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2.1 Types of Player-Music Interaction in Video Games
Pichlmair and Kayali proposed seven criteria for analyzing or categorizing games in the music game genre: active score, rhythm action, quantization, synesthesia, play as performance, free-form play, and sound agents. The authors exemplified their criteria with a selection of various games from two overlapping categories of music game: rhythm games and electronic instrument games (Pichlmair and Kayali, 2007, p. 424). Although the authors present noteworthy criteria, the fundamental acknowledgement of music games as a genre make their conclusions difficult to apply to a broader field of video game music. Furthermore, the seven criteria consist of both gameplay mechanics and musical features, leaving some clarity to be desired. McAlpine, et al, offered a more general view of video game music, from its use in different settings (title screen, menu, cinematic sequence, etc.) to an overview of strategies used in current interactive music (McAlpine et al, 2009). The authors also offer perspectives on emotional context of video game music and the usefulness of an algorithmic artificial intelligence improvisation system to generate music in realtime (2009, p. 7-9). Although their work begins to tackle interesting and valid perspectives on video game music, McAlpine, et al, validate their work through its correlation to film music and mostly ignore the role of the player in determining a games musical flow. Examining and defining the types of video game player-music interactions afforded in games as a whole will prove to be more productive toward a unified discussion of video game music analysis and composition than either of the aforementioned attempts. Seven types of player-music interaction apply to all styles and genres of games: filtered-preferential, cinematic-narrative, cinematic6
situational, rhythm-pattern, triggered-incidental, freeform-representational, and enqueued-incidental. These proposed types of interaction can be used to analyze both modern video game music and that of the earliest video games.1
2.1.1 Filtered-preferential interaction
Filtered-preferential video game music interaction describes a situation in which a video game allows a player explicit and active control over its musical soundtrack. This type of interaction allows a player to personalize his/her game experience by choosing its music and controlling when and how the music is presented. Obviously, players have active control over the mute functionality of their televisions and home audio devices, but these are outside the realm of the designed video game experience; the opting out of all or part of a game voluntarily is not considered here. Filtered-preferential music interaction is available in any game that allows a player to mute its music while retaining its sound effects or character dialogue, but this all-or-nothing approach is not as nuanced an experience as many games allow. Grand Theft Auto IV (Rockstar North, 2008), as well as other games in the same series, allows players to either listen to no music or choose between eighteen different in-game radio stations in a variety of popular genres as they explore the games large environment. Microsofts Xbox and Xbox 360, and more recently Sonys PlayStation 3, support custom soundtracks, a feature which allows players to choose soundtracks from their personal music collections in supported games, in many cases overriding
looking, respectively, in first person shooting games; the same two joysticks should control a player avatars movement and the pan of the game cameras viewpoint in modern third-person games; and the face button closest to a players dominant thumb should control jumping in a side-scrolling platform game. Compiling a list of these types of expected inputs would be a daunting task, rife with exceptions. Nevertheless, these types of player-controller mappings go a long way to develop the idea that different types of games dictate different types of idiomatic gameplay styles. If analyzed, the raw input trends of different types of games would reveal a multitude of various idiomatic game gestures from the simple inputs of a standard video game controller. Although the Nintendo Wii controller, and other game-proprietary controllers, interested many electronic musicians upon its release, due to its relatively sophisticated motion tracking and gestural richness (Blaine, 2005; Bott et al, 2009), standard video game controllers clearly have a wealth of highly relevant gestures due to their continued historical uses. These gestures could provide a wealth of new and stimulating musical potential if properly utilized.
3.1 Toward Musical Video Games
The richest of modern video game interactive musical experiences are currently found in the various industry-labeled music genre games. Of the seven types of player-music interactions afforded in video games, this genre tends to primarily exhibit rhythm-pattern and freeform-representational experiences, with some triggered-incidental aspects. Out of these three types of interactions, only rhythm-pattern interactions provide emergent game-like properties; latencybased scoring allows players to be judged and ranked easily, which conforms to the historical and ubiquitous scoring systems of other types of games. Triggeredincidental interactions seem to be treated similarly to sound effects, secondary elements that enhance an experience. And freeform-representational experiences capture the attention of open-minded, possibly musically inclined players who seek new experiences over rule- or score-based gameplay. These types of games have no win or lose states, because creativity is hard to quantify and judge. At present, the most creativity-oriented musical game structures do not feel much like games at all. In order to tackle this problem, this work proposes a new type of musical video game that encompasses cinematic-situational, rhythm-pattern, triggered-incidental, enqueued-incidental, and freeform-representational
en ncounter. The spinnin mill rota T ng ates at a slo random ow, mly-assigne speed, bu its ed ut direction is set by the designer. Any quantity of these c be crea d d A y can ated, positio oned, and deleted, and each is assigned a random s , i shade of red when crea d ated.
Figure 6 - Cube coin ncube objec ct
Coinc cubes (Figu 6) are the only non-perma ure anent objec that ma be ct ay placed in a level, beca p ause they di isappear up pon collisio with the player av on e vatar. Any quantity of these can be creat A y ted, position ned, rotated and delet d, ted.
Figure 7 - Cube no e ode object
es e d, by Node (Figure 7) can be created, positioned resized b radius, and deleted. The visual disp d e play of thes nodes, w se which indica ates their si and inde is ize ex,
only activated in the level editor. If a node with a lower-than-maximum index is deleted, the higher-indexed nodes are renumbered in order.
3.4.4 Level storage
The devised format for storing and recalling levels in Cube is a simple text-based format, involving the alternation of two different types of information: eightcharacter tags and three-element vectors of numerical data. A primary datatype in Unity3D is the Vector3, which stores three data elements in (x, y, z) form. Unity3D provides a simple method to convert Vector3 data to text strings, and all of the numerical level creation data could easily fit into one or more of these before being quickly pushed into a text file. The aforementioned eight-character tags would provide context for this data. For instance, a stable platform only needs three pieces of data, which could easily fit into a Vector3: X-position, Yposition, and rotation in degrees; associating the Vector3 data with eightcharacter tag PLATFORM provides all of the information needed to construct a new stable platform at the same position and rotation when loading a level. For easier parsing, the tags and numerical data would be output to different text lines. If one line contains the PLATFORM tag, each following line of data, until a different tag is encountered, would provide the necessary information for a new stable platform. Thirteen stable platforms would thus require fourteen lines of text: one for the tag and thirteen for the data. These level files would each use the file extension lev. Table 1 lists all of the tags and their associated data for Cube level files.
Table 1 - Level storage format for Cube
BEGLEVEL GAMEBACK PLATFORM FALLPLAT SPINRIGH SPINLEFT COINCUBE PROGNODE GAMECUBE GAMEGOAL ENDLEVEL
This tag defines the beginning of a level and has no other associated data. One row defines designer-determined level background variation in format: (red, green, blue) Each row defines a new stable platform in format: (x-position, yposition, rotation) Each row defines a new falling platform in format: (x-position, yposition, rotation) Each row defines a new clockwise spinning mill platform in format: (xposition, y-position, 0.09) Each row defines a new counter-clockwise spinning mill platform in format: (x-position, y-position, 0.0) Each row defines a new coincube in format: (x-position, yposition, rotation) Each row defines a node, where index is determined by order, in format: (x-position, y-position, radius) One row defines the starting position/rotation of the avatar cube in format: (x-position, y-position, rotation) One row defines the position of the game goal in format: (x-position, y-position, 0.0) This tag defines the end of a level and has no other associated data.
3.4.5 Gameplay variables
As the UDP communication scheme was worked out early in the process, all that remained was to determine and implement what messages would be sent from Cube to MaxMSP. These messages were developed alongside the features to which they correspond. For consistency among all three games, groups of single messages would be sent rather than compound messages for different aspects of one event; this means that rather than sending a position as a three-item vector, three separate messages would be sent. Table 2 lists all of the messages sent from Cube and their functions.
Table 2 - UDP messages sent from Cube
0.0 was used when there was no need for an element of the Vector3.
bgcol [r, g, b] val
Sent on level load: indicates designerdetermined level background color variation, where val is a normalized color value for each of red, green, and blue. Sent when a dropping platform falls after being touched by the player avatar or other object. Sent on level load: indicates the level goal objects raw position, where val is each an X-axis value and a Y-axis value. Sent when any non-avatar collisions occur. Sent when the avatar jumps. Sent on level load and level end: indicates when a level is loaded or completed, where val is the sequential number of the level. Sent when a player pauses the game, where 1 indicates a pause and 0 indicates return to unpaused state. Sent when the avatar enters and exits a collision with another object, where val is one of coin, cubeCeiling, cubeGround,
3.5.1 Bugs and revision
Unity3D handles physics-based collisions in a variety of ways, and the easiest-toimplement method for a first-person shooting game like Pyramid resulted in
problematic reporting of collisions14. Essentially, only able the moment of collision would be reported; with Cube, the beginning and ending of a collision were each reported. A variety of fixes were attempted, but an efficient solution to this problem was never found. Due to the speed at which the player avatar and enemies shoot bullets, inconsistent bullet collision detection was sporadically witnessed; sometimes bullets would bounce off of objects, and sometimes they would shoot directly through them. After tweaking the internal physics settings and changing the bullet travel speed to no benefit, a script was found on a Unity3D support forum that fixed this problem easily (Brauer, 2010). Later, when testing various levels in the game, a strange behavior presented: bullets would float slowly in the air in specific areas. After attempting to tweak the script to fix this anomaly to no avail, it was recognized that the invisible colliders on the nodes were not configured to be ignored by the script, a simple fix. The only other problem encountered was that different Pyramid levels would run at severely reduced framerates. After changing the render modes of certain object textures, the game returned to full speed, but admittedly, there are a variety of other optimizations that could improve all three of these games (page 105). Working with the level editor presented two significant required changes. The first was that the static turrets needed to stop shooting bullets in the level editor. Not only did the constant turret shooting slow the level editor to a crawl, it would also damage the player avatar when in range, leading to an automatic
Rather than using a Rigidbody collider, a CharacterController was used to disallow the player avatar from walking through various objects. The CharacterController does not report OnCollisionEnter() and OnCollisionExit() events. It does report OnControllerColliderHit() which reports each collider touched by the CharacterController each frame, but this is not as convenient.
re eloading of the curre level. To improve a design f ent T e ners ability to contro all y ol aspects of hi is/her level without ha l aving to gue about h ess how it would appear du d uring gameplay th ability to toggle first-person v he o view during the level editing pro g ocess was implemented. w
3.5.2 Objec 3 cts
There are te types of objects tha can be pl T en at laced and m modified to create leve in els Pyramid. Th P hese object and their properties are descri ts r s ibed below. The contr roller mappings to control the features of the level editor are a m o o available in Appendix A. n
doorSide, enemyBullet, key, personEnemy, pyramidCenterPiece, 16 pyrLamp, pyrTurret, or pyrWall
death door unlock enemy [hit, kill] enemy shoot enemy [start, end] val
goal [x, z] val
key level [start, end] val
player health val
player hit val
Sent on level load: indicates the total number of nodes in a level, where val is the number of nodes (node array length + 1). Sent when the avatar collides with a node cylinder or nears another node, where val is the index of the node (node array index + 1). Sent on level load and when the avatar moves: indicates raw position and rotation (in degrees) of the avatar, where val is the position or rotation value for X, Y, or Z.
Each of the object names corresponds to the name of the object in the Unity3D IDE. All are selfevident other than pyramidCenterPiece, which refers to the pillar object, and personEnemy which is the patrolling enemy object.
shoot sun [r, g, b, i] val g v
Sent when the av t vatar shoots a bullet. Sent on level load indicates de t d: esignerdete ermined level sunlight variation, where val is a normali ized value for each of red, gree blue, and i en, intensity.
3.6 Sphere Design and Development 3 e:
After commi A itting to designing 3D games, the third and final game was planne to e ed be a car racing game, but the deve elopment of the patroll f ling enemy behavior s y script fo Pyramid encourage the creat or d ed tion of a ste ealth game instead. Th predomi he inant in nspiration for this gam f mes design was the onscreen r n radar in Me etal Gear S Solid (K Konami, 19 998), pictur in Figur 18. This r red re radar shows the position of the pl s layer av vatar, and the positio and vision cones o enemies in a redu ons of s, uced 2D ver rsion overlaid on the 3D ga ame. Differe enemy states are indicated by the colo of ent or th vision cones. Mos of the wo toward completing a stealth g heir st ork g game simil to lar th radar vi could be complete by simpl adding a few feature to the en his iew b ed ly es nemy sc cript from Pyramid and using an overhead camera p a a d perspective (for pseudo o-3D vi isual style). This stealt game wo th ould be title Sphere. ed
Figu 18 - The onscreen radar in Met Gear Sol (Konam 1998) ure tal lid mi,
Cube and Pyramid both afford players a wealth of exploration and improvisation through their highly action-oriented controls. Cube encourages exploration by lacking different game states, and Pyramid encourages exploration by providing players with a first-person perspective. Pyramid expands on Cube by offering state-based gameplay, both with binary locked/unlocked door states and with the potential for enemy encounters. For Sphere, there would be a further concentration on state-based gameplay and reduction of the aesthetic exploration options to a minimum. To this end, there would only be five objects available for level creation: the player avatar, goal object, nodes, walls, and patrolling enemies. As suggested by its name, this game would use a sphere, a built-in shape in Unity3D, for the player avatar and core of the enemies. Whereas Pyramid offered a variety of objects to craft a level of any desired aesthetic, with or without enemy encounters, Sphere would offer a severely limited object palette to encourage focus on its game rules. Like Cube and Pyramid before it, Spheres main objective would simply be to get the player avatar to collide with the goal object; however, the goal object would disappear if the avatar were being pursued. This small rule change provided all of the impetus necessary to promote stealthy gameplay. The avatar would also have a limited number of lives, each of which could be subtracted due to encounters with enemies, to reinforce Spheres focus on stealth. A life would be subtracted when an enemy collides with the avatar while pursuing it. Already, the set of rules governing Spheres gameplay flow differentiated it from the more freeform experiences of Cube and Pyramid. Spheres emphasis on rule-based gameplay 57
the second melody, the third note of the first melody, and the fourth note of the second melody, all transposed down three octaves. The thus-far determined musical texture continues to repeat through the end of the level, but the third open area introduces one more element. As the avatar continues to traverse the different platforms downward to reach the exit, it triggers a variety of nodes. Each of these nodes produces a different chord at the beginning of the next eight-beat cycle of quarter notes. Although there is potentially a long delay between the avatars triggering of a node for one of these chords, this is an example of a triggered-incidental interaction. As only the most recently triggered chord is played, no matter how many have been triggered, it is merely a highly-quantized triggered-incidental interaction, not an enqueuedincidental interaction. Upon the avatars collision with the goal object, the music ends. This example incorporates a variety of interactions that produce a kind of music that is highly determined by player actions. Thus, this is the first complete example of a piece of music for a musical video game according to the objectives of this work.
4.7 Music for Pyramid
Two musical examples were created for Pyramid. The first, cubeMusicPyramid, explores the effects of adapting Cubes cubeMusic into Pyramids gameplay. The second example, pyramidMusic, deals with a variety of types of playermusic interactivity to create unique player-determined music.
4.7.1 cube 4 eMusicPyramid
Figure 27 - "cubeMusic F " cPyramid" level
This compos T sition funct tions identi ically to cu ubeMusic ( (above), exc cept that it uses variables fro Pyrami and a ne horizont level de om id ew tal esigned in P Pyramid (F Figure
27) with th same la 7 he ayout23 and node nu d umbers as the Cube level built for t
c cubeMusic (Figure 26). Pyramids avatar shooting e 6 event, anot ther percussive ev vent, replac Cubes avatar jump event for all captured rhythms. ces a p d As Py yramid has no physics s s-based inh hibitions in the avatar movemen or rs nt th rhythmi speed of the avatar shooting e he ic f r beMusicPyr ramid allo ows a event, cub player a fin p ner level of rhythmi control over the musical result. Whe o ic ereas c cubeMusic takes advantage of every one of Cubes control featu a ures, c cubeMusicP Pyramid only utilize movem o es ment and s shooting. T The transla ation between the two games is function but it h e s nal, highlights th Pyrami composit hat id tions re equire more game-spe ecific featur to appro res opriately ta advanta of its un ake age nique
Cube, Pyram and Sphere each oper mid, rate in differe geometric scales, so le ent c evel layouts c cannot be converted easily between them. They have to be reb e e n h built piece-by y-piece in the level editors.
The vibraphone and contrabass combination provides a jazzy, humanized complement to the regularity of the arpeggio sequence. Enemy states in the game also manifest in two cinematic-situational interactions. When an enemy is looking to locate an avatar tap event, the timbre of the ongoing arpeggio sequence changes to bowed strings; it returns to organ/accordion when the enemy returns to its patrol route. As the sphereMusic is played in Spheres harder difficulty mode, the avatar loses a life each time it is seen by an enemy. A percussion rhythm enters when the avatar is being actively pursued, another example of a cinematic-situational interaction. However, each time the player loses a life, the rhythm plays at a faster subdivision of the current pulse (from triplets to septuplets). Also, the percussion rhythm is created from a quantized version of the current nine-note bassline sequence, making this interaction also an enqueued-incidental one. Clearly, sphereMusic takes advantage of a wealth of interactive possibilities that engage the player in both the gameplay of Sphere and the music being generated by this gameplay.
4.9 A New Context
By exemplifying a variety of new and interesting ways of dealing with video game musical material through player-music interactions, these three games clearly position themselves as musical video games. The games, as illustrated by the above musical examples, provide meaningful links between their players and their music by way of their intrinsic musical properties. In various ways, they also
exemplify modification and creation of timbres, rhythms, forms, and pitch sequences. As the games for this work were designed to fit within standard genre constraints, for the first time, a paradigm emerges whereby a gamers arsenal of learned gameplay skills translates into musical skills. These games demonstrate that video games can be mined for their intrinsic musicality instead of merely being infused with a trivial few musical interactions. However, there is a possibility that the use of gameplay systems as musical determinants results in trivial connections between player choice/action and a games music. Maybe the automatic, rule-based game events control more of the music than intended. In order to verify this link is non-trivial, it must be evaluated.
5.1 What to Test?
Evaluating the successful link between gameplay choices and musical output is not a straightforward task. Comparing data generated by the games would not necessarily correlate 1:1 to the musical output, especially in regards to the delayed nature of enqueued-incidental interactions, nor would comparing controller input data. Just as a musician can modify relative tempi without drastically altering a piece of music, a players exact timings should not be used to evaluate his/her performance. If inputs and timings are not useful for evaluation, what about a players cognitive awareness of his/her influence on the music? As long as a player understands how to navigate the game and follow instructions, his/her awareness of the musical effect is negligible for evaluation. Certainly, a players understanding of his/her performance could be quite valuable in many contexts, but not until its consequence is confirmed. If two players could follow a single set of instructions and produce two variations of the same piece of music, there might be a link between the instructions and the music. If two players could follow two different sets of instructions and produce two different pieces of music, there also might be a link between the instructions and the music. But, if a group of players could consistently perform variations of one of two pieces of music by following one of two sets of instructions, there is undoubtedly a link between the instructions and the music. The confirmed replicability of gameplay-determined music would establish a meaningful link between gameplay choices and musical output.
innovate gameplay. Currently, the video game industry continues to debate the merits of motion controls (Totilo, 2010) and stereoscopic 3D (Ashcraft, 2011) for their potentials to immerse players in physical space. Recent narrative video games such as God of War II (SCE Studios Santa Monica, 2007) and Resident Evil 5 (Capcom, 2009) have attempted to improve player involvement by using quick time events (QTEs), introduced officially in Shenmue (Sega, 2000), to allow/force players to press buttons in quick succession to progress pre-rendered cinematic sequences. Introducing musicality to video games could be a major advancement in player interactivity and immersion. The term musical video game only refers to the sophisticated way in which a game handles player-music interaction; it can exist alongside narrative, novel gameplay mechanics, or any other stimulating gameplay elements. This approach could produce the necessary meaningful link between players and interactive procedural game music called for by Collins (2009). Although this work focuses on standard genres, entirely new types of games could be born from musical development. Offering players the opportunity to explore their own creativity could produce more fun opportunities for play. No matter what, introduction of more varied interactivity would only serve to benefit games. Video game composers could advance their skills and become more integral to the development process. Also, composers of concert music could recognize a new wealth of available performers by creating music to tap into a wealth of gamers that arent musicians.
6.3 Implementation Concerns
The most significant boon to the development of musical video games is the lack of sophisticated commercial sound engines that are built to handle the various types of player-music interactivity. Game variables (such as those sent through the UDP messages of Cube, Pyramid, and Sphere) and node-like progress systems26 are readily available to developers, but connecting the variables to music is not a simple task. Plenty of commercial sound engines exist that seek to simplify the creation of video game audio and music, such as FMOD (Firelight Technologies Pty, Ltd., 2011), Audiokinetic Wwise (Audiokinetic, 2011), and the Miles Sound System (Rad Game Tools, 2011), but these really only simplify positioning audio elements in 3D space and creating cinematic- narrative or situational music. More research and development are needed into the most useful and efficient implementations of musical game concepts before they are included in these types of engines. Until these engines embrace musical video game concepts, however, they will potentially be prohibitively difficult to implement on a game-by-game basis. Peter Brinkmanns work porting Pure Data, the freeware open-source counterpart to MaxMSP, into a modular audio library could emerge as the perfect solution to any implementation problems as it matures (2011). The patch-based paradigm offered in Pure Data is identical to that of MaxMSP, and much of this work could be easily translated with minimal effort. This would allow for removal of the UDP messages for communication
prev trans ignore trans val
outlet 1 outlet 2 Sequence value output, including transposition. Outputs sequence transposition amount. If loadseq is used, outputs lowest value in the loaded sequence. Outputs current sequence index. Outputs sequence length.
outlet 3 outlet 4
9 Appendix C: Evaluation performance instructions Variation 1
PERFORMANCE NOTES: Never go back to collect coinsquares. Continue moving from left to right and try not to ever backtrack. If you miss a particular platform, go back and make sure you land on it before proceeding. 1. Do not jump until you have passed the first drop area.
2. Jump the following rhythm at the pace of the musical pulse (interpreted in
8th notes): 3. Once your rhythm from #2 starts playing, continue down the path. 4. When you reach the first open area, jump to the following platforms from left to right: first, second, third. Try to make your landing on the third platform begin just before your rhythm from #2 starts to repeat. 5. Continue to the second corridor, but do not jump.
6. Upon entering the second corridor, jump the following rhythm at the pace
of the musical pulse, attempting to have your final rhythmic jump land at the precise moment the rhythm from #2 starts another repetition:
7. Once your rhythm from #6 starts playing, continue down the path. 8. When you reach the second open area, jump to the following platforms from left to right: second, first, first, ground (underneath the first platform). Try to make your landing on the ground begin just before your rhythm from #6 starts to repeat.
9. Continue to the third corridor, trying your best to enter it precisely as your rhythm from #2 starts another repetition. 10. Continue to the next open area and proceed to the exit in a zig-zag pattern. In order to do this, first go to the middle platform at the top of the open area (a small drop below the entrance), followed by the next platform down to the right, the following platform down in the middle, the following platform down on the left, the following platform down in the middle, etc. Upon landing on each of these platforms on your way to the exit, wait until you hear a chord before proceeding to the next platform. 11. When you reach the bottom, proceed slowly to the exit at the right, entering only once you have heard the final major chord.
PERFORMANCE NOTES: Never go back to collect coinsquares. Continue moving from left to right and try not to ever backtrack. If you miss a particular platform, go back and make sure you land on it before proceeding. 1. Do not jump until you have passed the first drop area. 2. Jump the following rhythm at the pace of the musical pulse: 3. Once your rhythm from #2 starts playing, continue down the path. 4. When you reach the first open area, jump to the following platforms from left to right: third, first, ground (underneath the first platform). Try to make
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