Harman Kardon HK6100
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Harman Kardon HK6100 Home Cinema Amplifier, size: 497 KB
Harman Kardon HK6100
User reviews and opinions
|kzs||8:15am on Saturday, September 11th, 2010|
|No one know how to make a good boombox!! In general, 99% of the iPod docking speakers on the market are junks, be exact are over priced junks. Awesome - outperforms Bose by a long shot When our Bose Sounddock was stolen, I started looking at other options.|
|Mark Healey||1:30pm on Monday, May 24th, 2010|
|Best Ipod Speaker System No One Knows About If I worked on the design team at Harmon Kardon. Best Sounding Portable EVER! I bought this portable over two years ago, and it still draws the praise of everyone that hears it.|
|HH||5:57am on Friday, May 21st, 2010|
|If you listen to this Unit with your favorite music at a 200-250 price range there is nothing on the market that I have found that is even close(the t... So more on the sound. Like I said, the origi... So more on the sound. Like I said, the original will blow any sound dock at this price out of the water (Bose... NOT EVEN CLOSE).|
|peterf||6:20am on Thursday, May 20th, 2010|
|Forget Bose get this Did loads of research, weeks in fact, went round listening to every ipod dock I could find.|
|joegaber||10:00pm on Wednesday, April 7th, 2010|
|Harmon Kardon Go and Play Harman Kardon - Go & Play - High Performance iPod Speaker System This machine has a fantastic sound and huge bass for such a...|
|Pwildsaint||10:33am on Friday, March 19th, 2010|
|Much better than Bose. I came across these speakers for £329 in John Lewis, which is a massive difference compared to here. Quality Sound, Solid Bass, Highly Recommend I paid £140 for this, which is an absolute bargain. Sounds nice at full volume.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Separater PhonoVorverstrker Phono mit A 2 digital digital
5 stereoplay 2004
Mark Levinson No 38 S Mark Levinson No. 28 Mark Levinson No. 380 MBL 4010 MBL 5010 CM MBL 5010 CM MBL Der Vorverstrker McIntosh C 2200 McIntosh C 27 McIntosh C 29 McIntosh C 29 McIntosh C 33 McIntosh C 712 McIntosh MC 7205 McIntsoh C 100 Mclntosh MX132 Meridian 201 Meridian 501 Meridian 562/517/516 Meridian 565 Meridian 568 Meridian MCLP Metaxas Marquis Metaxas Opulence Mission 776 Mission Pre Mitsubishi DA-P 600 Mondial Acurus ACT 3 Monrio Primus Moscode Minuet in A Musical Fidelity Preamp 3 AX Musical Fidelity X P 100 Musical Fidelity X-Pre Musical Technology P 1 Myryad MP 100 NAD 1130 NAD 114 NAD 1155 NAD 118 NAD 1240 NAD 1300 NAD C 160 NAD PP 2 NAD S-100 Nagra PL-P Naim AV 2 Naim NAC 282 + HiCap Naim NAC 500 Naim NAC 552 Nakamichi CA-5 E Nakamichi CA-5 E II Nikko Beta 400 Nikko Beta II Octave HP 200 Octave HP 300 Octave HP 500 Octave HP 500 Octave HP 500 Mk 3 Onkyo P-200 Onkyo P-3030 Onkyo P-3060 Onkyo P-3060 R Onkyo P-3090 Onkyo P-3390 Onkyo P-3890 Parasound P/HP 850 Parasound P/LD 1100 Parasound P/LD 2000 Parasound P/LP 1500 Parasound P/SP 1000 Parasound P/SP 1500 Pass X 2 Pass Xono Perreaux SM 2 Pioneer C-7 Pioneer C-73 Pioneer C-90 Pioneer C-Z 1 Plinius Jarrah Proceed AVP Proceed PAV Proton AP-1000 Proton AP-400 Pro Quad 34 Quad 44 02/95 10/91 07/99 10/83 04/98 06/00 02/88 04/03 09/78 01/80 05/82 08/83 10/97 10/00 06/98 10/00 06/88 07/95 08/97 04/98 03/01 12/85 09/91 02/88 03/83 04/97 05/79 10/99 03/95 08/86 07/88 05/00 07/98 08/01 03/99 04/86 04/97 12/86 04/96 05/89 06/88 05/01 11/03 12/98 02/98 08/02 06/03 10/97 09/02 11/85 10/89 01/89 11/79 09/93 07/01 10/90 03/96 02/00 11/85 11/83 01/82 03/83 11/81 12/86 09/92 06/94 02/95 03/96 03/94 07/95 12/96 11/98 10/01 06/85 07/91 02/91 08/86 09/80 08/01 01/01 09/94 01/89 06/94 01/89 03/k.A. 750 53-55 Punkte, frher as1 43-37-39 Punkte, frher s51 43-Restek V 2a 03/Rotel RC 1070 05/Rotel RC-1000 05/Rotel RC-2000 07/Rotel RC-850 06/Rotel RC-870 BX 05/Rotel RC-970 BX 06/Rotel RC-972 03/Rotel RC-990 BX 09/Rotel RC-995 10/Rotel RHA-10 09/Rotel RSP 1066 08/Rotel RSP-960 12/Rotel TC-980 AX 03/Rowen PR 1 08/Rowland Consonance 10/SAC Epsilon 02/SAC Mediatore 12/SAE 2100 L 06/SAE X 1 P 12/Sherwood AP-7020 09/Sherwood AVP-8500 R 12/Siemens RP 666 03/Sony TA-E 1000 ESD 10/Sony TA-E 2000 ESD 08/Sony TA-E 90 ES 02/Sony TA-E 900 01/Sony TA-E 901 07/Sony TA-E 901 03/Sony TAE-9000 ES 06/Stax CA-Y 05/Sudgen C 28 06/Sumo Athena 06/Sumo Electra 12/T + A P 1220 01/T + A PD 1200 R 01/T + A Pulsar P 1200 R 09/T + A Pulsar P 2000 04/T + A Pulsar P 2000 AC 12/T + A Pulsar P 2000 AC 10/TAG McLaren AV 192 R (PL II, 6.1, U2, Raumkorr.) TAG McLaren AV 32 R-EX TAG McLaren DPA 32 R TAG McLaren PA 20 R TAG McLaren PPA 20 Tandberg 3038 A Tandberg TCA 3002 Tandberg TCA 3002 A Technics SU-A 4 Mk II Technics SU-A 40 Technics SU-A 6 Technics SU-A 60 Technics SU-A 8 Technics SU-C 1000 Technics SU-C 3000 Terratec Phono Preamp Studio Theta Casablanca II Threshold FET One Threshold FET Two Mk II Thule PR 250 Thule spirit Control Toshiba Aurex SY-A 88 Toshiba Aurex SY-A 90 Uher UPA 3000 VT Uher UPA-1000 Vincent LS 1 Vincent SA 11 Vincent SA T 1 VTL Maximal WBE Diamond 36 HE Yamaha C-2a Yamaha C-2x Yamaha C-4 Yamaha C-60 Yamaha C-65 Yamaha C-70 Yamaha CX-50 Yamaha CX-70 Yamaha CX-830 Yves Cochet P Deux 03/01 11/00 10/98 01/02 10/89 01/82 06/84 07/84 10/90 01/82 07/88 12/81 10/95 03/99 06/03 05/01 05/82 03/86 04/00 02/98 09/82 11/83 09/93 09/92 04/96 02/98 07/03 05/90 08/01 09/80 06/85 08/80 09/84 12/86 09/82 10/88 10/89 10/90 08/33-35 Punkte, frher s2 48
6 Kanal Paar Paar
Conrad Johnson Premier 12 09/98 Conrad Johnson Premier 4 04/87 Conrad Johnson Premier One 04/88 Conrad Johnson SA 250 07/97 Creek A-52 SE 07/98 Crest FA 901 09/92 Cybernet A 2 06/80 Denon POA-1500 11/83 Denon POA-1500 06/84 Denon POA-2200 11/86 Denon POA-3000 10/80 Denon POA-3000 Z 03/85 Denon POA-4400 A 01/89 Denon POA-5000 03/93 Denon POA-6600 08/87 Denon POA-6600 09/87 Denon POA-800 10/89 Denon POA-8000 08/82 Denon POA-S 1 07/94 Denon POA-T 3 + POA-T 2 12/96 Electrocompaniet 250 DMB 02/94 Electrocompaniet 60 FTT 04/97 Electrocompaniet Ampliwire 100 03/86 Electrocompaniet Ampliwire 100 DMB Electrocompaniet Ampliwire 250 Electrocompaniet Ampliwire Ia Electrocompaniet AW 180 Electrocompaniet Nemo Esoteric Audio Research 549 Experience Classic Experience Quadriga Experience Renaissance RS 9105 Fidelity Research Sarder Fidelity Topas Fidelity Topas Mk III Fidelix 2B-4 Fostex AP-1020 Gassmann Akustik Avantgarde A 1 Graaf GM 100 Grundig MA 100 Hafler DH-220 Hafler XL-280 Harman PA 4000 (4-Kanal) Harman Signature 2.1 Harman/Kardon Citation 19 Harman/Kardon Citation 22 Harman/Kardon Citation X-1 Harman/Kardon Citation XX Harman/Kardon hk 775 Harman/Kardon hk 870 Hitachi HMA-7500 Mk II Hitachi HMA-8500 Mk II Hitachi HMA-9500 Mk II Isostatic Ultra Jadis JA 30 Jadis JA 500 Julius Futtermann Kenwood Basic M 1 Kenwood L-08 M Kenwood L-1000 M Kort KR Enterprise VT 6000 PPM Krell FPB 250 M Krell FPB-M 650 Krell KAS-100 Krell KAV-500 Krell KSA-100 Krell KSA-250 BEUR Krell KSA-250 EUR LAB 1300 C LAB 2000 C L'Audiophile Le Classe A Lindemann AMP 3 Linn AV 5125 Linn Klimax 500 Twin Linn Klimax Solo 500 (Paar) Linn LK 2 Linnenberg Power DAC Linnenberg Poweramp Luxman B-10 Luxman M-02 Luxman M-03 Luxman M-05 Luxman M-07 Luxman M-300 Luxman M-363 Luxman M-4000 A 04/88 03/85 01/96 09/99 12/85 09/92 09/93 03/90 04/87 08/86 07/88 01/85 09/92 07/92 01/02 12/81 06/84 08/90 04/03 06/99 12/78 12/87 12/83 04/83 06/82 11/83 10/80 11/83 04/81 06/94 08/86 10/89 06/79 10/83 08/81 10/90 04/87 09/99 11/97 03/98 05/82 04/98 03/86 11/89 10/88 11/94 11/94 03/85 01/96 07/01 01/02 11/02 04/86 09/94 01/95 09/96 06/84 06/88 07/94 01/90 01/82 02/94 10/80
2750 09/850 2725
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Paar 6 Kanal Paar Paar Paar Paar
mit DA P-9500; digital
45-47 Punkte, frher as3 nur mit Vorstufe Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar
Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar Digital
Paar Paar Multikanal
Rhre, Paar Paar
7 stereoplay 2004
Magnat Magma Manley VTL 500 Marantz MA 22 Marantz MA 500 Marantz MA 6100 Marantz SC 800 Marantz SM 1000 Marantz SM 11 Marantz SM 5 Marantz SM 8 Marantz SM 80 Mark Levinson 20.5 Mark Levinson 20.6 Mark Levinson ML-9 Mark Levinson No. 27 Mark Levinson No. 29 Mark Levinson No. 33 Mark Levinson No. 33 Mark Levinson No. 335 MBL 8010 MBL 8011 McGee Dream McIntosh MC 2255 McIntosh MC 2500 McIntosh MC 7100 Meridian 205 Meridian 555 Meridian 556 Meridian MPA Metaxas Iraklis Metaxas Solitaire Michaelson & Austin TV A-1 Mission 777 Mission Power Mitsubishi DA-A 600 Mondial Acurus A 125 X 5 Monrio Cento Moscode 300 Musica Nova Pegasus T Musical Fidelity MA 50 Musical Fidelity X AS 100 Musical Fidelity XA 200 Musical Fidelity XA 50 Myryad MA 100 NAD 2100 NAD 2155 NAD 216 NAD 218 NAD 2200 NAD 2600 NAD C 270 NAD S 200 Naim NAP 200 Naim NAP 250 Naim NAP 250 Nakamichi PA-5 E II Nakamichi PA-7 E Nikko Alpha 400 Nikko Alpha II NRG A 401 M Octave MRE 120 Octave RE 275 Onkyo M-200 Onkyo M-5030 Onkyo M-5060 Onkyo M-5060 R Onkyo M-5090 Onkyo M-5890 Parasound HCA 1000 Parasound HCA 1200/II Parasound HCA 1206 Parasound HCA 2200 II Pass Aleph 0 S Pass X 350 Pass X 600 (Paar) Perreaux 2150 B Pioneer M-6 Pioneer M-7 Pioneer M-73 Pioneer M-8 Pioneer M-90 Pioneer M-Z 1 Proceed HPA 2 + HPA 3 Proton AA-1150 Proton AA-461 Pro QSC 1100 QSC 1400 10/91 05/90 08/92 08/93 08/01 05/82 07/84 03/85 05/96 06/84 02/91 05/90 06/92 05/82 10/91 09/90 10/96 10/98 07/99 04/98 06/00 12/94 05/82 04/84 10/97 06/88 07/95 08/97 12/85 10/87 09/91 05/80 03/83 04/97 05/79 10/99 03/95 08/86 06/99 07/88 05/00 07/98 08/98 03/99 07/90 04/86 07/95 04/97 11/86 06/88 05/01 12/98 12/02 10/97 06/03 10/89 11/85 01/89 11/79 03/93 02/00 09/93 11/85 11/83 01/82 03/83 11/81 09/92 02/95 06/94 07/95 03/94 07/95 11/98 07/02 06/85 07/89 03/93 02/91 01/97 08/86 10/80 01/01 01/89 06/94 09/92 09/k.A. 850 Paar Paar Paar Paar Paar Quad 306 Quintessence Crescendo Restek E 2 Reuenzehn Tube 66 Revox B 242 Rotel RB 1070 Rotel RB 1090 Rotel RB-1000 Rotel RB-2000 Rotel RB-850 Rotel RB-956 BX Rotel RB-970 BX Rotel RB-980 AX Rotel RB-981 Rotel RB-985 Rotel RB-990 BX Rotel RHB-05 Rotel RMB 1075 Rotel RMB 1095 Rowen PA 1 Rowland Model 1 Rowland Research Model 7 SAC 150 SAC 50 SAC Amplifier 40 SAC Amplifier 40 Mk II SAC La Forza SAC T 50 SAC The 'A'mplifier SAC The 'A'mplifier Mod. 92 SAE 2200 SAE 3100 SAE X 15 A Sansui B-2102 Schfer & Rompf Emitter 1 Sherwood AM-7040 Sherwood AM-8500 Siemens RE 666 Sony TAf-9000 ES Sony TA-N 220 Sony TA-N 55 ES Sony TA-N 90 ES Sony TA-N 900 Sony TA-N 901 Sony TA-N 902 Spectral DMA-200 Spectron Model 1 KW Stage Accompany SA-400 A Stax DA-100 M Stax DA-200 M Stax DA-50 M Stax DMA-X 2 Stax SRM-X Pro Sudgen P 28 Sumo Andromeda Sumo Polaris Symphonic Line RG 1 Symphonic Line RG 4 Synthesis Nimis T + A A 1200 R T + A A 1220 T + A A 1520 T + A A 3000 T + A A 3000 AC T + A Pulsar A 1000 AC T + A Pulsar A 2000 T + A Pulsar A 2000 AC T + A Pulsar A 3000 M TAG McLaren 100x5/10 TAG McLaren 125 M Tandberg 3006 A Tandberg 3036 A Tandberg TPA 3003 Technics SE-A 3 Mk II Technics SE-A 3000 Technics SE-A 5 Technics SE-A 50 Technics SE-A 7 Tessendorf TE 10 Threshold S/300 Series II Threshold SA/11m Threshold Stasis 500 Thule PA 250 Toshiba Aurex SC-A 99 Toshiba SC-A 90 F Uher UMA 3000 VT Uher UMA-2000 Usher R 6 (6-Kanal) 01/89 06/91 03/83 09/93 11/86 05/01 08/99 05/80 07/79 06/88 12/93 06/94 03/92 03/98 02/97 09/93 09/94 04/03 04/03 08/92 10/91 05/90 08/92 01/95 11/86 06/93 08/01 07/95 03/89 10/92 06/79 06/79 12/83 10/87 08/85 09/89 12/93 03/80 06/99 03/93 10/90 02/95 01/82 07/84 03/85 04/88 11/94 09/92 10/91 11/86 05/82 08/90 06/91 06/88 11/86 06/88 12/86 04/87 06/01 09/93 01/99 01/00 02/96 02/94 10/90 12/87 12/89 03/89 04/03 10/98 06/84 10/89 01/82 07/84 03/99 01/82 07/88 12/81 01/96 03/86 06/90 05/82 04/00 09/82 11/83 09/93 09/92 04/k.A. 33-35 Punkte, frher s2 k.E. 33-35 Punkte, frher s2 33-35 Punkte, frher s2 37-39 Punkte, frher s48
Surround-Receiver Surround-Receiver Multikanal Surround-Receiver Multikanal Surround-Receiver Multikanal Multikanal
FB FB FB FB FB Surround-Receiver Multikanal Multikanal Surround-Receiver Mulitkanal Multikanal Multikanal Surround Multikanal Surround RDS, Surround
FB Multikanal Surround-Receiver FB FB RDS, Surround
9 stereoplay 2004
Philips FR 980 04/99 Pioneer SX-335 08/89 Pioneer SX-403 RDS 04/95 Pioneer SX-5 L 08/82 Pioneer VSX 839 RDS 01/01 Pioneer VSX D 711 11/02 Pioneer VSX D 1011 12/02 Pioneer VSX D 510 10/01 Pioneer VSX-3300 10/88 Pioneer VSX-521 R 06/93 Pioneer VSX-804 RDS 12/96 Pioneer VSX-C 100 09/02 Proton D-940 10/88 Revox B 285 10/85 Revox B 739 02/81 Revox B 780 02/81 Rotel RSX 1055 03/03 Rotel RSX 1065 03/02 Rotel RTC-970 02/97 Rotel RX-845 10/88 Rotel RX-950 AX 05/92 Saba 9241 digital 10/78 Saba RS 90 01/85 Saba RS 940 09/83 Saba RS 960 08/82 Sansui 3900 Z 07/81 Sansui G-33000 03/79 Sansui RZ-1000 10/88 Sansui RZ-3000 08/90 Sansui SX-700 07/87 Sharp DVD-SD SH 111 (6 Digitalendstufen) Sherwood R 756 R Sherwood RD 6106 Sherwood RV-5106 R Sherwood RV-6010 R Sherwood RX-430 R Sherwood S-2770 RCP Sony AVD S 10 Sony STR DB 1080 Sony STR DB 790 Sony STR-DA 50 ES Sony STR-DB 840 Sony STR-DB 925 Sony STR-DB 930 Sony STR-DB 940 Sony STR-DE 135 Sony STR-DE 445 Sony STR-DE 475 Sony STR-DE 635 Sony STR-DE 875 Sony STR-GX 390 Sony STR-GX 415 Sony STR-GX 590 Sony STR-GX 70 ES Sony STR-V 45 L Sony STR-V 555 ES Sony STR-VA 333 ES Sony STR-VX 30 L Sony XO-1001 T+A K1 T + A K 6 (mit Einmessautomatik) T + A R 1220 R T + A R 1500 R T + A R 1520 R T + A SR 1510 R Tandberg TR 2060 Teac AG-550 Technics SA-250 Technics SA-290 Technics SA-310 Technics SA-424 Technics SA-515 Technics SA-DA 10 Technics SA-DA 20 Technics SA-DX 1050 Technics SA-DX 950 Technics SA-EX 140 Technics SA-EX 500 Technics SA-GX 170 Technics SA-GX 200 Technics SA-GX 350 Technics SA-GX 390 Technics SA-GX 505 Technics SA-GX 530 Technics SA-R 230 Technics SA-R 330 Technics SA-TX 30 05/01 10/01 11/00 06/93 04/95 10/88 09/02 12/02 11/03 04/99 05/01 01/99 12/99 01/01 10/00 11/00 10/01 12/99 09/01 02/93 04/95 06/93 08/91 07/81 09/00 08/02 08/82 05/83 11/96 07/02 07/00 07/94 03/99 09/01 07/81 08/91 01/85 07/87 09/83 08/82 07/81 01/01 04/02 09/01 10/01 10/00 12/96 04/95 08/91 08/94 08/95 05/92 06/93 08/90 08/89 05/425 06/700 39/33 17-19 Punkte, frher om 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 m3 40/34 36/30 41/35 33/25 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 17-19 Punkte, frher om 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 31/24 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 33-35 Punkte, frher s2 33-35 Punkte, frher s2 46/40 51/15-17 Punkte, frher m1 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 m4 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 9-11 Punkte, frher m37/30 32/24 28/23 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 32/27 42/35 38/33 41/37 36/29 36/26 38/34 42/32/23 31/23 32/25 33/25 17-19 Punkte, frher om 29-31 Punkte, frher s3 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 17-19 Punkte, frher om 44/37 45/38 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 37-39 Punkte, frher s1 52/41-43 Punkte, frher as52/47 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 40/35 38/33 34/26 32/29-31 Punkte, frher s3 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 17-19 Punkte, frher om 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 17-19 Punkte, frher om 17-19 Punkte, frher om 17-19 Punkte, frher om 15 Multikanal Surround-Receiver Multikanal Multikanal Multikanal Surround FB Surround FB FB FB Surround Mulitkanal RDS Multikanal Surround-Receiver Surround-Receiver Multikanal FB RDS,Surround Surround-Receiver Technics SH-AC 500 D/SA-AX 7 Telefunken HR 660 Telefunken HR 780 RDS Telefunken HR 800 Telefunken RR 100 Telefunken RR 200 Telefunken RR 200 Uher UR-3600 Yamaha R-70 Yamaha R-700 Yamaha RX V 1300 Yamaha RX V 630 Yamaha RX V 640 Yamaha RX-300 Yamaha RX-485 RDS Yamaha RX-530 Yamaha RX-550 Yamaha RX-V 10 Yamaha RX-V 1000 RDS Yamaha RX-V 2095 RDS Yamaha RX-V 396 RDS Yamaha RX-V 420 Yamaha RX-V 595 A Yamaha RX-V 596 RDS Yamaha RX-V 660 Yamaha RX-V 795 A Yamaha RX-V 800 RDS 12/99 07/87 08/91 01/85 09/83 08/82 12/83 05/92 08/84 08/82 12/02 11/02 11/03 07/87 04/95 08/89 05/92 12/96 07/01 04/99 11/00 10/01 12/99 05/01 06/93 12/99 12/39/33 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 17-19 Punkte, frher om 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 17-19 Punkte, frher om 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 9-11 Punkte, frher m2 43/35 38/30 36/29 15-17 Punkte, frher m1 25-27 Punkte, frher s4 17-19 Punkte, frher om 29-31 Punkte, frher s3 29-31 Punkte, frher s3 42/34 45/37 31/24 32/24 32/26 34/26 17-19 Punkte, frher om 41/32 42/33 Multikanal
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 161 (2007) 5561
An inexpensive sub-millisecond system for walking measurements of small animals based on optical computer mouse technology
Gus K. Lott a, , Merri J. Rosen b , Ronald R. Hoy b
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA b Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Received 25 July 2006; received in revised form 5 October 2006; accepted 6 October 2006
Abstract Stimuli from a broad spectrum of sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, thermal, and chemical, can elicit walking responses in animals, reecting neural activity in sensorimotor pathways. We have developed an integrated walking measurement system with sub-millisecond temporal accuracy capable of detecting position changes on the order of 100 m. This tracking system provides the experimenter with a means by which to map out the response spectrum of a tethered animal to any number of sensory inputs on time scales relevant to propagation in the nervous system. The data acquisition system consists of a modied optical computer mouse, a microcontroller with peripheral support circuitry, a binary stimulus sync line, and a serial (RS-232) data transfer interface. The entire system is constructed of relatively inexpensive components mostly converted from commercially available peripheral devices. We have acquired walking data synchronized with auditory stimuli at rates in excess of 2100 samples per second while applying this system to the walking phonotactic response of the parasitic y Ormia ochracea. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Microcontroller; Optical mouse; Camera; ADNS; Ormia ochracea; Cheap; Data acquisition; Simultaneous stimulus
1. Introduction Deciphering animal perception at psychophysical and neurophysiological levels requires measurement systems that can reliably and accurately indicate an animals behavioral response to stimuli. Insects often demonstrate positive or negative taxes (i.e., movement towards attractive or away from repellent stimuli), which provide a behavioral indication of their percept. The challenge of measuring phonotaxis (movement engendered by an auditory stimulus) has yielded several innovative technological solutions over several decades. These have included closed-loop measurements, where freely moving animals, either walking or ying, can experience changes in sound intensities, and openloop measurements, where tethered animals do not experience sound intensity changes as they move in relation to the sound source. Closed-loop measurements have included free-walking or ying in open arenas, e.g. (Murphey and Zaretsky, 1972; Pollack and Hoy, 1979; Ramsauer and Robert, 2000), while open-loop methods have involved tethered walking on a rotating
Corresponding author. Tel.: +254 4317; fax: +254 1303. E-mail address: GKL6@cornell.edu (G.K. Lott).
y-maze globe (Hoy and Paul, 1973), free-walking on a spherical locomotion compensator, the Kramer treadmill, e.g. (Kramer, 1976; Weber et al., 1981; Pollack et al., 1984; Doherty, 1985), or tethered walking on a modied computer mouse or trackball (Doherty and Pires, 1987; Pires and Hoy, 1992a,b; Mason et al., 2001; Hedwig and Poulet, 2004, 2005). The modied optical mouse solution has proven especially useful, as its lightweight nature lets a tethered insect move the sphere, eliminating the need for expensive servo-mechanical hardware. This affordable system also allows for transfer of insect locomotion data to a computer via an RS-232 serial data port. The modied mouse solution was originally developed by Hoy and colleagues (Doherty and Pires, 1987) using a sphere that was small and lightweight enough to be moved by a eld crickets walking motion. An updated version was later developed in the same laboratory to measure the walking motion of a much smaller and lighter animal, the parasitoid y Ormia ochracea (Mason et al., 2001). This version was excellent for resolving directional movements, but had a sample rate of only 40 Hz, thus precluding online high-speed measurements. Here we describe an upgraded version of this affordable system, designed for measuring insect motion but easily adaptable for use in other animals, which utilizes optical mouse technology
0165-0270/$ see front matter 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.10.007
G.K. Lott et al. / Journal of Neuroscience Methods 161 (2007) 5561
Fig. 1. Block diagram of the treadmill motion tracking system. All electronic circuit components are shown save the power conditioning circuit consisting of a 5 V regulator and line cleaning 0.1 F capacitors.
and offers high temporal resolution (up to 2160 Hz) measurements of two-dimensional movements. 2. Methods The motion acquisition system contains three sections: a modied optical mouse, a microcontroller acquisition and control center, and RS-232 signal conditioning hardware. The overall system conguration is depicted in Fig. 1. 2.1. Optical mouse The base of the system was an inexpensive optical mouse (MICRO Innovations PD430P) containing an Agilent ADNS2610 camera chip (the Agilent trademark symbol is externally visible on the center of the optical camera lens). The 2610 camera chip was extracted from the internal circuit board of the mouse and replaced with a pin-for-pin compatible camera chip, the Agilent ADNS-2620, which has a faster frame rate (up to 2300 Hz). This allowed preservation of the optics and the geometry of the housing along with the peripheral circuit components
required for operation of the camera chip (i.e., LED driver circuitry, 24 MHz crystal oscillator circuit, and power connections). The data and control traces from the internal microcontroller to the ANDS chip were cut with a razor blade (pins 3 and 4 on the 2620). The two data lines of the 4-pin mini-din connector inside the mouse were cut and soldered directly to the (now disconnected) data port pins on the camera chip (orange wire to SCK pin 4 and white wire to SDIO pin 3 on the ADNS chipwire choice is arbitrary but must align with the correct clock and data pins on the output of the microcontroller while power pins must remain connected to the internal board). These data and control lines connect directly to general purpose I/O ports on our own microcontroller. The power connection wires on the minidin connector were left as they were connected to the original internal circuit board and were supplied with a regulated 5 V source. For the nal stages of preparation, the camera chip lens was removed and three holes were drilled in the plastic surrounding
Fig. 2. Converted optical mouse. The base of the treadmill includes data and power lines, a plaster base over which a ping-pong ball oats, an air pressure tube for ball otation, and the body of the modied optical mouse itself attacked to our table via a magnetic base.
Fig. 3. Printed circuit board core of the data acquisition system. Interface components consist of: (1) the mini-din 6 pin connector, (2) the data acquisition trigger sync line BNC connector, (3) the DB-9 RS-232 connector for serial data transfer, (4) the power interface for DC 9-25 V input, and (5) an on/off switch.
Fig. 4. The treadmill time-critical data acquisition loop. The timing diagram indicates the actual duration of the segments of code relative to a sample period at 2160 Hz and accurately reects the included code execution timing.
the lens to allow for air ow to oat our treadmill ping-pong ball. The mouse scroll wheel was removed. The circuit board, lens, and outer mouse housing were replaced and the seam between the top and bottom segments was covered with electrical tape to create an air-tight seal. A length of silicone tubing was placed in the open mouse wheel slot and sealed into place with a twocomponent epoxy. At the base of the mouse, above the lens, a plaster of paris mold t to a ping-pong ball was attached, with a hole drilled in the bottom to allow for air ow and imaging. Finally, the modied mouse was glued upside-down onto a magnet to enable secure placement on metallic surfaces (Fig. 2).
2.2. Microcontroller core The core timing unit of the data acquisition system contains an Atmel 8515 8-bit RISC microcontroller running at 11.0592 MHz. The protocol for communication with the Agilent chip may be found in the chip datasheet and was implemented by toggling states of two general purpose digital I/O pins on the Atmel processor. Communication with a computer was accomplished by utilizing the UART data bus built-in to the Atmel chip and run at 115,200 baud through an RS-232 line level converter (Dallas Semiconductor MAX233A). The microcontroller
core is built into a printed circuit board containing all the I/O connectors and signal conditioning hardware required to run the system (acquired from http://www.expresspcb.com/) (Fig. 3). Our printed circuit board le may be acquired for immediate online ordering with the Supplementary data. System rmware was written entirely in Atmel assembly code using the Atmel AVR studio development environment. The rmware allows for a full protocol bridge between the user on the computer and the ADNS camera chip. Any internal register may be read or written to and there are many wrapped functions including a pixel dump. In addition to this functionality is the core data acquisition code. The sample rate may be set by the user and the transfer of data can be started and stopped by byte command sent from the PC. This allows for easy incorporation of the system into total data acquisition and instrument control programs written in programming environments such as LabView (National Instruments, Austin, TX) or MATLAB (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA). The sample rate of the system is controlled by an interrupt from a cycle accurate internal timer running asynchronous from the main program loop. This gives sample rate stability equal to the stability of the 11.0592 MHz crystal (50 ppm error). 2.3. Firmware The process of bridging the optical mouse sensor interface and the computer user, while allowing for time-critical data acquisition and device calibration, is completely controlled by embedded code written in Atmel AVR assembly. The Atmel 8515 8-bit RISC microcontroller offers us adequate input/output options to accomplish our task. The chip contains 32 bidirectional digital I/O pins with several alternate functionalities. Two of these pins were dedicated to the two wire serial data connection to the Agilent sensor chip. One pin was used both as a voltage source for output and a high impedance input while the other pin was used as a dedicated clock line output to drive the serial interface. Timing and communication protocols are detailed in the datasheet for the Agilent chip. One digital output pin drove a trigger line capable of synchronizing motion acquisition with stimulus presentation. Two I/O pin alternate functions created a Universal Asynchronous Receive and Transfer protocol signal which was converted (MAX233A Dallas Semiconductor) to an RS-232 standard signal capable of communicating with a user on a computer attached to the system. Our system is able to acquire data with sub-millisecond accurate sample periods. This is accomplished by an interrupt-driven routine written entirely in assembly language and activated by a 16-bit hardware timer. Organization of each command in the routine was important for timing of signal generation and communication with the Agilent camera chip. The main timer interrupt function consists of several calls and must be completed before the timer res another interrupt request (approximately 463 s). The main limitations on sample rate (max achieved: 2160 Hz) are the delay required for the camera chip to prepare the movement data for both the X and Y channels (100 s) and the delay required to transmit those data bytes and data
headers over the 115.2 kbaud serial data line to the user (approximately 165 s). Our system thus has a temporal resolution of 2160 Hz. The camera and lens system in the ADNS-2620 (as described in the Agilent datasheet) allows for a spatial resolution of 63.5 m (400 cpi). The assembly code written to handle all functionality of our system and an assembled hex le ready for upload to an 8515 is found in the Supplementary data. In the main timer interrupt function (Fig. 4), we have formed the sequence of communications and acquisitions to minimize clock cycles and t into our target sample rate that can generate 1 kHz bandwidth for motion detection. Both UART data transmission and preparation of the movement data on the Agilent chip run as parallel processes to the execution of the interrupt subroutine. In order to meet the sample rate requirements, the rmware initiates by requesting an X motion value from the camera chip and immediately sending the Y value from the previous sample over the serial port (initially this value is which is an invalid motion value). As the system waits for the header and data byte to be sent to the user, the camera chip is processing a data point. When the X data point is ready and the UART transmit buffer is clear, the X value is read and the current Y motion value is requested from the camera chip. While the camera chip is processing the Y motion value, the Atmel controller is sending the X value and header that it just acquired. Byte commands for system operation, data formatting, and general instructions on system usage may be found in the Supplementary data. The data is formatted as unsigned 8-bit integers with zero centered around 128, and 0 and 1 are not possible values as they are used as a header value for Y and X, respectively. 2.4. Animal preparation and stimuli Parasitoid ies of the species O. ochracea (Diptera: Tachinidae, Ormiini) were lab-reared from a natural popula-
Fig. 5. Insect positioned on treadmill. A female Ormia ochracea is tethered to a probe and positioned to stand atop the treadmill ball. The ball oats on air for low-friction movement but does not begin to move until the y actually starts moving it with its legs (this does not equate with the initiation of motion by the ys nervous system). Also shown is the mold for the ball attached to the inverted optical mouse.
Fig. 6. High-speed video sequence of a female y on the treadmill responding to a cricket chirp. Shown in each frame are the actual video (top), the synthesized cricket chirp (middle left), the magnitude of the ball velocity (bottom left), and the XY track of the motion of the y on the treadmill. The speaker was positioned at 45 to the left of the ys head. Frames depict movement of the y at four time points: (A) initiation of chirp (t = 0 ms), (B) initiation of leg motion (t = 17 ms), (C) initiation of ball motion (t = 57 ms), and (D) end of chirp, including the track of the ys two-dimensional movement (bottom right) (t = 267 ms).
tion collected in Gainesville, FL using sound traps (Walker and Wineriter, 1990). Flies were reared on a reversed 12-h light:12h dark cycle, and were tested at dusk, as they are crepuscular. Female gravid (larvae-bearing) ies were cooled on ice and xed to a stiff wire on their dorsal surface with low-melting-point wax. The wire was attached to a micromanipulator, and ies were lowered onto the treadmill in a normal walking position. A tethered y is shown in Fig. 5. High-speed videos at 1000 and 2000 fps (Red Lake Camera Systems) were taken to correlate leg movement with trackball movement (Supplementary data). The stimulus eld emitted from speakers was calibrated via measurements in the free eld using a Bruel & Kjaer (Norcross, GA) type 4138 microphone placed at the position of the y above the trackball, and connected to a Bruel & Kjaer model 2608 sound level meter. Stimuli were generated and played using custom-written software in Matlab (M.J. Rosen and G. Lott) interfacing with a TDT (Gainesville, FL) System 3 RP2.1 digital to analog converter, fed through a TDT System 3 PA5 pro-
grammable attenuator into a stereo amplier (Harmon-Kardon model HK6100) and out to high-performance tweeters (ESS Systems). Stimuli were designed to mimic the calling song of the eld cricket Gryllus rubens, the chosen host for this population of Ormia. The simulated calling song consisted of trains of 10 sinusoidal pulses at 45 pulses/s, each trapezoidally shaped pulse 10 ms in duration with a 1 ms risefall ramp. These were generated either at the natural calling song frequency of 5 kHz or at an ultrasonic frequency of 24 kHz, and were presented at 5 dB SPL above threshold. Speakers were positioned at +45 and 45 relative to the y. Customized Matlab software precisely synchronized stimulus output with trackball movement. 3. Results Walking phonotaxis was measured in female gravid ies via our motion acquisition system, and simultaneously recorded with high-speed video in order to visually corroborate the ne-
Fig. 7. Small temporal differences in various components of phonotaxis are quantiable by the treadmill system. (A and B) One ys responses to 5 and 24 kHz cricket chirps, respectively, arriving from a speaker at 45 (see right panels). The position and velocity of movement over time are depicted in the left and middle panels, while the path of the response in x and y coordinates is depicted in the right panels. Our manipulation of stimulus frequency affects several parameters of the ys phonotactic walking response, including onset time (left panels), duration, velocity (middle panels), distance traveled, and angular accuracy (right panels). Stimulus duration is depicted as a dotted line in the middle panels.
scale timing of the trackball movement. Four frames of 1000 fps high-speed video in Fig. 6 show a ys response at four time points during phonotaxis: sound onset, leg movement onset, ball movement onset, and sound offset. A ashing LED (visible to the upper right of the y in frame A) coordinated with the voltage creating the sound, allowing visual latency measurements based on frame time. Leg movement onset was visible at 18 ms latency, where the y began to raise its legs in preparation for walking. Initiation of trackball movement was visible at 57 ms, correlating accurately (at 1 kHz resolution) with the latency indicated by the treadmill system. A second y was recorded with higher resolution, 2 kHz video (Supplementary data). This ys leg movement was visible at 41 ms, and the onset of ball movement was 74 ms as measured both by video and the treadmill. Onset latencies measured by our 463 s treadmill system are therefore accurate to within the 500 s resolution of our highspeed video. Thus, ball movement onset precisely indicates onset of phonotactic walking motion, which lags behind the rst leg movements of the y by 3040 ms. We tested how well the system was able to encode small differences in movement latencies. Two stimuli with the amplitude envelope of the cricket hosts calling song were presented to the y, at either calling song or ultrasound frequency (5 or 24 kHz). Each stimulus was presented at 10 dB SPL above the threshold that reliably elicited a phonotactic response 50% of the time. With our system, we were able to measure onset latencies, velocity over time, direction, and movement duration. For example, for the y depicted in Fig. 7, there were clear differences in movement latencies to calling song (Fig. 7A) versus ultrasound (Fig. 7B) frequencies. The latencies to move toward a 24 kHz chirp stimulus were longer and more variable than those toward a 5 kHz stimulus (54.7 1.6 ms toward 5 kHz, 85.0 16.0 ms toward 24 kHz; Fig. 7, left panels). Similarly, the distance traveled was shorter for 24 kHz than for 5 kHz
(0.28 0.03 in. for 5 kHz versus 0.13 0.02 in. for 24 kHz), and this ys accuracy varied for the two stimuli (19.0 3.8 for 5 kHz versus 29.5 7.4 for 24 kHz; Fig. 7, right panels). Similarly, the time course of velocity differed for these stimuli (peak velocity = 1.95 0.17 m/s, occuring at 0.31 0.01 s for 5 kHz versus 1.11 0.17 m/s, occuring at 0.30 0.01 s for 24 kHz; Fig. 7, middle panels). Our system can therefore effectively quantify multiple components of phonotaxis that may be sensitive to various stimulus manipulations. 4. Discussion The device and rmware that we have described create a low cost, highly accurate method for both temporal and spatial motion tracking of a tethered subject. Our system achieves its low cost by piggybacking on the success of the optical mouse which has driven down the cost of the high-speed frame correlation optical sensor chips. The main limitations of the system reside in the initial movement detection lagging the actual initiation of movement of the animal. Movement detection in the system correlates with actual linear motion of the animal as opposed to local leg motion. 4.1. System performance & limitations We have achieved a maximum sample rate of 2160 Hz and have veried the accuracy of the systems measurements using high-speed video (Fig. 6). The system accurately initiates the hardware cricket chirp generation with our trigger line and the data is therefore accurately synchronized with stimulus presentation on the sub-microsecond time-scale. While onsets were extremely accurate, the 2 kHz video revealed an intermittent small jitter in the ongoing movement tracking. This is presumably an artifact of the Agilent ADNS-
2610 camera chip. These inexpensive chips will return accurate motion value over time. There just may be some jitter and delay between when motion is detected and actually reported by the chip. We believe that the jitter is due to quantization noise from the relatively high-speed data acquisition relative to ball velocity or simply actual jitter in the motion of the ball that we could not otherwise detect. They are, however, extremely accurate devices given their cost and intended application. Another possible source of this jitter could be from small uctuations in the position of the ball due to the ow of air on which it sits. Small turbulent factors could causes this kind of error to present, but given that the ball tends to stay in place, this would indicate a zero-mean noise in the data and could contribute to the observed jitter due to the sheer small scale of the pixel resolution that this camera offers. Exact details of this noise source remain unveried. The main limitations we see in our system involve the fact that the ball only picks up linear motion of the animal while not reporting information about the actual initiation of leg motion. So as the subject moves a leg initially to begin motion, the ball is not rolling to transfer motion to the camera chip. The result is a 3050 ms delay in detection of motion yet it does give us an accurate measure of when actual phonotaxis occurs. We have analyzed the high-speed video les and determined that inertia of the ping-pong ball is insignicant in our recordings. The lowfriction air otation system incorporated in the device allows the ball to move freely. Motion detection by the camera chip corresponded with the initial movement stroke of the subjects legs. While it may have to exert extra force to get the ball rolling, we can detect that initiation of motion within 1 ms (resolution of the high-speed video). Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.10.007.
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