by acids. The barium salt bf p-earboxy-phemi boric acid, BOH CfiH4
COOBa is obtained as a white precipitate by the action of barium chloride on a carbon dioxide-free, ammoniacal solution of the acid. It is very soluble in cold water, but the solubility diminishes with rise of temperature. At 200 C. the water of crystallisation is not driven off, and the hydroxyl group bound to the boron atom is unaffected. Two lead salts are known, both white powders, namely : [HO(HOPbO)BC 6 H 4 COO] 2 Pb and (PbB. 6 H 4 COO) 2 Pb.2H The silver salt, AgO.CO.C6H4.B(OH)OAg, is a white precipitate, easily decomposed, and yellow when dry. On heating with water it first becomes brown, then black, and silver oxide separates, along with boric and benzoic acids, or silver benzoate. o-Anisyl boric acid occurs as small, glistening plates, from hot water, M.pt. 165 C.; the para acid yields white tablets of the monoclinic system, melting at 201 to 203., soluble in ether, hot alcohol, or benzene, less soluble in hot water. It reacts with ammoniacal silver solutions in the usual way, and yields p-anisylmercuric chloride with mercuric chloride. o-Pfaenetyl boric acid crystallises from water in small, white
OKGANOMETALLIO DERIVATIVES OF METALS OF GROUP III. 231 needles, M.pt. 171 C.; the para compound in clusters of feathery, glistening needles, M.pt. 159 C , which are easily soluble in cold alcohol, ether, or hot benzene. Both compounds react with mercuric chloride, but neither of them yields an oxide on heating, or forms salts, these properties being shared by the anisyl compounds. Benzyl boric acid, M.pt. 161 C., 1 forms an isobutyl ester, B.pt. 189 to 196 C. at.36 mm. o-Xylyl boric a c i d 2 yields fine, colourless needles, M.pt. 190-5' C.; the meta acid is obtained by heating the oxide with water, its diethyl ester being a colourless liquid, B.pt. 160 C , formed when boron m-xylyl dichloride is dropped into a large excess of absolute alcohol. The para acid crystallises from water in feathery groups of hair-like needles, M.pt. 180 C, which slowly change to the oxide in the desiccator. a - N a p h t h y l boric a c i d 3 crystallises in fine, colourless needles from water, sintering at 242 C. and melting at 259 C. It is easily soluble in ether, alcohol, hot water, with difficulty in petroleum ether or cold water. a-Naphthyl mercuric chloride may be isolated from the acid in the usual way. When boiled with water, particularly in the presence of alkali, the acid yields naphthalene and boric acid : C10H7B(OH)2+H2O=C10Hs+B(OH)3 Although the acid reddens litmus, it only forms salts with difficulty; the barium and silver salts are known, the latter reacting with water to produce naphthalene, silver oxide, and boric acid. /3-Naphthyl b o r i c acid exists in two modifications. When recrystallised from water, colourless plates are produced, melting at 248 C.; these when dissolved in a little alcohol, and the solution poured into cold water, appear as the second modification, in fine needles, M.pt. 206 C.; recrystalHsation from hot water changes this second form back into the first. The latter modification acts towards alkali and mercuric chloride as the a-naphthyl acid. The barium salt forms pale reddish plates, easily soluble in hot water, and the silver salt is also known. ""Distillation of boron-/3-naphthyl dichloride and sodium methylate under 50 mm. pressure leads to the formation of the methyl ester of the acid, which is an odourless, thick, colourless liquid, boiling at 160 to 180 C, a t 50 mm. I t fumes in air, and changes to the oxide when treated with water. The following oxides are formed either by the action of water on the dihalides or by dehydration of the acid in vacuo. Those obtained by the first method are marked (A), by the second (B). P h e n y l b o r o n oxide, (A) and (B). o-Tolyl b o r o n oxide, (B), is a white powder, soluble with difficulty in alcohol or ether, and supposed to be formed when the acid melts. The corresponding para oxide, (B), melting at 257 to 258 C , is reconverted by hot water to the acid. o-Xylyl b o r o n oxide, (B), M.pt, 226 CThe dehydration of the acid in this case only requires forty-eight hours, but in the case of p~ xylyl boric acid three weeks is needed to complete the change, m - X y l y l b o r o n o x i d e , (A), crystallises from ether in white needles, M.pt. 302 C , is soluble in alcohol or benzene, but insoluble in cold water. A solution of the oxide in very dilute ammonium hydroxide, when treated
Polis, Ber 1886, 19, 1012. Kipping and Lloyd, Proc. Ghent. Soc, 1899, 15, 174; Trans. Ohem. Soc, 1901, 79 449. ' 3 Polis, he. cit. 4 Marsden and Kipping, Trans. Ghem. Soc, 1908, 93, 198, 5 Bygden, Sir., 1912, 45, 707.
ORGANOMETALLIO DERIVATIVES OP METALS OE GROUP IV. 263 Triphenylethylsilicane is formed by the action of zinc ethyl on triphenylsilicon bromide. 1 Two products are formed, triphenylethylsilicane and triphenylsilicane ; the first is soluble in cold acetone, and the second soluble only with difficulty. Triphenylethylsilicane forms plates, M.pt. 72 to 74 C.a I t may also be prepared from triphenylsilicon chloride, using excess of ethyl magnesium bromide, 3 Phenyltriethylsilicane 4 is produced when phenylsilicon trichloride and zine ethyl, in equal quantities, are heated in a sealed tube for one hour at 150 C. The gas pressure in the tube is then released and the heating continued at 160 C. and finally at 165 C. After treating the product with water, and then hydrochloric acid, an oil is formed which is taken up in ether, washed, dried, and distilled. The product, B.pt. 230 C, is phenyltriethylsilicane, a colourless, faintly fuming liquid, soluble in ether and insoluble in water. I t burns with a sooty flame and has a density of 0-9042 at 0 C. Diphenyldiethylsilicane, B.pt. 305 to 315 C , is formed as a by-product: 2Si(C 2 H 5 ) 3 (C 6 H 5 ) = (C 6 H 5 ) 2 Si(C 2 H 5 ) 2 +Si(C 2 H 5 ) 4 Phenyltriethylsilicane gives the following reactions: 5 1. C 6 H 5 S i ( C 2 H 5 ) 3 + H N - C 6 H 4 N 0 2. S i ( C 2 H 5 ) 3 + H 2. C 6 H 5 S i ( C 2 H 5 ) 3 + H 2 S = C 6 H 4 H S 0 3. S i ( C 2 H 6 ) 3 + H 3. C 6 H 6 S i ( C 2 H 5 ) 3 + H 2 S - ( C 2 H 6 ) 3 S i O H + C 6 H 5. S H Hot. 4. C 6 H s Si(C 2 H 5 ) 3 +Cl 2 =C 6 H 4 Cl.Si(C 2 H 5 ) 3 +HCl The above chlorine substitution product (4) boils at 260 to 265 C , density 1*0185 at 0 C , is insoluble in water, has a faintly aromatic odour, and burns with a green flame, leaving a deposit of silica.6 Diphenyldimethylsilicane is obtained by acting upon dichlorodiphenylsilicane with an excess of magnesium methyl iodide. It boils at 176 to 178 C. at 45 mm. 7 p-Bromophenyltriethylsilicane s is formed from ethyl magnesium bromide and p-bromophenyl silicon trichloride. I t boils at 149 C. at 14 mm., and has a density of 1-1643 at 21 C. The magnesium compound of the silicane reacts with acetaldehyde and higher aldehydes to form derivatives of the type Si(C 2 H 5 ) 3.C 6 H 4.CHR.OH (see Appendix, Table V I A ). 9 p-Chlorophenyltriethylsilicane 10 is prepared as above. I t is a colourless, faintly fuming oil, B.pt. 137 C. at 14-5 mm. ; density 0-9971 at 18 C.
* Gruttner and Krause, Ber., 1917, 50, 209. Cahours, Annakn, 1862, 122, 43. 3 G-riittner and Krause, Ber., 1916, 49, 1415. 4 Krause and Pohland, Ber.} 1922, 55, [B], 1282. 5 Buckton, Armakn, 1859, 112, 227; Pfeiffer and Truskier, Ber 1904, 37, 1125 ; Gruttner and Krause, he. tit,; Cahours, he. cit. 6 Lowig, Annalm, 1853, 88, 318; Klippel, Jafawker., I860, p. 381; T, prate, Ohem., 1860, [I], 81, 286. r > r
ORGANOMETALLIO DERIVATIVES OF LEAD.
which crystallises in octahedra, insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether, and the nitrate, which is easily soluble in alcohol or ether. The following derivatives are also k n o w n : the carbonate, a crystalline powder, insoluble in water, with difficulty in alcohol or e t h e r ; the thiocyanate, which crystallises from ether, soluble in water or alcohol; the cyanide, prisms from ether, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, decomposing with explosion and separation of metallic lead when h e a t e d ; the phosphate, soluble in the above solvents; the formate, acetate, butyrate, oxalate, and ditariraie, all of which arc easily soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. Two double salts of lead triethyl chloride are also known, PbEt 3 Cl.HgCl 2 and 2PbEt 3 CLPtCl 1 , the latter being difficultly soluble in water, but easily in alcohol or ether. The fluoride crystallises in prisms, density 2-18 a t 1G C , decomposing about 240 C. L e a d t r i - n - p r o p y l chloride. 1 Twenty grams of n-propyl iodide in dry ether are treated with 2*7 grams of magnesium, and after the latter has dissolved, 2 grams of lead chloride are added in small portions, and the mixture boiled for two hours. After decomposition with water the ether layer is separated off, and dried over calcium chloride. Into the well-cooled ether solution, which now contains lead tetra-n-propyl, dry hydrogen chloride is passed, until a precipitate begins to appear. The ether is then separated off, and the residue dissolved in alcohol, and after taking this to dryness the residue is crystallised from alcohol or ligroin, when ilat, colourless needles are obtained, M.pt. 137 C. The compound is sparingly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, or ligroin. I t does not combine with pyridine, but when shaken with moist silver oxide, lead tri-n-propyl hydroxide is obtained. The latter compound absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, and yields salts with acids. With hydrogen bromide the bromide is obtained, which crystallises in needles, M.pt. 82 CM and has the same solubility as the chloride. The sulphate, from sulphuric acid and the hydroxide, is easily soluble in water, b u t insoluble in the usual organic solvents. Its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid soon becomes turbid, at the same time emitting numerous small bubbles. The compound decomposes when heated, before melting. The acetate crystallises in colourless needles, M.pt. 116 C , soluble in the usual organic solvents. The fiuo7-id-e crystallises in bushy needles, density 1-56 at 18 C , exploding a t about 235 C. L e a d t r i n - b u t y l c h l o r i d e is obtained from magnesium butyl iodide, and lead chloride, the product being treated with hydrogen chloride as above. I t forms colourless, flat needles which melt to a clear liquid a t 109 to 110 C , and have a similar solubility t o the propyl compound. The hydroxide is prepared by dissolving the chloride in aqueous alcohol and shaking with silver oxide. The solution in water has an alkaline reaction, and absorbs carbon dioxide from the air. When treated with hydrogen bromide a white precipitate of lead iri-nbutyl bromide separates, which may be recrystallised from ether or chloroform. L e a d t r i - i s o b u t y l c h l o r i d e 2 melts a t 122 C. without decomposition; the bromide has M.pt. 107 to 108 C. ; the iodide forms yellow plates, which decompose when h e a t e d ; the fluoride forms prisms, decomposing a t about 280 C. and having a density of 1-50 a t 17 C.
VOL. XI. : I.
Sodium ^-bromobenzene sulphonate, mercuration of, 109. -S-cbloromercuri^-hydroxy-azobenzene^'-sulphonate, 205. -6-hydroxymercuri-2-nitrophenoIate, 145. 1-Sodiumthiosulphatomercurimetliyl-l : 2-dihydrobenzofurane, 217. -4-methyl-l: 2-dmydrobenzofurane, 217. Sodium ^-toluene sulphonate, mercuration of, 109. Starch, mercuration of, 47, 50. Stearolic acid ester, mercuration of, 68. Styrol, reaction with mercuric acetate, 190. Styryl ethyl ether, reaction with mercuric acetate, 190. Sulphatomercuri-dimethy]anthranilic acid, chloride;, 172. 1 : 1-Sulphato-mercuridimethylene-bis-l: 2-dihydrobenzofurane, 216. o-Sulphidomercuribenzoic acid, 161, 164. methyl ester, 164. o-Sulphidomercuribenzoyl chloride, 164. Sulphidomercuri-salicylic methyl ester, 161,167. Sulphonic acids, aromatic, mercuration of, 108, 156. 1-Tartrato-di-mercurimethyl-l; 2-dihydrobenzofurane, 217. Tetra-acetoxymercuri-a-acetonaphthalide, 133. diacetone hydrate and salts, 55. fluorescein, 208. furane, 213. 2 : 2 ' : 4 : i'-TetracUoromercuri-diphenylamine, 111, 125. Tetrachloromercuri-furane, 214. Tetrahydroxymercuri fluorescein, 208. furane, 213. Tetramethyldiaminotriphenylmethane-azo-o-chloromercuriphenol, 139, 2 : 5 : 2 ' : 5'-Tetramethyl-3 : 3'-dithienyl, 70. Tetra (phenylmercuri) thiourea, 92. 5-Thiocyanatomercuri-2-i5oamylthiophene, 100. -2-bromothiophene, 100. 99 J -2-chlorothiophene, 100. 99 J? ? -2:5-dimethylthiophene, 103. 3s> i -3:4 , 102. 2-2:3 , 102. -2:4 , 103. 5S> J -2:5-diphenylthiophene, 103. 3-2-ethylthiophene, 101. 5-. -2-iodothiophene, 100. 51-Thiocyanatomercurimethyl-l : 2-dihydrobenzofurane, 217. 1 -4-methyl-l: 2-dihydrobenzofurane, 217. 5-Thiocyanatomercuri-2-methylthiophene, 101. 2or5(?) -3 ,101. 5 -2-?i-propylthiophene, 100. 2 thiophene, 98. Thiolbenzoic acid, mercuration of, 165. Thiophene mercury compounds, 72, 82-85, 97-103. Thiosalicylic acid, mercuration of, 165. Thymol, , 137, 151. ^-Thymolaldehyde, , 152. Thymoxyacetic acid, 191. ^-Toluene sulphonic acid, mercuration of, 108.
J., ) 9.
Toluidines and toluidides, , 129. l->-Tolyl-2 : 3-dimethyl-5-pyrazolone, mercuration of, 211. l-o-Tolyl-3-methyl-2-ethyl-5-pyrazolone, , 211. Tolylglycine esters, mercuration of, 128. o-Tolylmereuric bromide, iodide, 92. Ochloride, 92, 229. 51 ) 0nitrate, 72, 93. 0sulphide, 93. " 5) bromide, iodide, propionate, 93. mchloride, 71, 93> 229. m* acetate, bromide, carbonate, mercaptan, 94. P~ chloride, 71, 76, 78, 86, 87, 93, 161,163, 230. P99 ethyl xanthate, 191. 99 ft
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