Games PC Sid Meier S - Railroad Tycoon Ii - Platinum
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Games PC Sid Meier S-railroad Tycoon Ii-platinum, size: 2.1 MB
Games PC Sid Meier S - Railroad Tycoon Ii - Platinum
User reviews and opinions
|ecmnet||6:49am on Monday, October 25th, 2010|
|Does this device have any real flaws? Lets address some real shortcomingsÂ of the iPad. The iPad is exactly what I expected, easy to use, very well executed so long as you understand that it is mainly a device to consume media.|
|nikkiwikki||9:52am on Saturday, September 25th, 2010|
|I came into Vanns on a whim on the iPads launch day not really expecting to see any there still available. I replaced my first-gen iPod Touch, which I had since they first came out a few years ago, with this new beast of a device. First of all.|
|opalaming||2:01am on Thursday, July 8th, 2010|
|Bought the 16G WiFi for my wife. She enjoys playing games, surfing the web, reading books, reading email and catching up on her Soaps at ABC.com. Awesome game player, and has replaced my laptop but I do not have to need for business and so I do not know about how those work. Great for traveling,...|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
STARTING A NEW SECTION OF TRACK
You must always start a new section of track by connecting it with existing track. After clicking on the Add Track button, your cursor will indicate if its current location is a valid place to begin laying track. Red with an X in the Center: You cannot start new track at the present location. Green: The cursor is at the endpoint of an existing piece of track; the location is valid. Yellow: The cursor is not at the endpoint of an existing piece of track, but the location is still valid.
Begin by moving the cursor to either side of the stretch of track in your starting location. The cursor should turn green, indicating that the area youre on is the end of a track segment. Click the button to designate this as the start point of your new track segment. Now, move the mouse around a little bit. New track will appear, connecting the start point to the location of the mouse. This shows where the track would run to reach your cursors location. (This is just the potential route: the track isnt actually built until you click your mouse again.)
DETAILS ON THE PROSPECTIVE NEW TRACK
As you move the mouse, you should notice a few things changing. Text will appear next to your cursor; this tells you how much it will cost to lay the track, the maximum speed that a train can go on that new section, as well as the grade (see below) of the track.
As you move your cursor, you might notice that the terrain beneath the track changes. The computer will seek to make the track as flat as possible, adding fills, cuts, retaining walls and tunnels as necessary. Any costs caused by the additional construction is automatically added to the total track cost. You can adjust the level of your track manually, as well: see Selection Panel on the next page.
While youre moving the cursor, the potential track line may turn red. This means that the track cannot be laid as indicated (possibly because you dont have enough cash or because the grade is too steep or the track would require a too-sharp turn). You will have to change the tracks route, raise more cash, or try something else. (See the table on the next page for details on invalid track configurations) The Selection Panel at the bottom of the screen provides more details on the prospective section of track.
While you are creating the route for a train, you must tell your train what kind of cargo it is to carry. When you first create a train, it has no cars on it and cannot carry any cargo. When you add a station to your route, a box appears atop the routing map displaying what cargo is available for pickup at that station. To pick up that cargo, you must add the appropriate cars to your train. For example, if you are creating a commuter line and your starting station has 1 carload of mail and 2 carloads of passengers awaiting pickup, you might want to add 1 mail car and 2 passenger cars to the train at that station. Note that once cars are added at any stop, theyre automatically added to the cargo list at every stop in the route. This is usually okay if the train is carrying passengers and/or mail between cities; however, if youre carrying materials or raw goods you may need to make adjustments, adding or deleting cars at each stop. See below for examples of creating routes. Creating a Passenger/Mail Train Passengers and mail are good, steady sources of income. Lets say that you have depots in two cities connected in a line: Washington, and Baltimore. You note that both cities have passengers and mail available, so you decide to set up a train to carry them. You click on the Buy Train button on the main screen, which takes you to the Routing screen. At the routing screen you click on Washington and give the train 2 passenger cars and 1 mail car. You click OK and then click on Baltimore. Since Baltimore also has passengers and mail, you leave the trains car manifest as it is. You then exit the Routing screen. Your newly-created train will do the following: it will appear at Washington, where it will add on a mail car and two passenger cars, which will then fill up with as many available passengers and sacks of mail as the cars can hold. The train will then proceed to Baltimore, where it will drop off its Annapolis cargo and pick up a new set of passengers and mail. The train will then return to Washington, drop off its Baltimore load and start the route all over again.
Changing Engines When you create a new train, it is by default equipped with the most modern engine available. While this is often the correct choice, you may want to choose a different engine model. To do so, click on the Change button in the upper-right corner of the screen, and the "Roundhouse" screen will appear, where you can buy the latest engine or select a different one depending on your need. You can switch between trains by hitting the left and right arrows. Once you choose an engine you are returned to the Routing Screen.
This screen displays any goals that you are required to achieve to "win" the scenario. It also shows your progress towards meeting those goals.
Trains Report [F4]
This lists the trains that you have in operation, as well as their profitability over the current and preceding years.
Goods Report [F5]
This report shows prices of the goods in the game. It also displays a chart which allows you to track the prices over time and the leader in transporting each individual good.
This screen shows you the status of any industries you have purchased, including their profits, losses, size and bonuses.
The Patents screen shows you any patents you have won, as well as how much time is left until they become public domain. For more on Patents see page 93.
As a game progresses, various random Events may occur providing a new challenge or opportunity. An event may announce the availability of a new engine type or announce the decrease or increase in the value of a specific good. When a new event occurs, it is displayed as a newspaper atop your screen. Once you have read the event, [CLICK] on the newspaper to make it disappear. You can click on the Toggle Events button on the main screen to view older events.
TRAIN TABLE MODE
Train Table mode allows you to create a rail line with no competition and no time or financial constraints. You may play any scenario in Train Table mode. See Setting Up a Game at the top of this chapter. In essence, Train Table mode is less a game and more a tabletop model railroad simulation. The economy and stock market are disabled, and it costs nothing to lay track and purchase stations and engines. You may create resources and industries, or remove existing ones. Theres no maintenance cost, and you make no money for delivering goods. Random events do not occur. You can acquire any engine available in that scenario, put any combination of cars on the train, and route it as you wish. There are no victory (or defeat) conditions: you can play as long as you want. A Train Table game may be saved and loaded like any other game.
To buy an industry, [LEFT-click] on a city. In the Selection Panel, next to the industry name should be the price of the industry and the Buy button. This will begin an auction, letting every player in the game know that this industry is for sale and allowing them to bid on it. Prices can quickly rise in auctions, so be sure to watch your opponents moves before trying to buy an industry, or else you can end up paying an arm and a leg for what should have cost only a fingernail.
Sometimes a resource and a processing industry, such as a lumber mill and a paper plant, will be close together, but the closest newspaper will be across the map. In these cases, while bringing lumber to that city can still be profitable, the paper thats produced begins to pile up in the city. In cases like these it may be in your best interest to build an industry, in this case a newspaper, to receive all the paper thats piling up. New industries take up a lot of space and can only be built in towns, cities or metropolises. Additionally, the size of the city determines how many industries a city can have. In towns and villages there may not be enough room to build a new industry. In these cases, youll just have to wait for the city to grow in order to build. To build a new industry, [LEFT-click] on an appropriately-sized city. The right hand side of the Status Panel displays the industries in the city; if the city has empty lots there is space in that city to construct additional industries. [LEFT-clicking] the Build button will bring up a menu of industries that can be constructed. In this case, we want a newspaper. The trade-off for buying a new industry is that they are extremely expensive $500,000 each. So constructing a newspaper for a single paper plant would not be profitable. But if several paper plants surrounded a single nearby city, it could be worth your while to build a one there. Note that you cannot build an industry in a town that accepts goods the town already produces. Using our example above, if a town already had a paper plant, you couldnt build a newspaper in that town.
Lets take the case above, the paper mill receiving lumber but with no place to ship it, and change the roles. If one of your opponents is producing paper and not using it, and there just happens to be a newspaper close
to you, you can build a line to hijack his paper and bring it to your newspaper just as you would if you had produced the paper yourself. The danger here is that your opponent may not find supplying you with a profitable good in his best interest and stop shipping lumber to the city. Now you have a useless rail line unless you expand to the lumber mill. So when building such a line, make sure to keep an eye on your goods, as you never know when your supply may get cut off.
E RA : 1825-1840
Purchase Year: 1828 Purchase Cost: 10,000 Top Speed: 30 mph Preferred Cargo: Passengers Initial Maintenance Cost: 500
While previous designs had assured their place in railroad history, the innovations of the Stephensons 2-2-0 Planet gave the father and son team a visible legacy in nearly all future rail travel. The 2-2-0s horizontal cylinders, attached to the front of the engine instead of the rear for better balance, as well as a multi-tubular boiler, would soon become important standards. And while later engines improved on the 2-2-0s various flaws, such as its unsteadiness at increasing speeds, its strengths found their way into the blueprints of innumerable engines to come.
Purchase Year: 1834 Purchase Cost: 20,000 Top Speed: 40 mph Preferred Cargo: Passengers Initial Maintenance Cost: 1,000
Unsteadiness and small fireboxes had plagued the Stephensons early engines. The solution came in the form of an extra pair of wheels behind an expanded firebox. These improvements were patented and this more stable, more powerful engine, the 2-2-2 Patentee, continued on to become the iron standard of British passenger transport for the next four decades, carrying English ladies and gentlemen well into the next century.
4-2-2 Iron Duke
Purchase Year: 1845 Purchase Cost: 30,000 Top Speed: 50 mph Preferred Cargo: Passengers Initial Maintenance Cost: 2,000
Little could Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington, have known that by shuttering his windows in iron to keep out the stones of angry protesters, he would be placing himself into the annals of locomotive history. The Iron Duke, named for Wellesley, was designed by Daniel Gooch for Isambard Brunels Great Northern Railway. It quickly became renowned for its ability to haul long passenger trains at up to 80 mph as well as its distinct broad gauge construction.
0-6-0 Dx Goods
Purchase Year: 1857 Purchase Cost: 30,000 Top Speed: 50 mph Preferred Cargo: Freight Initial Maintenance Cost: 2,500
When speed could be traded for sheer hauling power, an 0-6-0 was the engine an early rail magnate bought. John Ramsbottom, a superintendent of the London and North Western Railway, created just that in the Dx Goods an engine capable of hauling long lines of cars over both hillock and plain. Over nine-hundred were constructed and left a lasting mark on how Great Britain hauled her freight.
Purchase Year: 1868 Purchase Cost: 40,000 Top Speed: 60 mph Preferred Cargo: Passengers Initial Maintenance Cost: 3,000
Considered one of the most handsome trains ever built, the 4-2-2 Stirling Single was the creation of Patrick Stirling, superintendent of the Great Northern Railroad. The Stirlings single pair of eight foot driving wheels allowed it to reach impressive speeds of 75 mph with a full load of cars following behind. This strength at high speeds made the Stirling the obvious choice as the first engine to run what became known as The Special Scotch Express from London to Edinburgh, later to be renamed The Flying Scotsman.
4-2-2 Johnson Midland Spinner
Purchase Year: 1886 Purchase Cost: 35,000 Top Speed: 60 mph Preferred Cargo: Mixed Initial Maintenance Cost: 3,500
Samuel Johnsons Midland Railroad was known for a few things fast trains, on time passenger lines and an unheard of level of beauty in their trains. The Midland Spinner, called that for the slipping its single driving wheel tended to do as it started up, fulfilled both requirements. Light, fast and undoubtedly handsome, the attractiveness of the engine and the impressiveness of Johnsons timetables made the Spinner an exceptional train for its time.
4-4-0 Claud Hamilton
Purchase Year: 1896 Purchase Cost: 50,000 Top Speed: 80 mph Preferred Cargo: Passengers Initial Maintenance Cost: 4,000
A train able to haul 350 tons of passengers up the graded rails from London to North Walsham at fifty miles an hour has its career made. But if that train has additions well before its time, such as a water collection system that doesnt require making a stop, then that train is exceptional. F.V. Russells 4-4-0 Claud Hamilton, introduced in 1900, was exceptional. Painted in becoming sweeps of the Great Eastern Railways royal blue trimmed with shades of vermillion and gold, the 4-4-0 was not only a machine of precocious mechanics, but an impressive draw to the passengers who wanted to ride on a stately engine.
0-8-0 Webb Compound
Purchase Year: 1903 Purchase Cost: 50,000 Top Speed: 80 mph Preferred Cargo: Freight Initial Maintenance Cost: 4,000
Slowly hauling long lines of coal along the London & North Western Railroad was far from glorious work, but few train excelled at it quite like the 0-8-0 Webb. Named for the railways superintendent, Francis Webb, eight driving wheels granted the locomotive hauling power and ability to work on steep grades, but left it lacking in the balance needed for speedy passenger transport.
Purchase Year: 1952 Purchase Cost: DM70,000 Top Speed: 90 mph Preferred Cargo: Freight Initial Maintenance Cost: DM4,000
The V200, built in 1953, bore a powerful diesel-hydraulic engine, which was significantly lighter than your average diesel-electric engine of equal strength. This gave the machine better control without sacrificing power. So well designed were the V200's that they were capable of hauling 30% more weight than expected, moving at over 60mph with a full load on graded tracks.
Re 6/6 Bo-Bo-Bo
Purchase Year: 1970 Purchase Cost: DM60,000 Top Speed: 90 mph Preferred Cargo: Mixed Initial Maintenance Cost: DM3,000
Hoping to create an engine that could produce significant horse power to haul heavy freight over mountainous terrain, the Swiss Federal Railway commissioned the Re 6/6 in 1972. The 10,590hp machine released onto those Swiss rails was capable of hauling almost 900 tons up high grades at 50mph. But with a top speed of 87mph, it also came into use as a speedy and, thanks to its maneuverable wheel arrangement, steady passenger express.
FRANCE Era: 1842-1870
Purchase Year: 1852 Purchase Cost: F25,000 Top Speed: 50 mph Preferred Cargo: Passenger Initial Maintenance Cost: F2,000
Locomotive designer Thomas Russell Crampton learned his trade in his home of England. Yet when the Paris-Lille line requested a new engine, Crampton took his first step into France. Capable of reaching speeds of 80mph, his machine had an extremely low center of gravity to increase their stability. This, combined with a variety of innovations developed by Crampton himself, made him famous in France for engine design and gave his locomotives a grand history within the country.
Purchase Year: 1857 Purchase Cost: F30,000 Top Speed: 50 mph Preferred Cargo: Freight Initial Maintenance Cost: F2,500
A play on a French design, the 2-4-0 Mdoc, designed for the SwissWestern Railway, employed a lengthened boiler, drawing more energy from the heat produced within the engine. Its four driving wheels made it a power engine, turning the Swiss Alps from true obstacles to mere molehills. Despite a tendency to rock as they rolled, Mdoc engines were well received and continued in service until the end of the 19th century.
2-4-2 Class 121
Purchase Year: 1879 Purchase Cost: F40,000 Top Speed: 60 mph Preferred Cargo: Passenger Initial Maintenance Cost: F3,000
The Ligne Imperiale - Imperial Line - of the Paris, Lyon & Mediterranean Railway was an auspicious honor to run. But the 2-4-2 Class 121 was certainly an auspicious engine. More stable than the 4-2-0's of the time, the Class 121's extra pair of driving wheels made it a significantly more powerful engine as well. And with an impressive artistry to its design, the Class 121's became one of the most pleasing and efficient passenger trains in France.
Known in its birthplace as the Mikado, the 2-8-2 design on which the Class 141 was born had been shipped from the United States across the globe during the first two decades of the 20th century. Changing the form but keeping the function, French firms began to create their own 2-8-2's, using the machine's near 3000 horsepower to haul freight across the rolling French countryside.
Purchase Year: 1970 Purchase Cost: F80,000 Top Speed: 90 mph Preferred Cargo: Mixed Initial Maintenance Cost: F3,000
Hoping to create an engine that could produce significant horse power to haul heavy freight over mountainous terrain, the Swiss Federal Railway commissioned the Re 6/6 in 1972. The 10,590hp machine released onto those Swiss rails was capable of hauling almost 900 tons up sharp grades at 50mph. But with a top speed of 87mph, it also came into use as a speedy and, thanks to its maneuverable wheel arrangement, steady passenger express.
Purchase Year: 1981 Purchase Cost: F100,000 Top Speed: 200 mph Preferred Cargo: Passenger Initial Maintenance Cost: F1,200
The TGV, short for Train Grande Vitesse or high-speed train, is just that - pure, unadulterated speed. Constructed in 1976, the French TGV set its speed record in 1990, breaking 320mph. And while their speed is unquestionable, this also makes the TGV an extremely specialized machine, incapable of hauling any cargo other than passengers or mail. But with numerous lines across France, connections to Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, the success of the TGV is clear.
C HAPTER 5
To be a successful rail baron, one needed detailed knowledge of the industries that supplied and demanded goods brought by rail. It was also critical to keep abreast of new innovations in the railroad industry (patents).
Following is a list of the industries in Railroads.
Effect: Converts Steel to Automobiles Scenarios Available In: All United States scenarios, Germany
Self-powered vehicles had been in existence since the 17th century, yet not until the discovery of the internal combustion engine, developed independently by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, did automobiles begin to appear in any mass numbers. And when Henry Ford perfected his massproduction process for the Model T, the automobile became an important part of the daily American life.
Effect: Converts Grain into Beer Scenarios Available In: Germany
One of the first chemical processes man ever harnessed taking average, everyday grain and turning it into a wondrous new form was fermentation. Since the Egyptians, beer has been providing nutrients and social lubrication to peoples across the world. Planting itself firmly in the German culture, beer production in Germany was regulated until the 1980s by the Reignheitsgebot, a series of rules controlling beer ingredients and prices passed in the 16th century that remains a symbol of traditional German heritage to this day.
Effect: Converts Steel to Arms Scenarios Available In: France, Great Britain
Victory in battle has always been part strategy, part technology. By the early 19th century, rapid advancements in firearms such as the bolt-action rifle and Samuel Colts revolver made warfare more deadly than ever before. Yet in many instances, strategy had not yet caught up with technology and old line-firing tactics lead to the mowing down of soldiers in the face of the latest in scientific armament.
These are a list of the patents up for auction in any given game of Railroads!
BALDWINS SAND BOX
Effect: + 50% speed up hills
One of the greatest problems for any locomotive design is traction. Whether going uphill, over slippery terrain, or starting movement hauling a lengthily trail of cars, slipping wheels can do damage to the expensive rails and the even more expensive engine. The invention to solve this, thought to have been created by the renowned Baldwin Locomotive Works, was the sandbox. By adding a tube that sprayed sand in front of the wheel for that extra needed traction, the sandbox made wheel slippage a problem of the past and was adopted onto trains throughout the world.
BIRKENSHAWS MALLEABLE RAILS
Effect: - 25% track cost
All the chugging power of even the strongest engine comes crashing down without a good rail. It was John Birkenshaws wrought iron that would become that good rail. Wrought iron, with its malleability, allowed rails to bend rather than snap as heavy weights were applied to them. Extraordinarily resistant to boot, Birkenshaws invention made constant rail repairs a thing of the past, greatly decreasing the cost of any rail system savvy enough to employ them.
GREATHEAD TUNNELING SHIELD
Effect: - 50% cost of tunnels
Tunneling shields, a mobile protective covering to keep the roof from caving in on large scale excavations, had been chiefly employed in the modern era by two Englishmen first by Marc Isambard Brunel, father of the renowned railway engineer of similar name, and James Greathead, in his work on Londons underground railways. Greatheads improvements on Brunels design would become the basis of tunneling systems for years to follow and would create a new standard of safety for largescale public works projects.
Effect: - 50% maintenance costs
Elijah McCoys parents were American slaves seeking a better life in Canada, later moving to the United Kingdom, where young Elijah studied mechanical engineering. Upon his return to the United States, McCoy found little work available to him as an engineer, instead taking an arduous job lubricating engine parts for the Michigan Central Railroad. The wheels in McCoys mind began turning, and before long he received a patent for an automatic lubricator, which allowed trains to run without the need for stops over long distances, greatly reducing their maintenance needs.
Effect: + 50% speed increase in turns
Prior to the invention of Westinghouses airbrake, train stoppage was often unreliable, especially heading into sharp turns, leading to all manner of damages to locomotive and land. The automatic airbrake was a breath of fresh air for railway workers, as they now knew that when the time came, they would actually be able to stop their machine, making it possible for them to go much faster around curves in the rails.
C HAPTER 6
When railroads first came upon the scene, some of the greatest minds of the world saw their potential to change the world and to generate profits. As you play Railroads you will face these captains of industry and world leaders, challenging them for a place among their numbers.
O PPONENTS B ACKGROUNDS
Following are descriptions of the opposing Robber Barons who appear in the game.
His touch is death, stated Daniel Drew, about his one-time partner, Jay Gould. Known as one of the shrewdest of the robber barons, Gould made his name as a cutthroat speculator. As president of the Erie Railroad, Gould gutted that company for profit before losing his position due to the outrage at his manipulations. As age and illness descended upon Gould, he looked westward, buying heavily into the famous but poorly managed Union Pacific Railroad. But what was expected to be another gut-and-run turned out to be a sincere interest in remedying Union Pacifics woes; Gould modernized and expanded the previously forsaken railroad.
A financier first, Jay Cooke not only made millions of his own through shrewd investing, but raised nearly two billion dollars for the Union during the Civil War through clever advertising campaigns. In the 1870s, applying those same techniques, Cooke began work on his Northern Pacific Railroad. Construction, though, was plagued with setbacks and Cooke was forced to declare bankruptcy, causing a nationwide depression, in what became known as the Panic of 1873.
Cornelius Vanderbilt began his career in transportation working on ferries between Staten Island and Manhattan as a youth, eventually building an entire fleet of transport ships and earning himself the nickname The Commodore. He entered the rail business in the 1860s, first purchasing the New York and Harlem Railroad and later the Hudson River and New York Central Railroads, merging them together into one of the Northeasts largest rail systems. Despite a costly failed attempt to acquire the Erie Railroad, Vanderbilt still left behind an estate worth over $100 million.
At first, much of American railroad construction was based upon original British designs, the Stephensons locomotives being imported across the Atlantic. Yet Americas first railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, found that the Northeasts many hillocks and mountains were a distinct challenge for British locomotives and began searching the states for locomotive designers who could fulfill their needs. With the initial challenges being overcome by men like William Norris and Phineas Davis, later railroads and locomotive designers turned what was once a distinctly English science into one that fit the United States. Rail systems spread across the Northeast, hauling coal from the rich Appalachian ranges and carrying passengers among the heavily populated coastal cities well into the 20th century. When in the 1970s the U.S. government finally stepped in due to dwindling profitability, it took over what had become one of the largest rail systems in the world.
U NITED S TATES S OUTHWEST
Time Period: Difficulty: This scenario is recommended for beginners. Area: The Southwest United States stretches from Las Vegas to Los Angeles, from San Diego to Phoenix.
This scenario begins in the youth of the railroad era, runs through the end of the steam era and into the birth of diesel. Sparse in its population and even sparser in its resources, the Southwest United States is filled with stretches of flat, unproductive desert and mountainbound cities. While a few measly rivers meander through the countryside, valleys and gorges fill the southeast area of the map, making the construction of a straight track near impossible. The far north and the western coast hold the Southwests bounty and a linking of these two areas could make for an oasis of income.
With the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, American forces in the California territories quickly seized control of the lightly
populated region. Yet not two years later, when gold was struck in 1848, a new wave of settlers from across the continent rushed to get their part of the newly discovered fortune. The journey to California, through steep mountains and scalding deserts, made a faster, safer form of transportation a necessity for the growing territory. With the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, the east and west were linked for the first time in their history, greatly speeding the settlement of the newly acquired American West. And with the impressive growth of a ranching community called Los Angeles and a small watering hole known as Las Vegas, the desert was slowly transformed into a series of brilliant oases. As the population of the Southwest blossomed, expanding rail systems took advantage of the regions brutal beauty, trains like the California Zephyr becoming famous for their domed viewing cars and carefully planned journeys through rugged vistas.
U NITED S TATES N ORTHWEST
While electric trains were quickly shown to be both reliable and costeffective for urban commuting, they had yet to be prove their worth as long distance freight or passenger engines. In the United States, it was the Pennsylvania Railroad, using its P-5a electric engine, that showed that electricity could be both powerful and profitable. One hemisphere away, the Swiss, whose mountainous homeland made using steam engines both costly and slow, quickly adopted electric trains in order to remove their dependence on imported coal. A long line of powerful electric trains were to follow, including the Ge 6/6 Crocodile, which could haul man or freight over the high peaks of the Swiss landscape. Diesel engines, despite their cheap running costs, only found their way into use in the 1930s, and were not widely used until the forties and fifties, for it was assumed no diesel engine could ever be as powerful as an equivalent steam engine. In the United States, the EMD F-Series proved that argument wrong. Far from the first diesel, but certainly one of the most successful in the United States, the success of the F-Series prompted the creation of the next great American diesel, the EMD GP, an immensely strong and efficient engine. Germany too began experimenting with diesel, creating the V series in the 1930s, with the culmination of the line, the light and efficient V200, being constructed in 1953.
With the onset of the Second World War, trains once again took up their role as important troop and supply lines. As one of the greatest world conflicts of all time came to a close, great changes were to sweep the world of trains. The chaos brought about by the end of the war in Europe gave some countries the chance to expand their railways and others to transform them completely. In France, the provisional leadership of Charles de Gaulle helped guide the country through trying reconstruction. De Gaulle also helped bring about the construction of Paris underground rail system in order to further aid commuter travel in his homeland. For Britain, the end of the war became the beginning of a nationalized rail system, one held completely in public hands. In a divided Germany, two new rail
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