Reviews & Opinions
Independent and trusted. Read before buy Games PC Comanche 4!

Games PC Comanche 4


Preview of first few manual pages (at low quality). Check before download. Click to enlarge.
Manual - 1 page  Manual - 2 page  Manual - 3 page 

Download (English)
Games PC Comanche 4 - Mission Editor, size: 731 KB
Instruction: After click Download and complete offer, you will get access to list of direct links to websites where you can download this manual.


Games PC Comanche 4About Games PC Comanche 4
Here you can find all about Games PC Comanche 4 like manual and other informations. For example: review.

Games PC Comanche 4 manual (user guide) is ready to download for free.

On the bottom of page users can write a review. If you own a Games PC Comanche 4 please write about it to help other people.


[ Report abuse or wrong photo | Share your Games PC Comanche 4 photo ]

Video review

Comanche 4 Gameplay


User reviews and opinions

<== Click here to post a new opinion, comment, review, etc.

No opinions have been provided. Be the first and add a new opinion/review.




The rumble effects are weak on my WingMan Rumblepad. Why? The effects in Colin McRae Rally 2.0 are mostly using springs and damper effects, which are designed for optimal use on a steering wheel. To get the best effects in game, ensure the following setup in "Options -> "Controllers" configuration screen. Force Feedback Effect Forces Texture Forces Quick Force Update ON 100% 100% ON
Steering is very difficult in the game. How can I correct this? In the "Options - Controllers" page, you must have the steering and accelerate selections set to "Analog" mode. WingMan Formula Force GP is fully compatible with the game.

Comanche 3

Why is the control either erratic or non-existent for Comanche 3? Although this game has a Windows style interface, it is a DOS-based game. The current WingMan game controllers are designed to work in a Windows environment using Microsoft DirectX.

Comanche 4

The game should work well with Logitech force- or non-force feedback joysticks. However, the game default setting doesn't enable joystick control. Use the instructions below to enable it. To enable joystick support in Comanche 4: 1. Go into "Options" 2. Select "Controls" 3. Select "Joystick" as the flight control. To enable force feedback in this game, you should download and install the version v1.0.13 patch. Does Comanche 4 support force feedback or rumble effects? Yes, it supports Directional Force Feedback as long as the v1.0.13 patch is installed. When using the Profiler to assign keyboard commands to the twist handle of my Logitech game controller, the helicopter keeps spinning to the left, or performing unwanted actions in the game. How do I make it stop? To correct this behavior, un-check the "Enable Twist Stick or Rudder Pedals" option in the game's "Option Menu".

Crimson Skies

Why are the force feedback effects weak with my WingMan Force 3D and WingMan Strike Force 3D? You can find an improved force feedback definition file for this game on the WingMan Team web site.

Descent 3

I have Windows XP and I am not getting Force Feedback effects when in Descent 3 with my WingMan Force Feedback game controller. What's the problem? From what we have found, Descent 3 is not playing the forces under the Windows XP operating system. It appears that the result is the same when using the Microsoft Force Feedback game controllers. Please contact the game manufacturer/developer for more information.

Diablo 2

F1 Racing Championship

How do I configure separate pedals ? Here are the steps to configure separate pedals. The game may not retain the pedal settings if you need to exit the game and restart it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Put device in "Separate Pedals" mode in the WingMan control panel. Launch the game. Go to the "Configure controls" screen. Click on "Accelerate", observe the control goes to a "Purple" color. Press on the Accelerator pedal. Observe that the control text has been updated to "Accelerate +". 6. Click on "Brake", observe the control goes to a "Purple" color. Press on the "Brake" pedal. 7. Observe that the control text has been updated to "Brake +". Why doesnt the "Configure Controls" screen read data from my device on Windows XP if WingMan Profiler is running? There seems to be an incompatibility between WingMan Profiler and the F1 Racing Championship control configuration screen. The problem is limited to this configuration screen, and the game correctly reads the controls during gameplay. To prove this, do the following: 1. Install latest WingMan Software and F1 Racing Championship on Windows XP. 2. Start F1 Racing Championship. 3. Go to the "Configure Controls" screen in the game. Note that the input is correctly read from the controller (i.e. if you move the wheels, or press buttons, there is correct response in the configuration screen). 4. Shut the gamedown. 5. Start WingMan Profiler. 6. Start F1 Racing Championship. 7. Go to the "Configure Controls" screen in the game. 8. Note that the input is not read from the controller (i.e. if you move the wheels, or press buttons there is no response in the configuration screen) We have reported the problem to the game developer.

F1 Racing Simulation

How do I enable force feedback? To accomplish the following, you will need to have the 1.09 patch for the game installed. Then enable it using the following instructions. 1. Select "Configure". 2. Select the "Controls" tab. 3. Click the target or wheel icon in the middle lower section of the Controls tab. This screen allows you to enable/disable force feedback (YES = dark gray). NOTE: See the FRCFEEFB.TXT file that is installed with the patch for more information.

Falcon 4

Why am I not getting any force feedback in the game? Unfortunately, this game was developed when force feedback was still in it's infancy. A lot of early force feedback games use a type of force feedback specific to Microsoft game controllers and will not work with non-Microsoft devices. Since then, some of the game manufacturers have come out with patches to support the other devices, but very few. To find out if your game has a patch, you will need to visit that companys web site for details.

FIFA 2001

The players on my team do not respond to my directional movements when I am using the Profiler. Why? Unfortunately, FIFA 2001 can only accept either game controller or keyboard input. The button assignments use keyboard mappings; therefore, joystick response is lost. To correct this issue, you will need to assign the "Left", "Right", "Forward", and "Backward" commands to the X/Y axis in the WingMan Profiler. Why isnt the profile applied to the game? In general, Profiler type of applications work by generating keyboard input in response to button presses. So in a game when you press a button, the equivalent keystroke is generated and processed by the game. This approach will not work with FIFA 2001. When you select a gamepad for use in FIFA 2001, the game no longer reads any keyboard input, i.e. the Profiler is generating keystroke input, but it is not processed by the game. The only key that is processed from the keyboard seems to be pause. How do I use the In Game Management (IGM) function with my WingMan Rumblepad in FIFA 2001? The FIFA 2001 game has a default predefined set of configurations, and the IGM function is not available for WingMan Rumblepad. The game has no way to change these assignments in the game. (FIFA 2002 adds these capabilities.)

FIFA 2002

When using WingMan Action Pad in FIFA 2002, the game can enter an "automatic passing mode" i.e. the players automatically pass the ball from one to another without any user intervention. This makes the game unplayable. Why? The reason for this issue is that FIFA 2002 is reading the throttle position of the gamepad and if the throttle position is not centered, then the game enables this automatic passing mode. The workaround for this issue is to move the throttle to a centered position. When the throttle is in this position, then the automatic passing mode will be disabled. This issue does not exist for any of the other WingMan gamepads.
Fly! (with 1.01.87 patch)
Why are the force feedback effects so strong? Fly! is creating multiple springs at the same time with zero deadzone, with the end result being an instability that causes shaking/oscillations during neutral flight (i.e. flying straight and level). As a workaround, use the control panel and reduce the spring strength slider to around 70%. This should reduce the instability and you will still get other forces. NOTE: Some of the aerodynamic flight forces may be weaker.

Fly! II

Fly! II is sensitive to movement on the x-axis of the joystick, but no more so than other flight sim games. There are few settings for the actual joystick, but the defaults seem to work fine. The control of the aircraft was easy and resulted in very little over correction. Though the game does not require a rudder or twist control, it is highly recommended that you use a joystick with such a feature. The force feedback in Fly! II was adequate, with the standard engine rumble and landing bouncing. In the air the wind buffets where there, but weak in comparison of similar games. What type of game controllers are supported by Fly! II? Joysticks Does Fly! II support force feedback or rumble effects? Yes, it supports "Directional Force Feedback".

Grand Prix 3 (retail CD)

Many users are confused by the operation of the game configuration in Grand Prix 3. Below are some basic notes we have created to try and help. If you still cannot get GP3 to work, the best thing to do is call the game developer technical support and they should be able to guide you through the configuration. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The game does not automatically detect if the controller device is a wheel or a joystick, so you must select this in the game The game calibration screen only displays X and Y axis reports, so it seems that "separate" pedals mode is not supported. In the advanced controls screen you can create a "user set" control method that will allow you to specify button assignments for gear up, gear down, etc. The game only presents you with the ability to choose from four buttons when assigning controls. If creating a custom user profile with WingMan Software prior to 3.62, you must specify the file GP3.ICD as the executable, and launch the game from the desktop shortcut or start menu item. Force feedback effects are present for driving on road, driving on grass, collisions with other cars, and collisions with barriers. The new GP3 patch for split axes does work correctly under Windows 98/Me, but the patch does not work under Windows 2000.

Grand Prix 4

We have received questions from users trying to configure separate pedals in Grand Prix 4 (GP4). There are a few ways to go about this; below is one method that involves creating what the game calls a "user set". 1. Ensure the wheel is set up for separate axes in Game Controllers at ID. 2. Start GP4. 3. GP4 seems to read the control axes data to navigate the menus. This can lead to scrolling/flickering of the menus. According to some information in the news groups, this behavior can be disabled as follows: ! From the Main menu, click "Workshop", Utilities", then "Menu setup". ! Un-check "Shows tooltips". 4. Now assign the various axes in the game. ! From the Main menu, click Options", then "Controls" 5. Click "Advanced".

For Logitech MOMO Force, the following parameters in the [Joy] section of CORE.INI are recommended as starting values: [ Joy ] allow_force_feedback = 1; Use FF if device has it force_feedback_damping = 40.000000; force feedback damping coefficient force_feedback_latency = 0.001600; force feedback latency (secs) max_steering_torque = 225.000000; steering torque in N*in giving max device force Some people find the following settings better: [ Joy ] allow_force_feedback = 1; Use FF if device has it force_feedback_damping = 200.0 ; force feedback damping coefficient force_feedback_latency = 00.001; force feedback latency (secs) max_steering_torque = 250.0; steering torque in N*in giving max device force Start out with one of these settings and determine if it works for you. Settings for Logitech Control Panel/Profiler In the control panel Settings page, we recommend starting out with the default settings for the force levels (100% everywhere, Centering Spring in Force Feedback games unchecked), but separate pedals. While the 100% settings will give you nice, strong forces, they might be a bit too much for some people. In that case, we recommend using the Overall Force Gain to reduce the forces to your taste. 90% or even 70% are values that some people are using. GPL has essentially two types of forces - dynamic forces that get updated with the ongoing vehicle physics, and a damper that gives a certain amount of resistance to the wheel. Some people like the damper, some people find it taking away from the pure "driving forces". If the damping effect on the wheel feels disturbing, it can be reduced or completely disabled by using the control panel's Damper Gain slider. 0% will get rid of the damper altogether, while values between 1 and 99% will reduce its intensity. In general, we do not recommend going above 100%, as this starts to distort forces, and forces like the ones GPL produces are very true to the simulation. If they get distorted, they don't feel "right" anymore and tend to be disturbing. Additional Tips and Suggested Settings To make initial MOMO Force setting adjustments. 1. In WingMan Profiler set the strengths as follows: Overall effects = 90% Spring effects = 0% Damper effects = 0% Center Spring = 0% or OFF
2. In the CORE.INI initial file settings: [Hack] steer_ratio= 0 [Joy] allow_force_feedback= 1 force_feedback_damping= 0.0 force_feedback_latency= 0.0 max_steering_torque= 100.0 3. Set "force_feedback_latency" in the CORE.INI file first. This is the most critical and hardest to get right. To test the settings, a good track to use is Monza. Stop the car on a wide piece of track. Engage first gear and turn wheel to full steering lock, left or right. Take your hands off the wheel and slowly add power. The car should straighten up under gentle acceleration. Try again, but add power more rapidly. The car should straighten up and may spin around. Adjust the "force_feedback_latency" setting in 0.025 increments until the car becomes stable and ceases to oscillate from side to side. This setting is more critical for smaller values of max_steering_torque. Don't worry if the car and wheel oscillate from side to side under de-acceleration; this situation is discussed later. To fine tune latency further, go to the first turn of Monza which has a curb on the right. Change to the F10 view (out of car) and drive over the curb at a 30 to 45 degree angle. Watch each wheel as it goes over the curbing. Change the force_feedback_latency to get an independent thump from the MOMO Force that coincides exactly with the rise or fall of each wheel as it goes over the curb. Also note the number of thumps you feel-there should be four. Remember the final CORE.INI latency setting will only apply to your specific setup. No other users should be affected. Small variations in manufacturing and your hardware speed will influence this variable. 4. Now make some "max_steering_torque" setting adjustments in the CORE.INI. Try some laps at Monza. If you decrease the values of max_steering_torque, the effects become stronger until they start to become "clipped". Increasing the value makes the effects subtle, to the point the car won't straighten up under acceleration. If your setting results in clipping or the car won't straighten up under acceleration or coming out of a corner when you take your hands off the wheel, you have gone too far. Try a value of 300 to begin with and slowly decrease it to a setting you like best. 5. Finally, increasing "force_feedback_damping" in the GPL helps to damp out the "jerks" that you sometimes get with the wheel, but at the expense of numbing some of the feeling. This setting DOES NOT influence the damping force applied to the wheel. 6. In the force feedback wheel world, "damping" is the sensation of moving an object through viscous fluid. With heavy damping, the wheel will feel sluggish or unresponsive because damping resists quick movement. The faster the wheel moves, the stronger the resistance you will feel. To set the MOMO Force wheel "damping", go into Windows Control Panel and open the Gaming Options control panel. Highlight the MOMO Force and click Properties; open the Settings window. Adjust as necessary.

7. At this point, there might still be a very noticeable side to side bumping force generated from the wheel when driving in a straight line, making it difficult to not weave side to side down a straightaway. The following steps should correct this. a. b. c. d. Open the WingMan Profiler and select GPL as the game in Profiler. In the Profiler window, click on "Steering Wheel" (lower left of profiler window). Click on "Axis Properties". In the "Adjust Sensitivity, Dead Zone, Range,and Mapping" window, first change the dead zone setting. First try 5%, close Profiler and drive the car in a straight line. The left and right bumping forces should be greatly reduced. You may need to use a higher setting.
Experiment with this setting till you get the best result that you can with an acceptable center dead zone. Then try different values of the "Sensitivity" setting and adjust to your taste. You probably should leave the "Range" setting at 100%. You should now have very similar forces with the MOMO Force as with the WingMan Formula Force wheel and no excessive oscillations in the MOMO Force wheel at lower speeds. The wheel will straighten out and center itself at lower speeds without any oscillations at all until you apply enough throttle to break the rear wheels loose. Then the wheel will react as it should, IMHO, as the car begins to slide sideways. At higher speeds if you turn the wheel left or right and then let go, there are oscillations similar to, but less than those used in the beginning. Changing the dead zone from the 0% default setting will drastically reduce the wheel bumping side to side when going in a straight line. Most of the information above came from the "GPL Foolishness" web site in the Hardware section. Some additional links on GPL configuration

Grand Theft Auto 3

Why do my characters spin around when I enter the game screen in Grand Theft Auto 3? This can be caused by 2 different issues: WingMan Profiler Mouse Emulation is enabled Simply rotate the mini joystick that has the mouse axis assigned to it. Unfortunately, this will need to be done on every time a new screen is loaded. Grand Theft Auto 3 is using the throttle control for "Turn Left"/"Turn Right". Unfortunately, it seems that the developer for Grand Theft Auto 3 has designed the game to use the throttle control as a "rudder" axis. In order to correct this, the throttle slider will need to be in the center for the character to stop rotating.

You may additionally want to set the right mini joystick's X and Y axis to Mouse X and Y respectively. NOTE: Whenever you make a change in the Profiler or start a game, slowly rotate the right mini joystick (or whichever one you wish to have the turn on) around all four corners. This allows the DirectX driver to adjust to the minimum/maximum ranges reported by the controller.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone
The game is really meant to be controlled with a mouse and keyboard, not a joystick or gamepad. Within the game options, you can configure button settings, but there doesnt appear to be a way to set the axes of the controller to move the game character. It is possible to assign gamepad or joystick D-Pad/POV to the character movement, but this does not allow two movement actions at once. This means the character cannot move forward and left (or right) at the same time. It's possible to custom configure WingMan Profiler to set the controller axes to mouse movements, but using this method is still very limited and control is difficult. All attempts to use a gamepad or joystick in this game met with poor results. It's highly recommended to use mouse and keyboard control. NOTE: The game does not support force feedback or rumble effects.

High Heat Baseball

When using a WingMan game controller, only some of the buttons work and they don't correspond to what's listed in the manual. What's wrong? Unfortunately, High Heat Baseball does not have full support for most game controllers. At this time, the only WingMan controller directly supported by the game is the WingMan Gamepad (black model). If the game does not detect a specific controller, it will default to 4-button control. On the RumblePad and Action Pad, the active buttons are A, B, C, and X. Use the manual to reference the controls as follows: A button on gamepad B button on gamepad C button on gamepad X button on gamepad RED button in manual BLUE button in manual Yellow button in manual Green button in manual

Hitman Codename 47

How can I configure Hitman: Codename 47 to use my WingMan gamepad or joystick? Unfortunately, Hitman: Codename 47 does not support the use of joystick- or gamepad- type controllers. Also, according to Eidos' web site, there are no plans at this time for patches that will include support for these devices.


Why cant I get my POV 2, or POV 3 to work on my WingMan Interceptor joystick? The WingMan Interceptor has three POVs under Windows 2000. Some of the demo versions of this game do not allow assignment of commands beyond the first POV,i.e. you cannot assign commands to POV2 or POV3. There is a utility called POSWDM from Microsoft that should help you confirm the correct operation of the POVs.

WingMan RumblePad users will most likely want to take this configuration one step further and use the right mini-joystick for "Mouse look". We tried to make this setting in the game configuration screen, but it seems the game does not read the Y axis data of the right mini-joystick. We have reported the problem to game developer. This second attempt uses the WingMan Profiler mouse emulation feature to generate mouse reports from the right mini-joystick. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create a profile for Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast In the profile, assign the right mini-joystick to mouse axes. Assign the gamepad buttons to mouse buttons according to your own preference. Start Jedi Knight II: Jedi Outcast. Fully rotate right mini-joystick and notice that the mouse cursor moves. In the configuration screen you might need to increase to mouse sensitivity value to fine tune the performance.
You should be now able to use the left mini-joystick for moving the character in the game, and the right mini-joystick for "mouse look".

Madden 2000

Why doesnt my RumblePad control the same way as the Microsoft Sidewinder does? The game was made to recognize and utilize the Microsoft Sidewinder gamepad in a much different way than most other controllers. Madden 2000 was developed prior to the release of the WingMan RumblePad, and no customizations were done. For this reason, Madden 2000 sees the WingMan RumblePad as a standard nine button controller, and buttons A, B, C, X, Y, Z are treated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. All nine buttons are used, but because of the special configuration in the case of the Microsoft Sidewinder gamepad, there is no way to make a profile which will emulate the control method exactly.
Why dont I get force feedback effects when playing MDK 2? It is unfortunate that game developers do not typically list the support of forces or rumble, on the game boxes, so it's difficult to tell which games may or may not support these features. Unfortunately, MDK 2 does not ship with force feedback support. However, there is a update available from the MDK 2 official web site that adds support to the game.

Mechwarrior 4

How can I assign functions to the hat (POV) switch? Unfortunately, Mechwarrior 4 does not allow functions to be assigned to the hat (POV) switch. This control is reserved for the built-in game functions.
Medal of Honor Allied Assault
What types of game controllers does Medal of Honor: Allied Assault support? It supports Mouse & Keyboard. Here is the official statement from the EA website regarding gamepad/joystick support. Can a joystick or gamepad be used to play the game? No, Medal of Honor: Allied Assault does not support gamepads or controllers and will be unable to detect and configure them properly. Medal of Honor: Allied Assault uses the standard First Person Shooter keyboard layout (WASD movement.)

The following table illustrates the original and standard Axes settings to use a game controller with Microsoft Flight Simulator 2002. Assignment List Ailerons Axis Elevator Axis Rudder Axis Throttle Axis Axis X-Axis Y-Axis Rudder Throttle
Microsoft has a couple of really useful Knowledge base articles on this game. You can find them at the following locations. Microsoft Knowledge Base Article - Q315926;en-us;Q315926 Microsoft Knowledge Base Article - Q315941;[LN];Q315941
Microsoft Flight Simulator 98 (retail CD)
This game does not do a very good job of assigning reasonable game functions to devices that have more than the basic "three axis and 4 button" type of controls. As a result it is a good idea to review the game's documentation for setup instructions to see how the controls are assigned to your device. The in-game configuration capability is very good, so it should be fairly easy to change the configuration if you wish. The help documentation on game configuration is also good and should answer most questions. The game supports basic aerodynamic flight force feedback effects, and these effects also work on "rumble" type devices. If you change the control assignments from within the game, please be sure to duplicate the changes in the WingMan Profiler, otherwise your control assignments may not work properly.
Why are my controls not correctly assigned to the device? See the menu item "Options->Custom Controls". Ensure the Logitech device is the selected control device. Go to the "Assignment" tab and scroll to the end of the list to review how the axes are assigned. A common assignment will be as follows: Assignment List Ailerons Axis Elevator Axis Rudder Axis Throttle Axis Axis Axis01 Axis02 Axis03 Axis04
The game allows you to change these settings in this dialog. Read the help file carefully for details. Why doesnt my rudder work? Check that the rudder control option is enabled. Go to the menu item "Aircraft->Aircraft Settings" and select the "Realism" tab. The "auto-coordination" control is used to enable/disable the rudder.

Midtown Madness 2

Why doesnt the game respond to my Profiler settings? Midtown Madness 2 has three different settings for control within the game (gamepad, joystick, and wheel). From within the game, you need to make sure that you have customized the setting properly according to the controller type that you are going to use. Then prior to starting the game, choose the appropriate Midtown Madness 2 profile for that controller type.

Motocross Madness

Why cant I feel any force feedback effects in the game? Unfortunately, the first version of Motocross Madness was created when Force Feedback was still in its infancy. The game uses a type of force feedback that is specific to Microsoft game controllers, and will not work with non-Microsoft devices. However, Motocross Madness 2 incorporates a more standard version of force feedback and works properly with all WingMan Force Feedback game controllers.

MotoRacer 2

Why cant I feel any force feedback effects in the game? Unfortunately, this game was developed when force feedback was still in its infancy. The game uses two different methods of force feedback which were not truly "standard" at the time, and will work with only a few force feedback-capable game controllers.

MotoRacer 3

Joystick/Gamepad support is disabled by default. Upon launching the game, a setup screen appears. Click the tab for "Controllers", and select the bottom-left checkbox to enable Joystick controls. The controller setup window allows very easy customization of practically any axis or button to the available functions within the game. Control within the game is very responsive and it accepts the full analog range of the controller for steering. What types of devices are supported by MotoRacer 3 (i.e. joysticks, gamepads, steering wheels)? MotoRacer 3 supports gamepad & joystick types of controllers. Does MotoRacer 3 support force feedback or rumble effects? Unfortunately, MotoRacer 3 does not support force feedback or rumble effects.

NASCAR 3 (retail CD)

Why are my axis assignments incorrect? The default configuration of NASCAR 3 is a little strange (buttons are assigned to accelerate/brake, joystick selected by default, etc.). To assign the axis as you want it, follow the steps below. 1. Ensure the wheel is confiured to report pedals as combined in the game controllers "Settings" page. 2. In NASCAR 3 go to the Options" dialog. Move wheel and pedals to limits to calibrate X and Y axis. 3. In the "Options" dialog, select the "accelerate" control -- move the accelerator pedal to make the assignment. 4. In the "Options" dialog, select the "breaking" control -- move the brake pedal to make the assignment.


No matter what track I'm on, or what basic setup I use, my car pulls left. I have to turn right to keep the car straight. I've tried several variations of calibration, including manual adjustments in the NASCAR 4 options panel, but nothing seems to help much. What am I doing wrong? You are doing absolutely nothing wrong. According to the force feedback design in the game, it is supposed to pull left. Your car is designed to take corners at higher speeds. The tracks, even on the straight sections, are banked (tilted) slightly. So combine the banking of the track with a car setup that is designed to drift to the left, and your car will pull left. If I calibrate the wheel in NASCAR 4, the RPMs will only reach 7000 and the engine sputters. Why? If you are at a Speedway (Daytona, Talladega, etc) and are running in "Simulation Mode", then the rev limiter will stop the RPMs at 7000. Remember they run restrictor plates at the Super Speedways. You should be able to hit 9000 at all of the other tracks. When I steer the wheel to the left the car turns right, and when I steer to the right the car turns left. It is the exact opposite to what it should be. What's wrong? When you go to the Controller Options in NASCAR 4, select the steering option to reassign it. When it asks you to move the controller, make sure to move the wheel as indicated. If you move the wheel in the wrong direction during this stage, the game will designate the wheel for turning, but have the directions reversed. Enabling Force Feedback Please follow the steps below to enable Force Feedback in NASCAR 4. 1. The first step is to make sure that the wheel was working correctly in the "Gaming Options" panel and had forces when pressing the buttons. 2. In NASCAR 4, bring up the "Control Options" and selected the "DirectInput Driver". 3. Under "Assignments", click on "Steering". 4. Moved the wheel to left as indicated. 5. Assign "Throttle" to the gas pedal. 6. Assign "Brake" to the brake pedal. Once this is done, the Force Feedback selection should become available. We suggest a damper setting of about 50% for this game.

Need For Speed: Porsche Unleashed
Why do I keep over steering and crashing in to the rails? The game defaults with no deadzone, which may be too sensitive for most players. To correct this, turn the deadzone up a little.
Why isnt my gamepad working? Unfortunately, the PC version of the game does not support input from gamepads or joystick type devices.
Pac-Man: Adventures in Time
Control is very simple in this game. Pac-Man constantly moves in a direction and by pressing up/down/left/right you can change his direction through the maze. At no time did the game appear to be overly sensitive to the control. However, the game relies on cardinal directions for movement and seems to filter out diagonals. This can make control with a flight stick a bit sloppy. The only button used in the game is Button A (trigger), which can be used to make Pac-Man jump. Although the joystick/gamepad can be used to navigate and select items in the menu, the game defaults to keyboard control. If you want to use a joystick, you need to go into the Options and select Joystick control beforehand. What kinds of game controllers does Pac-Man support? Gamepads & Joysticks Does Pac-Man support force feedback or rumble effects? Yes, "Directional Force Feedback". Force feedback effects are used in the game in a few instances. When grabbing a power pellet or eating a ghost, the RumblePad or joystick will rumble slightly. When jumping, the RumblePad produces a slightly stronger rumble effect, while a force feedback joystick sends a slight jolt when the jump button is pressed.

Project Eden

RumblePad & Cordless RumblePad users can assign the right mini joystick for forward/backward movement. The game reads the rZ axis, but not the s0 axis. What this means is that you have to move the right mini joystick left/right in order to get forward/backward movement. To resolve this issue, you can use Profiler to re-map the axis right axis Y to X. What types of devices are supported by Project Eden? Project Eden supports gamepad type game controllers. Does Project Eden support force feedback or rumble effects? Yes. Project Eden supports "Rumble" type effects.

Project IGI

How can I configure Project: IGI to use my gamepad or joystick? Unfortunately, Project: IGI does not support the use of joystick or gamepad type controllers. Also, according to Eidos' web site, there are no plans at this time for patches that will include support for this feature.

Rally Trophy (Demo)

Does combined and separate pedals mode work? Our investigation seems to show that both separate and combined pedals do work correctly in the game. i.e. you can make the required selection of pedal mode in the custom control panel, start the game, and the game detects the appropriate pedal behavior automatically. However, the configuration screen UI does not change to reflect that separate or combined pedals mode is selected. This means you should not be distressed by the fact that the UI has not been updated. It is also possible that you may make some changes in the game configuration screen that can disable the pedal settings. However, clicking the "reset" button in the input mapper configuration screen should always restore things to working state. Using Combined Pedals To use combined pedals, do the following: 1. Selected "Combined" pedals mode in the control panel. 2. In Rally Trophy, click Options, then "Controls" and "Configure Controller". 3. Click the "Reset" button. This will reset the settings as follows. Combined Pedals Accelerator Brake Accelerate & Brake -----


This game works well with an analog stick and button response is good. The default settings are odd for the button layout, but they can be changed within the game's Controller Configuration options. What kinds of game controllers are supported by Spiderman? Gamepad Does Spiderman support force feedback or rumble effects? Yes, it supports "Rumble" effects. The RumblePad responds well and emits light rumble effects during fights and when jumping.

Sports Car GT

Why does the game crash to the desktop when I try to use my WingMan Force Feedback game controller? There appears to be an memory conflict issue with Sports Car GT when it attempts to load force feedback effects and is set to a high video resolution (1024x786). This issue is not specific to WingMan game controllers, and will probably happen with any force feedback controller. To get the game to load, either disable force feedback, or lower the video resolution setting. Are the force effects in Sports Car GT weak, or is it just me? No, it's not you. The forces implemented in the game are not as strong as most of the other racing titles on the market.


Why dont I get any force feedback effects in StarLancer with my WingMan game controller? This issue only exists under Windows XP. The reason the game is not producing force feedback is because it tries to access the devices' registry keys with KEY_ALL_ACCESS permissions. Under Windows XP, this is not allowed for security reasons. To resolve this issue, run the game in Windows 2000 compatibility mode. To enable compatibility mode, use the following instructions. 1. 2. 3. 4. Right-click on the StarLancer shortcut. Select "Properties". Go to the "Compatibility" tab. Under "Compatibility mode", mark the check box labelled "Run this program in compatibility mode for:", and select "Windows 2000" from the drop down list.
Star Wars: Rogue Squadron 3D
What types of game controllers are supported by Star Wars Rogue Squadron 3D? It supports joystick & gamepad How can I configure my WingMan Attack 2 in Star Wars: Rogue Squadron 3D? 1. Launch the game; a small menu of choices appears. 2. Click "Hardware", "Joystick Options" then "Calibrate" page to ensure the WingMan Attack 2 device is correctly selected. (The WingMan Attack 2 is an "auto-calibrated" device so there is no need for manual calibration.) 3. Start the game. 4. Select the "Settings", then "Joystick" page. This page will allow you to configure the various axis and button settings. For these axes on the WingMan Attack 2 we recommend: Pitch Up/Down Turn Left/Right Thrust/Brake Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Moving the stick forward/back Moving the stick left/right The throttle on the joystick

Unreal Tournament

How do I enable Gamepad/Joystick Support? In many first person shooter games, the support for joysticks is limited, difficult to configure, or not present at all. Also, the same configuration method does not always work with all versions of the game. In general, these games are really designed for optimal use with mouse and keyboard. We get questions from time to time from users who are trying to use the RumblePad in Unreal Tournament. Here is some advice on settings based on Unreal Tournament version 436. Before starting, you might want to make backup copies of the INI files so you can restore your original settings easily. Edit UNREALTOURNAMENT.INI as follows: DeadZoneXYZ=True DeadZoneRUV=True InvertVertical=False ScaleXYZ=1000.000000 ScaleRUV=1000.000000
Edit USER.INI as follows: JoyX=Axis astrafe speed=2 JoyY=Axis aBaseY speed=2 JoyZ= JoyR=Axis aturn speed=2 JoyU=Axis aLookUp speed=-2 JoyV= Notes: Changes from the game defaults are needed to enable the RUV deadzone to stop the character spinning, and set the axis scale to same for all gamepad axes. The bottom line is that with these settings the mini joystick is OK for character movements, but they are not as accurate or as fast for aiming as a mouse is. It is possible to get reasonable performance using the gamepad for character movement, but use the mouse for aiming. Some other useful links on UT joystick usage: Here are some assignments for Unreal Tournament to properly use both joysticks. The main thing to remember is this: JoyX is for stick 1 left/right(x axis) JoyY is for stick 1 up/down(y axis) JoyR is for stick 2 left/right (j2 x axis) JoyU is for stick 2 up/down (j2 y axis) The throttle is probably joyz or joyv. I have not tried it yet. JoyX=Axis aStrafe speed=4 JoyY=Axis aBaseY speed=10 JoyZ= JoyR=Axis aBaseX speed=3 JoyU=Axis aLookUp speed=-2.2 JoyV= Aliases[2]=(Command="Axis aBaseY Speed=+300.0",Alias=MoveForward) Aliases[3]=(Command="Axis aBaseY Speed=-300.0",Alias=MoveBackward) Aliases[4]=(Command="Axis aBaseX Speed=-150.0",Alias=TurnLeft) Aliases[5]=(Command="Axis aBaseX Speed=+150.0",Alias=TurnRight) Aliases[6]=(Command="Axis aStrafe Speed=-300.0",Alias=StrafeLeft) Aliases[7]=(Command="Axis aStrafe Speed=+300.0",Alias=StrafeRight) Turning on mouse smoothing in the game helped a lot when using the WingMan software to assign a mouse axis.


3D Engines in games - Introduction
Author: Michal Valient ( Conversion (with some corrections) from HTML article written in April 2001.

Foreword and definitions

Real-time rendering is one of the most dynamic areas in the computer graphics (later only CG). Three dimensional computer games are in other way one of the most profitable commercial applications of the real-time rendering (and CG as whole). Real-time rendering attracts more and more people every year. With every generation of 3D accelerators we see nicer and more realistic games with new effects and more complex models. This article is meant to be a small introduction to the field of real-time graphics for computer games. The article is divided into several sections
History of 3D games a brief history of real-time 3D games, accelerators and API's. Game engine scheme - parts of generic game engine with description. 3D API basics - very basic description of the pipelines. World of games - describes the specific world of games, point of view of the gamer and point of view of the programmer.
Definitions and identifications
Real-Time Rendering - means a process, when on the screen is displayed a picture, user makes a response and this feedback has an effect to what is rendered during the next frame. This cycle is fast enough to fool user, that he doesn't see individual pictures, but smooth animation. Speed of rendering is measured with fps (Frames Per Second). One fps is not an interactive process. With six fps feeling of interactivity rises. Fifteen fps allows user to concentrate to action and reaction. Upper limit is 72 fps because of limitation of an eye (more in [1]). 3D - denotation for three-dimensional space. Pixel - screen point (from Picture Element). Vertex - denotes point in space with its other properties like normal, color, transparency and others. For example a triangle (or face) is defined in 3D with three vertexes and additional data (normal, texture.). Texturing - process which takes a surface and modifies its appearance in every area with some picture, function or other source of data. This source of data, picture or function is denoted as texture. One texture point is named texel. Billboarding - method of replacing potentially complex (3D) object with it's 2D representation (a sprite) rendered from some point of view and showing this sprite upright to the camera no matter how camera is rotated. More in [1] on page 152. Mipmapping - process of choosing a texture from pool of (identical) textures with various resolutions according to the distance of textured object. The smallest texture is used on the farthest object and high resolution texture is used on near object.
Lightmapping a method of shading. Objects are shaded using for example radiosity or raytracing and shade for every triangle (or whatever is used) is stored in the texture. Material of the triangle is modulated with this texture during rendering to improve the realism of the scene. An advantage is that this method is fast at render time. Disadvantage is that this method is computationally very intensive and therefore cannot be used for moving lights or objects.


History of 3D real-time rendering in the computer games falls back to year 1984 to the 8-bit computer ZX Spectrum (i.e. game Zig-Zag, sorry no picture). On this computer with 4 colors and memory of tens of kilobytes was 3D game a peak of art. Later more powerful 8-bit computers came like the Amiga (also 16-bit version) and the Atari. The graphics (mostly on Amiga) was much better. It was a revolution in the world of entertainment when first 16-bit PCs came and company id Software (and mostly the programmer John Carmack) created the game Wolferstein 3D back in 1992. It was the first game where textures were used. All objects were painted using the billboarding method. Its true, that there was only one rotation axis computed (left/right), only (perfectly vertical) walls were painted with the texture and all levels were basically 2D but popularity of that game (and sequel Spear of Destiny) indicated what people want to play. (Update 2004 - In the same year Ultima Underworld was released and featured fully textured 3D engine)

Pictures from Wolferstein 3D and Spear of Destiny
In the year 1993 id Software overcame themselves and the game DOOM advanced the limit of what is possible. Game works in higher resolutions, textures are used also on the roof and the floor and the rooms are no more flat, but full of steps and rises. Rotation was possible around two axes (left/right and up/down) and all moving objects were rendered using billboards. The game introduced network deathmatch and cooperative mode. John Carmack and id Software are legends from that moment. Game had a sequel named DOOM2.


Next revolution game was released in the year 1995 - Descent by Parallax software. It allows movement and rotation in every direction. Attempts with the Virtual Reality helmets began in that time, but because of low resolution of the head mounted displays and small computational power of the PC they were not successful.


The Quake was released in the year 1996 (again Carmack and id Software). And it was a breakthrough in the 3D computer games. Every in-game model was fully 3D. Other features are - mipmapping, dynamic scene lighting (vertex only) and static objects were shaded using lightmaps.
The Year 1997 was revolutionary in 3D games. First 3D accelerator for the home PC was created and it was Voodoo from 3Dfx. With hardware implemented features like bilinear filtering of textures, fog and perspective correct texture mapping allowed the developers to skip writing the hardest part of engine code - low level routines for painting textured triangles fast and visually correct. Games were nicer (due to filtering), faster and with more details. It was only a question of time, when accelerators would be mandatory for 3D games. OpenGL, in that time the domain of professional SGI workstations, started to be used widely by game developers. It is a non object oriented library that allows quality and fast rendering both in 2D and 3D. OpenGL specification is defined and upgraded by the Architecture review board ARB - (community of companies like SGI, NVIDIA, 3D Labs and others), so it is an open standard. However this approach has some disadvantages. OpenGL specification reacts very slowly to the new trends (pixel and vertex shaders are not in the version 1.3 [Update 2004 we have updated OpenGL 2.0 now with shaders]). The system of extensions (functionality not directly available in OpenGL can be plugged in via an extension) is not controlled and far from perfect because every hardware manufacturer defines own extensions that works only with specific accelerators (NVIDIA and ATI are perfect examples). Developers have to write specific code to some combination of available extensions and in fact for concrete accelerator. This is the opposite to the meaning of the OpenGL - to be hardware independent API. First top selling game using the accelerator and OpenGL was Quake II (of course by id Software)

Quake 2

Microsoft started development of the DirectX - an object oriented library that allow very low access to graphics sound and input hardware from Windows. Graphics part of the library is a rival of OpenGL. DirectX is developed in the cooperation with major hardware manufacturers and this allows faster reaction to the new trends (probably because ARB is not the primary interest of its members and therefore changes come later than in DirectX). Accelerators become faster and several minor features were added (i.e. multitexturing, anisotropic filtering) but it was more evolution than a revolution. New graphics chip GeForce256 was released in the year 1999. The author, NVIDIA, called it GPU (geometry processor unit) because it was not simple renderer of triangles (Voodoo is the example where transformed and lit triangle came in, texture was applied and it was drawn). GeForce256 offers transformations and lighting (T&L) implemented in hardware and computes them instead of CPU. T&L was implemented into DirectX from version 7. Another revolutionary change to the architecture was introduced in the year 2001. NVIDIA released the GeForce3. This chip goes beyond T&L and offers programmable vertex and pixel processing pipeline. This allows developers to create custom transformations and effects that were not possible with fixed T&L pipeline. ATI has developed similar (Update 2004 and better) chip called Radeon 8500. DirectX 8 adopted this feature in the system of vertex and pixel shaders. Shaders in the OpenGL are available only via company specific extensions (Update 2004 we have ARB extensions now and OpenGL 2 does have shaders). The game console Xbox by Microsoft contains modified Geforce3 chip and therefore number of games using shaders are currently in the development. In the end of year 2002 we expect new version of DirectX API and new wave of accelerators to be released. They will offer increased programmability and speed.
Quake 3 and Return to castle Wolferstein uses Quake 3 Engine and has limited support for shaders on Geforce 3

Unreal2 engine

Comanche 4 a game that uses shaders
The history of games is also interesting from the business view. In the beginnings only a few people were creating games. Later small teams, created by a few friends, created spectacular games. Now we have huge game industry with earnings comparable to the movie industry that uses Internet hype and loyal people as the propagation channel.

3D Engine

The scheme of 3D general engine
First let us define what the Game Engine means in this document. Game Engine (or 3D Engine) is a complex system, responsible for the visualization and sound of game that handles the user input and provides resource management, animation, physics and more.
On the lowest level there is hardware. API that accesses hardware is one level above. In MS Windows it could be DirectGraphics (formerly Direct3D) or OpenGL for visualization. For sound it is DirectSound, OpenAL or some of the other available libraries, input can be handled via DirectInput. GFX Renderer is responsible for drawing of the final scene with all the fancy effects. Sound renderer has similar position in the audio field and plays sounds from correct positions using correct effects. Input handler gathers events from keyboard, mouse or other input devices and converts them to format acceptable by the engine. It is also responsible for correct commands to the force-feedback devices. Engine scene renderer uses lower level methods to render the scene to the screen and play correct sounds. The layer above renderer has a lot of functions, which cooperate in-between. It includes animation (timeline work, morphing and manipulation with objects depending on time), collision detection (it influences animation and deformations). Deformation uses physics to modify shapes depending on forces. Physics computes gravitation, wind and more. This layer might have a lot of other functions, but they are application (game genre) depended. Above this is the application. It is responsible for game data, AI (but this might be in the lower layer), GUI, response to the user input and all the other stuff that

makes us staring at the screen and saying whoa This structure is based on my studies of a lot of various engines and for sure it is not complete, not deep and maybe time shows that it is even not good. All comments are welcome.

API Basics

Direct3D and OpenGL rendering basics
What graphics API would I use - is one of the first decisions the developer has to make when starting creation of a new 3D Engine. There are three possibilities today: OpenGL, Direct3D or create an API independent engine that can use both of them. To make this decision a little bit easier take a look at following two lines: glDrawElements(X,Y,Z); direct3DDevice->DrawIndexedPrimitive(X, Y, Z); A programmer, who likes object oriented approach and does not plan to compile engine under OS other than Windows (or maybe Xbox) could choose DirectX. The others could use the OpenGL. Each of these alternatives has the pros and cons. DirectX is upgraded very dynamically and it already contains support for input, sound and network. It is supported on Windows and Xbox. On the other hand DirectX does not guarantee you that feature not supported by hardware is supported by software and provides a system of capabilities flags so developer can easily detect what can and cannot be done (in games, where we are fighting for highest fps is software nevertheless out). OpenGL from this point of view was mentioned on previous pages. Rendering with accelerators has besides a lot of advantages (speed, quality, easier implementation) also some drawbacks. They all have common root: we have to adapt to the hardware we are using. We cannot choose our private format for textures, vertices or lights. We cannot modify data submitted to accelerator at any time. The others cause very poor performance: if we want speed, textures and meshes have to be uploaded to the private memory of the accelerator and let it choose the best format. By doing this we cannot modify these resources without costly lock operation that downloads the data back to system memory. This can be solved by double buffering of the data. One set for us, one set for the accelerator. Changing active textures very frequently is also a quite time consuming operation. This can be solved (not absolutely) by rendering primitives with identical materials in one batch.
Inside the API - Fixed function pipeline
Fixed function pipeline (a compilation of images from DirectX SDK)
Now it is a good time to show what is done inside the API when we want to show a cube using the fixed function pipeline (supported both in DirectX and OpenGL). The geometry and lighting phase: On the input we have our test subject (a cube this time) in the local coordinates - vertices are positioned relative to a point that represents the center of an object. It is a good practice to define the point as a most used center of rotation and scale of the object.

Our cube goes to the next stage with a matrix that will transform it to the world coordinates - in most cases we don't want every object to be placed on [0, 0, 0] but somewhere else and rotated and scaled somehow.
The next step in the pipeline is a transformation of the whole scene to the camera space. If we have camera in the point [2,2,2] we transform whole scene so that camera is in [0,0,0] and the up vector will be identical to the y axis.
Now is time to (likely) first transformation that changes the shape of our cube. This is because if we use perspective projection, API has to transform it to parallel.
If we have the backface culling enabled, invisible faces are removed and if we have the lighting enabled, scene is lit. Texture coordinates are applied depending on the specified texture transformation. Results of the scene are transformed to the viewport coordinates of a window and lets go to rasterization. The rasterization phase: Our model passed through whole geometry stage process and now it is being painted to the output. How this is done depends entirely on the operation used during rendering (replace, add, multiply, subtract, and, or). Every face can have up to 8 textures (in DirectX8). The way how these textures cooperate and look is defined by the address mode, the filter mode and the texture blend function.
The texture addressing modes:
Wrap. Texture is tiled. If we use face coordinates [0,0] [0,3] [3,3] texture is repeated 3 times in every direction.
Mirror. Very similar to wrap, but texture is mirrored before the repeat.
Clamp. Coordinates outside the range 0 and 1 are clamped to the nearest border pixel of texture.
Border. Coordinates outside the range 01 specify just a single predefined color.
Texture filtration modes:
Point - nearest defined neighbor is used when finding texel color
Bilinear - bilinear interpolation of 4 neighbors is used when finding texel color.
Trilinear - linear interpolation of two nearest bilinearly filtered mipmaps is used. others - anisotropic, flat cubic, Gaussian cubic

Texture blend functions (texture 1 is blended with texture 2, output is blended with texture 3 and so on):
Modulate - multiply RGBA parts of source 1 with RGBA parts of source 2
Add - add RGBA parts of source 1 to the RGBA parts of source 2
Subtract - Subtract RGBA parts of source 1 from RGBA parts of source 2
Blend - linear interpolation between RGBA parts of source 1 and RGBA parts of source 2 controlled by parameter.


disable, select, dotproduct3.
Inside the API - Programmable pipeline
DirectX 8 introduced programmable geometry and pixel pipeline. In the OpenGL it is available via extensions on the NVIDIA and ATI hardware.

Programmable pipeline

Geometry and lighting phase is now completely replaced by an assembly like program loaded and compiled at runtime. This means developer can do anything he wants with vertices. The rule is: one vertex comes in, one comes out. Communication between vertices is not possible (due to the high level of parallelism in the hardware). Rasterization phase was replaced too and texture blend functions are replaced by pixel shader language. For more information about shaders visit or MSDN DirectX page.

World of games

There are two points of view that influence the game development. The point of view of a gamer that plays the game and the point of view of a developer that has to create a successful game. View of gamer:
Speed. Gamers want smooth movements at very high frame rates. You can create one very cool looking game, but if it is slow on an average machine, people will drop details and in the result it will look like Wolferstein3D because game was not running at 70 fps (i.e. Quake 3, Counterstrike and other first person shooters [2004 or Doom3 and Far Cry]). Reality. Gamers want to play as real as possible, but not too much. If you create a hyper-realistic space simulator that uses every single key on the keyboard to control the ship, you'll fail (in hyper-realistic space there is no sound and that's boring and player is not an octopus). If you create something that is controlled by joystick, ten keys and ships moves a little bit like in the space (or like the player thinks ship has to move after the Armageddon movie) and if you don't drown it with awful graphics, sound and marketing you could win and be rich. If you create an ultra-realistic car chase then majority of players will be most of the time out of track and game could be successful only in the community of hardcore F1 fans (most probably only Schumacher

brothers). But if its easy to drive, skids are showy and easy to handle and crashes look like scenes from a blockbuster movie, then it can be successful game. Players do not want to die after every grenade blast in the first person shooters that do not look like Second World War simulation. Effects. Game must be good looking. A lot of lens flare effects (you know they are not visible if you are not looking through camera, but who cares if they look good). A lot of smoke, dust and fire (we love it). And lets have nice specular highlights and shadows.
The point of view of a programmer (or how to make all that was mentioned above running in real-time):
Shadows can be pre-computed and then used as the lightmaps or they can be computed in real-time for example using projective shadows, shadow volumes or shadow mapping.
No shadows versus lightmap shadows (images from game Unreal by Epic)
Atmospheric effects like lens flares and halos some parts of these effects are stored as textures and then displayed after whole scene is rendered using ADD method. Using them provides if not more realistic, then at least more atmospheric feel from game.
Screen without and with halo and lens flare effects (images from Unreal by Epic)
Fire, dust and smoke. Todays most popular method is using the particle systems (high count of simple squares with texture and they are displayed always upright to camera and blended to the scene). Color and velocity of a single square depends on its lifetime, distance from emitter and distance from other squares).
Particle simulation of sparks, dust and flame (images from nVidia SDK sample, Comanche 4 and Unreal 2)
Objects. Players want high detail objects, but if every object in game would have ten thousands of faces it will not be possible to draw the scene in real-time rates. Therefore several methods of eye-fooling are used. Trees and plants are billboarded. Objects that are far from the camera (or that are small on the screen) are rendered using reduced triangle count (method called LOD - level of detail). This method is similar to the mipmapping except that instead of multiple resolutions of textures we use multiple instances of the same object with different triangle count.
Billboarding (image from nvEffectBrowser by nVidia)
LOD (image from DirectX 8.1 SDK sample)
Animations. When animating a living creature it is not very good looking if the leg is divided from the body like it is a robot. So we need to use the creature as single model. Animation is then provided using mesh morphing (we have finite set of object states and we perform interpolation between different states) or mesh skinning (we have model and a set of bones for this model. Moving bones causes model to animate).

Mesh skinning image from nvEffectBrowser by nVidia)
Reflections. On the perfectly flat surfaces (a floor or a mirror) it can be computed in real-time (scene is rendered twice for every mirror and if two mirrors can see each other we have a problem to solve). On the curved surfaces we use reflection maps. Reflection maps are textures that are mapped onto the object depending on the camera position. Single texture (that specifies a hemisphere), two textures (specify a paraboloid) or cube maps (6 textures) can be used. Advantages are that it can be updated in real-time and can have smaller resolution depending on the object size.
Environmental mapping - texture holds scene reflection from object painted to hemisphere that is visible by camera. Hard to update realtime, but can be prepared offline. Paraboloid - two textures with back and front hemisphere. Hard to update real-time, but can be prepared offline. Cube mapping - 6 textures are used as sides of cube that is bounding rendered object. Each contains screen as "seen from object" in that direction. Can be computed at real-time, is easier to use in rendering but has bigger memory requirements.
Cube mapping example (image from DirectX 8.1 SDK)
Lighting. For gamers it is equal if game uses per-vertex or per-pixel lighting as long as they look the same. We can use different types of lighting on different objects to achieve decent framerates.
Per pixel lit cube with gloss map
Scene partitioning - rendering the whole scene with all objects that are not visible is a bad idea and with more complex scenes it can result in very low framerates. Because of this portals and tree structures can be used. Portal - invisible surface (to a gamer, not to the engine) that divides two (usually convex) cells of scene. If we are rendering one cell and the portal is visible to the engine, then the other cell is considered as visible and we need to render it too. This is used mainly for the in indoor scenes. Trees - we can group objects into the cells and then divide these cells into
sub cells. If parent cell is not visible, then the child nodes cannot be visible too. This is used for the outdoor scenes or very large visible and dynamic areas.


[1] Mller T., Haines E., "Real - Time Rendering", A.K Peters, Natick, Massachusetts, 1999, or

Other resources

o o o o o o - all information about id games - pictures DirectX reference. - OpenGL reference. - pictures. - pictures.



2494HM Coffee BAR Vluu I70 Super AIR SCE7640 Cube-100 Bass KX-TCD500RU IC-2GAT ER8303B EXP2540 P4T533-C FS-C1020MFP A-207R Review Crusader Rookie 960BG F5D8011 180IS-MB5 Printer DCR-TRV38E 1000S CDP-XB820 Scan 45 TSE 5002 PC E350 RS-BX707 USB-live2 Tourer SC-DC575-XAX Desktop PC Mobile GA-K8NS DSC-W70 LN32C540 TH-42PWD8UK College Aficio 470W NV-DS990EG VGN-FZ19VN CTX S700 HBH-GV435 Scanmaker 3630 591V300A PRG-40 LE40A336j1D JSR 635 Well Tens VGN-NS31m W CFD-S03CP Designjet 450C Riva 853 7720G Atlantic 125 STR-DK5 UE-32C4000 GEM-P800 Clack 6X9 FLS674 720 520 BLE100 Cabriolet Htsi Plus MHC-W555 Interpret S400 Drive Spectrum GO 500 28PT4423 IC-910H Makita 4327 Pistol Privateer DTH8555X 1-0-0 Cafamosacf85 College 2D XL550U SV-SD80 Laguna MP28 MH070fxea4B Legend SS-RXD10AV CQC3303N ER8662B Minor RS21klmr Shutter Lens RCS-4040C2 Monitor Lcdw19HD 8550DN BF62cbst VK9820NHB X 9611 FBX2420 PS-42S5H WF8604NHS GC4311 TX-32LMD70FA Peugeot 5008


manuel d'instructions, Guide de l'utilisateur | Manual de instrucciones, Instrucciones de uso | Bedienungsanleitung, Bedienungsanleitung | Manual de Instruções, guia do usuário | инструкция | návod na použitie, Užívateľská príručka, návod k použití | bruksanvisningen | instrukcja, podręcznik użytkownika | kullanım kılavuzu, Kullanım | kézikönyv, használati útmutató | manuale di istruzioni, istruzioni d'uso | handleiding, gebruikershandleiding



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101