Games PC Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000
Developed by Microsoft - Microsoft (1999) - Flight Sim - Rated Everyone
In a series that got its start in 1982, Microsoft has continually updated, enhanced and improved their Flight Simulator on a fairly regular basis. With the release of Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000: Professional Edition, the companion game to Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000, the simulation carries its legions of fans and cyber-pilots into the new millennium. Containing all the gameplay of the basic version, the enhanced professional version adds special features geared toward making the simulat... Read more
Release Date: November 1, 1999
Controls: Flight Yoke, Joystick/Gamepad, Keyboard, Mouse
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Games PC Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000, size: 4.7 MB
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Flight Simulator as Geospatial Visualisation Platform
John Hildebrandt (POC) DSTO C3 Research Centre Fernhill Park Department of Defence Canberra ACT 2600 Australia Phone: (02) Fax: (02) Email: john.Hildebrandt@dsto.defence.gov.au Daryl Bossert Royal Australian Air Force Department of Defence Australia
Abstract The use of 3D visualizations is increasing in Defence applications. However the cost of high-end visualization tools still limit the extent of their deployment. In this paper a common commercial flight simulator package is adapted for use in terrain visualization, situation displays and as a low cost simulation engine. A JAVA application has been developed to ingest military geospatial formats and convert these into a format usable by the flight simulator package. Multiplayer interfaces within the flight simulator package have been leveraged to allow extraction of track information into simulation systems and ingest of track information to support the generation of 3D situation displays.
Introduction The planning and execution of military operations involves the visualization of geospatial data. For example, the terrain appreciation process will benefit from terrain visualization, and situation displays typically use some form of geospatial display. The use of 3D visualizations and displays are increasing as they give the user a fuller representation of the battle space. However high-end 3D visualization packages can often be expensive assets that restrict their use to specialized areas. The game industry is now one of the key drivers in the development of 3D visualizations and these products are provided at mass market cost levels. Further the performance of commodity PC graphics hardware now offers performance levels previously only available in high-end 3D workstations and these performance levels are improving at an exponential rate. In this paper we report on our experiences in adapting a commercial off the shelf (COTS) 3D visualization tool, namely Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000 to visualize terrain and geospatial information. This has the potential to deliver a very low cost 3D geospatial visualization capability, which fully
exploits commodity PC graphics engines, for situations where high-end capabilities are not required or unaffordable. We have developed software to ingest military geospatial formats [CIB], [DTED] and convert this data into a form usable by Flight Simulator. This JAVA software allows the user to select CIB and DTED level 1 data of a region and then converts this into the terrain format used by Flight Simulator 2000 (FS2000). Other commercial software can perform similar conversions for a single image and terrain datasets [TERRABUILDER], however our software takes a full CIB dataset that consists of multiple images and generates a dataset covering the full region covered by these images. The use of the FS2000 platform to visualize simulated platform locations and to output simulated platform locations was investigated. This allows the tool to provide a low-end 3D situation display and inject data into other simulation systems. An XML output format was employed to facilitate connection to multiple applications. In the future connection to standard simulation protocols such as DIS and HLA is planned. In enterprise settings it is likely that the imagery and geospatial information will be obtained via libraries or repositories. In the future we intend to investigate ways to link the data transformation software to back end data repositories to simplify the steps the user must take to generate 3D terrain visualization.
Flight Simulator 2000 and DirectX Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000 is a commercial off the shelf flight simulator for Windows PCs developed for the entertainment market. It provides a worldwide terrain database and a collection of aircraft types for use in simulation. Although it is designed and marketed primarily for the entertainment area the software has been used as an adjunct to other commercial and military training programs. An instance of flight simulator can be designated as a game server and then other instances of flight simulator can connect to it. This allows multiple players to fly within the same simulated world. A variety of software developer kits (SDK) are available for Microsoft Flight Simulator [MSSDK] to support adding terrain information, developing custom aircraft, and to support multi player interfaces. These interfaces were essential for interfacing to Flight Simulator in this work and were the reason it was chosen over other commercial simulator packages. Currently the SDKs available include the following: Adventure Programming Language SDK Used for building lessons and scenarios. Multiplayer SDK Used to connect into the products Multiplayer Infrastructure. Aircraft Container SDK Used to design aircraft exteriors. Panels SDK Used to design internal aircraft control panel layouts.
Terrain SDK Used to ingest Digital Elevation data. Scenery SDK Contains details on adding data to scenery files.
Microsoft Flight Simulator is built on the DirectX libraries. DirectX provides a 3D graphics library supported by most graphics card manufacturers and in addition provides libraries for sound, multimedia, and multiplayer collaboration. The multiplayer features of Flight Simulator are provided via the DirectX multiplayer interface that is referred to as DirectPlay. The DirectX libraries will also be supported in the future X-Box gaming console that would offer an even lower cost option for deploying low cost visualations and simulations.
Other systems Several other systems exist for providing terrain displays for example we have examined higher end tools such as Autometrics BattleScape [BAT] and ERDAS VirtualGIS [ERDAS] to provide 3D terrain visualization. While these tools provide greater functionality we thought it was useful to examine how far a common low cost tool could be taken. The Virtual Terrain Project (VTP) [VTP] are providing free tools for terrain visualization so would offer good support for the visualization component of this work but does not address the simulation aspects. Open source flight simulator tools are also becoming available and would provide full access to source code for customization purposes.
Data Ingest Client The FS2000 terrain and scenery software developer kits (SDK) provided information on the formats used in FS2000 to describe terrain information. Terrain in Flight simulator 2000 is described using a scenery description assembly language that is then compiled into a binary format for use by the software. The scenery description includes height information for tiles on the Earths surface and descriptions of any objects within the world. To support draping of image textures over terrain the scenery file includes file name references to bit map files. An extract of a scenery file showing a reference to a texture file and embedded terrain height information is shown in figure 1.
Header(1 -8.976982 -9.046036 126.049861 125.975069) LatRange( -9.046036 -8.976982) set( areamx 64 ) GRP( -9.046036 125.975069 ) Area(B -8.988491 125.987535 60) PerspectiveCall(:L000001) Jump(:L000000) :L000001 Perspective RefPoint( 2 :L000002 1.000000 -9.000000 125.975069 v1= 0 v2= 0 E= 0.000000) SurfaceColor( ) Smoothing( 1 ) Bitmap( db000000.bmp ) BitmapMode( 0 ) TexRelief( 120; -9.000000 125.0 146; -9.000000 125.0 178; -9.000000 125.0 129; -9.000000 125.0 112; -9.000000 125.0 142; -9.000000 125.0 132; -9.000000 125.0 156; -9.000000 125.0 92; -9.000000 126.31 137; -8.997123 125.975069
Scenery file (.sca) extract.
Our source of terrain information was Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) that provides terrain heights over a spatial grid. It was important to be able to use this format to enable the use of data from military geospatial information (MGI) producing agencies. To provide a realistic 3D view we overlaid overhead imagery of the region onto the terrain surface. One source of imagery that we addressed was the Controlled Image Base (CIB) imagery that is produced by combining several satellite scenes of a region into a multi file standard product. So the task required was to transform the DTED and CIB data into the formats required by the FS2000 application. To achieve this we developed a JAVA application that allowed input of any image format supported by the JAVA Advanced Imaging (JAI) libraries and would output bitmap (BMP) formatted image tiles as required by FS2000. The DTED data and the coverage region of the supplied imagery were combined to generate the scenery description file that included references to the bitmap texture files. This file was then compiled to the binary format required by FS2000. Compilers for Microsoft scenery files are available from a variety of sources on the web. Importantly this application could convert a complete CIB dataset that consisted of multiple images in one session without user intervention. This was the main driver leading us to develop our own application rather than using commercial transformation tools. This process is an example of a data transformation process where to use a collection of data one must transform the data between various formats. Such transformations are common where a variety of imagery and geospatial products are in use. These
transformations can become a burden for the end user and in the longer term we would seek to automate the production of the data in the required formats.
Outputting track information To access positional information from a linked set of flight simulator packages a C++ application that links to the flight simulator server using the DirectPlay interfaces was developed. This application connected to the FS2000 server and extracted the navigational information for all aircraft registered with the server. The information was then packaged in an XML format and broadcast for use by other applications. Each XML message included an aircraft identifier, position and other information as available from the DirectPlay infrastructure. In the future outputting to some standard simulation protocol such as IEEE DIS could be implemented. Simple web based map display clients were developed which connected to the XML stream and displayed aircraft positions in 2D and 3D. In the future it is intended to use standard situation displays via the support for the required interfaces.
Inputting track information Once one is connected to the Flight Simulator server via DirectPlay one can also inject navigational information for other entities. This allows us to use the package to visualize tracks of other objects in 3D space. Again an XML format for the track information is employed to facilitate simple connection to other systems, but in the future a standard DIS connection could also be implemented. By identifying the entity as an aircraft type known to the FS2000 application it will then render a representation of the aircraft at the indicated position. To display abstract track symbols a special purpose aircraft type could be defined using the aircraft construction SDK. The operation of inputting and outputting track information is illustrated in figure 2. FS2000 Clients
FS2000 Server Figure 2:
DirectPlay to XML Process Exchanging DirectPlay position data with other applications.
Future Work The experiments with Microsoft flight simulator 2000 (FS2000) have proved that a low cost package can provide useful terrain visualizations on commodity hardware. In this work a JAVA application was developed that took CIB imagery and DTED level 1 data as input and output data files compatible with FS2000. This is an example of the need for a service that will take datasets of some formats and transform those into data formats required by some over application or service. In a large enterprise system the imagery and geospatial information will be stored in managed repositories rather than requiring knowledge of the file systems location of the data. The next logical step in developing the FS2000 capability is to demonstrate it as an example Data Transformation service that provides a direct link to Imagery and Geospatial services to source data for conversion into the files required by FS2000. One could envisage a web based application that allows the user to select the region of the world they are interested in. Then the service would connect to the image and geospatial service to obtain imagery and DTED data of the area and convert it into the FS2000 files. The files would then be placed at some location for use in FS2000. A further enhancement to a transformation service to a file would be to provide on the fly access to the data services from the client application. In the case of Flight Simulator this is difficult due to the lack of an on the fly API to obtain terrain data. However a partially dynamic solution could be provided in the following manner. One of the FS2000 files describes the terrain domain for a session and is loaded up front. As this is loaded at application startup it must be precompiled. Since it contains terrain height information this means all the DTED data is required up front. This file also lists the file names for the texture files that are generated from the imagery, so the file names must be determined up front. However the actual image texture files could be generated on an as required basis. This would require the system to keep track of the position one is at in the world and then use this to direct the population of the image texture files in a cache file system that FS2000 is directed to. To obtain the position information the multi-player features and API of FS2000 would be leveraged. If a large number of image tiles are involved a cache management system would be required to delete least recently used tiles as the cache file system is filled. The approach used here could be used to provide data transformation services to support other client applications. Particularly those that dont provide API access for data. This could lead to a family of data transformation services targeted at multiple applications and scenarios.
Conclusions In this paper we have shown how a low cost simulation package can be leveraged to obtain significant visualization and simulation capability at very low cost. While the capability will not match fidelity or flexibility of high-end tools it would be useful to provide limited capabilities to a much wider audience. For example the high cost of
many visualization tools in the past has limited their use to specialist cells within an organization. The availability of a low cost option would allow deployment of some capability to all users that could take advantage of it.
Bibliography BAT Autometrics Battlescape web site. http://www.autometric.com/AUTO/PRODUCTS/EDGE/BScape.html
CIB Controlled Image Base: Military Standard MIL-PRF-89041, available at NIMA web site, http://126.96.36.199/publications/specs/index.html. DTED Digital Terrain Elevation Data: Military Standard MIL-PRF-89020A, available at NIMA web site, http://188.8.131.52/publications/specs/index.html. ERDAS ERDAS Web Site http://www.erdas.com/
MSSDK Flight Simulator SDKs http://www.microsoft.com/games/fs2000/devdesk_sdk_fs2000.asp TERRABUILDER VTP http://www.terrabuilder.com/ http://vterrain.org/
Virtual Terrain Project
WestWind Airlines B757-200
Pilot Operation Manual
For Use With
Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000
This manual is for use with Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000 only. The user should have a basic understanding of Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000. The data contained in this manual was collected from several different sources and has been modified to go with the performance characteristics of FS2000. In order for this aircraft to function properly the Flight Shop Converter for Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000 must be installed on the users computer. No information in this manual should be used for real world aviation or operation of any real world airplane.
Revision: FFG_FS2000-B757-200_1.0MP Effective: April 22, 2000
B757-200 Operation Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 1. Introduction:
1.1 1.2 1.3 Installation Credits Limitations
2. Aircraft Data:
2.1 2.2 2.3 The Boeing Advanced 757 Series 200 Critical Airspeeds Fuel Loading Data
3. Flight Techniques:
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Taxi Takeoff Climb Cruise Decent Approach and Landing Landing in Adverse Conditions Turbulent Air Wind Shear
This aircraft is provided in a self-installation format, which provides for simple installation. When prompted by the installation wizard, enter the path to your Microsoft Flight Simulator 2000 (i.e. C:\Program Files\Microsoft Games\FlightSim2000\). This path-address is dependent on where you installed your original FS98 and may be different from the example listed here. This installation does not include an instrument panel or sound-files. Thus, the default 2-engine panel and FS2000 B737-400 sounds are used. For true realism we encourage you to install a B757 instrument panel. There are many freeware panels available on the Internet. If you need assistance locating one, please check the WestWind Airlines Web Site (www.flywestwind.com).
Aircraft Author: Freeware Flight Group (www.avsim.com/ffg/) This aircraft is copyright of Freeware Flight Group. The Flight Dynamics are copyright of Freeware Flight Group. The source afx is copyright of Freeware Flight Group. It is protected under International copyright law. Modification: Chris Mueller, VP of Aircraft and Scenery Chris Mueller updated the textures to standard WestWind Airlines livery for general release. Other Credits: Hal Groce, Sean Reilly, Richard Beasley, Gary Madore Hal Groce, Sean Reilly, Richard Beasley, Gary Madore formed WestWind Airlines around late 1995. Hal was the main person behind the entire WestWind Airlines operation. Sean Reilly was anointed Vice President of Marketing and New Biz Development. Gary Madore and Richard Beasley handled the day-to-day operations. In just 3 years WestWind Airlines membership has grown to over 700 pilots.
WestWind Airlines Copyright 2000 Hal Groce. Freeware Flight Group has provided this aircraft and/or components contained therein for use by WestWind Airlines. This aircraft and manual are provided as is, with no warranties either expressed or implied. This aircraft and manual are FREEWARE, and may not be resold, packaged or placed in a medium that is sold, rented, leased or for which a fee is charged to access this software. By downloading this aircraft and manual, you acknowledge the copyright ownership of the contributing authors and agree to abide by all U.S. and International Copyright conventions that are in effect at this time. You acknowledge and agree that the terms of "fair use" as loosely interpreted in some countries do not apply, and that strict compliance with copyright laws are required.
2.1 The Boeing Advanced 757 Series 200
The Boeing 757-200, member of the popular 757/767 family of medium-sized airplanes, is a twin-engined, medium-to-long-range jetliner incorporating advanced technology for exceptional fuel efficiency, low noise levels, increased passenger comfort and top operating performance. The 757 offers other virtues as well, including great versatility by reducing airport congestion. It can fly both long- and short-range routes and its broad use effectively lends itself to "hub-andspoke" planning. The first 757-200 rolled out of the Boeing Renton, Washington, plant on Jan. 13, 1982, and made its first flight Feb. 19, 1982. The FAA certified the aircraft on Dec. 21, 1982, after 1,380 hours of flight testing over a 10-month period. The first 757-300 rolled out in 1998. Designed to carry 194 passengers in a typical mixed-class configuration, the 757-200 can accommodate up to 239 passengers in charter service, putting its capacity between that of the Boeing 737-400 or -700 and the 757-300. The 757-200 takeoff weights range from 220,000 pounds (99,800 kg) up to a maximum of 255,000 pounds (115,660 kg) for greater payload or range. A freighter configuration of the 757200 is also available. The 757-200 and dual-aisle 767 were developed concurrently, so both share the same technological advancements in propulsion, aerodynamics, avionics and materials. This commonality reduces training and spares requirements when both are operated in the same fleet. Because of these features, many airline operators will operate both 757 and 767 airplanes. The demonstrated reliability of the 757 has approval for extended-range twin (engine) operation, or ETOPS. In July 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration granted 180-minute ETOPS certification for 757-200s equipped with both the Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 and RB211-535C engines. Previously, the FAA had certified the 757-200 equipped with RB211-535E4 engines for 120-minute operation in 1986. In April 1992, the FAA granted 180-minute ETOPS certification for the 757-200 equipped with Pratt & Whitney PW2000-series engines. This followed the FAA's previous certification of Pratt & Whitney PW2000-powered 757-200s for 120-minute operation in April 1990. For added reliability on ETOPS flights, the 757 is available with extended range features, including a backup hydraulic-motor generator and an auxiliary fan to cool equipment in the electronics bay. High-gross-weight versions of the aircraft can fly 4,500 statute miles (7,240 kilometers) nonstop with full passenger payload. These system attributes contribute to the 757's versatility, allowing it to serve more markets.
- Boeing Aircraft Company
2.2 Critical Airspeeds
Taxi: Max. 25 knots on straight taxiways. Max. 10 knots in turns. Max. 10 knots approaching parking areas. Maximum Allowable Airspeeds: Maximum Operating Speed VMO 350 kts / MMO -.86M Landing Gear Operating. VLO 270 kts / MLO -.82M Landing Gear Extended. VLE 320 kts / MLE -.82M
B757-200 Operation Manual Avg. Decision Speed Vkts Avg. Rotation Speed VR 150 kts Avg. Take-off Safety Speed. Vkts Clean Stall Speed. Vs 140 kts
0 1. 210 kts 1 5. 190 kts 180 kts 15 20. 165 kts 20 25. 160 kts 25 30. 145 kts
Notes: Landing Flaps It is standard procedure for WestWind Airline Pilots to use a 30 flap setting for landing. Normal procedure is to extend the flaps to landing selection at 1,000 feet above field level. However, they may be extended at a higher altitude when conditions dictate (significant tailwind, too high and/or fast and extenuating circumstances exist that prevent a go-around).
2.3 Fuel Loading Data
Range: 4,000 Nautical Miles Fuel Burn Rate Factor: 2.3425 Base Fuel Load: 1,000 gallons (400nm reserve) Fuel Loading Formula: ((Fuel Base Amount)+(Trip Distance x Fuel Burn Factor)) *This will provide you with the total amount of fuel needed* Fuel Distribution Formula: For the center fuel tank, you multiply the total amount of fuel needed by 50% (0.50). For the two main tanks you take the remaining fuel load and load it into the center fuel tank. *This will provide even distribution relative to the fuel tanks capacity*
B757-200 Operation Manual Example: Example: 1,200 NM Trip Distance ((1,000 gallons)+(1,200NM x 2.3425)) = 3,811 gallons Main Fuel Tank Distribution: 3,811 gallons x 0.50 = 1,905.5 gallons each. Since each wing-tank has a capacity of 2,300 gallons there will be 0 gallons left over from the two wing-tanks. To load fuel, choose Aircraft, Aircraft Settings, Fuel to bring up the fuel-loading window. Using the example above, you would enter the amount of 0 gallons in the box for the center fuel tank and 1,906 gallons in the box for each main fuel tank. Be sure to load these figures in the gallons box, not the percent or pounds box.
Visibility: There is an area near the aircraft where people, obstacles, or ground equipment cannot be seen. It is very important that slow taxi speeds are used while in the terminal area to ensure safe operation. Taxi Thrust: To break away from the ramp, release the brakes and smoothly increase the thrust. When increasing power to start moving, set the power and wait for the aircraft to respond. Do not continually add power until the aircraft moves because this will result in more power that is desired or necessary. Taxiing: When entering a turn, overshoot the centerline to compensate for the aft position of the main landing gear. If the nosewheel is turned too rapidly or at too high a ground speed, the nosewheel will lose traction and skid. When making a tight turn, it is recommended that a speed of 0 to 10 knots is used. It is a recommended technique to anticipate stopping/turning points and return the throttles to idle allowing the aircrafts weight to provide natural braking. This reduces the ware on the braking system and provides a more comfortable environment for passengers.
Before Take-off Checklist: The Before Take-off Checklist should be nearly completed prior to reaching the take-off position. The checklist must be completed prior to take-off. Runway Alignment: Line up slightly to the left or right of the centerline to avoid the runway centerline lights, which can cause excessive wear to the nosewheels tires. Once lined up, check the heading indication to assure that it is about the same as the runway number. Rejected Takeoff: Deploy the spoilers to degenerate the wings lift and provide additional braking. Reverse thrust is recommended on all operating engines when conditions are safe to do so. When applying reverse thrust, keep the thrust symmetrical to lessen the aircrafts tendency to drift. If the aircraft begins to drift to the side of the runway, return the throttles to idle. The braking applied by the auto brakes in the RTO mode is very sudden and abrupt.
B757-200 Operation Manual Rotation and Initial Climb: Take-off and initial climb performance is dependant on the aircrafts weight and the weather conditions. Rotation speed (VR) and initial climb speed (V2+10 knots) should be calculated prior to take-off. It is very important that proper technique is used during the rotation and initial climb. Over-rotation will result in the aft of the fuselage contacting the runway. Under-rotation results in an increased ground run. If the rotation is handled improperly the initial climb performance will be decreased. Initiate a smooth rotation at VR to the initial climb attitude while keeping the wings level. Adjust your initial climb attitude to maintain V2+10. When performed correctly, the aircraft should lift-off at 5-8 of deck angle. The initial climb (5 take-off flap setting) is divided into three segments: 1. Use take-off power to 1,500 feet above field level and maintain V2+10. Do not exceed 20 of deck angle. 2. After crossing 1,500 AFL, set climb power. While accelerating to 160 kts. retract flaps to 1 and maintain 160-180 kts. to 3,000 AFL. 3. After crossing 3,000 AFL. lower the nose to maintain a 500-1000 feet per minute rate of climb to expedite acceleration to 250 kts. Retract flaps on speed schedule. Engine Failure During Take-off: In the event of an engine failure, the pilot-incommand must be prepared to compensate for the aircrafts tendency to yaw in the direction of the failed engine. The attitude of the aircraft must be adjusted to maintain V2+10 until a safe altitude has been reached. Once at the minimum safe altitude, the aircrafts attitude should be decreased to allow airspeed to build. Once the airspeed has reached the desired climb speed, the aircrafts attitude should be adjusted to maintain that speed. Remember to fly the plane first. Once conditions are safe to do so, assess the problem. Crosswind Take-offs: While taking off in crosswind conditions, use the rudder pedals to keep the aircraft aligned with the centerline of the runway. As the speed increases you may encounter wing roll. At the first indication of wing roll, use sufficient aileron into the wind to keep the wings level. Smooth control inputs will result in a normal take-off without over controlling. The aircraft may be in a forward-slip if you have crossed controls at lift off. Recovery can be accomplished after lift-off by releasing both the rudder and aileron inputs and establish a wings level attitude.
Smooth turns and changes in altitude will provide a comfortable ride for the passengers. Try to use the auto-flight system to control heading, altitude, and speed changes. Due to noise restrictions, reduced climb-power should be used while under 10,000 feet MSL over urban areas. Reduced climb-power is dependent on the aircrafts take-off weight. When using reduced climb-power, adjust the aircrafts rate of climb to maintain the desired climb airspeed. To provide a smooth transition from climb to level flight, reduce the rate of climb to 500 feet per minute for the last 1000 feet. This technique will also aid the auto-flight system in capturing the selected altitude.
Climbing to a Higher Altitude: The autothrottle should be set to maintain the desired airspeed. Make all changes in altitude in a smooth manner. It is recommended to use a rate of climb less than 1000 feet per minute when transitioning from one cruise altitude to another. Cruise Speed: The desired cruise speed is dependant on the aircrafts weight, cruise altitude, and prevailing weather conditions. Typical cruise speeds range from Mach 0.72 to Mach 0.80. Use the autothrottle to maintain the desired cruise speed. Other Tasks: Typical cruise tasks include monitoring the aircrafts systems, fuel consumption, and navigation. Changes in cruise altitude can be dependant on information discovered from these tasks, so it is important that the crew be alert and aware of how their aircraft is performing.
Standard Descent Procedure: Clean configuration with idle power is the preferred method. Speedbrakes should be used when they are needed to expedite the decent due to traffic flow or to maintain the desired descent profile. When approaching the selected level-off altitude, reduce the rate of descent to 500 feet per minute and manually advance the throttles forward to ensure a smooth transition. Holding: Higher altitudes are preferred for more efficient fuel consumption. Hold cruising speed until three minutes from the holding fix, then start reducing your airspeed to assure that the proper speed is attained prior to entering the holding pattern.
B757-200 Operation Manual Beginning of Descent Point: When creating a flight plan, the BOD (Beginning Of Descent) point should be considered the optimum point to begin an unrestricted descent to a landing. The following equation should be used as a guide for calculating the BOD point. BOD Point Equation: Calculate the altitude difference. Drop the last three digits. Multiply by three. For descent to a landing add 10 nautical miles. For a descent to an intermediate altitude above 10,000 feet, no additive required. Adjust for wind by subtracting 2nm for each 10 knots of headwind, or adding 2nm for each 10 knots of tailwind. Example: Descending from FL310 to 3000 feet for landing with a 20 knot headwind: 31,000 3,000 = 28,000 28,000 = x 3 = + 10 = 94 nautical miles = 90 nautical miles. Answer: The BOD point should be 90 nautical miles from the destination point. NOTE: Adjust your rate of descent to assure target altitude interception within the determined distance.
3.6 Approach and Landing
ILS Approach: ILS transmitters are vulnerable to electronic interference that can corrupt the signal it transmits. Thus, constantly check the alignment using the HSI and ADI. Glide Slope or VASI: The VASI or ILS glide slope should always be used when available on VFR approaches. This assures proper approach path, which aids in the compliance with noise restrictions. Use of Thrust Control: During the approach phase the throttles should be regarded as a primary flight control. Their use should be coordinated with the elevators to control airspeed, rate of descent, and assure proper alignment on the glide path.
B757-200 Operation Manual Autothrottle Control: Be prepared to override or disconnect the autothrottle if the need arises due to unsafe conditions or manual control is preferred. Normal Glide Path: The normal glide path is based on the instrument approach. Once on final approach, only small adjustments to the glide path should be made. This will result in the same approach weather VFR or IFR. It is a good practice to aim all approaches at the 1,000 foot point on the runway. This will assure proper threshold clearance by the main landing gear. Final Approach: The three-degree glide path results in approximately 300 feet of altitude for every mile from the end of the runway. The rate of descent for a threedegree glide path can be determined by one-half the ground speed (in knots) times ten. Thus, for example, an approach speed of 130 knots would look like: = 65, then 65 x 10 = 650 feet per minute Management of The Approach: Adjustments should be made early in the approach. For safety, the rate of descent should be limited to less than 2,000 feet per minute when below 2,000 feet AGL and less than 1,000 feet per minute when below 1,000 feet AGL. For a Category I ILS approach, the transition from the ILS glide slope to a visual glide slope should be made between the decision height and 100 feet AGL. The radio altimeter is a valuable aid in determining the aircrafts height above the ground. This will also assist when determining the approach, flare, and touchdown. Touchdown: Reduce the rate of descent approximately 30-40 feet AGL by applying light backpressure to the yoke to increase the attitude by 2 to 3 degrees. The goal is to reduce the rate of descent, not stop the rate of descent. As this attitude is being applied the power should be slowly reduced to idle. The aircraft tends to float above the runway due to the ground effect. Proper management of elevator input and thrust control can counter the ground effect. After touchdown, lower the nose prior to engaging the reverse thrust. Summary: Use of proper procedures will result in consistently safe landings. Use the ILS when it is available, regardless of the weather conditions to assure safe approaches. If neither an ILS glide slope or a three-bar VASI are available, use the 300 foot per mile equation to determine the proper rate of descent.
3.7 Landing in Adverse Conditions
This portion of the Flight Techniques section will cover techniques that apply towards typical crosswind landings and control problems encountered due to poor runway conditions. Crosswind Landings: Most important key is to keep the wings level during the final approach. Maintain runway alignment by crabbing until the last 100 feet, then use the sideslip maneuver for touchdown. If the aircraft drifts off the centerline of the runway during the final phase of landing, attempts to correct the alignment by using the ailerons increases the possibility of the outboard engine or even the wingtip contacting the ground. The pilot in command should judge based on the rate and amount of displacement whether or not to go around. Wet or icy runway conditions with a crosswind is not a good combination. The pilot in command should maintain alignment towards the upwind side of the centerline of the runway. After touchdown, the aircraft will weathercock into the wind. Due to the poor runway conditions, steering using the aircrafts nose gear may be less effective. To aid in directional control differential braking may be used.
3.8 Turbulent Air
Known severe turbulent air conditions should be avoided when possible. If flight through severe turbulence is unavoidable, observe the recommended turbulence penetration airspeed. For this flight model the recommended airspeed is 270 to 285 knots indicated air speed or Mach.72 to.79 (whichever is lower). When below 10,000 feet MSL, the minimum recommended airspeed is 250 knots indicated airspeed. These speeds allow for greater speed reduction while providing the necessary maneuvering speed margins. Autopilot: The autopilot may be used in moderate turbulence. The pilot in command should be ready to take control of the aircraft from the autopilot if the need arises. If severe turbulence is encountered consideration should be given to engaging the LEVEL (LVL) function on the autopilot, which will maintain wings-level flight. Once the severe turbulence has passed the autopilot may resume normal operation. Thrust Control: Avoid immediate power changes as the airspeed indicator will naturally bound as much as 20 knots during severe turbulence.
B757-200 Operation Manual Aircraft Attitude: Maintain wings-level and the desired pitch. Use the ADI (Attitude Director Indicator) as your primary instrument. Do not use large or abrupt control inputs to correct changes in the aircrafts attitude. Aircraft Altitude: Often during severe turbulence large variations in altitude are possible. Do not chase the altitude. Sacrifice altitude in order to maintain the aircrafts attitude. If necessary, descend to improve the aircrafts buffet margin.
3.9 Wind Shear
There are four areas of action regarding wind shear: Avoidance Prevention Recognition Escape Avoidance: Avoid areas where a known wind shear exists. Always reference PIREPS of wind shear in excess of 20 knots, 500 feet per minute of climb, or 1000 feet above ground level. These are good indications that a wind shear exists in that area. Remember to consider the amount of time that has elapsed since the PIREP was made and the change in the observed weather conditions. Wind shear is very common around thunderstorms, rain and snow showers, low altitude jet streams, and strong or gusty surface winds. If the prevailing conditions are conducive towards wind shear, avoid the areas by delaying takeoff, divert around the areas, or delay landing until the conditions improve. Prevention: When prevailing conditions are favorable for wind shear use the following precautions: 1. Takeoff: a. Use the longest suitable runway. b. Use maximum takeoff power. 2. Landing: a. Add an appropriate airspeed correction to provide a larger safety margin. b. Avoid large thrust or trim changes in response to a sudden increase in airspeed. Be prepared to take control from the autopilot if airspeed suddenly decreases and flight control becomes marginal. c. If field length permits, use a landing flap setting of 3 instead of 4.
B757-200 Operation Manual Recognition: By alert for the following conditions: 1. + / - 15 knots indicated airspeed 2. 10 heading variation from normal 3. + / - 500 feet per minute per minute vertical speed 4. + / - 5 degrees pitch attitude Escape: If the aircrafts controllability becomes marginal below 1000 feet AGL execute the following steps without delay: 1. Aggressively increase the power setting to maximum available thrust. 2. Disengage the autopilot and smoothly rotate to a pitch attitude of 15 degrees. Stop rotation if approaching stall airspeed. 3. Control the flight path using pitch attitude. If the aircraft is not climbing at 15 degrees of pitch attitude, slowly increase the pitch to establish a climb. Always be aware of imminent stall and do not use more pitch than is necessary to control the aircrafts vertical flight path. Too much pitch attitude will place the aircraft in a high-drag angle of attack which results in a lower recovery altitude. 4. Do not change the trim, gear or flap setting until adequate ground clearance is achieved. Then follow normal go-around procedures. 5. During take-off roll a wind shear can cause drastic changes in indicated airspeed. Thus, the Captain must make a decision to reject or continue the take-off. If the decision is to continue the take-off, the rotation has to take place no later than 2000 feet from the end of the runway. 6. After a wind shear has been encountered the following information should be reported to the ATC immediately: Location Altitude Airspeed and/or altitude change Aircraft type
Boeing 757-200 Normal Procedures Checklist
BEFORE STARTING ENGINES
PARKING BRAKE.SET FUEL QUANTITY AND DISTRIBUTIONSET GEAR HANDLE AND LIGHTS.DOWN AND GREEN FLAPSUP ELEVATOR TRIM.SET FLT INSTRUMENTS/BUGS.SET DEPARTURE PROCEEDURE.REVIEWED AUTOFLIGHT SYS. SET FOR DEPARTURE.SET TRANSPONDER.SET NO SMOKING SIGN.ON FIVE MINUTES PRIOR TO DEPARTURE SEAT BELT SIGNSON
AFTER TAKE-OFF (CONTINUED)
18,000 Ft. MSL EXTERIOR LIGHTS.AS REQUIRED ALTIMETERS.SET 29.92 In / 1013 Hg
ENGINE PERFORMANCE.CHECKED SEAT BELT SIGNS.AS REQUIRED NAVIGATION.MONITOR
SEAT BELT SIGNS.ON APPROACH PROCEDURE.REVIEWED LANDING DATA.PREPARED 18,000 Ft. MSL EXTERIOR LIGHTS.AS REQUIRED ALTIMETERS.SET AND CHECKED 10,000 Ft. MSL STERILE COCKPITCABIN CHIME LANDING LIGHTS.ON
PRIOR TO PUSH-BACK
FUEL.ALL TANKS ANTI-COLLISION LIGHTS.ON CLEARANCE FOR PUSH BACK.RECEIVED CLEAR OF OBTRUCTIONS LEFT/RIGHT.CHECKED PARKING BRAKE.RELEASED
*When authorized, engines may be started while pushing back from the gate*
PARKING BRAKE.SET ENGINE AREA.CLEAR ENGINE IGNITION..ON
ALTIMETERS.RESET AND CHECKED FLT INSTRUMENTS/BUGS.SET FLAP SCHEDULE.REVIEWED AUTO BRAKES.AS REQUIRED FINAL APPROACH LANDING GEAR.DOWN AND GREEN FLAPS.FULL SPOILERS.ARMED
PITOT HEAT.ON AUTO BRAKES.SET TO RTO FLAPS.SET FLIGHT CONTROLS.CHECKED CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS LEFT/RIGHT.CHECKED PARKING BRAKE.RELEASED
AUTOFLIGHT AND AUTO THROTTLEOFF LANDING LIGHTSOFF AUTO BRAKES.OFF SPOILERS.DOWN FLAPS.RETRACTED
AUTO-FLIGHT SYSTEM.ON AUTO-THROTTLE.ARMED FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS.CHECKED FLAPS.SET ANTI-COLLISION LIGHTSON LANDING LIGHTS.ON
PARKING BRAKE.SET COCKPIT LIGHTS.AS REQUIRED EXTERNAL POWER / APU.ESTABLISHED FUEL CONTROL.CUTOFF SEAT BELT SIGNS.OFF ANTI-COLLISION LIGHTS.OFF ENGINE IGNITIONOFF PITOT HEAT.OFF LOG BOOKCOMPLETED
LANDING GEAR.UP AND NO LIGHTS AUTO BRAKES.OFF FLAPS.UP 10,000 Ft. MSL LANDING LIGHTSOFF FUEL SYSTEM.CHECKED STERILE COCKPITCANCELED ALTIMETERS.RESET AND CROSSCHECKED
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