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18 August 2005
By: George Buzdugan, Video and PC Games Editor
Age of Empires III Collector's Edition
"Making Of" DVD, Exclusive Player's Guide, Soundtrack CD, Poster and More
It's the ultimate prize for any Age of Empires fan: the Age of Empires III Collector's Edition is packed with premium extras that any Age fan would crave. Packaged in an oversized, beautifully embossed box, the Collector's Edition includes an impressive hardbound 210-page "The Art of Empires" book, a "Making of Age of Empires III" DVD with behind-the-scenes video and commentary, the official Age of Empires III soundtrack, a huge full-color poster of concept art painted by Craig Mullins, an exclusive Age III Player's Guide, and a Collector's Edition Game Manual. This amazing collection, from Microsoft and Ensemble Studios, is the perfect reward for all those years Age fans have built and destroyed countless civilizations, and is available now for pre-order for $69.99.Age of Empires III is Ensemble Studios' landmark game of discovery and conquest in the New World, featuring spectacular graphics and physics never before seen in a real-time strategy (RTS) game. In Age of Empires III, players assume the role of a European power between 1500 and 1850 A.D. as they struggle to explore, colonize and conquer North and South America. Scheduled for release October 25th, Age of Empires III is the third installment in the award-winning Age of Empires series that has sold more than 16 million copies and defined the historical RTS. By introducing revolutionary new gameplay features like the Home City, the ability to ally with and produce Native American units, awe-inspiring visuals with a fully realized physics engine and more, Age of Empires III will expand upon the legacy of its predecessors and once again set the standard for real-time strategy games. This week, Softpedia News wants to know your opinion on the first beta of Windows Vista. Do you think it comes close to what users want or do you think that Microsoft will have problems with its latest operating system? Express your opinion in the Softpedia News Poll.
Page 1 Copyright (c) 2001-2011 Softpedia. All rights reserved. Softpedia and Softpedia logo are registered trademarks of SoftNews NET SRL.
0805 Part No. X11-36640
Writers & Content Experts: Bruce C. Shelley Greg Street Art Producer: Lance Hoke Progr am Manager: Brian Lemon Writer: Jon Seal Historian: James Henretta Editor: Brent Metcalfe Assistant Editors: Jack Turk Laura Hamilton Heidi WartelleVolt Design & Art: Jeannie Voirin-Gerde Jeremy Parton S&T Onsite
Information in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, is subject to change without notice. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are ctitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property. & p 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Age of Empires, DirectX, Ensemble Studios, the Microsoft Game Studios logo, The Age of Kings, and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
Table of Contents
Introduction Historical Contexts Strategy Overview Spanish British French Portuguese Dutch Russian German Ottoman Military Units by Civilization Military Unit Attributes Random Maps
This players guide serves two main purposes: 1) to provide a glimpse inside the workings of Age of Empires III for fans who are interested in details like the strengths and weaknesses of each unit, map, and civilization; and 2) to offer insider tips on exploiting these strengths and weaknesses through strategy the very essence of gameplay in Age of Empires III. Lead Game Designer, Greg Street, describes the three main strategies of Booming, Rushing, and Turtling for the eight playable civilizations and touches on the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each civilization. Youll learn that some civilizations work best with one or two specic strategies, while other civilizations work equally well with all strategies. Greg also briey describes each of the games sixteen random maps, from New England to Patagonia. Along with having its own unique look-and-feelbased on geography, resources, and indigenous native populationyoull learn that each map may be more suited to one strategy over another. And although every map is randomly generated for each new game, the maps share common design elements. Age of Empires III is the fourth real-time strategy (RTS) game published in the past decade by Ensemble Studios. It embodies everything we have learned along the way. We hope this players guide increases your enjoyment of what we believe is a truly remarkable game.
Game Designer Ensemble Studios
These historical vignettes, while only a partial telling of the vast story of global commerce and empire from 1500 to 1850, were selected because they provide the inspiration for Age of Empires III. We encourage those who nd this discussion interesting to pursue further reading to enhance their understanding of these historic events.
investment in ships and men to make a voyage of discovery, but they were rebuffed. The Portuguese were convinced that their own plan to go east around Africa was the path to riches. Finally the rulers of the joint kingdom of Aragon and Castile, Ferdinand and Isabella, offered support and Columbus small otilla set sail 3 August 1492. Columbus sailed southwest and retted in the Azores before sailing due west along the 28 th Parallel. He expected to strike the legendary island of Antilia, with its famed seven cities, by the middle of September. When nothing appeared, he changed course to the southwest and sailed on doggedly, resisting the growing demands from his men to turn back. Land was spotted on 12 October 1492, and he and his crew went ashore in the Bahamas to claim it for Spain, ignoring the fact that it was already occupied by people he called Indians. He went on to explore more islands, including modern Cuba, Haiti, and Santo Domingo, before sailing home to report his discoveries in early 1493. Misjudging the circumference of the Earth by thousands of miles, Columbus believed that he had found islands off the coast of India, including Cipango (Japan), yet hid his disappointment at not being able to bring back gold and Asian goods. He returned the following year and, in the course of several voyages, sailed near Trinidad, Honduras, Panama, and the Venezuelan coast, and established the rst colony in the New World, on the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. His colony faltered, however, partly due to mismanagement and overly optimistic expectations. Many indigenous inhabitants died in slavery or in revolts, but the major cause of native depopulation was the diseases introduced by the Europeans. His colonists rebelled and at one point Columbus was taken back to Spain in chains. He died in 1506 largely forgot-
ten, but believing to the end that he had discovered a westward route to the riches of Asia. Though somewhat skeptical of Columbus claims, Spain did apply to the Pope for recognition of its right to the new lands, and this was duly conferred with a line drawn north-south through the Atlantic to separate areas of Spanish and Portuguese control. When a Portuguese voyager around Africa went off course and discovered the land later named Brazil, this dividing line was moved further west. The secret of the new discoveries could not be concealed, and soon others were sailing west. In 1497 John Cabot made discoveries in North America on behalf of England, including Newfoundland. He reported excellent shing grounds. Sailing for Spain, Italian Amerigo Vespucci mapped part of the South American coast, conrming the existence of an entirely new continent. A map maker named the continent America in his honor, and the name was eventually adopted for the entire region. By 1513 Vasco Nuez de Balboa had crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacic Ocean. In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator working for Spain, led a large expedition attempting to sail west to Asia around South America. Overcoming storms and attempted mutiny, they eventually discovered the strait now named after Magellan and reached the Philippine Islands, where Magellan was killed in a battle with local natives. Under a succession of commanders the expedition continued westward and eventually a single ship with eighteen men aboard, all that remained of the ve ships and 277 men who began, struggled into the harbor at Seville. Their limited cargo of spices, sold at a 10,000 percent prot, repaid the cost of the whole expedition. More importantly, they had circumnavigated the world for the rst time and opened the doors to further exploration.
An Age of Discovery
Europe in the fteenth century was emerging from the Middle Ages and entering the Renaissance, which would soon make it the most economically and militarily powerful region in the world. One aspect of this rebirth was a thirst for knowledge, including a more complete understanding of the Earths geography. World maps of the ancient Greeks had been rediscovered, but they raised more questions than they answered. New techniques in shipbuilding, seamanship, and navigation made long sea voyages possible. Underlying the drive for geographic knowledge was the European quest for the riches of Asia. Crusaders and pilgrims who traveled to the Holy Land in earlier centuries had returned with tales of great riches in the Middle East, including spices, textiles, and porcelain. In addition, Europeans (notably Prince Henry of Portugal) engaged in warfare against Muslims in North Africa and, in the process, became aware of the wealth of sub-Saharan Africa in the form of gold and slaves brought north across the Sahara. As demand for such exotic goods rose, a burgeoning trade built up from Asia, through the Middle East, and into Europe via Constantinople and the city-states of Italy. While Italian traders grew rich on this trade, western European nations hungered for direct access that avoided Italian and Middle Eastern middlemen. Sea exploration from western Europe was initiated by the small seafaring nation of Portugal, located on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese ships edged their way south, hoping for access to pepper and gold from Africa and Asia. By the time they reached India, even more momentous discoveries had been made on the far side of the Atlantic. We know now that Vikings reached the Americas around 1000 AD and briey established a base in modern Newfoundland. Their colonies in Greenland failed by the middle 1400s, but Viking descendents carried on in Iceland. From this remote European outpost tales of lands to the west reached the ears of merchants and shermen who came north for codsh and trade. These tales prompted westward explorations by English merchants and Basque shermen, but no evidence exists to show that any went across the Atlantic to explore these mysterious lands before 1492. A Genoese sailor named Christopher Columbus became convinced that he could reach Asia by sailing west. He and his brother presented their case to a succession of European kings, hoping for an
As the extent of the New World gradually unfolded, Europeans became aware of not only its size and wide variation in climate and geography, but also that the land was populated by a variety of tribal nations. Although these nations had not moved in the same technological direction as those of Europe, they nevertheless amazed the Europeans in many respects. For example, the capital city of the Aztecs, Tenochtitln, was far larger and arguably more magnicent than any city in Europe at the time. How and when the Americas were rst populated by humans is still debated. We do know that by 1492 indigenous populations spanned North and South America, with the largest concentrations in Mesoamerica and the Andes valleys. The large populations of the Aztec, Maya, and Incan cultures ourished because of agriculture, especially the growing of maize. The degree to which the cultivation of corn spread or failed to spread meant much lower population densities north of Mexico. Most of the peoples north of Mexico made little use of metal except for ornamentation, whereas the civilizations of pre-Columbian America did work gold and silver, but had no tools of bronze, iron, or steel. Only the Maya had developed a system of writing, though the Inca developed counting and recording systems. Native populations were fatally susceptible to diseases carried amongst them by the Europeans, especially smallpox. The implausible conquest of large civilizations by tiny bands of Spanish soldiers, allied with various indigenous peoples, was largely facilitated by epidemics of unprecedented scale. The estimates of Native American deaths due to disease is also a matter of great debate, compounded by the difculty in separating deaths due to genocide, war, and the eradication of traditional ways of life. Native populations may have fallen to 510% of their 1492 levels within 200 years. To the exploring Europeans, the great civilizations of the Aztec, Maya, and Inca were impressive. Though based on the accomplishments of preceding civilizations, they had worked out the religious and social organization of very large societies. Their cities and architecture were particularly remarkable, but of primary importance to the Europeans were their huge accumulations of precious metals and prized artifacts. Isolated and constrained by environmental impediments, the indigenous nations of the Americas were extremely vulnerable when the Europeans arrived. Nevertheless, had it not been for the effects of diseases introduced by the Europeans, the process and time line of conquest and settlement would have been much different.
When Columbus returned to Spain he tried to convince his masters that Asia and great wealth were just over the horizon. They remained skeptical, but explorers and settlers attempted to stake their claim in the West Indies, all with little success. It gradually became clear that the new lands were entirely new continents and that Asia was still far away. The rst island colonies failed when the natives, who served as farm laborers and miners, died from harsh treatment and disease, or in periodic revolts. The limited opportunities to mine gold on the islands were soon exhausted. Before long the islanders were reduced to a remnant of their former numbers, and slaves from Africa were imported to replace them. Columbus unsuccessfully urged the Spanish settlers to grow sugar, and Spanish interest in the region began to wane. Along the coast of Yucatan, Spanish explorers eventually encountered the Maya, who were different from the islanders, wearing cotton clothes, living in stone buildings, carrying better arms, and not easily intimidated. Through contact and trade, the Spanish learned of a much grander city of immense wealth in the interior, which they set out to nd. The Aztecs, who lived inland in the highland Valley of Mexico, extended their empire down almost to Yucatan, acting as overlords to local rulers. Hoping to buy off the Spanish, the Aztec king sent gifts. This proved a huge mistake, as it conrmed the wealth of the interior and attracted an invasion. In two astonishing and brutal campaigns, the Spanish quickly found and largely destroyed both the Aztec Empire in Mexico (in part by organizing subject peoples against their Aztec overlords) and the Inca Empire in the Andes. They hauled off a huge treasure of gold and precious objects and devastated the native populations, intentionally with weapons and inadvertently through the spread of disease. The news of these conquests electried Spain and revitalized its efforts at exploration and settlement. New expeditions searched for the sources of the Aztec and Inca gold, while others explored Brazil and areas in North America from Florida to California. Ultimately the Spanish concentrated on two types of locale: where they found precious metal like the mountain of silver at Potosi in Bolivia, or where they found large native populations they could exploit as laborers. They ignored most of the Caribbean islands because the islands lacked either critical resource, but they held a few as outposts for defensive purposes, such as Cuba, which became a major base. The majority of the early Spanish immigrants were aristocratic sons with little hope of inheriting land, and out-of-work soldiers. They were not looking to start farms, but rather seeking either wealth to take home or a large estate and laborers to work it. Initially (until around 1550), there was no signicant immigration of middle-class freemen and families looking for a new start. The Spanish installed themselves as the new aristocracy in most areas, lording it over native servants and slaves. The king in Spain provided the government bureaucracy, naval power, and soldiers for protection, in exchange for a hefty tax on all wealth shipped back to Europe. The Catholic Church had an important but secondary role in building this Spanish empire, seeking to save the souls of these new-found millions through conversion. The ow of gold and silver back to Europe made Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation in Europe for a few centuries. Spain took on the role of military defender of the Catholic Church. It engaged in turning back the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean and then attempted to contain the spread of Protestantism in the Netherlands and Germany. At home, the Inquisition sought to drive out all traces of both Islam and Judaism.
An Age of Exploration
The riches of the Americasreal or imaginedexercised a powerful attraction for the nations of Europe. Each sought greater wealth and power than the limited resources of Europe could provide. Their dreams of empire brought them into increasing contention for dominance of world resources and trade, which they hoped to translate into economic and military ascendance. Indigenous populations in the Americas stood little chance against the number of explorers and colonists who came seeking wealth, unable to resist European technologyor European microbes.
As Spains list of enemies in Europe grew, the ow of wealth from the New World to Spain became an irresistible target. Spanish shipping and towns were plagued by French, British, and Dutch privateers and navies, as well as outright pirates. The Spanish could not defend everything. Their inability to settle and hold the Caribbean left the islands open to seizure by their enemies. The failure of a yearly treasure eet, due to capture or storm, could force the crown into bankruptcy, as happened in 1557, 1575, and 1597. Spain borrowed heavily to ght its European wars and defend the colonial empire. The ow of wealth from the Americas slowed in the late sixteenth century as local costs rose, the mines became exhausted, and corruption spread. The conservatism of Spanish society meant that its economy, technology, and military fell behind its competitors. It became clear that Spain was no longer capable of ruling its overseas empire when it was conquered easily by Napoleon, who installed his brother as its new king. Although the kingdom of Spain was restored after the defeat of Napoleonic France, the damage overseas was done. One by one the Spanish New World colonies threw off colonial rule, but in most cases very little changed for anyone except the few people at the top. In 1492, England was a small, self-sufcient country, relatively literate and industrious, prospering from the wool trade and shing. It competed for trade against the Dutch and the German Hanseatic League in the North and Baltic Seas. Merchants from Bristol had been searching in the Atlantic for lands to the west as well as good cod shing, a major industry at the time. They quickly followed up on the news of Columbus discovery by sending expeditions of their own under John Cabot and later Henry Hudson that revealed part of North America and Newfoundland. When no Northwest Passage was found, their interest agged, but by the middle of the sixteenth century the English were heavily engaged in the Newfoundland shing industry. Early English interest in the New World focused on the rich ow of wealth from the Spanish colonies. The Protestant English got involved in many of the Spanish wars, particularly in the Netherlands, and jumped at the opportunity to prey on Spanish shipping and towns in the New World. Captains Drake, Frobisher, Hawkins, and others were a major irritation to Spain. From 1577 to 1580 Drake circumnavigated the globe and brought home an enormous haul of captured Spanish treasure. Late in the sixteenth century a few British investors were ready to establish a colony in North America. They were seeking to establish a source for products then being imported from the Mediterranean, such as hides, olive oil, wine, and spices. They assumed they could obtain them from lands of comparable latitude in America. They were also interested in establishing a base from which to intercept Spanish treasure eets passing near Florida. An early colony was established in 1584 on Roanoke Island (along the coast of modern-day Virginia, named in honor of Elizabeth I, Englands virgin Queen). This attempt was abandoned in 1586 because food supplies from England were insufcient and because relations with the indigenous people soon soured. A new colonization attempt was made in 1587, but war broke out with Spain in 1588, delaying relief of the Roanoke colony. When the English nally got back to Roanoke in 1590, they found the colony abandoned; the inhabitants fate remains a mystery. In 1607 the English established a new colony at Jamestown (also in modern-day Virginia). Though this colony struggled for many years, and was even temporarily abandoned, it hung on and eventually prospered, especially after the colonists began growing tobacco for export. Farther north, a group of English religious dissenters, the Pilgrims, established a colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts. This colony also took hold, increasing the English presence in North America. During the next 130 years more colonies were established, including one by Quakers in Pennsylvania, one by Catholics in Maryland, and one by philanthropists in Georgia as a haven for impoverished English men and women. The native populations in North America were relatively sparse, compared to those in Mexico and Peru. The English policy toward them was to push the natives out and take their lands. The North American populations fought back at times, but ultimately could not match the technology and sheer numbers of colonists. The English were also attracted to the Caribbean islands, which had been abandoned or ignored by the Spanish. The English followed the lead of the
Portuguese and Dutch in establishing sugar plantations and importing slaves from Africa to work them. These plantations proved very protable, and for most of the seventeenth century the sugar islands were much more valuable to England than were the agricultural colonies of North America. Englands northeastern American colonies were generally settled by a population of small farmers and craftsmen that grew to become a large, educated middle class. Relatively free of economic constraints, they proved to be industrious, inventive, and resourceful. To the south, Virginia and the Carolinas were different. Here large plantations produced cash crops, particularly tobacco and rice, generally worked by slave labor. Wealth and land was concentrated in the hands of a relative few who presided over a large work force. These areas closely mirrored the economic and social standards of Europe. The prospect of land, personal freedom, and economic opportunity attracted people looking for relief from religious intolerance, social constraints, political discrimination, and lack of work in the Old World. As it became clearer that newcomers were prospering in the English colonies, the tide of immigration increased, not only from the British Isles, but from other parts of Europe as well. For example, by 1775 almost 100,000 immigrants from the various German states had come to British North America seeking to improve their lot. Britains energies were also engaged far beyond the Americas. Its experience in sea warfare against the Spanish, Dutch, and French strengthened what became the Royal Navy to the point that, by the early nineteenth century, it dominated the seas around much of the world. With this sea power, the British were able to establish or capture important colonies and outposts in many strategic and valuable places. Countries that waged war with Britain and its navy risked losing their overseas possessions. At home England became Great Britain by bringing both Ireland and Scotland under the crown. The British engaged in European wars to their advantage, always safe behind their navy and the English Channel. They engaged in diplomacy, and warfare if necessary, to maintain a balance of power, especially on the side of Protestant countries against Catholic ones, mainly Spain and France. They were implacable enemies of revolutionary France and Napoleons empire. In the late eighteenth century, Britain became the rst country to undergo an Industrial Revolution, transforming itself from an agricultural, handcrafting, and trading nation into a manufacturing powerhouse and world center of banking and capital. Its mercantile system accrued wealth at home by acquiring raw materials from its colonies and paying for them with manufactured goods from home. Restrictive trade policies required the colonies to trade only with the home country on British ships at exchange rates favorable to merchants at home. While this system worked well for Britain and made some favored individuals extremely rich, it had aws, forcing some competitor nations to become outright enemies. In 1500, France was a major power in Europe with a large population, a strong agricultural economy, a long military heritage, and a unied government. Because of its central position it was regularly engaged in the land-based power struggles of the continent. The Columbus brothers approached the French king with their plan to sail west for Asia, but he refused to fund their venture. The French followed up the discoveries of new land to the west relatively slowly, although they were trading in Brazil as early as 1504. By 1520 they were actively engaged in the shing industry off Newfoundland. Ships would make an annual trip to the shing grounds in summer before returning to European market ports in the fall. Salt cod had become a food staple for much of Europe and shing a major industry. The French were also active in plundering the shipping of Spain, with whom they were often at war despite shared religious beliefs. The French were interested in balancing the Spanish New World possessions with their own in North America. They also sought a Northwest Passage to Asia and sent Giovanni da Verrazanno to look for it in 1524. He made landfall in the Americas along the Outer Banks of the Carolinas. Further north he discovered Manhattan Island, the mouth of the Hudson River, and Narragansett Bay. He returned to France after a fast and efcient voyage with no evidence of a Northwest Passage, but with news of a promising prospect for colonization. In 1534, Jacques Cartier continued the search for a Northwest Passage. Cartier made landfall in northern Newfoundland, sailed to the Labrador coast, and discovered Prince Edward Island and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. He found no gold and no passage, but the natives he brought home spoke of a great river leading inland to the lands of a wealthy tribe. Cartier returned in 1535 and this time did nd and explore the St. Lawrence River as far as modern Montreal. He returned to France with more native captives, but no better news of gold or a passage to Asia. A third expedition was sent to build a settlement and included women for the rst time. They found no gold and no passage to Asiajust unfriendly natives, inadequate nutrition, and deadly winter weather. The survivors returned to France in 1543. During a brief lull in their wars with Spain, the French grew interested once more in an American base. They failed to establish one in the Carolinas in 15591560, but did build a fort near modern-day Jacksonville, Florida in 1564, in preparation for the arrival of colonists, but they were surprised by an overland Spanish attack from St. Augustine. The fort fell easilythe men, mostly French Protestants, surrendered and were executed as heretics. French interest in North American colonization waned for some time, although they continued to sh off Newfoundland. In the late sixteenth century, fur trading attracted interest after a few ships returned with very protable cargoes. After some attempts to settle colonies on Acadia (now Nova Scotia), an expedition under Samuel de Champlain established a settlement at Quebec in 1608, intending to attract fur traders coming downriver. Champlain explored the area diligently over several expeditions, joined with local tribes in ghting against the Iroquois to the south, and laid the foundation for the permanent settlement of Canada. French Canada concentrated on establishing a fur trade, led by trappers and traders who moved easily in the wilderness. The fur trade was a rare mutually benecial arrangement for both Europeans and Native Americans. This was critical to French success in the wilderness, at least until French attempts to spread their religion and establish settlements
soured the relationship, and European diseases routinely caused devastating local epidemics. Explorations continued along rivers and across the lakes of the interior. Pierre Marquette and Louis Joliet reached the Mississippi in 1673. Rene Robert de LaSalle went down the Mississippi to its mouth in 1682, naming the surrounding land Louisiana for the French king and claiming the watershed for France. The French never completely settled the Mississippi Valley, but did establish bases at important points that later became cities (St. Louis and Memphis in 1682, Detroit in 1701, and New Orleans in 1718). Frequently at war with Britain, their colonies came into conict in North America. The French outposts appeared to hem in the British coastal colonies. The thinly spread French traded weapons to the Indians for furs and encouraged their hostility against the British. In 1754, vicious ghting broke out on the American frontier between indigenous people, European regular troops, and colonial frontiersmen. British regulars were defeated near Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) in 1755, and these events were in part the trigger for the Seven Years War between France and Britain, which began in 1756. In 1759, another British army took Quebec. As part of the peace of 1763, France gave up Canada in exchange for the return of captured islands in the Caribbean. French holdings west of the Mississippi (ceded for a time to Spain and then regained by treaty) were in the way of the newly independent United States expansion. When Napoleon became emperor his European involvements caused him to neglect Frances colonial empire. A slave revolt in Haiti was expensive in both troops and gold and could not be quelled. The unending need for money led Napoleon to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803. All that remained of Frances New World empire was some Caribbean islands. Napoleonic France dominated Europe for the rst decade of the nineteenth century; as the French army seemed invincible. They fought with great lan, inspired by revolutionary ideals and the prospect that any man could rise by merit to become a Marshal of France. But their success was contained at sea by the Royal Navy as Britain worked diligently to build and fund successive coalitions of nations to ght the French. Napoleon overextended himself, invading Russia in 1812 while simultaneously engaged with the British in Portugal and Spain. The Russian invasion was a disaster and Napoleon was forced into a ghting withdrawal across Europe that led to his surrender and exile in 1814. He escaped and reclaimed his crown for 100 days until nally defeated by a Britishled coalition at Waterloo in 1815. In 1500, Portugal had a population of about one million. Its principal products for export were wine and sugar from offshore islands. The seafaring Portuguese became pioneers in the age of exploration, inspired to nd trade routes to southern Africa and Asia. Wholly surrounded on the land side by Spain and blocked from most of the Mediterranean trade by the city-states of Italy, Portuguese sailors worked their way into the Atlantic and south to Africa. In the fteenth century they discovered and settled islands in the Atlantic, which proved excellent for growing sugar. The kings brother, Prince Henry (the Navigator), encouraged and subsidized voyages of exploration southward. By 1445 they had reached Senegal and built a trading fort there; in 1473 they crossed the equator; in 1487 they reached the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da Gama nally reached the Indian port of Calicut in 1498, opening the door to the fabulous wealth of Asia. In 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil. These voyages of discovery and the riches they yielded made Portugal a major player in the race for new wealth and empire. In acknowledgement of their achievement, the Pope issued a decree dividing the world between the interests of Spain and Portugal, two of the staunchest and most successful supporters of the Catholic Church. The Portuguese concentrated their efforts in the East, establishing a key trading base at Goa in India, outposts in Malaysia, an outpost at Macao (the gateway to southeast China), and eventually exploring as far east as Japan. Pepper that could be bought for three ducats in India sold for 80 ducats in Lisbon. While acquiring this eastern treasure the Portuguese were engaged in warfare against Muslim states, with cruelty and aggression on both sides By 1570 the volume of the Portuguese spice trade had dwindled. The Dutch and English followed them around Africa in the early seventeenth century and proved tough and resilient competitors. By the 1660s, the Dutch had taken over Indonesia, while the Portuguese hung on, trading mainly within the Indies. The Portuguese did establish a colony in Brazil, where they harvested the Brazil tree logs from which the country took its name, and established more sugar plantations. They imported African slaves from their base on the African coast and sold them to the plantation owners in the Caribbean. These slaves were among the ten million Africans who arrived involuntarily in the New World between 1550 and 1850. In time Portugals status declined. After Napoleon overran Spain he made an effort to extend his control to Portugal in an attempt to deny Britain access to European trade. A British army led by the Duke of Wellington contested the invasion and engaged the French for years before driving them out of the Iberian Peninsula for good, ensuring Portuguese autonomy.
Holland in 1500 was a small European nation, but was also extremely energetic, practical, and progressive, with a strong emphasis on trade. Particularly in the northern provinces, the Dutch embraced Protestant Christianity during the sixteenth century, supplanting Catholicism. They were aggressive and dynamic traders, well-positioned to transport goods to and from the Baltic and North Atlantic, and into the interior of Europe up the Rhine River. They built efcient ships that carried large cargoes with small crews. Very limited in land, they developed an intense agriculture and began reclaiming lowlands from the sea. By accident of marriage and inheritance, control of the now largely Protestant Holland shifted to Catholic Spain in the mid-sixteenth century, and Spanish kings sought, in turn, to supplant Protestantism within their realm. This led to a revolt against Spain. Although at a great disadvantage in overall wealth and power, the Dutch proved a tough opponent and drew allies to their side. By 1609 Holland was virtually independent. In the era of colonial expansion by great empires, the Dutch pursued business opportunities. They were soon engaged in the trade with the Americas, despite Spanish attempts to exclude non-allies. The efciency of their ships made them attractive as low-cost carriers. They built a business carrying and processing sugar and other goods out of Portuguese Brazil. When the Spanish allied with Portugal and closed the Portuguese ports to the Dutch, the Dutch seized several islands, including Aruba and Curaao. In 1610, Henry Hudson explored the North American coast and rediscovered the river now named after him and the great harbor of modern-day New York City. After several trading voyages to the area seeking furs, the Dutch planted a small trading outpost up the river near Albany in 1614, and later a more permanent settlement on Manhattan Island. The relatively few colonists were more interested in trade prots than in establishing a lasting and well-defended colony. New Amsterdam fell easily to a British eet commanded by the Duke of York in 1664. The Dutch regained it briey in 1673, but ceded it permanently to Britain in 1674. The Dutch made their biggest mark in the East Indies. Following in the wake of the Portuguese around Africa in the early 1600s, agents of the Dutch East India Company, together with England, took over much of the East India trade.
Rushing is the opposite of Booming. You ignore economy and focus on military early in the game. You want to attack an enemy player before they are ready and hurt their economy so much that you can then pass them up, or even take them out of the game immediately. Stop making villagers early so you can train military as early as possible in the Colonial Age. You arent likely to have a highly upgraded army, but you might be able to sacrice quality for quantity.
Turtling is essentially Booming except that you devote many more resources to defense. You anticipate being Rushed, so you want to be ready for it. Turtling often assumes building defensessuch as walls, Outposts, or a stronger Town Centerbut could also involve devoting an early Shipment to soldiers who will remain close to your town to defend it. Like Booming, Turtling is generally easier and safer if you arent on the front lines. When Turtling, you should be able to fend off a Rush, but your economy is going to fall behind a pure Boom because you dont have as many villagers.
The Spanish are adept Treasure collectors who make rapid Shipments. An Explorer with extra War Dogs can defeat tougher Treasure guardians and benet from an early accrual of resources. Playing as the Spanish, earning Shipments is your strongest if not sole advantage over the economies of competing civilizations. Focus on sending Settlers and Food Crates from the Home City, and erect a second Town Center as early in the game as possible. You need Food to produce Settlers, so pay attention to the map. Hunt on the Great Plains map, collect animal herds on the Patagonia or Texas maps, and sh on water maps. You have no inherent defenses against a Rush, so position one of your allies on the front lines.
Quick Shipments give the Spanish a strong Rush. You have the best Pikemen in the game, so invest in them heavily. Avoid using War Dogs in an early attack since nding Treasure doesnt benet you when Rushing. Instead, devote as many Settlers as you can spare to gathering Wood so you can build a pair of Barracks in the Colonial Age yet have a Wood surplus for Pikemen and Crossbowmen. Because Pikemen are weak against ranged attacks, beware of enemy Outposts or Crossbowmen. To compensate, add Hussars to your raiding party to vanquish ranged units. Pikemen cant catch Settlers, so target them on weaker buildings like Houses or Markets. Once you raze a few enemy buildings, retreat before you lose your entire army. Still, this strategy should leave your enemy crippled, allowing you to focus on your economy for a late-game attack.
The French economy is tied to the Coureur. These villagers are expensive, but they excel at gathering and train just as fast as other Settlers. Continuously spawning Coureurs out of your Town Center rapidly depletes your resources, so you may need to Boom longer than other civilizations. By late in the game, however, the French economy can become quite powerful. Because less of your population is tied up in Settlers, you get an extra benet in that youll need fewer Houses and youll be able to have a larger army sooner. Base your early economy mostly on Food, especially from low-risk hunting. Gather only enough Wood to build a few Houses or possibly a Market. Advancing to the Fortress Age quickly isnt essentialparticularly if you dont have enough Food to keep multiple lines of Coureurs queued up.
French have Pikemen and Crossbowmen, the foundation of a versatile Rush armybut it comes at the expense of more Coureurs. Rushing is, therefore, more difcult for the French than other civilizations. You should still erect a Barracks as early as possible, or a Stable if you prefer Hussar raiding instead. French Home Cities generally have many Native American upgrades. Since Native Warriors dont cost population, its possible to make an early raid using Native allies. Youll need plenty of Wood for a Trading Post to forge alliances with the Natives. You must defend your Trading Post or risk losing resources and experience points to your enemy. Another French Rush strategy involves getting to the Fortress Age quickly and then attacking with just a few Cuirassiers. Cuirassiers are powerful even individually, so a handful of them can leave a wake of destruction. Remember to keep an eye on your units; losing just three Cuirassiers to a few Dragoons is the equivalent of 1,000 resources lost.
The French are natural defenders because of the Coureurs combat advantage over other Settlers, so venturing outside your town to hunt or mine isnt as risky as it is for other civilizations. Maximize this benet with Market improvements such as Great Coat and Blunderbuss, or with the Home City Shipment of pioneers. Most enemies wont attack French Coureurs unless they have a large ranged infantry (typically Crossbowmen); instead, they may try attacking your buildings with Pikemen or Hussars. So spend some effort on early defenses, and then quickly transition to a full-edged Boom to maximize the number of Coureurs a Boom can produce. And enlist your Native Scout to help spot an incoming attack.
The Portuguese are exceptional at Booming. Given enough Food, they can spawn Settlers more quickly than other civilizations and at an even lower cost than the British Manors incur. When one of your Town Centers is idle, you are squandering your big bonus, so stockpile as much Food as you can. You cant send Settlers from your Home City, but you can send Food Crates. Livestock can pay off eventually if you can afford it, and the Portuguese also have Home City Shipments that benet early shing. If youre going for a straight Boom, position all your Town Centers together, while still protecting as many resources as possible. For example, you may want to place your second Town Center by a Mine or herd of Bison. You could also use the second Town Center to stake out a Trading Post site.
Booming isnt a German strength. German players can eventually Boom because of Settler Wagons, and they can eld an army of Uhlans at no cost to resources. Those who have many more resources than other players, may nd it a bit tricky to advance to the Colonial or Fortress Ages. Note that a Settler Wagon is worth two Settlers, so send them as often as you can. Protect your Settler Wagons and dont let them stray too far from your settlement. Germans have a very useful Home City improvement called Guild Artisans that boosts Settler Wagon gather rates several foldif you advance to the Industrial Age with several Settler Wagons, its a great Shipment to send.
Germans are natural Rushers because they get Uhlans often and early. Uhlans can dish it out, but with their low hitpoints they cant take it, so avoid getting them into a melee ght, especially against Pikemen. Crossbowmen are a great complement to Uhlans because they can eliminate defensive Pikemen or Musketeers. While the Germans lack Musketeers, the Doppelsoldner can have devastating effect even in small numbers, especially against tightly packed enemies. No matter what soldier you plan on training for an early raid, youre always going to have plenty of Uhlans. To upgrade them, build a Stable by the Fortress Age.
Germans benet from a few default defenses, including hordes of nearby Uhlans. Uhlans arent a match for Pikemen or Musketeers trying to destroy Houses, but they can devastate Crossbowmen or Strelets. Though expensive, Settler Wagons are a strategic asset. They pack the equivalent of two Settlers into one unit, making it easier to keep tabs on them. Germans do have some coveted Home City Shipments that let them defend their colonies and improve gathering resources for buildings such as Mills (which are easy to defend). Germans dont ght well in walled environments because some of their strongest units use only hand attacks. Dont discount the German Skirmishers who are quite powerful in the Fortress and Industrial Ages.
As an Ottoman, you have a straightforward decision when deciding whether to Boom. If you Boom, you want to get to the Fortress Age as fast as possible and obtain additional Town Centers. Your Settlers are free, so you are limited only by training rate; an additional Town Center doubles that rate. An alternative is to build your Mosque early and start pursuing the line of Settler training upgrades, though this strategy is slightly better for Turtling. In the rst two Ages, you arent going to have much control over your Settler production rate and youll have less need for Food unless you want to Age up early (its possible to do so on the rst or second Shipment). You are therefore likely to be passed up by an aggressive Portuguese or British player who can spawn Settlers more quickly. Once youre in the Fortress Age or later, youll start to catch up and its not uncommon for the Ottomans to have the best late-game economy because you automatically receive additional Settlers.
The advantage of the Ottoman Rush is that it doesnt really weaken their economy to attack early. Youre still going to get just as many Settlers as with another strategy. The difference is likely in how quickly youll Age up. To attack early, you need to advance to the Colonial Age very quickly. Decide on either a Barracks, Stable, or Artillery Foundry, and then focus on acquiring several of those units. The Janissary is probably the strongest early attacker. The Hussar can cover ground quickly and hit-and-run. The Abus Gun is slower and requires more care because it is expensive; but then again, players you attack are more likely to have Pikemen and Crossbowmen standing around (which the Abus can beat) than cavalry (which can beat the Abus). Ottomans use Janissaries often, which makes their attacks rather predictable.
Since you are going to want to spend some resources on walls, Outposts, or defensive soldiers, you arent going to Age up very quickly. Rather, youll want to rely on your Mosque to increase Settler production. Keep the costs of the Mosque improvements in mind so you can quickly shift from Food to Wood to Coin as needed. Keep the Mosque near the Town Center and build an additional Outpost to help defend it. If you have walls, Abus Guns offer your best defense due to their long range.
Por tug ues e
Ott oma n
Hit poi nts
Pikemen Rodeleros Halberdiers Doppelsoldners
Military Units by Civilization
Military Unit Attributes
Range: - long - medium - short - no Hitpoints: - heavy - medium - light - weak
Crossbowmen Longbowmen Strelets Skirmishers Cassadores
Hussars Cossacks Uhlans Lancers Cuirassiers Oprichniks Spahis
(Based on hitpoints per cost, not just raw hitpoints)
Attack: - huge - big - medium - small
(Based on damage per cost)
Cavalry Archers Dragoons War Wagons Ruyters
Wide-open spaces, large herds of bison, plentiful ore Mines, and as many as six Lakota and Comanche villages offer a wide variety of potential strategies. The Trade Route may have multiple Trading Post sites. To supplement your late-game Wood gathering, control the dense forests near the edges of the map, or rely on the scattered clumps of trees out on the plains.
Each team begins with an easily defended Iroquois village in the backeld; the ght is for control of the four Trading Post sites along the lone central Trade Route. Lakes and low stone walls provide natural barriers and choke points in which to trap enemies. Search the isles off the coast for hidden Treasures.
Your team occupies one mountain rangeyour opponents the other. The victors will be the ones who control the central valley and the choke points. Forests and Treasures are more heavily concentrated in the center of the map. The Lakota have ventured up into the mountains and may be useful allies.
A river divides the long plain of the Pampas. You and your allies are initially separated by this river, which contains several crossing points, but the location of your starting towns differs greatly. There are always four Trading Posts. Expect to nd a number of Maya and Tupi villages as well.
In this resource-heavy region, one team starts with ships, while the other team starts with an easily defended central position. Building Outposts near the local Cree and Lakota villages may help control sections of the map.
The Patagonian map contains no Natives, but does include six Trading Posts. Control the three posts you own and one belonging to your enemy, and victory is almost assured you. To maintain a steady supply of Wood, stay near the coast. A central lake offers tactical opportunities but may restrict movement along the western side of the map.
A twisting Trade Route winds through this barren, desolate region. Many cliffs and canyons create choke points. Resources can be difcult to nd, though sometimes there are rich ore deposits in the center of the map. Search for Aztec and Maya villages on the edge of the map.
Texas is an open plain with scattered low cliffs. Expect attacks from every side. Two Trade Routes, each with two Trading Post sites, cut through the center of the map, separating the teams. There are always at least two Comanche settlements.
A large Inca city dominates the Andescontrol the city, and youll easily control the map. Neutral Huari Strongholds are scattered throughout, presenting challenges for unwary Explorers. Keep your eyes open for the three Trading Post sites. Seek herds of llamas for an early boost of Food.
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