France Telecom Tenor
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France Telecom Tenor
User reviews and opinions
|santaliqueur||1:49pm on Wednesday, October 20th, 2010|
|overall the best phone money can buy to me, thats y i bought it, hehe, no shameless me.... screen, resolution. Upgrading from an 08 Cruise , this is really excellant, Cruise was sluggish, buggy and poor network coverage (inspite of ROM upgrades).|
|jarmbruster||3:16am on Saturday, August 28th, 2010|
|When my HTC S370 gave up the ghost after just 12 months, I needed a new smartphone. I use rosseta task mgr to get around the prob... large screens and all few hardware buttons|
|borgg||6:03pm on Thursday, July 15th, 2010|
|This case IS NOT for an HTC G2. It will not fit. Exclusively for MyTouch. this phne is not unlocked because i tried to put my cincinnati bell sim into it and it didnt wrk!!!!!!!! The product was exactly as described, it was value priced and arrived promptly.|
|BabeMaxi_||3:18am on Saturday, June 5th, 2010|
|I have it since 1 month.. Ive been with Xda and i-mate and HTC since 6 years.. This is a dream machine. Absolutely elegant and powerful. Having read the reviews - is there a problem buying the HTC Touch HD outright from Telstra and using it on other networks ?????|
|onurtpl||4:38am on Wednesday, June 2nd, 2010|
|When my HTC S370 gave up the ghost after just... Cosmetically pleasing Poor quality construction When my HTC S370 gave up the ghost after just 12 months, I needed a new smartphone.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
NEW POWER SUPPLY OPTIMISED FOR NEW TELECOM NETWORKS AND SERVICES
Didier Marquet, France Telecom CNET Fernando San Miguel ALCATEL-CRC and Jean-Paul Gabillet ALCATEL-CIT Co-authors : Anne Deshayes FT CNET and Jean-Christophe Ttart FT-Direction of Suppliers Quality
France Telecom, as one of the major actors, thinks that we are entering major changes in the telecommunications field. The user of communicating and computing high tech devices at home or office, experiences deep changes in his current life. The operators must adapt and anticipate their services, in a high level competition of environment and optimise the quality levels and thus the power supply of energy all along the networks. First, we will look at home and in the office how new technologies and networks induce new habits, quickly accepted by the public, and how this is preparing changes in energy for the full digital broadband access network with the evolution of energy consumption in FT networks. Then France Telecom proposes to split the powering space in 3 categories in order to simplify the problem : Operator buildings, access networks, home and office. Facing the challenge of INTELEC 98 to find a common power supply to DATACOM and Telecommunications equipment, ALCATEL describes its approach about the power supply of future equipment while FT gives an overview of the new power supply TENOR experimentation. Help for the choice of the power interface in term of unavailability and autonomy are also proposed. As an alternative, the solar solution is also examined. Synthesis with other vision and its own experiments in the field of the power supply for new telecom networks and services are proposed.
Narrow band Analog Circuit exchange Telecom equipment One network
Broad band Digital Packet exchange Datacom equipment Several network (mobile GSM UMTS, ADSL, FSAN, ) Fixed and voice Convergence fixed/mobile + Internet Centralised Concentration of core + intelligence distributed intelligent access points Dedicated services Evolutive services and flexible and terminals terminals Off hook telecom Off + on hook datacom units terminals One operator Several operator co-located Indoor access Outdoor access & servers
Table 1 : some factors of telecom evolution that may affect power supply When people work on multimedia services, a good deal of time is spent on hook to process downloading data or mails collected on line. Internet terminals are not as easy to use as phones, so voice is generally separated from Internet services. But, dedicated services around voices become more evolutive and flexible when linked with multimedia. To offer these services, the operators develop the Intelligent network, the network operating system, the intelligent agents working on and off line. These software run on machines owned by operators or other Internet service providers all along the network, and the separation with voice might disappear. In fact, mobile phones, despite their poor quality of communication are perceived by the public as simplifying-life objects and even as safety devices as it was observed during last winter for lost tourists in the snows. Terminals and computers are plugged in the AC mains or work on battery like portable computer or personal communicators. Finally remote 48 VDC remote feeding is only useful for voice to maintain a high level of availability, but this may be discussed. The architecture of the network is changing from centralised and hierarchical to not so localised and more routing possibilities. Also, the number of outdoor network equipment is growing with mobile BTS and broadband access network on existing copper that require to be closer to the user. Several networks are proposed and from several competitors, that may be co-located in the same buildings and the common interface is the standard 230 VAC.
The first important mass changes are the present entrance in mobile era and the Internet revolution. In table 1 below, we try to select factors that may influence the design of power supply. In a near future, broadband networks for multimedia services will be available on existing copper twisted pairs with ADSL or coaxial cables. Then, for professionals in a first while, broadband access with optic FSAN or radio UMTS will come. That means that digital access will supersede analog access. Telecommunication and computers technologies get closer and devices are often interconnected. Circuit exchange will see IP and ATM packet switches growing very quickly first for data and then if transfer delays are reduced, including voice also.
TERMINALS AND POWER SUPPLY AT HOME, OFFICE AND IN MOVE
To have a more precise idea of which power interface could be convenient, we have to look at home, office and mobile telecom (fig. 1). The new services make some changes in energy management for the users but they adapt pretty well.
and computers connected to LAN, with full or restricted access to the Internet through firewall and gate-way. Gateways, LAN servers, computers may be locally powered by AC. PABX may be either on AC UPS or fitted with 48 V battery inside. Contrarily to what is happening for cars, TV, computers and software, until past years, the trend in telecommunication was not to get rid of old version for a new one. Traditional phones and terminals (answering systems, fax, minitels, ) lasted very long because they were expensive. So it was very difficult to make any changes in the access line and new standards for broadband telecommunication still contain very old fashioned parts intended to preserve the good old POTS on xDSL or FSAN. But, hopefully, this is changing, with the increasing need and offer of added services requiring new terminals and the fast decreasing price of electronics.
Our first obvious conclusion is that power-supply at home or in the office is AC. Often in the office, backup UPSs offer autonomies of 10 minutes to 1 hour for In a modern house you often find a wireless base sensitive stationary devices. phone with answering system, one or more other People are used to manage energy of portable telecom systems, one or more TV set, video devices with batteries and frequently have two or recorders with remote controls, HIFI systems, more independent ways of communication because of the mobile and the locally powered fixed phone. computers with modem. People have now redundancy in their Moreover, begin to exist some subscribers who have telecommunication functions, for example, with a fix only one mobile phone. and a mobile line, or with 2 lines on copper (ISDN or Mobile, Internet deployment and the fact that not). That means that the need for remote powering terminals change quicker than in the past, allow to decrease. And, as mobile GSM standard is fully think of suppressing old high DC voltage (48 or 100V) digital, broadband access ADSL on copper should be remote powering to go forward to a new full digital much easier to develop and less expensive if specific standard interface at lower voltage. And this allows to think new powering schemes for telecom or datacom analog remote supplied POTS was abandoned. Emphasising this, it is interesting to consider that on equipment and buildings. a sophisticated phone basis system (wireless, answering system, free hand, modem, fax, ), even NEW NEEDS OF POWER when a basic phone function working on remote supply is offered, it is almost never used by people. Changes are faster at home or in the office than for And while we maintain for everybody the remote national operators who must unfortunately deal with power supply, our competitors offer with success, TV, the existing network and alternative operators. In fact, phone and high speed internet on cable through the new networks are built in parallel with old ones with set top box that is locally powered on AC. Couldn't we bridges between them. This is already the case for offer the remote power supply as an option ? mobile and INTERNET, that will be later the case for xDSL and FSAN. But as for power supply is it the In move, people have a lot of portable sets as one or optimal solution to have different power supplies built more mobile terminals, handtop PC or personal in parallel ? assistant, radio-CD players, camera, and movie The easy way could be to use existing power solution recorders. Added to voice, Mobile network offer as for SDH optical loop. The decreasing power of services like answering box and mails. When you call optical transmission compared to coaxial or radio has at home, new modems integrates phone functions. allowed to reuse existing 48 V in the central office. They work in standalone mode and can wake-up the But the situation is very different regarding the personal computer, all of that providing a continuity of broadband access network, because it usually personal services. With UMTS, it will be easier to consumes today much more electrical power than offer up and down-load services on Internet. Step by existing phone equipment as we will see and with step, people create their own personal web, so that variable autonomy depending on the service they are no longer depending on a single network or unavailability. on a single operator, and the remote power supply of Then, the solution should be to define the power terminals seems to be a little old fashioned. supply only when the choice of the future network (ADSL, TV cable, FSAN, UMTS ?) is done. The In the office the following devices are typically reality is that there will be several choices including encountered : fixed phone, fax connected to PABX new energy schemes. Fig.1 : Home Moving -Office devices Telecom and power interfaces
It is important to look at the global consumption, in order to understand the increasing weight of new access networks. We have tried to assess and list in table 2 below the typical consumption encountered on FT network.
Network item GWh 1998 Trends to GWh annual KWh/ line 26 0,13,10 855
These categories are highlighted because the environmental conditions and the impact of shut down are different and the remote power feeding is a key point to define new power supply interface.
INTERNAL EVOLUTION OF POWER SUPPLY IN TELECOM SYSTEMS
Several approaches exist. Ericsson and TELIA expressed at previous INTELEC that 48 VDC should be the most reliable solution for telecom and computers due to the excellent experience of telecom operators around the world. High DC voltage is also proposed by Telia as an alternative. On the idea that AC UPS are not reliable and more expensive, we dont agree because: - non redundant UPS is compared with redundant DC system - operators accept UPS for their high reliability use (satellite ground stations, information system computers). So do the banks and airlines. - the price has to be compared according to the ratio of use of uninterrupted AC and DC. France Telecom demonstrates that 3.10-7 unavailability UPS are cheaper from and above a ratio of 30 to 50 % of AC in the total power consumption, especially in large central offices. NTT thinks that telecom and DATACOM equipment could be powered on high voltage DC. The opinion of Datacom manufacturers may be slightly different. FT looks at all of them to find a good solution for its existing central offices and for new ones or new networks.
Transmission Narrow band switch Frame relay backbone ATM switch Mobile (GSM and UMTS) ADSL (hyp:5 M) FSAN (hyp:2 M) Servers Satellite, international undersea cable Building TOTAL
31 Full optic 476 Higher
Creation 171 Continue d develop. Creation Creation 255 Creation 55 Trafic increase 553 Less m 1600 Increase
Table 2 : Power consumption trends Hypothesis of evolution are as follows : - Highly integrated new switches need less energy and reduced cooling systems - optic transmission deployment goes on - mobile should reach the fixed level in number of subscribers and UMTS (CDMA) should not need more power than GSM (TDMA) - the consumption of servers and datacom should rise but not exponentially because of lower voltage electronic and quick replacement of old computers - internet, mobile traffic needs more communication highways (satellite, optic sea cable) - new systems need less surface, few service and maintenance on site. That results in a higher concentration of the staff in offices also possible thanks to the network operating system hence reducing energy requirements. 3 immediate conclusions arise : new access networks are now under development and/or deployment (GSM, ). They may work without 48 V, the global power need should increase, with a lot of computers working on UPS, the availability of power supply of new services has to be adjusted to the customer need,
AC must be considered as the most standardised voltage distribution. Modern systems fed from universal AC source should be used in any market worldwide without any modification. On the other hand, DC distribution is not so standard, the main reason for its existence being remote power feeding of the subscriber terminal. So the traditional Central Offices installed battery plant has not to be reconsidered for new operators or traditional ones in new businesses or countries.
Moreover, regarding the terminals, new POTS are often self-powered and may have a backup battery. The increasing of mains availability and new battery technologies, pushed mainly by mobile phones and notepad computers, support this idea. Remote powering backup is no longer possible for voice over IP, and teleconference in the computer. So it seems The incredibly fast development of mobile network effective to move the back up close to each user. and Internet allows new ways of thinking power Therefore, future terminals will be low power and selfsupply. In the following, we will examine new powered, having as a consequence, at a long term, solutions. Our approach is based on a distinction that the only voltages really required in telecom facilities will be the low voltages (5v, 3.3v, 2.5v, 1.2v, between : 0.8v and so on), and the only backup needed will be powering telecom switch and server central offices at low voltage. powering access network However, for a long time, both systems are going to powering office and home telecom & datacom live together. In our view, some changes are
necessary to prepare the future and find a solution able to solve today problems. Two traditional approaches are shown on figure 2.
AC AC / DC
DC / DC
5 V <3.3 V
When a mains failure occurs, backup is provided by a high voltage battery connected at the input of the centralised AC/DC converters and/or to the on board modules. A small off line AC/DC charges the battery. The charging-time is not very critical. Power factor correction is implemented in a distributed way, with the goal of fulfilling at system level.
DC / AC
AC / DC
5V <3.3 V
The converters are able to work either with AC or high voltage DC (which does not mean any reduction in performance). The most critical item is the switchover block between rectified AC or HVDC to the loads. (also referred as the bypass). A solution that uses only one component for this block has been validated, not introducing any element in series with the main distribution, and reaching very high efficiency and reliability at a very effective cost. One of the most impacting results is the space reduction in the rectifier, since it does not process the whole power (10 % to charge the battery). As an example, figure 4 shows a system with a 1KW rectifier and the new solution with charger reduced down to 100 W (space for other charger in parallel, allowing flexible charging time).
Fig.2 : Typical powering configurations today. The integration of the computers into the telecom facilities is not natural. Let's bring some important comments : The Power Factor correction is centralised at AC/DC power stage level to avoid an increment in size and cost of typically 15-20 % in AC/DC converters, but if required in the application, the whole AC/DC converter has to include PFC. The power conversion from 48 V to low voltages is achieved by only one conversion stage but sometimes, the very low voltages need two conversion stages, the second one being closer to the chip. Any of these two configurations are costly and have poor reliability due to the number of elements in series (mainly if the new EN61000-3-2 standard is taken into account). And if a new computer or telecom rack is going to be added, the first AC/DC converter has to be dramatically replaced. Alcatel approach to solve this problem for the future is a new design proposed on (figure 3).
Fig.4 Left: Battery Charger in traditional solution. Right: Alcatel input board for proposed solution (Includes the battery charger, the input rectifiers and the bypass). ALCATEL obtained the following results : Power Chain cost reduction : 32 % Power Stages size reduction : 37% Power Chain Losses reduction : 50% Electric mains consumption saving: 13% From the data above, it seems clear that the proposed solution has great advantages over traditional power chains for AC powered equipment.
DC / DC COMPUTER
POWERING TELECOM CENTRAL OFFICES
The France Telecom targets for 2000 are 34 million copper lines, 7,5 million mobiles, 1 million internet, 1 million ISDN, 1 million TV cable and further ATM, ADSL and FSAN deployments. The network consists of 1000 large core central offices, 20000 access nodes, 7000 mobile BTS,. Based on this vast pool, we try to improve the next power supplies for fixed and mobile datacom. The first ideas of TENOR architectures were presented already at INTELEC 1993. The basics are the way to define and purchase new power supplies, in order to reduce the cost and adapt to new networks :
Fig-3 : Alcatel new powering configuration. The integration of the computers into the telecom facilities is now natural. Fundamentals of this new architecture are the following : When present, the AC mains voltage is rectified at the input of the equipment and distributed directly to the AC/DC converters. There is only one stage in the power conversion chain.
trying to use off the shelves power equipment with little adaptations replacing only out of age or obsolete power equipment installed in central offices In 93-95 were observed : an important decrease of 48 V power consumption with electronic switches and optical transmission changes in the subscriber interfaces ( no remote powering for mobile and optical access, less need of 48 V on copper line because of local power supply of complex terminals, other voltages for ISDN (100 V), remote power feeding of FTTB (120 VDC), TVcable (50 VAC). increase of UPS AC 230V for DATACOM
but it was not the first target of TENOR. In this TENOR site, there is one stage of conversion for computers, servers and 54 V remote power supply of the lines but still 2 stages remain for the core of the exchange and subscribers cabinets electronics.
The site has been running since 1997. The CHLORIDE UPS has 2+1 redundant branches composed of 10 kVA modules and SOCOMEC one is a 1+1 UPS with 60 kVA inverter, bypass and rectifiers racks. Both operate in off-line mode with 10 to 20 ms switching time between mains and inverters. The efficiency (see table 3 below) is greater than 97 %. We have also especially tested the discrimination of protections devices to short circuit inside modules or These trends of evolution are not denied today, and racks and outside on one power line. changes are even faster than foreseen. For new The modular UPS is much easier to maintain than a systems, TENOR (figure 5) propose a direct power centralised DC power plant and even than a modular supply of telecom and datacom with one stage of DC racks, because there are less modules and rows conversion between AC and DC use, and the of batteries. energy backup is distributed because of a clear Mean separation of functions between power supply and Interface 97 % (>85) energy storage. The energy storage may be located 230 off line (on line) inside the telecom equipment or outside in the power- Constant 54 V (remote power 85 % supply common to several pieces of equipment. It is feeding) possible to install 2 levels of energy storage outside 230/54/3 ; 5 (switch core) 65 % and inside for very sensitive functions. 230/3 ; 5 (computers, datacom) 75 % Specific DC voltages for remote power supply of 400/120, 100, 54 ; 5 ; 3 (new) 85 to 92 % FTTC or ISDN are easy to generate from AC or UPS Table 3 : energy efficiencies measured on the whole high voltage DC. chain with redundancies in real operation In addition, one can use standard protections devices and obtain a serious discrimination on AC interface or In 1998, Merlin Gerin Electronics (M.G.E.) proposed high DC voltage interface. For datacom or mobile their new model of UPS with energy-saving mode equipment or remote power supply, flexible and wrote an article with France Telecom at autonomy is easy to obtain by means of breakers INTELEC 98, which describes the ASCETE structure fitted with remote control or contactors. based on such UPS and close to TENOR concept.
EdF 2 to 800 kVA Building 1 Telecom Datacom existing 48 V back-up engine cooling Building or more AC boards ~ = Optionnal h 1 or more UPS modular, redundant = = DC DC off/on line UPS 3 to 160 kVA
switchover <20 ms
telecom and datacom & remote power supply power interface AC
holdtime > 30 ms
In the TENOR program, we also experiment smaller UPS for small central offices but the solution composed of redundant 2+1 UPS modules of 4 kVA has to be optimised in price. New AC-HVDC interface proposed by ALCATEL brings possible optimisation of cost of the UPS in small central offices and even in large ones, by reducing the number of 54 V rectifiers and AC inverters modules.
fig.5 : TENOR structure for uninterrupted AC and DC power
POWERING ACCESS NETWORKS
We have seen that the access network consumption The first implementation of TENOR energy system is will increase much and already, France Telecom performed on the national site where the new chooses some solutions to limit the impact : services and equipment are tested on a strategic at the customer's, no remote powering of the broadband services because its not always a central office (for example : 10 digit dial number customer need and its easier to do it on site, with deployment in France and year 2000 crossing). optional UPS or add-on batteries to the telecom The TENOR back-up UPSs are 60 kVA modular equipment, design CHLORIDE electronics UPS and unity rack in the telecom access centres, DSLAM modems design SOCOMEC. Half of the power is used in 230V for residential customers, will be powered by the and the other half is converted into constant DC by 230 V issued from mains or mains + poor back-up. SAFT Electronics and SGTE 33 A 54V rectifiers. Some DSLAM dedicated to high quality contracts These rectifiers could be highly optimised if designed may have longer autonomy power supply, like power supply without battery charging functions,
however it should be shorter than the autonomy of phone. at the user home, the ADSL modem is powered by the grid or inside a computer. FSAN is composed of OLT, PON and ONU or ONT. The FTTC ONU are outdoor cabinets powered by the grid with 2 or 4 h battery. To optimise the cost, several FTTC could be remote powered for example in 120 VDC by one common power supply with battery (project ALTO from France Telecom CNET). The FTTB ONU are in indoor harsh environment and supplied by the mains with 4 h battery. FTTH ONT is a small box in the client premises powered by the mains or AC UPS. FTTH may integrate 2 h battery. OLT are powered in the central offices by existing DC or by AC UPS, its not necessary that the autonomy be higher than in the ONU. So it is less than the phone autonomy. Other possibilities have been discussed at Intelec 98 by other operators or manufacturers. High voltages like 400 V on copper pairs or higher on power cable is not considered in France at the present time, because the priority seems to reduce the power consumption of ADSL or FSAN since technology is not yet stabilised. Because there is a need to adjust the unavailability of power to each service, we propose the following very rough tools to help choosing the right power supply architecture. Table 4 gives unavailability of power architecture according to the average events affecting the mains. The synopsis (figure 6 below) links the architecture with quality of the services described by some criteria like the restart behaviour of the telecommunication equipment, the concentration of lines, the customer,.
Events statistics during years Short interru 10 pts. 10 /h 0,5 s 0
grid or grid +DEG
Filter 500 ms to 5 mn
CRITERIA fast auto-restart mobile density increase
AC or DC UPS 4 to 10 h
long auto-restart small number of line mobile coverage
grid + DEG
AC or DC UPS 1 to 4 h
manual restart or very long autoresrart high number of lines big client
Fig. 6 : service criteria help choosing the right unavailability of the power interface for an equipment The further step to build new networks leads to consider remote site or countries where the public electric grid is absent or of poor quality. Specification and experiments of autonomous generators are carried out. For mobile networks, 300 to 600 W solar station are designed (figure 7). The major problem is to reduce the telecom and cooling system consumption and consequently the price. It seems possible to reach 80 to 120 Euro for one equivalent uninterrupted Watt with optimised solar shelters. With a good initial sizing, reliability is higher than with mechanical generators requiring fuel and with good ground earthing and bonding, theres less trouble with voltage transients and lightnings than when connected to the grid. A simple but crucial improvement is the reduction of the number of power conversion stages between the battery and the telecom boards. Adapted DC voltage (12, 24 or 48 V) must be used as much as possible, to drive the DC/DC module on the electronic boards. If high voltage DC could fit to new telecom equipments, the current would be lower, hence reducing the losses between the solar array and the battery.
10 /h 1h 0
Very long Maintenan (on 100 ce sites) -/h 300 h 200 h low medium
Grid grid + redundant UPS or 48V batt. 4 to 10 h grid + DEG grid + DEG UPS /15 mn grid + 2 batt. // 10 to 36 h grid + DEG redund. UPS or 48 / 1 to 6 h
1 mn 0
1 min 0
30 h 30 h 3 to 15 h 3h
high high high high
fig. 7: photovoltac power for a mobile station The coverage of some GSM shadow area in France will also require solar powered repeaters with power between 50 and 100 W. Should the reduction of power consumption of the broadband access network be carried on, then these cost-optimised solar solutions would be very attractive. For the last 3 years, crystalline photovoltac production has entered the mass production critical size and new technology like thin layers deposit
Table 4 : rough estimation of maintenance time, type of interrupts and unavailability for several power architecture. (The target of unavailability of energy on a pool of sites is read in the right column as downtime multiplied by 10-7).
adapted to continuous process (CIS, CdTE, multijunction,) are right now put into the market. The energy policy of several countries encourages this, so the price shouldl keep on decreasing and energysaving with solar energy could become a costeffective solution to absorb the power consumption increase due to broadband and mobile network rise as mentions NTT at previous INTELEC.
POWERING HOME AND OFFICE TELECOM and DATACOM
Alcatel and France Telecom have a common approach on the subject. Due to the market and technological evolution, Telecom operators and final users require systems and equipment with new functions and services. Market driver will not only be the lowest possible price, but also lower size and weight, higher reliability and autonomy, and care of environmental concerns (energy saving, recycling, EMC and line harmonics standards fulfilment, etc.). In our view, the scenario in which we will begin to move may be summarised as follows: Datacom equipment is becoming more important in telecom facilities. Datacom equipment is and will be fed by AC in the next future because it is the world-wide standard. The need for cost reduction, space and power saving is and will be critical in AC powered telecom equipment. First, it is clear that PCs, gateways, and, in general, any kind of datacom equipment is fed by AC. Reasons are that they do not provide remote power feeding, they may work without back-up and they are located mainly in AC powered facilities. Second, it is interesting not to decrease the availability of communication. But, in our view, the traditional schemes proposed years ago are not any longer going to be neither useful nor feasible. The presented new architecture based on AC powered equipment is a good solution to the problem. If Datacom may also be powered from high DC voltage, the problem would find a better solution. If not totally possible, UPS, inverter or other solution may be installed but AC-HVDC standard seems really feasible at short term, and, may be the target. High voltage DC (rectified AC) may be a practicable interface inside the computers and telecom devices or in a specific room. But in the whole building this is not obvious because of the following reasons : - there may be on the same power distribution several devices not compliant with DC (computers, peripherals, old fluorescent lightnings, induction motors and phase control variators,.) - it is not easy or cost-effective to install a second DC distribution in addition to the existing AC in the building,
different sockets, must be used in order to avoid destructive mistakes, nor every device requires autonomy, neither is it the same autonomy for every one, so what is the interest not to plug on AC. portable computers and phones have their own autonomy and do not need any external DC autonomy, in addition, these portable sets must be able to recharge anywhere, thus, today on standard 230V sockets.
Concerning new terminals, it may be imagined a Universal Power (& Telecom) Interface UPTI ? The interface should limit the powers just to the minimum required to transmit the signal on existing cable (some volts for ADSL or other digital standards). Thats enough for remote power of the minimum phone functions as we have demonstrated in TENOR OPAL (Optimised Power for Access Line). This very low voltage fit new electronic components and the small battery voltage (1 to 12 V). These low voltage are also welcome for small power solar and 12 V automobile. Thus new mobile communicating objects could be powered anywhere and easily plugged directly on UPTI fixed line, when not using radio channel. The UPTI may be seen as USB for computers.
The access network is probably a key to define new power supply of the telecom equipment. The need of 48 V DC remote supply is decreasing, because of the mobile, optic access network growth and new terminals operating on AC plugs for off and on line operation. The replacement of computers, mobile sets, is faster than the replacement of traditional phones, but this is changing with Internet and services. This gives freedom to imagine a full digital broadband access network (ADSL, FSAN FTTH, cable modem,) with the out of date 48V analog phone interface preserved only as a special option. At offices and in operator buildings, the number of telecom and datacom network servers, gateways and computers is growing very fast and generally uses the AC interface from grid or UPS with autonomy between 10 mn and 2 h. ALCATEL design of new systems with power supply based on rectified AC and high voltage DC back-up, brings a technical and economical efficient solution. This architecture runs in standalone with its own battery or without battery on uninterrupted AC. The advantages in terms of cost, space and power saving of the new architecture have been demonstrated through the analyse, test, and results obtained as follows : Power Chain cost reduction : 25 40% Power Stages size reduction : 35 45% Power Chain Losses reduction : 45 50% Electrical mains consumption saving:10 15%
In the France Telecom TENOR project, the experimentation of new powering architecture for existing buildings, was carried out on slightly adapted UPS designed for high unavailability or power, and non propagation of faults. Very high efficiency, and simplified maintenance with modular design, and a lower number of modules than in 48VDC, were obtained. The TENOR concept may also be extended to new sources like fuel cells and turbine generators. TENOR may be optimised in cost with new AC-HVDC interface. In any case, the principle of design of these new power supplies are : flexibility of autonomy to comply to the service unavailability target flexible voltage interface to adapt to new and existing equipment in the buildings reduction of power consumption of access networks (less level of voltage conversion,.) help for choosing the adapted voltage interface. The reduction of power allows the development of solar power for remote access site and tomorrow for energy cost saving in every building. New UPTI interface at very low voltage < 12 V should also appear to reduce remote power on new terminals and to allow solar powering.
IP : Internet Protocol ISDN : Integrated services digital network LAN : local array network MINITEL : simple modem terminal offering lots of services OLT : Optical line termination PON : Passive Optic Network POTS : plain old line telephon service POTS SDH : Synchronous Data Hierarchy TENOR : Telecom Energy with Optimised and Distributed Backup UMTS : Universal Mobile Telecom Service UPS : Uninterrupted Power Supply USB : Universal Serial Bus
- Intelec 93 Power supply with a single AC/DC conversion stage and distributed energy storage. D. MARQUET FranceTelecom - CNET - Intelec 95 : powering architecture for new needs in telecommunications. D. Jugan, J.P. Leblanc, D. MARQUET FranceTelecom - CNET - Intelec 98 : Trends in telecommunications networks and their effects on powers systems. N.Dalarsson, Ericsson Utveclings AB, Alvsjo, Sweden - Intelec 98 : -48 VDc computer equipment topology - an emerging technology. J. Ackerlund, Telia Network Services, Telia AB, Sweden ; D. McMenamin, Bell AtlanticCorporation, Philadelphia, PA, USA and S.Muromaya NTT power and Buildings facilities, Tokyo, Japan - Intelec 98 : A systematic approach to select distributed, centralised or mixed power architecture in telecom applications. M. Vsquez and E. de la Cruz Alcatel-CRC - Intelec 98 : Technical and economical comparison of photovoltac solar system and AC mains powering for advanced optical network units at remote site. C. Quinones, M. Vasquez, A. del Prado, E. de la Cruz and A. Garrido Alcatel-Alsthom Madrid - reliability of modular UPS : CHLORIDE POWER ELECTRONICS P.Queyroi Intelec 98 : Architecture of a simplified concept for technical environment ASCETE. R. REVOL France Telecom-CNET, G. Besset, M. Fraisse Merlin Gerin
ADSL, xDSL digital subscriber line on cupper (A for Asymetric ; V for very large bandwith and so on) ATM : Asynchronous Transfer Mode (packet switch mode) BTS : Base Tranceiver Station (of mobile network) DATACOM : equipement for Internet, LAN, WAN, (access server, gateway), DSLAM : Digital Subscriber Line ADSL Modem (racks) DEG : Diesel Engine Generator FSAN : full service access network on optical fiber FTTx : Fiber to the Home, Building, Curb
Annex 5 List of operators, associations, organisations involved in informationgathering for the sixth report
List of operators, associations, organisations involved in information-gathering for the sixth report
BELGIUM Belgacom Platform Telecom Operators & Service Providers:
A.S.T.R.I.D Axxon Telecom B-Telecom BT Brutele Cable & Wireless Belgium Codenet Colt Telecom
Debitel Belgium Dolphin Telecom Belgium GTS Belgium Global One Communications Interoute KPN Orange Belgium KPN Belgium Level 3 Communications Mobistar
Ram Mobile Data Belgium RSL COM Belgium Telenet Operaties UPC Belgium Versatel Telecom Belgium Viatel Worldcom Worldxchange Communications
Danish Telecommunication Industries Association Mobilix Sonofon Telia DK Tele Danmark Tele2 VATM (Verband der Anbieter von Telekommunikations- und Mehrwertdiensten) Brekoverband Deutsche Telekom AG FORMUS Communications Forthnet Med. Telecom. NetMed OTE Panafon STET Hellas ANIEL (Asociacin Nacional Industrias Electrnicas y de Telecomunicaciones):
Abrared, s.a. Airtel Movil s.a. Cable & Wireless, sa Menta. Cable i Televisio de Catalunya, s.a. Centre de Telecomunicacions de la Generalitat de Catalunya Correos Telecom, s.a. Madritel Euskaltel, s.a. Global Crossing (gc pan european crossing espaa, s.l.r. Cable y Telecomunicaciones Galicia, GTS Carrier Services Hispasat Infoglobal s.a. KPNqwest Espaa, s.a.u.
ASTEL (Asociacin de Empresas Operadoras y de Servicios de Telecomunicaciones):
Airtel Mvil, S.A. Amena- Retevisin Mvil, S.A. ALO Comunicaciones Al-pi (Catalana de Comunicaciones) ATT Global Network Services AVIRON Router AXS Telecom Espaa, S.A. BT Telecomunicaciones, S.A. Cableuropa, S.A. ONO Cable & Wireless
Capcom International, S.L. Colt Telecom Espaa. S.A. Comunitel Global ,S.A Grupo Comytel (Imadile, S.L.) Euskaltel, S.A. FaciliCom International,S.L. FirstMark Global-One, S.A GTS Interoute Telecomunicaciones, S.A Jazztel, S.A.
LCR Telecom (Grupo Primus) Lince Comunicaciones, S.A.- UNI2 Madritel Comunicaciones, S.A. Priority Telecom, S.L. Retevisin, S.A SITA-EQUANT TeleChoice Espaa, S.A. Viatel Global Communications, S.A.
AFOPT (Assoc. Franaise des Oprateurs Privs en Tlcommunications):
9 Telecom Bouygues Telecom, Le groupe Cegetel (Cegetel Entreprise, SFR, SRR), GTS Omnicom, COLT Tlcommunications France, Completel, UPC France, LD COM.
AOST (Assoc. des Oprateurs de Services de Tlcommunications):
Atlantic AT&T BT Cable & Wireless CEGETEL Entreprises Completel Facilicom International GTS Omnicom Liberty Surf Telecom Linx Telecom KPNQWest NC Numericable NOOS RSLCOM SIRIS Telecom Developpement Viatel MCIWorldcom 9 Telecom Reseau
France Telecom TENOR (Organisation Professionnelle de Tlcommunications): ALTO (Assoc. of Licensed Telecommunications Operators):
Cable & Wireless Chorus (formerly Irish Multichannel) COLT Conduit 70 members in the field of telecommunication servies.
Esat Digifone Esat Telecom Fusion (formerly OCEAN) GTS Interoute
Meteor Nevada (formerly Stentor) NTL Swiftcall Worldcom
Belgacom BT Bulgarian Telecommunications Company Cesky Telekom Community of Yugoslav PTT Croatian Telecom Cyprus Telecommunications Authority Deutsche Telekom Eircom Energis Communications EPT Luxembourg Estonian Telephone Co. Facilicom International Sweden Finnet Group France Telecom
Iceland Telecom Infostrada KPN Lattelekom Lietuvos Telekomas Makedonski telekomunikacii AD Maltacom MATV Hungarian Telecommunications Company Netia Holdings O.T.E. Polish Telecom Portugal Telecom PTT Bosnia and Herzegovina Retevision Rom Telecom Slovak Telecom
Sonera Swisscom Tele 2Telecom Italia TeleDanmark Telefonica Telekom Austria Telekom Slovenije Telenor Telenordia Telia Trk Telekom Viatel Westel 900 GSM
ISPA Ireland ISPA UK AFA France
ECO Germany ISPA Belgium NLIP Netherlands AIIP Italy Association Franaise des Utilisateurs du Tlphone et des Tlcommunications (AFUTT) International Communication User Group (ICG) Telecommunications Users Group (TUG) Associazione Nazionale Utenti Italiani di Telecomunicazioni (ANUIT)
ISPA Finland FIL Denmark ISPA Austria
INTUG (International Telecommunications Users Group):
Arbeitsgemeinschaft fr Datenverarbeitung (ADV) Vereinigung von TKnetzbetreibern des Finanzsektors (VTF) Belgian Telecommunications Users Group (BELTUG) Dansk Dataforening (DDF) Association of Telecommunication Users (AUTEL)
Nederlandse vereniging van bedrijfs telecommunicatie grootgebruikers (BTG) Nringslivets Telekommitt (NTK) Communications Management Association Telecommunications Users Association (TUA) International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) Telecom eV
VT130 Editor 2 Stylus-550WP SA-EX140 Review KDL-40Z5500 Clock SDM-S95F LDF6810 Picanto DCS460-18 C950-52474-5 42PX2RVA Stylus 740 Bizhub C452 Solar LE40S62B AVR 145 7200T FD28LA PC-1000 47LH7000 Ex-d1 CW-29Z338P EM-150 VGN-TZ31xn B HT-IS100 AL1751 GX240 Remote DS207 Photosmart 435 NW-E013F K6743 V2 0 S AP-28 Deskjet 5160 EPL-5800 D8730 MD7261 385 1 NS-C120 Dyson DC20 Contour TS SD110 MH-607YS AVR 5550 SCC-C7455P PSR-12 Casio 2782 Commander HD161HJ-SRB MX4GE TC-1785 RR-US006 YT-250 Ericsson G900 8350I DCX2496 BX4210A Monitor Signature SR-L36NMB MR238 VT-14GH10 MAV-777 CC290TW Psr-273 P35 Neo2 PC E330 2200C KDC-MP635 600XL 160 HD Samsung 203B Cuisine WJ-HD100 AWM930W Yamaha C-80 Alcatel-lucent 4039 2 5 P4V88 FU-60SE-K 661 A DS-A3 Ssleq XPL200 LE40C530 VR-6060 DVP3266K 51 Smart Z LT240K Pro 5 WT-R8571 Flashpaper 2 XS 100 Cabrio 380 TX-SV919THX CHR-185X Samsung P42H
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