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The working files mimic the sample files, except the features being taught in particular lessons have been removed. You will add these missing items and structures as you complete each lesson.

Database concepts

What is a database?
A database is a method of organizing and analyzing information. Youve probably used several databases recently without realizing it. A date book, a parts list, and even your own address book are databases.
Overview of the FileMaker Pro Tutorial folder structure
or FileMaker Pro 7 CD FileMaker Pro 7 folder

Why use a database?

Storing information in a database file has many benefits. A database doesnt just hold informationit helps you organize and analyze the information in different ways. For example, databases allow you to group information for reports, sort information for mailing labels, count your inventory, or find a particular invoice. Computerized databases offer many additional advantages over their paper-based counterparts: speed, reliability, precision, and the ability to automate many repetitive tasks.

English Extras

How is a database organized?
A database file is organized into one or more tables. Tables store records. Each record is a collection of fields.
Sample Files Sample02.fp7 Sample03.fp7 Sample04.fp7 Sample05.fp7 Sample06.fp7 Sample07.fp7 Sample08.fp7 Sample09.fp7 Sample10.fp7
Working Files MyFile05.fp7 MyFile06.fp7 MyFile07.fp7 MyFile08.fp7 MyFile09.fp7 MyFile10.fp7
Imagine your address book is a FileMaker Pro database file. Each listing in your address book is one record in an Address Book table. Each record has information, such as name, address, city, and so on. Each of these pieces of informationname, address, and cityis stored in a separate field.
How is eld data displayed?
FileMaker Pro displays fields on layouts. Each layout is based on a single table, and displays records from that table.
If you need to start over
If you make a mistake or need to start over, replace your existing Tutorial folder with a new copy from the FileMaker Pro 7 CD.

Status area

Open a database and move between records
To open the sample database for this lesson:
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample02.fp7. 4. Notice that the database is in Browse mode. FileMaker Pro
5. Click the right page of the book icon to move forward one record
at a time, and click the left page to move back one record at a time.
6. Drag the slider to the right and release to move forward a number of records at one time. Drag the slider to the left and release to move backwards a number of records.
You can also type a record number in the area immediately below the book icon to change the current record displayed.
defaults to Browse mode when a database is opened.
The current mode is identified at the top of the status area
View information in different ways
Even though you enter information only once in FileMaker Pro, you can use that information in many ways. Layouts let you view some or all of your fields. Because it is not necessary to see all of your fields in each layout, layouts are a powerful tool for working with or printing just the information you need to accomplish a particular task.
Steve Williams 789 Ninth Avenue New York, NY 10001 Dear Sophie, Thank you for reserving a cruise with us. We value your business and appreciate the opportunity to serve you. 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 555-1234 If you have any questions about your reservations, please call uswe want you to be satisfied with your cruise. Sincerely, John Lee
Phone List Juanita Alvarez Michelle Cannon Andre Common Marie Durand Jean Durand William Johnson John Lee Patrick Murphy Le Nguyen Kentaro Ogawa Mary Smith John Smith Sophie Tang Steve Williams Betty Wilson
The same data can be arranged differently with multiple layouts
The Data Entry layout displays all of the fields in the Sample02 table

See a different layout

To see some layouts in action, use the Sample02.fp7 sample file you just opened.
1. Click the Layout pop-up menu, located above the book icon. A list
3. Choose the List of Members layout from the Layout pop-up menu.
appears showing the layouts available in this file.

Layout pop-up menu

This layout shows each record as one row in a columnar list. Notice that the List of Members layout contains only four of the fields that were present in the Data Entry layout. Because fewer fields are present on this layout, some data is simply not displayed, however, no data has been removed from the database.
2. Notice the check mark next to the Data Entry layout, your current
layout. The Data Entry layout shows all of the fields in the Sample02.fp7 table.

Browsing information

Form view

List view The List of Members layout displays only four of the fields present on the Data Entry layout
4. Go to the Layout pop-up menu and return to the Data Entry layout. No data has been lost.
Table view The List of Members layout, viewed as a form, then as a list, and finally as a table
View your layouts as forms, lists, and tables
You can view your layouts in three different ways: as a form, as a list, and as a table. List view shows your current layout as a list, with one record appearing beneath another.
Switch between form view, list view, and table view in the same layout to see how they are different.
1. In Sample02.fp7, switch to the List of Members layout. You see
many records, displayed as a list.
2. Choose View menu > View as Form.
Form view displays your current layout one record at a time.
Table view shows you many records at one time in a grid.
You now see a single record, displayed in the same layout. Only the viewing option has changed.
3. Choose View menu > View as Table.
Generally, layouts can be toggled between form view, list view, and table view while the database is in Browse mode.
The View as Table feature allows you to view many records at once in a grid.
4. Choose View menu > View as List to return to the original view of
the List of Members layout.
5. When you are finished with this lesson, close the file by choosing

File menu > Close.

You have opened a database, browsed through records, switched layouts, and learned the differences between form view, list view, and table view. For more about browsing information in FileMaker Pro, see chapter 1 of the FileMaker Pro Users Guide.
Lesson 3 Finding and sorting records
Your database is a collection of records. Sometimes youll work with all of the records in the database (to mail out an annual catalog for each customer, for example). Often, however, youll work with a subset of your databasepeople who come from a particular city, for example, or records that fall within a particular range of dates. In FileMaker Pro, this process of searching for records that match particular criteria is called finding records. Once youve found the records you want to work with, you can change their order by sorting them. Records can be sorted in ascending or descending order. In this lesson, you will: In Find mode, you create a find request using the fields in the layout you see. Type the criteria you want to search for directly into the fields on the request.
5. Type New York in the City field. 6. Click the Find button in the status area.
find records matching criteria in a single field and multiple fields find records matching a range of data narrow your searches by omitting records sort records in ascending and descending order

Find button

Find records based on criteria in a single field
In the membership database, find all of the members that are from New York City.
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample03.fp7. 4. Choose View menu > Find Mode.
Your find request returns records for four members who live in New York. This is the found set. Notice that FileMaker Pro returns to Browse mode when your search is complete.
Your find request returns a found set of two records for the two new members who live in the United States.
5. To find all of the records in your database, choose Records menu >
Show All Records. Note It is not necessary to choose Show All Records before performing a Find, as FileMaker Pro finds records from the entire database by default.
Total number of records in the database
Number of records in the found set
7. Click the book icon or slider to view each of the four records in

the found set.

Find records that match multiple criteria in the same field
Sometimes you need to find records that match more than one criterion in a single field. For example, you may need to find all members located in either New York or London. This type of search is commonly referred to as an OR search, because your found set will consist of records that match any one of the find criteria. To perform an OR search in FileMaker Pro, you will need to use multiple find requests.
Find records based on criteria in separate fields
You can find records that match multiple criteria, for example members who are both from the United States and are new members. This type of search is commonly referred to as an AND search. To perform an AND search in FileMaker Pro, type each search criterion directly into the appropriate field in Find mode. To find all members who live in the United States and are new members:
1. Choose View menu > Find Mode. 2. Type USA in the Country field. 3. Locate the Membership Type field, and select the New radio
1 Type the first search criterion into the appropriate field of the first

6. Choose Members from the Table pop-up menu if it is not already
selected. You see the all of the fields in the Members table.
create a simple database define fields to hold different kinds of data create records enter data modify data
If you are not familiar with database basics, you should do the first two lessons in this tutorial before continuing. Important Copy the Tutorial folder to your hard drive or verify that it is installed before beginning this lesson. See Where to find the lesson files on page 7 for more information.
Create a simple database and define fields

Look at the sample le

The sample file is the model for the file youll create. It shows you how fields are defined and that different field types hold different types of data.
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample04.fp7. 4. Choose File menu > Define > Database. 5. In the Define Database dialog box, click the Fields tab if it is not already selected. 7. Notice the fields are of different types. The First Name and Last
Name fields are of type Text. Fee Paid is of type Number, and Date Paid is of type Date.
8. Click OK. 9. Notice that the data in each field corresponds to the field type, such as numbers in the number field and a date in the date field.

About eld denitions

You create a field for each category of information you want, such as First Name or City. To find, sort, calculate, and display data correctly, the field type should match the kind of data it contains (text, number, date, and so on). For example, you cant search for text values in a field of type Number. You will learn about other field types in later lessons.

Name a field

Create a database
1. Choose File menu > New Database. 2. If you see the New Database dialog box, choose Create a new
empty file, then click OK. If not, go to step 3.

Specify the field type

3. Go to the Working Files folder and select it as the location for this
4. For File Name, type MyFile04. 5. Click Save.
8. Click Create. 9. Type Last Name in the Field Name box. 10. Click Create. 11. Type Fee Paid in the Field Name box, select Number from the
The Define Database dialog box appears. By default, FileMaker Pro creates a table for you, with the same name as your file. You can change this name later if you want to. You will now create fields to store information.

data is displayed differently:
First Name and Last Name are side by side You see only five fields:
First Name, Last Name, City, Country, and Fee Paid
The amount in Fee Paid is prefaced with a currency symbol.
Customize your view in Layout mode
Look at the sample layouts
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample05.fp7. 4. Choose Data Entry from the Layout pop-up menu if it is not already


You will make these changes to MyFile05 later in this lesson.
7. Choose View menu > Layout Mode.
You use Layout mode to customize the appearance of your data. Although the data is still in the file, you do not see it here. Instead, you see the names of the fields.
5. Choose Fee Information from the Layout pop-up menu.
You see a plain layout. You will modify this layout in different ways in the following sections.

About layouts and tables

Each layout is based on a single table, and shows records from that table. If your file contains only one table, all layouts in your file will be based on that table. If your file contains more than one table, you must choose which table your layout will use at the time you create the layout, although you can change this later if necessary. The table you choose as the basis for your layout is important because it determines which fields and records are available for use on that layout. Fields and records that are not stored in the current table can still be used, but must be accessed through relationships. For more information on relationships, see lesson 10, Making databases relational.
Resize, move, and add a field

Select and resize a eld

1. In Layout mode, click the First Name field to select it.

Click to select

Click and drag the handle to resize
2. Drag the handle at the lower-right corner of the field to the left
About customizing layouts
Design layouts in Layout mode. You can include any combination of fields, text, and graphics on a layout. You can change the font and color of fields and text. You can also change the formatting of Number or Date fields. Changes you make in Layout mode affect only the way data appears. The data itself remains as it was entered. Tip Leave the sample file open to refer to as you build these features in the working file.
until the field is smaller, yet large enough to display the longest first name you expect in your file.
3. Choose View menu > Browse Mode. 4. Click Save to save changes to this layout, if prompted.
FileMaker Pro can save layout changes automatically, or prompt you to save changes before leaving Layout mode. To save layout changes automatically, select the Save layout changes automatically checkbox in the Save changes to this layout dialog box.

you want to place the club logo. You will see no change onscreen yet.
6. Choose Insert menu > Picture. 7. Open the Working Files folder. 8. Make sure all file types are showing, and select logo.gif. 6. Click the top of the layout where you want to begin the line of text. 7. Type The Corporate Travelers Club. 8. Click the selection tool 9. Click Open. 10. Drag the logo to move it if necessary. 11. Choose View menu > Browse Mode to see the finished layout.

to end the text entry.

12. When you are finished with this lesson, close each open file by
You have learned how to enhance the appearance of your data by using graphics, custom text, field formatting, and creative positioning of objects on layouts. There are many other ways to customize the appearance of fields and layouts. For example, after youve created a layout, you can:
add effects like embossing or patterns to objects use lines or boxes to highlight or separate information add scroll bars to individual fields change background or field color
When you create a new layout, you can apply color and style using a theme. For more information on these enhancements, see FileMaker Pro Help. The database templates that come with FileMaker Pro also show ways to enhance layouts. For more information on how to use the templates, see Customizing the FileMaker Pro 7 Templates in the Electronic Documentation folder (inside the English Extras folder).
Lesson 6 Creating lists, mailing labels, and form letters
You can easily create layouts to view and print information in many different ways. In this lesson, you will create: You see a columnar list showing some of your fields.
a list of your records mailing labels a form letter
5. Choose View menu > Layout Mode to view the layout that produces
the columnar list you just looked at.

Create a columnar list

A columnar list shows many records simultaneously. Each row is one record. Each column holds one category of data, such as Last Name or Phone Number.
Each field on the layout appears once, but the list displays many records.

Look at the sample list

You can create a list of records that shows just the information you want to see.
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample06.fp7. 4. Choose the List of Members layout from the Layout pop-up menu.
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Working Files folder. 3. Open MyFile06.fp7. 4. Choose View menu > Layout Mode. 5. Choose Layouts menu > New Layout/Report. 6. For Layout Name, type List of Members. 7. Select Columnar list/report for the new layout type and click Next.
8. Select the Columnar list/report layout again, then click Next.
9. Double-click each of the following fields in the order you want it

to appear in the list:

First Name moves to the Label Contents area. The insertion point flashes.
10. Click Next. 11. Click View in Layout mode. 12. Click Finish. 13. When you finish viewing your label layout, choose View menu >
Preview Mode. Your labels should look like those in the sample file.

Create a form letter

Look at the sample letter
1. Choose Window menu > Sample06. 2. Choose View menu > Browse Mode. 2. After First Name, type a space. 3. Double-click Last Name in the list. 4. After Last Name, press Enter (Windows) or Return (Mac OS). 3. Choose Welcome Letter from the Layout pop-up menu. 4. Flip through the records and look at the letter. You might need to
scroll down to see all of it.
5. Notice the personalized address and salutation for each record.
This moves the cursor to the next line.
6. Also notice that the wording in each letter is the same, except that
7. On the layout, click the Header tab, then press Backspace
the company name for each record appears in the first paragraph. The text flows around the company name, regardless of its length. This letter is ready to print, for every record in the database.
(Windows) or Delete (Mac OS).
8. Click the Footer tab, then press Backspace (Windows) or Delete
(Mac OS). This letter will not use a header or footer.
9. Drag the Body tab down to about 11 inches.
About form letter layouts
The letter is simply a layout containing text, merge fields, and a graphic.
1. Choose View menu > Layout Mode. 2. Click anywhere on the text.
When you release the mouse button, you will see the page boundary. If you dont see the page boundary, drag the Body tab down further.
You see the handles in the corners of the entire text block. All of the text is in a single text block.
3. Notice that Company is a merge field in the body of the letter.

Body tab Page boundary

The address and salutation also use merge fields.
10. Now drag the Body tab up to just above the page boundary.
To create this letter, you will:

7. From the list on the left, scroll down and select the Enter Preview
Mode script step, and move it over to your script.
step from the top of the list on the left.

The finished script

In the Options area, for Current Script click Specify. Select Preview Labels Layout from the list of available scripts, and click OK. Leave the rest of the default button settings as they are and click OK. If you have not already created this script, follow the steps described in Create a script to preview the Labels Layout on page 44.
8. Click OK, then click OK again to close the dialog box. 9. To run the script you have just created, choose Scripts menu >
Preview Labels Layout. FileMaker Pro displays the Labels layout and switches to Preview mode.
5. Click OK to save this button.
Rename the button 1. Click the text tool
2. Click the button once. The text insertion point appears in the 3. Type Preview Labels Layout to rename this button. It may be necessary to resize this button after renaming it.
Test the button 1. In Browse mode, test the button by clicking it.
Clicking this button performs the script, which displays the Labels layout and switches to Preview mode.
2. When you are finished with this lesson, close each open file by
In this lesson, you have created buttons and scripts, and used these two features together. For more information on creating buttons and scripts, see FileMaker Pro Help.
Lesson 9 Creating and running reports
The process of retrieving and organizing data from a database is called reporting. Summary reports present just the totals of your data; they do not break information into smaller groups. Subsummary reports, also referred to as reports with grouped data, categorize information by a particular field or fields, allowing you to group information hierarchically. This subsummarized information can then be subtotaled, averaged, or counted. In this lesson you will: First, notice that you are in Preview mode. Preview mode is necessary to view summarized data on the screen. Second, notice how the members are grouped by the membership type, and further alphabetized by last name within each category.
generate a report with grouped data generate a report with grouped data and totals
This report groups data by the Membership Type field, also referred to as the break field
Generate a report with grouped data

Look at a sample report

This example shows a report that groups the members by membership type. The report has been saved to a script.

1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Sample Files folder. 3. Open Sample09.fp7. 4. Choose Scripts menu > Membership Type Report to generate the 6. Click the Continue button in the status area to complete the script
and return to the Data Entry layout.

membership type report.

5. Examine the resulting report.

About subsummary reports

A report with grouped data requires a number of elements to work properly. Subsummary reports include:
7. Select Report with grouped data, and click Next.
1 a subsummary part in the report layout for each level of detail you want
to break out. The New Layout/Report assistant creates these for you.
1 a field or fields to group records by. These fields are referred to as

break fields.

records sorted by these break fields, in the order the subsummary parts appear on your report layout.
Create a subsummary report
To create the Membership Type Report:
1. Open the Tutorial folder on your hard drive. 2. Open the Working Files folder. 3. Open MyFile09.fp7. 4. In Layout mode, choose Layouts menu > New Layout/Report. 5. For Layout Name type Membership Type Report. 6. Select Columnar list/report for the new layout type and click Next.
Select the fields used in this report 1. Select the first field to be used in this report, Membership Type, and move it to the Layout fields list.
2. Select and move the Last Name field. 3. Select and move the First Name field.

4. Click Next.

Creating and running reports
5. Move the Membership Type field to the Report categories list to organize the records by membership type.

8. Click Next.

Membership Type is referred to as a break field because you are using the contents of this field to break the records into categories for your report.
6. Click Next. 7. Move the Last Name field to the Sort order list.
Select a theme and create the header and footer 1. Select the Standard theme to set the text size, color, and style of the finished report.
2. Click Next. 3. Go to the Top center list in the Header area and select Large Custom Text. 4. Type Membership Type Report for the header of the report and click OK. 5. Go to the Bottom center list and select Page Number to number the pages in the reports footer.

1. In MyFile10, choose the Corporate Account Information layout
from the Layout pop-up menu.
2. Choose View menu > Layout Mode.
Making databases relational

3. Using the Field tool

, drag a field onto the layout.
View data from a list of related records
Suppose you want to show all club members for each company. You also want to add new members to the Members table without entering the company name for each.
You see a Specify Fields dialog box displaying the list of fields in this table.
4. Click Current Table (Members) and choose the Companies table
from the list. You now see a list of the fields in the related table Companies. The colons (::) before each field name show that these are related fields, not fields defined in the Members table you are currently working in. These related fields will display data from the related table.
Work with related records in the sample le
View a list of related records 1. Choose Window menu > Sample10.
2. Choose the Companies layout from the Layout pop-up menu. 3. Browse through the records.
Choose the table from the table pop-up menu
You see a list of members at each company. They are all individuals in the Members table.
Add to the list 1. Go to the ABC Company record.
2. Add a new member by clicking the first empty line under First Name.
5. Click ::Company Address, then click OK. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 for City and Country. 7. Move the fields if necessary, and make the fields large enough to
display all the data they contain. The fields should look like this:
Click here to enter a new member for this company
Displays a list of members from the related table
3. Type Joe, then press Tab and type Williams in the last name


8. Choose View menu > Browse Mode and flip through the records to view company addresses from the Companies table in the Corporate Account Information layout that is based on the Members table.

View the new record in the related table 1. Go to the Data Entry layout, which is based on the Members table.
2. Go to the last record.
You see Joe Williams record, with the company information filled in. You automatically created this record when you typed Joe Williams into the list in the Companies table.
Display a list of related records
Create a portal to display matching records 1. Choose Window menu > MyFile10.
2. Choose the Companies layout from the Layout pop-up menu.
Add a new record and view it in the list 1. In the Data Entry layout, create a record for a new member who works at ABC Company.
2. Now return to Companies layout, and look at the ABC Company
A relationship must always be defined before you can display data from related records. You will use the relationship to the Members table you defined earlier in this lesson. This relationship must be edited to allow the creation of related records.
3. Choose File menu > Define > Database, and click the Relationships tab, if it isnt already selected. 4. In the relationships graph, double-click the relational operator
record. You see the new member in the list (scroll down if necessary).
About working with lists of related records
In View data from one related record on page 55, a relationship between the Members and Companies tables displays data (company addresses) from the Companies table. Here, the same relationship displays data (member names) from the Members table. Relationships are bidirectional. There is more than one matching record in the related table because there is more than one member from each company. A portal in the Companies table displays all the members for each company. When you added Joe Williams to the list of members who work at ABC Company, the relationship automatically created a record for Joe Williams in the Members table. ABC Company is automatically entered into the match field because the name was added to the portal of the ABC Company record. A new member added to the Members table automatically appears at the end of the members list in the matching company record in the Companies table.
to display the Edit Relationship dialog box.
5. In the Members table, select Allow creation of records in this table via
this relationship. This lets you add a name to the Members list.

Select this checkbox

6. Click OK, then click OK again to close the Define Database dialog box. 7. Choose View menu > Layout Mode. 8. Click the portal tool
and create field labels for the First Name and Last Name field labels above their respective fields in the portal.

4. Use the text tool

The portal should look like this when you are done.
and draw a box to hold the list of


9. In the Portal Setup dialog box, show related records from the

Members table.

10. Leave the initial row value at 1. Change the Number of rows in the portal value to 7.
Each row displays one matching member record.
11. Select Show vertical scroll bar. 12. Click OK. 5. Choose View menu > Browse Mode to view your list of members. 6. Test your new structure: type the name of a new member at ABC
Add the fields in the portal 1. In the Add Fields to Portal dialog box, select the First Name field and move it to the Included fields list.
2. Select and move the Last Name field. 3. Click OK.
Company, then look to see if it appears in the Data Entry layout. (It will be the last record.)
7. When you are finished with this lesson, Exit or Quit
FileMaker Pro to close all open files.
You have seen how to use and create simple relationships. This tutorial covers just the basics; there are many important points to consider when building a relational database system. Be sure to read chapter 3 in the FileMaker Pro Users Guide and the relational information in FileMaker Pro Help before using relationships in your own files.
Lesson 11 Keeping your data safe
Power failures, disk problems, and other unexpected computer problems can happen to anyone at any time. To help prevent data loss, regularly back up all important documents on your computer, including your databases. In this lesson you will learn:

5. Click Save.

Important Next time, back up to a different disk or volume. Never back up over the only or most recent copy of your file. You should have several different backups at all times.
how and when to back up your database where to learn about other ways to protect your files

When to back up

You should back up:
How to back up your database
There are many ways to back up a file. This is one way.
1. Determine the size of the database:
as often as necessary to be sure you can restore all of your data in an emergency. before you make a major or irreversible change like deleting records, deleting a field, or replacing data using the Import or Replace features. Remember, it takes far less time to back up a file than it does to recreate a lost or damaged file!


1. In Browse, Find, or Layout mode, choose


An option in Search In Browse and Find modes, search within all fields in the within current layout or just in the current field.
4. Click one of the buttons to perform the type of find/replace

operation you want.

Click Find Next Replace & Find To Search for and select the next occurrence of the Find what data. If there is selected data that matches the Find what data: Replace the Find what data with the Replace with data, search for and select the next occurrence. If there is no selected data that matches the Find what data: Search for and select the first occurrence of the Find what data. Replace Replace All Replace the Find what data with the Replace with data. Replace all occurrences of the Find what data with the Replace with data. At the end of the Replace All operation, you see a summary of the number of occurrences found and replaced.
Edit menu > Find/Replace > Find/Replace.
2. In the Find what box, type the data you want to search for. In the
Replace with box, type the replacement data. You cant replace data in fields that are formatted as pop-up menus, radio buttons, or checkboxes. These fields will be counted and reported as skipped at the end of a Replace all operation.
3. Set the search options you want to use.

Select To

An option from the Choose the search direction: Forward, Backward, or All. Direction list Match case Search for only those occurrences in which the capitalization matches the data you specified in the Find what box. Note In files that contain Japanese data, a find with the Match case option cleared does not simultaneously find both the half-width and full-width version of the same character. To comprehensively find and replace both characters, make sure you perform separate finds for both the half-width and full-width character. Match whole words only Search for only those occurrences that are whole words or are bounded by spaces and/or punctuation characters.
For more information about nding and replacing data, see Help.

Sorting records

FileMaker Pro stores records in the order they were added to the le. Sorting temporarily rearranges records, so you can view, update, or print them in a different sequence. You choose the elds whose contents you want to sort by. The rst sort eld arranges the records based on the elds contents. The second sort eld arranges records when two or more records have the same value in the rst sort eld, and so on. You can sort records in ascending order, descending order, or in a custom order.
An option in Search In Browse mode, search across all records in the current across layout or just in the current record. In Find mode, search across all find requests in the current layout or just in the current find request. Note In Layout mode, FileMaker Pro searches just in the current layout.

1. Windows: Choose Edit menu > Preferences.
Mac OS: Choose FileMaker Pro menu > Preferences.
2. In the Preferences dialog box, click a tab, then set the options you
switching to another layout or mode finding, sorting, and printing records importing data from the same source
want to use. To set file preferences:
1. Choose File menu > File Options. 2. In the File Options dialog box, click a tab, then set the options you
Procedures for creating scripts and a reference to all FileMaker Pro script steps (organized alphabetically or by category) are available in Help.
want to use. For more information about setting application and le preferences, see Help.
Backing up database files
Routine backups are imperative for any document stored on a computer. It is easier to restore a backed up database than it is to recreate it. How often you should back up depends on the amount of data you are adding to your databases, and how difcult it would be to recreate your les if they become corrupt. For very important les, its a good idea to routinely store backups at an off-site location. For an example of a backup script, see Help.
Chapter 2 Creating databases
plan a database dene and modify elds dene tables create layouts work with fields, objects, and parts on a layout
2. Consider the information you will store in your database. Typically, information falls into broad categories. Accurately identifying these categories is critical to designing an efficient database, because you will store different types and amounts of data in each category. For example, a database intended to track sales has categories such as products, invoices, and customers. A database that records student grades has categories such as students, classes, and assignments. 3. Once youve determined the broad categories, consider how these
Note See Help for detailed, comprehensive information and step-bystep procedures about using FileMaker Pro. To learn how to create, use, and customize a database, see Lessons 4-7 in the FileMaker Pro Tutorial.

Planning a database

Route ID Origin Destination
Tour ID Tour Name Route ID Origin Destination
Use relationships to share data between tables in the same le or with tables in external les. Other database elements, such as scripts and access privileges, are stored at the le level; therefore, some complex solutions will benet from using multiple les.
5. Determine the database tables and the data they will include, and,
in turn, which fields you will need. Tip To make it easy to search and sort records, create separate elds for rst and last name, titles, (like Mr. or Dr.), and items in addresses (city, state or province, country, and postal code). Separating your data into multiple elds at the time of data entry can make it easier to generate future reports. For example, using separate elds to capture transaction details such as the date, item number, quantity, and unit price of each transaction makes it easier to compile summary and subsummary reports at the end of a week, month, or year.
6. Decide which fields will contain common data among the tables.

Routes table

Tours table
7. Determine the match fields for each table, and circle each one in your plan.
For more information, see About match fields for relationships on page 64.
For example, a database for a travel agency might include these tables: a Clients table, which stores client information; a Routes table, which stores route information; and a Tours table, which stores the tours and their current prices. A Clients table might have fields for a client identification number, and the clients name, address and phone number. A Routes table might have fields for a route identification number, the departure city, and the destination city. A Tours table might have fields for a tour identification number and tour name.

Creating databases

For example, in the Clients table you might want to assign each client a unique, identifying number. You wouldnt enter a client identification number into the table unless you had a new client to add, so the existence of a client number determines the existence of a record.

Note You can also format characters in text elds in Browse mode (for example, italicize or underline a word for emphasis). Unlike text formatting specied in Layout mode, this formatting is stored with the data, and you see it in any layout that displays that eld.
1. In Layout mode, select one or more fields, then choose Format
Set options for negative values
menu > Text. Or, to set text formats for fields you place later, start with no fields selected.
2. In the Text Format dialog box, select the formats you want to use. 4. Click OK.
Define the symbols for thousands, decimal, and Kanji separators Specify font, style, size, line spacing, alignment, and color
You see examples of the options you choose in the Sample area.
Specifying formats for date fields You can control how FileMaker Pro displays the values in date elds, and calculation elds with date results.
Note To avoid confusion when using dates in elds, FileMaker recommends that you always format date elds to display four-digit years.
1. In Layout mode, select one or more date fields or calculation fields
Specifying formats for time fields You can control how FileMaker Pro displays time values in fields.
1. In Layout mode, select one or more time fields, or calculation
fields with a time result.
2. Choose Format menu > Time. 3. In the Time Format dialog box, select the formats you want to use.

with a date result.

2. Choose Format menu > Date. 3. In the Date Format dialog box, select the formats you want to use.

4. Click OK.

If you want to format the seconds component to display fractional seconds, continue with the next step.
5. Choose Format menu > Number. 6. In the Number Format dialog box, select the formats you want to
Choose to display numbers either as entered, in a predetermined format, or in a format you specify
Choose options for day, month, date, year, and separator characters
Only two options affect the display of the seconds component: Fixed number of decimal digits and Decimal separator. The remaining options have no effect.

Layout part Footer Header Body Subsummary Trailing Grand Summary Footer

Agent Name

Description Appears at the bottom of every screen or page (unless you add a title footer). You can have only one footer in a layout. Appears only once at the bottom of the first screen or page and replaces the normal footer (if one is specified). You can have only one title footer in a layout.

Title footer

Product ID Qty Amount
To include summary data on a layout (for example, subtotals, grand totals, averages, counts, and so on), you place summary fields in summary layout parts (see Defining summary fields on page 43). Summary parts include grand summary and subsummary parts.
A subsummary below the body summarizes data for each group of records sorted on the break field (Agent Name) Trailing grand summary Footer
1 A grand summary part usually contains one or more summary elds that display summary information (like totals) about all records being browsed. 1
A subsummary part usually contains one or more summary fields that display subsummary information (like subtotals) for a subset of records. The records are grouped (sorted) by values in another field, the break field. Whenever the value of the break field changes, the report breaks and FileMaker Pro inserts the subsummary part.
Sophie Tang Sophie Tang Sophie Tang
EveryWhere Travel Confidential

June 2004

For more information about working with layout parts, see Help.

About layout part types

The following table describes layout part types.
Layout part Title header Description Appears only once at the top of the first screen or page and replaces the normal header (if one is specified). In reports, can be used to print a separate title page. You can have only one title header in a layout. Appears at the top of every screen or page (unless you add a title header, which supersedes the header on the first page). Use for titles or column headings (in columnar reports). You can have only one header in a layout. Each object you put in the body, including fields, text objects, and graphics, appears once for each record in the found set. You can have only one body in a layout.

This relationship returns those records from Table F that have a Date Field F value that is later than Starting Date E and earlier than Ending Date E.

For example:

If fields Starting Date E Ending Date E Contain values 11/01/2005 12/01/2005 These related records are returned from Table F 11/14/2005 11/27/2005
This relationship returns related records in Table G when the value in Text Field G1 is the same as the value in Text Field G2. For more information about the types of relationships, see Help.
Planning a relational database
For information about planning a relational database, see Planning a database on page 35.

Another example:

If fields Starting Date E Contain values 12/01/2005 These related records are returned from Table F 12/02/2005 12/15/2005 12/17/2005 12/26/2005
Working with the relationships graph
Use the relationships graph to create, change, and view the relationships in your database le. By default, the relationships graph displays all of the tables in your current database le. You can add tables from other les, add more than one occurrence of the same table to the graph, or remove tables from the graph using the buttons at the bottom of the graph.

Ending Date E

Self-joining relationships
A self-join is a relationship in which both match elds are dened in the same table. Dene a self-join to create relationships between records in the same table. Use a self-join in a portal on a layout of the current table to display a subset of data that is in the current table, such as all the employees of each manager. When you dene a self-joining relationship in the relationships graph, FileMaker Pro generates a second occurrence of the table upon which you are basing the self-join. FileMaker Pro does this to prevent the relationships graph from forming a cycle, which would make it impossible to evaluate the relationship.

Creating relationships

To create a relationship:
1. With the database open, choose File menu > Define > Database. 2. In the Define Database dialog box, click the Relationships tab. 3. In the relationships graph, locate the two tables you will be using
for this relationship. They can appear anywhere on the graph but they must be present on the graph in order to create the relationship. For self-joining relationships, locate the single table; FileMaker Pro will create the second table occurrence for you.

Although your operating system includes file security features, you should use FileMaker Pro access privileges as the fundamental way to control access to and protect the security of your database files. The security features have been substantially revised since FileMaker Pro 6. For information about how security settings in older databases convert to the current version of FileMaker Pro, see Converting FileMaker Databases from Previous Versions. Note See Help for detailed, comprehensive information and step-bystep procedures about using FileMaker Pro.

Protecting databases

You can limit what users can see and do in a database le. You can restrict:
Data access. Make particular records or fields from individual tables view-only, or hide them completely.
1 Layout access. Prevent users from modifying layouts in Layout mode. 1 Access to value lists and scripts. Prevent users from accessing and modifying value lists and scripts, and from running scripts.
Accounts, privilege sets, and extended privileges
Accounts authenticate users who are attempting to open a protected file. Each account specifies an account name and usually a password. Any user that cannot specify valid account information wont be able to open a protected file. Each database file contains two predefined accounts: Admin and Guest. For more information, see About the predefined accounts on page 83. You may want to create an account for every individual who accesses a le, or you may want to create a small number of accounts that are shared among many individuals, such as a Marketing account and a Sales account.
You can create as many privilege sets as you need to define the types of access you want to permit to a file. For more information about privilege sets, see About the predefined privilege sets on page 83. Extended privileges determine the data sharing options that are permitted by a privilege set, such as whether a privilege set permits users to open a shared file or view a database in a web browser. The following table lists the default extended privileges that are available. (FileMaker as well as third-party developers may define additional extended privileges to manage access for other software products designed to work with FileMaker Pro or FileMaker Server.)

1. Open the database file. 2. Choose File menu > Define > Accounts & Privileges. 3. In the Define Accounts & Privileges dialog box, click the Extended
For more information about extended privileges, see Help.

Privileges tab.

Chapter 6 Converting FileMaker databases from previous versions
Because FileMaker Pro 7 uses a new le format, you must convert FileMaker Pro les created in earlier versions to the new le format. The conversion process makes it possible for you to use your previous les with FileMaker Pro 7, but its important to note that: Manual corrections may be necessary. You might need to correct items in the converted file that did not convert properly. In some cases, you may need to correct items in the original file and then convert the file again. After you convert any file, you should review the Conversion.log file for items that may need to be corrected. You should test the converted file. The Conversion.log file may not indicate every item in the file that needs to be corrected. Before you begin using a converted database solution, you should test it thoroughly to make sure every aspect has converted successfully. For example, make sure every script works as you expect, and that accounts and privilege sets provide the required file security. You may want to migrate files to FileMaker Pro 7. When you convert a multi-file relational database, the converted files arent optimized for use with FileMaker Pro 7. The files are still related, but they are not combined into a single file with multiple, related tables, which may be desirable if you want to make better use of the new features in FileMaker Pro 7. You may want to go a step beyond conversion and migrate your files to FileMaker Pro 7, which you can do by either manually combining your files after conversion, or recreating your database in FileMaker Pro 7 and then importing the data from the original files. This chapter describes the basics of le conversion. It includes:
information on how to view the Conversion.log file after converting one or more files a summary of the top conversion issues you may encounter
If youre converting complex or business-critical databases, refer to the more detailed manual, Converting FileMaker Databases from Previous Versions, which is included with FileMaker Pro in PDF format. See Using FileMaker Pro documentation on page 7 for more information.

6. Enter the filename that you want for the new file.
version of FileMaker Pro, close the file. If you attempt to convert a file that is currently open, an alert message will appear indicating that the file is already in use, and the file wont convert.
2. Start FileMaker Pro 7. 3. Do one of the following:
If you see the Open New or Existing File dialog box, continue with step 4.
1 If you see the New Database dialog box, select Open an existing file, and then click OK. 1
If you dont see any dialog box, choose File menu > Open.
4. In the Open dialog box, select the file to convert, and then click
If you renamed the old file in step 5, the default filename for the converted file is the original filename (with a.fp7 extension, if the original file had an extension). If you did not rename the old file, the default filename is filename Converted.
7. Click Save to start the conversion.
Open. Note You can also begin conversion by dragging the file onto the FileMaker Pro 7 application icon.
During a prolonged conversion, the File Format Conversion dialog box will appear and show the conversion progress. If a file being converted contains indexed fields, you can save time by clicking Skip when the index is being re-created, which postpones indexing until later.
Converting FileMaker databases from previous versions
In most cases, FileMaker Pro converts the file and opens it. If conversion doesnt work or error messages appear, see Solving basic conversion problems on page 95.
8. Using a text editor such as Notepad (Windows) or TextEdit
To convert multiple les at once:
1. If the files you want to convert are currently open in the previous
version of FileMaker Pro, close the files. If you attempt to convert files that are currently open, an alert message will appear indicating that the files are already in use, and they wont convert.
2. In Windows Explorer or in a Finder window (Mac OS) create a new, empty folder for the converted files. 3. Do one of the following to select and open the files you want to
(Mac OS), open the Conversion.log file located in the folder that contains your converted database. The Conversion.log file contains a journal of the conversion process that you just completed. Much of it contains status messages that indicate the different file components that were converted. But it also may contain error messages that indicate areas where you may need to make manual corrections to the converted file before testing it further. For more information about the Conversion.log file, see Reading the Conversion.log file on page 95.


1 Files method: In Windows Explorer or in a Finder window (Mac OS) select the files you want to convert, and then drag them onto the FileMaker Pro 7 application icon.
Folder method: If a folder contains all of the files you want to convert, drag the folder onto the FileMaker Pro 7 application icon. If you are converting a multi-file relational database in which files are organized in subfolders, you need to convert each folder separately. First create new folders in the same structure for the converted files. Then convert files in subfolders at the lowest level first by dragging the subfolder onto the FileMaker Pro 7 application icon, indicating the correct new destination folder when prompted. When all related files in subfolders have been converted, use the Files method described above to convert files located in the original parent folder.

Preserving user dictionary information
During conversion, the reference to a user dictionary is handled differently depending on whether you are using the default user dictionary or a custom user dictionary.

Top conversion issues

The following sections briefly describe the top issues that you may encounter when converting previous FileMaker Pro databases to FileMaker Pro 7. For complete details, see Converting FileMaker Databases from Previous Versions.
Default user dictionary: When you convert a database file that uses the default user dictionary (user.upr), the converted file points to the user.upr file in the new FileMaker Pro 7 folder. Therefore, you should copy the user.upr file from the previous FileMaker Pro application folder to the FileMaker Pro 7 folder, or export information from the user.upr file to the FileMaker Pro 7 user.upr file before using the converted database.
Custom user dictionary: When you convert a database file that references a custom dictionary file, the converted file continues to look for the dictionary in its previous location. If you move or delete the dictionary from that location, the converted file will no longer have access to information in the custom dictionary. This could happen accidentally if the original custom dictionary file is located in the previous FileMaker Pro folder and you later uninstall the previous version of FileMaker Pro. To preserve a custom user dictionary, move the dictionary file to your My Documents folder (Windows) or you home folder (Mac OS). Then, after converting a database file, specify that it use the dictionary file in the new location. For more information, see the information on selecting spelling dictionaries in Help.
Switching windows in scripts
When necessary, previous versions of FileMaker Pro would automatically change the active window after running a script. This automatic windowing behavior is no longer supported because FileMaker Pro 7 supports a new Select Window script step, which script writers can use to set the active window. To emulate the behavior of previous versions, during file conversion FileMaker Pro 7 automatically inserts Select Window script steps after certain Perform Script and Go to Related Record script steps. To achieve the windowing behavior you want, you may need to insert or delete Select Window script steps.

Changing data in fields 22 find requests 29 lookups 72 preferences 34 relationships 69 Characters maximum in fields 22 not allowed in field names 39 Clients described 73 limits, on the web 79 performing tasks 75 saving files 73 Clones 16 Closing windows and files 15 Columnar list/report layout See also Layouts described 49 Columns changing width 52 in tables 18 printing records in 51 Comma-Separated Text format 76 Committing data 16 Compacted copies of files 16 Comparison operators 42 Container fields See also Fields described 40 formatting 58 Conversion.log file 95 Converting multiple files 93 single files 92 version 1.x and 2.x files 96 Copying field definitions 16 files 16 records 20
related records 20 scripts 16 Count for summary fields 43 Creating. See Adding; Defining Cross-platform, file sharing 15 Currency, formatting 56 Current date, formatting 57 time, formatting 57
Data committing 16 described 13 entering automatically 20, 45 exporting 76 importing 76 view as form, list, table 17 Data entry 4447 Data Entry Only privilege set, described 83 Data types See also Field types and calculation results 43 Database locks. See Accounts; Privilege sets Databases described 13 naming 38 planning 35 printing 32 publishing on web 79 relational 14 Databases, relational. See Relational databases Date fields described 40 entering and editing values in 22 four-digit years 22, 46 Dates See also Date fields entering data 22 finding 26 finding todays 26
formatting 57 four-digit years, verifying 46 invalid 26 typing in 22 validating 46 dBASE file format 76 DBF format 76 Decimal numbers 56 Defining See also Adding; Placing accounts 86 calculation fields 41 databases 39 fields 39 lookups 71 passwords 85 privilege sets 88 summary fields 43 tables 47 Deleting data 22 fields from a layout 55 find requests 29 related records 21, 70 Designing databases planning 35 relational 35 Dictionary files, preserving during file conversion 96 DIF format 76 Document preferences 34 Drag and drop, fields onto layout 54 Duplicate records, finding 27 Duplicating files 16 records 20 related records 20
Electronic documentation 7 Elements. See Objects

Quotation marks in searches 24
Ranges of information, finding 26 Read-Only Access privilege set, described 83 Record locking 75 Records active 19 adding 20, 76 browsing in a list 17 individual 17 copying 20 deleting related 21
described 14 displaying sorted related 70 duplicating 20 exporting 78 finding 23 hiding 29 locked 75 matching 77 moving to 19 omitting 28 printing in columns 51 selecting 19 sorting 25, 31 related records 70 sorting in table format 18 viewing as forms, lists, or tables 17 Related fields See also Fields; Relational databases calculations 42 described 63 on layouts 55 planning 37 summarizing data 70 Related files, restricting access 37 Related records See also Records; Relational databases adding 20, 70 copying 20 deleting 21, 70 described 63 displaying in portals 55 duplicating 20 finding and omitting 27 sorting 70 summarizing data 70 Related tables described 63 planning 35 Relational databases described 14, 61
match fields 63 planning 64 planning 35, 68 portals 63 related tables described 63 planning 35 terminology 63 Relational operators 63, 66, 70 Relationships See also Relational databases changing 69 comparative 66 creating 68 described 63 multi-criteria 65 planning 37 returning range of records 67 self-joining 68 single-criteria 64 types 64 Relationships graph 63, 64, 69 described 69 Repeating find requests 29 Reports See also Layouts; Subsummaries Columnar list/report creating 48 previewing 31 records in columns 51 with grouped data creating 49 printing 32 Restricting access. See Accounts; Privilege sets Retrieving data from other files. See Exchanging files Reverting find requests 29 Rights. See Accounts; Privilege sets
Saving data automatically 16 files 16 shared files 73 Screen readers 8 Scripts converting scripts that switch windows 97 copying 16 described 34 performing 34 printing 33 Searching. See Finding records Secondary files. See Relational databases Security, file planning 84 Selecting objects 53 records 19 Selection tool 53 Self-joins 68 for summarizing data in portals 70 Server. See Host; FileMaker Server Settings. See Preferences Shared files See also Networks accounts 84 clients 73 host 73 in workgroups 79 limitations 73 on web 79 opening 14 privilege sets 84 saving 73 Single-page form layout. See Standard form layout Slider 19 Sorting records 25, 31

Y2K, year validation 46 Years four-digit in Date fields 22, 46 four-digit in Timestamp fields 22



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