Heurtier Super 8
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Heurtier Super 8
User reviews and opinions
|Info2005r||8:21am on Saturday, October 2nd, 2010|
|Overall this is one of the better laptops I h... The screen brightness, lit keyboard, trackpad. There is no comparison with the PC/Windows and a MacPro they are different in many respects, and perhaps similar with some. The Mac is fast. Great Computer. would not own anything else.... well maybe the new G series!! Fast, simple, elegant, eco-friendly, you name it.|
|simt45||1:55am on Thursday, September 30th, 2010|
|Buying my first computer was real exciting for me I was on the web searching for the best one I could find. Picked up a 13 Macbook Pro directly from the Bozeman retail store to avoid the shipping wait. Item was in perfect condition.|
|roconnor||8:34am on Tuesday, August 24th, 2010|
|skies_of_blue did a bait and switch I worked through Amazon to find a laptop computer for an elderly relative and found one at a decent price with thi... Great Desktop Replacement This is a great machine to get as a desktop replacement.|
|revspalding||8:04am on Saturday, March 27th, 2010|
|We purchased a MacBook Pro laptop computer, Time Capsule, Snow Leopard and a Magic Mouse from Vanns in Helena. Great product. Purchased to replace an old MacBook. Very satisfied with the purchase.|
|jmschuur||6:31am on Friday, March 19th, 2010|
|Notebook - Display Size: 13.3 in - CPU: Core 2 Duo - Processor Speed: 1.8 GHz - HD: 64 GB - RAM:2 GB Everithing Nothing My whole life I was a PC user. I never had many complaints. Then a few months ago I had to start using the MacBook Pro for work. I love it.|
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SUPER 8 SYSTEM
PRICE LIST: JUNE, 1968
List Order Code 699.00 627.00 699.00 10-10-Description List 39.95 59.95 2.95 5.95 3.95 7.95 3.95 4.95 4.95 5.95 1.25 1.00 Case-deluxe leather Case-deluxe Halliburton aluminum, foam fitted Rubber eye-cup Rubber eye-cup (screw-in) Leather handstrap Camera base Cable release, metal, 30 cm straight Cable release, metal 30 cm curved Cable release, metal, 50 cm straight Cable release, metal, 50 cm curved Rubber air blower (dust remover) Instruction Manual
BEAULIEU 2008S AUTOELECTRONIC CAMERA W / SERVOREGLOMATIC AND "C" MOUNT INTERCHANGEABLE LENSES
10-402 10-403 10-404 Beaulieu 20085 auto w/Angenieux 864mm zoom, f1.9 Beaulieu 2008S auto w/Schnelder 8-40mm zoom, fl.8 Beaulieu 2008S auto w/Schneider 7-56mm zoom, fl.8
BEAULIEU 2009 - REFLEX CONTROL ElECTRONIC CAMERA W /"C" MOUNT INTERCHANGEABLE LENSES
10-451 10-10454 Beaulieu 2009-Reflex Control-Body Beaulieu 2009-Reflex Control w/Angenieux 8-64mm zoom, f1.9 Beaulieu 2009--Reflex Control w/Schneider 84omm zoom, fL8 Beaulieu 2009--Reflex Control w/Schneider 756mm zoom, f1.8 Beaulieu 2009--Reflex Control w/Schneider 1O35mm loom, fl.8 only 399.00 599.00 531.00 599.00
LENSES FOR BEAULIEU SUPER 8 ELECTRONIC CAMERAS
Angenieux, Berthiot, Schneider All lenses in ASA standards - "C" mount 20025 325.00 239.00 235.50 149.50 325.00 239.00 99.00 860.00 965.00 ~_.,.,~~ 1050.00 750.00 850.00 480.00 660.00 129.00 2250.00 2550.00 1165.00 1375.00 299.50 690.00 690.00 75.00 35.00 565.00 595.00 188.55 249.50 202.65 336.75 311.70 187.95 290.85 347.70 125.50 112.55 89.95 139.50 149.00
Angenieux 8-64mm zoom, fl.9 w/Servo-Reglomatlc 20-125 Angenieux 8-64mm loom, f1.Schneider Variogon 8-4omm zoom, f1.8. NOTE: Beaulieu 2008S auto and 2009 Reflex Control cameras are w/Servo-Reglomatic 22-105 Schneider Variogon 8-40mm zoom, f1.8 provided with the following accessories at no additional cost. 22-010 Schneider Variogon 7-56mm zoom, fl.8 w/ServoReglomatic 10-658 Charger unit for 110/220 V AC 25.95 22-110 Schneider Variogon 7-56mm zoom, f1.Rubber eye-cup (screw-in) 5.Schneider 10-35mm zoom, fl.8 10-289 Rubber air blower (dust remover) 1.Angenieux 12-l20mm zoom, f2.Leather handstrap 13.Angenieux l2-l2omm loom, f2.2 'cad Jecharge"abJU1at1ID~(l2,",)!5"-11.0LUm'0l,AI'1_"""" --!~~1-: --1i.02bJn. vipwfinrlPT ~ Instruction manual 1.Angenieux l2-l20mm loom, f2.2 w/l0 in. viewfinder 20-105 Angenieux l2.575mm zoom, f2.2 ACCESSORIES FOR BEAULIEU SUPER 8 CAMERAS 20-205 Angenieux l2.5-75mm loom, f2.2 W/7V2 in. viewfinder NOTE: Accessories are divided into three categories. Type A ac20110 Angenieux l7-68mm zoom, f2.2 cessories will fit only Type A cameras (serial # under 20210 Angenieux l7-68mm zoom, f2.2 w/viewfinder 811.092), Type B accessories will fit only Type B cameras 20810 Angenieux retro-zoom (converts l768mm (serial # over 811.092). Accessories in the third category loom to a zoom distance of l2.550mm) will fit both Type A and Type B cameras. 20115 Angenieux l2-24omm zoom, f3.5-f4.Angenieux l2-240mm zoom, f3.5-f4.8 TYPE A: (Serial # under 811.092) WilD" viewfinder 10641 Nicad rechargeable wafer batteries (set of 4) 15.00 20.120 Angenieux 9.595mm zoom, f2.2 10-642 External battery cord and socket-connects 26.95 20.220 Angenieux 9.595mm zoom, f2.2 w/viewfinder battery container (# 10655) w/Type A 21101 SOM Berthiot compact 17-Bfimrn zoom, f3.8 camera battery receptacle 79.95 21-105 SOM Berthiot l3-l00mm zoom, f2.0 10-643 Battery contai ner (# 10-655) w/500 mA 21-110 SOM Berthiot l7-l30mm zoom, f2_0 battery (# 10-652) complete w/cord and socket 21-801 SOM Berthiot compact hyper-pan attachment to fit Type A camera battery receptacle 21-802 SOM Berthiot compact macro-zoom attachment 22-101 Schneider Variogon l6-80mm zoom, f2.0 TYPE B: (Serial # over 811.092) 16.50 20-400 Angenieux 5.9mm ultra wide-angle lens, fl.Nicad rechargeable battery (250 mAl 10-652 Nicad rechargeable battery (500 mAl 35.00 20-401 Angenieux 10mm wide-angle lens, fl.8 20-405 Angenieux l5mm wide-angle lens, f1.3 21.Battery container to hold 250 mA or 500 20-410 Angenieux 25mm normal lens, fl.4 mA battery either for external power supply 26-411 Angenieux 25mm high-speed lens, fO.95 or external battery charging 79_95 20-415 Angenieux 50mm telephoto lens, fl.5 10-656 Battery container (# 10-655) w/50o mA 20-420 Angenieux 75mm telephoto lens, f2.5 battery (# 10-652) complete w/cord and 20-425 Angenieux 100mm telephoto lens, f2.5 socket to fit Type B camera battery receptacle 26_95 20-430 Angenieux l50mm telephoto lens, f2.External battery cord and socket-connects battery container (# 10655) to Type B 21-401 SOM Berthiot 10mm wide-angle lens, f1.9 camera battery receptacle 21-410 SOM Berthiot 25mm normal lens, f1.4 21-425 SOM Berthiot 100mm telephoto lens, f3.5 ACCESSORIES FOR ALL BEAULIEUSUPER 8 CAMERAS: 21-430 SOM Berthiot l45mm telephoto lens, f4.5 25_Schneider 75mm Makro Tele-Xenar, f2.Charger, 30 mA (for all Super 8 batteries) 21.95 10-659 Charger, DC/DC (for all Super 8 batteries), specify 6V or 12V 17.Remote control cord w/switch LENS ADAPTERS 295.Metz FM radio transmitter and receiver01-900 Adapter, Leica M3 to C mount attaches to 2008S and 2009 remote 01901 Adapter, Leicaflex to C mount receptacle to operate camera from 01-902 Adapter, Contax to C mount distances of up to three miles 10455 489.50
21.95 39.95 45.00
Order Code 01-903 01-904 01-905 01-906 01-907 01-908 01-909 01-910 01-911 01-912 01-913 Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter, Adapter,
Description Contarex to C mount Exakta to C mount Pentax to C mount Arriflex to C mount Nikon F to C mount Hasselblad to C mount Alpa to C mount Minolta to C mount Canonflex to C mount Retina Reflex S to C mount Leica-Canon screw mount
List 49.50 21.95 16.95 49.50 39_95 69.95 21.95 59.50 29.95 49.50 16.95
Order Code 20-996 20-997 20-998 20-999
List Special Order 25_95 21.95 ea, 7.95
Retaining Rings - Series 8 Extension tube set for "C" mount lenses Microscope adapter Macro rings: 5mm, 10mm, 20mm, 30mm
Heurtier projectors are manufactured in a modular design to allow subsequent addition of sound to the base unit. 249_50 659.50 225.00 209.50 189.50 225_00 410.00 410.00 120.00 120.00 5.95 9.95 2_25 i-2;G 19c95
LEGEND: Series 41.8 - Angenieux 10mm w.a. lens [slip on] Series 5.5 - Angenieux 25mm normal lens and Angenieux 75mm telephoto lens Series 6 - Angenieux 50mm telephoto lens and Angenieux 100mm telephoto lens Series 7 - Angenieux 17-68mm zoom [all types] Series 8 - Angenieux 150mm telephoto lens Series 9 - Angenieux 12-120mm zoom Series 12 - Angenieux 9.5-95mm zoom Series 10 - SOM Berthiot Compact 17-85mm zoom Screw In Angenieux 8-64mm.zoom 20-850 20-851 20-852 20-853 '-21F854 20-855 20-856 21-857 20-858 20-870 20-871 20-872 20-873 20-874 20-875 20-876 21-877 20-878 20-890 20-891 20-892 20-893 20-894 20-895 20-896 21-897 20-910 20-911 20-912 20-913 20-914 20-915 20-916 21-917 20-930 20-931 20-932 20-933 20-934 20-935 20-936 21-937 20-938 Lens Hood - Series 41.8 [slip on] Lens Hood - Series 5.5 lens Hood - Series 6 lens Hood - Series 7 tens-Hood ='-S~ri~sLens Hood - Series 9 lens Hood - Series 12 Lens Hood - Series 10 Lens Hood - Screw In UV Filter - Series 41.8 [slip on] UV FiIter - Series 5.5 UV Filter - Series 6 UV Filter - Series 7 UV Filter - Series 8 UV Filter - Series 9 UV Filter - Series 12 UV FiIter - Series 10 UV Filter - Screw In Wratten 85 - Series 41.8 [slip on] Wratten 85 - Series 5.5 Wratten 85 - Series 6 Wratten 85 - Series 7 Wratten 85 - Series 8 Wratten 85 - Series 9 Wratten 85 - Series 12 Wratten 85 - Series 10 Polarizing Filter - Series 41.8 [slip on] Polarizing Filter - Series 5.5 Polarizing Filter - Series 6 Polarizing Filter - Series 7 Polarizing Filter - Series 8 Polarizing Filter - Series 9 Polarizing Filter - Series 12 Polarizing Filter - Series 10 Closeup lens - Series 41.8 [slip on] +1 Closeup lens - Series 5.5 [+1, +2] Closeup lens - Series 6 [+1] Closeup lens - Series 7 [+1, +2] Closeup Lens - Series 8 HI] Closeup Lens - Series 9 [+1, +2, +3, +4] Closeup Lens - Series 12 [+1] Closeup Lens - Series 10 [+1] Closeup Lens - Screw In [+1, +2] 5.95 5.95 6.95 7.95
19.95 25.95 9.95 9.00 5.95 7.95 9.50 19.95 27.50 46.00 21.50 12.00 12.00 9.00 12_00 15.00 19.95 27.50 46.00 Speciol Order Special Order Special Order. Special Order 17.25 Special Order 39.00 63.00 Special Order 12.00 ea. 5.95 7.95 ea. 9.50 14_50 ea. 21.00 46.00 Special Order ea. 14.50
Heurtier dual (8 and Super 8) projector w/SOM Berthiot 17-28mm zoom projection lens 11-601 Heurtier dual projector (# 11-501) w/sound base 11-701 Heurtier Super 8 projector w/SOM Berthiot 17-28mm projection lens 11-705 Heurtier Super 8 projector w/Angenieux 15-25mm zoom projection lens 11-710 Heurtier Super 8 projector w/Angenieux 20mm or 25mm projection lens 11-751 Heurtier Standard 8 projector w/SOM Berthiot 17-28mm zoom projection lens 11-901 Heurtier sound base-Super 8-w/pickup, 6 watt amplifier, microphone, and earphone 11-926 Heurtier sound base-Standard 8-w/pickup 6 watt amplifier, microphone, and earphone 11-902 Heurtier sound head - Super 8 11-927 Heurtier sound head - Standard 8 11-951 Standard projection lamp 11-952 Quartz projection lamp 11-953 Adapter for quartz projection lamp -96-J--earryilig bag, vinyt;-tor-sitent-proje 11-962 Case, form molded, for silent projector
CINEMA FILM STORAGE EQUIPMENT
30-001 30-010 30-Cinema Cervin "add a box" reel can w/sliding cover and side pins for attaching additional cans - 400 ft. Autolok reel for 8mm film or standard magnetic recording tape-~lOO ft. Standard Super 8 reel - 400 ft. Cinema Cervin Magnetitle set (magnetic titler) - available w/yellow, green, black, red, or white letters 2.35.80 _60 9.95
CINEMA EDITING EQUIPMENT
31-001 31-002 31-020 31-030 31-040 31-090 Cinema Cinema Cinema Cinema Cinema Cinema Standard 8 and 16mm splicer Super 8 splicer geared rewinds extension block for 2000 ft. reel table clamps (pair) Super film cement - colorless 25.00 27.50 22.50 7.00 3.00 1.35
32-001 32-002 32-020 32-021 32-025 32-030 32-031 32-032 Tabatar 3 section tubular 29.95 39.95 45.00 79.95 11.95 25.95 14.95 9.95
Bemblu - 3 section - tubular [w/built-in cable release] Slick - Master standard Slick Slick Slick Slick Slick Master deluxe Unipod Professional ball head Variable ball head lowering attachment
Prices are subject to change without notice.
921 WESTWOOD BLVD., LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 90024
VOL. 56, NO. 11
Herb A. Lightman editor Three Tyler editorial assistant Barry Day production control Pat Black advertising Barbara Prevedel accounting Gabrielle de Ganges layout assembly Lisa Friedman research Contributing Editors David Samuelson Sidney P. Solow Anton Wilson Editorial Advisory Board Lee Garmes, Chairman Charles Clarke Stanley Cortez George Folsey Sol Halprin Winton Hoch Ernest Laszlo William Fraker Conrad Hall William Margulies Joseph Ruttenberg Ted Voigtlander Vilmos Zsigmond EditorialAdvertisingBusiness Offices 1782 North Orange Drive Hollywood, Calif. 90028 (213) 876-5080
FEATURE ARTICLES 1252 Professional Super-8: The State of the Art 1253 A Decade of Progress Has Culminated in Super-8 Sound 1255 The Case Against Professional Super-Double-System and Single-System Super-8 Sync Sound Cameras 1264 Super-8 Sync Sound Recorders 1266 Crystal-Sync Super-Super-8 Laboratory Services and Stocks 1271 Professional Super-8 Editing Equipment 1276 Super-8 Sync Sound Projectors 1278 Super-8 to the Summit 1282 The Development of Professional Super-Teaching Filmmaking with Super-8 at M.I.T. 1290 Is the 18fps "Amateur" Speed Acceptable for Professional Use? 1292 The Need for Sync Sound Standards for Super-Canada's Largest Film Lab Goes Into Super-Super-8 Video A New Production Concept 1310 Super-8 in Television 1312 Transferring Super-8 to Video DEPARTMENTS 1236 Cinema Workshop 1240 Questions & Answers 1248 The Bookshelf 1297 Industry Activities
ON THE COVER: Multicolored strips of film combine in calling attention to the theme of this special issue of American Cinematographer: Professional Super-8, recognizing the fact that the once-amateur narrow-gauge format has come a long way from its humble beginnings. Cover design by DAN PERRI. Illustration by DEBORAH ROSS.
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, established 1920, in 56th year of publication, is published monthly in Hollywood by ASC Holding Corp., 1782 North Orange Drive, Hollywood, California 90028, U. S. A. SUBSCRIPTIONS: U. S. $9.00; Canada, foreign, including Pan-American Union. $10.00 a year (remit International Money Order or other exchange payable in U.S.). ADVERTISING: rate card on request to Hollywood office. CHANGE OF ADDRESS: notify Hollywood office promptly. Copyright 1975 ASC Holding Corp. Second-class postage paid at Los Angeles. California.
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. NOVEMBER 1975
By HERB A. LIGHTMAN
As far back as 1966, American Cinematographer stuck its editorial neck out by predicting that the thenquite-new Super-8 format would not only enjoy a boom of popularity among amateur film-makers, but that it would ultimately come to be accepted as a professional medium, for certain
Ten years ago predicting a professional future for the patently "amateur" Super-8 format drew scornful laughter. but now it is an accomplished fact
By RICHARD LERMAN
Perhaps the most serious drawbacks to Super-8 original production are the lack of professional quality film stocks and professional-level laboratory services for Super-8 original fil m stocks. The most widely available Super-8 fil m stocks Kodachrome 40 and High-Speed Ektachrome 160 are projection contrast emulsions intended for use by amateur filmmakers who screen the original camera stock. These stocks cannot be processed by most local laboratories, and their saturated colors duplicate poorly, with color shifts and loss of detail in shadows and highlights. Careful li ghting can control the losses somewhat if ratios are kept well below 4:1, preferably 2:1, but there is no controlling the inherent contrast range of much subject material. Low-contrast Ektachrome Commercial (7252) is available in the Double Super-8 format (DS8), but a limited number of Super-8 fil mmakers are using DS8 cameras. Ektachrome EF 7242 is available in Super-8 cartridges but it, too, is of projection contrast, has relatively soft i mages, and a large noticeable grain structure. When all these options are considered, many labs prefer the high resolution of Kodachrome 40 as the best original stock in the Super-8 cartridge, despite its contrast problem. Most labs report a small volume (less than 5) of prints as the most common Super-8 original order, and these were struck directly from the original in most cases by continuous contact printing onto Eastman 7389 and
Type of Color Balance A 3400 K A 3400 K A 3400 K
processed in a modified ME-4 process. The shortage of lab services is probably because labs have not yet been convinced that there is a significant volume of business in Super-8 original production to merit gearing up the expensive liquid-gate Super-8 printers. Most labs have been committed to Super-8 as a release print medium for years, with the principal original stock being 16mm Ektachrome Commercial a low-contrast color reversal original. This stock was generally reduction-printed two-up onto Eastman 7387 or 7390 16mm perforated 1-4. For large quantity release an Eastman 7271 internegative was usually prepared, either two-rank on 16mm stock or four-rank on 35mm stock with five rows of Super-8 perforations. Quantities of colorrelease prints were made on Eastman 7381 or 7383, either two-rank or fourrank. The problem is that few Super-8 producers require the volume of printing that could merit the preparation of four-rank internegatives, and 7271 is intended for use with low contrast original in any case. Kodak has recommended an interpositive two-rank reversal master on 7252, and this could then be printed onto 7387 or 7390 reversal color print fil m. George W. Colburn in Chicago is offering these services and with a Super-8 liquid gate. The cost of all these steps is, of course, as great as, or greater than, comparable steps starting with 16mm original. Colburn also has the capability of producing a 7271 tworank internegative by a low-cost con604 400' DS8
MKM Industries, Inc.
Karl Murgas, president and principal engineer at MKM Industries of Skokie, Ill., stands as a pioneer in the field of Super-8 horizontal table design. The model 824 Super-8 four-plate
Specialties Design & Manufacturing Co.
The Specialties editor is a very economical and versatile editing tool
work space is the worst complaint that I have. In splicing, it sometimes happens that control buttons are bumped by the splicer, causing the machine to start moving at the most awkward moments. Despite the fact that a hood has been added to the viewing system, there is still a lot of light spill. A tighter and more enclosing gate is needed. Expensive or not, a decent frame/footage/time counter is sorely needed. The present version simply tells you how many times the sprocket wheel has rotated. You must multiply by 16 to get a frame count. Perhaps a digital counter could be offered as option. Finally, there is a great need for a comprehensive user's manual and for a trouble-shooting guide. Many Super-8 fil mmakers are new to film and to complex equipment. They need all the help they can get. A good model would be the Super8 Sound recorder User's Manual. As useful as the four-plate machine is, more exciting still will be the new sixplate model now in prototype and planned for late 1975 production. The machine has been designed to be more than just an editing table. Tolerances in the fullcoat sprocket drives and flywheel stabilization have been engineered to permit high-quality sound transfers, re-recording, and mixing. In its full postproduction configuration, the picture track will have record/playback capability allowing playback and recording of magnetic edge stripe as well as fullcoat. The other two fullcoat tracks will be able to record and playback. Thus, single-system sound film can be edited double-system by transferring the sound from the mag edge stripe to one of the fullcoat tracks. After conventional editing and a mix, the sound can be rerecorded on the mag edge stripe with the proper 18fps picture/sound separation. Using common sync start, the table can be interlocked with any number of fullcoat recorders for more complex mixes or to record a master track. If the filmmaker already owns one of the MKM four-plate editors, a mechanical interlock is possible to provide 2 picture/3 sound track editing capability. The basic six-plate table will sell for less than $4000.00. With various recording amplifiers, a mixer, an equalizer, a frame/time digital counter etc. its cost will be about $5000.00. The first production model will be introduced at the upcoming SMPTE Conference in Los Angeles.
Super-8 projectors equipped with a once-per-frame sync switch may be used to transfer sync sound directly from Super-8 fullcoat magnetic film to the magnetic edge-stripe of a Super-8 print. A flash frame on the opaque leader of the picture film fires an electronic switch to start the fullcoat recorder.
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. MOVEMBER 1975
RECORD PROJECTOR Bolex SM8 AMP FREQ POWER RESPONSE 8W 60-8500Hz
INCHING NO STILL NO REEL CAP. 800' SPLICE HANDLING EATS FILM W/TAPE SPLICES GOOD VOLT/WATT 1 2V/100W ANSI CODE EFP (P6834) 1 2V/100W EFP 50 f /1.3, 15-30mm LIFE/ HOURS 50 LENS f /1.3, 15-25mm
CONTROL MANUAL (VU)
AUTO/MANUAL (LED's) AUTO/MANUAL (LED's) AUTO/MANUAL (LED's)
PREHEAT ONLY PREHEAT ONLY PREHEAT ONLY YES
Bolex SP80 Special
AUTO/MANUAL ( VU)
SOUND WOWS W/TAPE SPLICES
f/1.3, 15-25mm, 5/1.1, 12.5-25mm, 5/1.4, 25-50mm 1/1.6, 17-30mm
PREHEAT ONLY PREHEAT ONLY NA YES
Eumig 810 HOS
GAF 3000S Kodak Ektasound 245
400' 400' EXCELLENT
1 2V/150W 30V/80W
1/1.3, 15-25mm 5/1.3, 15-30mm
Kodak Supermatic 70
AUTO/MANUAL (VU) MANUAL (VU) AUTO/MANUAL ( VU)
Kodak TVM100A Sankyo
1 00-5000Hz NA
1 200' 600'
21V;150W 1 2V/100W
5/1.6, 5/2.0, f/2.5 5/1.4, 15-25mm
Si!ma Bivox D-Lux
PREHEAT ONLY NO
DNF, E LZ, ELV
Sync Projector Data Table
A note on sound projector fidelity: Figures quoted here are as supplied by manufacturers, who vary widely in their criteria for frequency response, power output, etc. Power is generally quoted at the 5% distortion level. Frequency response is generally quoted if there is any response a few manufacturers also give the range over which response is linear within a certain dB figure. Most projectors have a significant 24 Hz flutter component, at least.2%.
amplifier with excellent frequency and signal/noise ratio. They have an inching knob and a dimly visible still frame illu minated by the lamp preheat position. They have automatic threading, automatic gain control only. There is no VU meter. They have a significant 60Hz hum on playback (you must learn to adjust the hum-bucking coil) and it is essential to have an equalizer with a 60Hz cut for transfers from strip to fullcoat. They handle fullcoat well, but are unforgiving if improperly loaded and occasionally chew up polyester-base fil ms. BOLEX PROJECTORS The Bolex SM8 is a very sturdily built projector. It is reliable with wellcemented acetate base splices. It has a VU recording meter and manual gain control. However, it is autothreading, and cannot handle fullcoat or polyester-base Single 8 films. It often buckles at a tape splice and chews up the film in the top sprocket. There is no inching knob and no still frame. The Bolex SP8, SP80, and SM80 are built for Bolex by Eumig and are mechanically similar to the Eumig projectors inching knob, dim still frame, 60Hz hum. and no VU meter (LED's are used for record level). They have manual gain control as well as auto-
(LEFT) The climbers on Mt. Rainier, buffeted by icy winds and cheered by the roar of recurrent avalanches, arrive at the conclusion that it would be a nice day to shoot a water-skiing documentary on Lake Washington. (LEFT) On the summit of Mt. Rainier, Jim Mitchell records the historic moment for posterity with a Hamton Engineering-modified Nizo S56 camera synced to a Sony TC124 cassette tape recorder.
"Man from Mars" rig features a Bolex 233 camera mounted on Mountain Safety Research helmet, with cable release.
The author waiting to be pulled from crevasse during filming of crevasse rescue practice prior to Mt. Rainier summit climb a requirement.
Shooting with Ektasound 130 on summit of Mt. Adams. Note Mt. Rainier in background. In snow, over-exposure of 1/2 to 2 stops Is required to photograph people.
(ABOVE LEFT) The author, with one of the four cameras he hauled to the summit. (CENTER) The magnificence of 14,410-foot Mt. Rainier, as seen from 50 miles away. (RIGHT) Array of Super-8 equipment carried to the summits of Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams. (BELOW LEFT) Filming with helmet-mounted Bolex 233, while crossing crevasse In which two climbers had just spent 56 hours awaiting rescue. (RIGHT) Jim and Nancy Mitchell during early summer filming of survival education series.
Crisis #1 struck when Jeff attempted to pull on his backpack. With the help of two innocent bystanders he got strapped in and began calling me many different names, none of which was Sahib. Crisis #2 struck when a third bystander had to be called over to help the other two lower the pack on my back. I began yelling about six-figure budgets and National Geographic Specials where camera operators only have to carry a light meter. Then Jim gave his inspiring, "Because it's there!" presentation. Twenty yards from the parking lot, still deeply inspired and only slightly exhausted, Jeff turned to me "You forgot something." Thinking I had enough film, batteries and equipment for a twenty-six week series, I cautiously asked, "What?" "You forgot to put the Budweiser in the cooler." A serious error, quickly corrected as I say, these Sherpas work for cheap wages. The local lab seems to hate Super-8, and they take it out by processing my EFB 7242 in warm bath water and cleaning it with wire brushes. If nothing else, they are consistent. I've tried several different labs with the Ektachrome EMA 40, and it always comes back soft, grainy, washed-out, etc. must be the film. As with larger formats, some emulsion batches just seem to be bad perhaps a function of Kodak "stock" on Wall Street. The "2 stops more fun film," Ektachrome ELA 160, is a good original for prints on Ektachrome 7389, and it's only one stop more expensive. I had thirty cartridges on my back. Jeff carried twenty cartridges of Kodachrome II so we could qualify as amateurs and thus avoid getting releases from the climbing party. I also planned to go directly to 2-inch videotape with the finished film, so I wanted different stocks to play with. Secure in the knowledge that the Buds were now getting cold, we shifted into high to catch up with the pack. Soon we were 50, 60, then 70 yards from the car. I wanted to get some silhouette shots against the full moon overhead. "Pat on the Back" #1 goes to me for rigging a camera harness which allowed one hand to get warm in a pocket and the other to get cold on the ice axe. At all times in the climb I had a camera in position ready to film avalanches, falling climbers, Yeti (Abominable Snowpeople locally called "Sasquatch") and occasionally I got the lens cap off in time to get something. Spectacular shot #1 was accomplished with the Ektasound 130 (Yup!) and 160 film. The Bauer stayed in the car because I couldn't see hauling two XL cameras the 130 went for political/financial reasons (a product report for the National Enquirer). Moonlight reflecting off the snow gave a sacred existential glow to the climbers. Although the Ektasound 130 only cranks at 18 fps, the silent footage could easily be cut with the 24 fps footage ( most uphill climbing takes place at a snail's pace it's the head-over-heels downhill footage that's a little jerky). We had a slight 40-degree slope to go down to reach "Base Camp". I remembered to yell "Falling!" just as I reached terminal velocity then remembered it only helped to yell "Falling!" if you are on a rope team and the other team members can help you stop. I got my ice axe in the full stop position in time to see Jeff go by head-first. We both laughed this off 300 yards below until I realized my camera insurance policy covered floods, nuclear blasts, earthquakes, exorcisms but nothing about crevasses. Fortunately, Jeff had turned on the Sony TC55 before he fell, so we already had some nice documentary sound of a Sony ECM16 mike flailing down a snow field. This technique of anticipating exciting events proved to be very valuable in the course of the next few days. Although my down sleeping bag had been advertised "good to 30 below" and priced accordingly, it apparently
the most important difference between 16mm and Super-8, many questions arise. While the debate rages as to exactly how much cheaper Super-8 is than 16mm, let us accept, for the purpose of discussion, an estimate of fil m stock, mag film, and other editing supplies as being about one-half of the 16mm price per minute. Let us also accept the cost of Super-8 cameras and recorders, editing equipment, etc. as being about one-fifth that of 16mm equipment. Stock and equipment are separate issues, and we should discuss separately the implications of the cheapness of each. Because of the lower capital value of the equipment, one can simply own more of it. At MIT we have seven Super-8 camera-recorder pairs and three 16mm camera-recorder pairs. This means we handle more students, who can film in the field for longer projects, can tackle projects further away from the equipment checkout room, and can be involved in higher "risk" situations. Students can film in areas of the city where it would not be wise for inexperienced filmmakers to appear with a 16mm sync rig that looks as if it's worth $10,000 (and indeed is). Because of the "lower profile," innocuous appearance of some of our Super-8 rigs, we never have had any of them stolen from students in the act of fil ming, which has sometimes occurred with 16mm equipment. But the greatest virtue of cheaper
equipment is the possibility of giving more students access to the equipment. Having more students necessarily means we will see a greater variety of interests in the people who are coming to learn. If an appropriate atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and viewpoints can be maintained, an opportunity for a superb educational experience will exist. Having increasing numbers of students in film is also a fact of the times. It is important to remember Laslo Moholy-Nagy's statement that "the illiterates of the future will be ignorant of both the pen and the camera." Cheaper raw stock and mag film are also a plus, but not as clear a benefit as they might at first appear to be. One's i mmediate instinct is to believe that the more one can shoot, the greater the learning experience, and the better cameraperson one becomes. Generally, this seems to be true. However, in our summer workshop experiences I have often found that the students who shoot the most often do so because they have the least clear ideas of what it is they're after and therefore they go for a kind of "buckshot" approach and try to shoot everything. The same students often have trouble editing their films because they find that in shooting everything, they concentrated on nothing. The most important aspect of camera technique that filmmaking
Continued on Page 1299
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER NOVEMBER 1975
By LENNY LIPTON
All Super-8 sound projectors can operate at either 18 or 24 fps. So can many Super-8 cameras. What does this really mean to you as a filmmaker? What are the reasons for the choice? People coming to Super-8 from the larger 16mm or 35mm formats will probably advise you that the only speed to use is 24 fps. That's the way it's done in the larger formats. Although most 16mm projectors in service will operate at either 16 or 24 fps, few, if any, are suited for sound projection at 18 fps: the amplifier is usually turned off at the slow speed. And 16mm projectors designed for theatrical projection usually don't operate at the slower speed. Thirty-five mm projectors also rarely operate at what is considered to be the silent speed by professionals. All in all, it's fair to say that a sound fil m at 18 fps for the 16mm or 35mm formats is totally incompatible with projection facilities. How we inherited the two fps standards is an interesting story: Edison and his research associate William Dickson chose 48 fps for their batteryoperated camera in 1889. (It's interesting to note that the very first movie camera was battery-operated. People didn't hand-crank cameras until the rate was lowered to 16 fps.) While Edison was exclusively interested in peep show or nickelodeon display of his movies, the French Lumire Brothers, Louis and Auguste, had other ideas. They adapted early Edison apparatus and produced the first theatrically projected motion picture images. The Lumires, who were photographic plate manufacturers, decided that the Edison rate of 48 fps was too high to be economical, so they experimented with lower rates, and in 1895 settled on 16 fps. Twenty years later the Gestalt psychologists exhaustively determined this very same value for the phenomenon in their laboratories in Germany. The Lumires were trying to produce an acceptable illusion of motion while using the least amount of film. So in the silent days of theatrical motion pictures, the standard was a nominal 16 fps. This was an era of handcranked cameras and hand-cranked projectors as well. With an active audience in the theater, and a musical ensemble in the pit, the projectionist was creatively tied and profoundly alive to the dynamics of the moment, cranking the projector faster or slower to suit the dramatic circuit of images, audience response and music. With the coming of sound, all that disappeared. (I was going to say forever, but the description reminds me of the great light shows that flourished in the rock houses of the psychedelic late '60s.) Sound forced the decision to raise the fps rate to 24 to get the most out of the unperfected optical tracks of those days. For the technology of the '20s, running 35mm at a higher speed meant less flutter, that gargling sound or poorly reproduced recordings; and it also meant better high-frequency response for clearer speech and more treble for music. As I look at it, 16mm optical sound really didn't click until the '40s and the wartime need for sound entertainment and training films for the armed forces. Naturally enough, 24 fps was needed for good quality 16mm optical sound; as an important feature, it also provided compatibility with 35mm films optically reduced to 16mm. In the early '50s, magnetic sound tracks for 35mm prints were developed, notably with four-track stereophonic sound for CinemaScope: but many theaters balked at having to install new sound equipment as well as screens and lenses, so Fox retreated from their original standards and added an optical track to their release prints. That's why you're more likely to hear optical than magnetic sound at your local theater. Despite the fact that it's really a hell of a lot better sound than optical, 16mm magnetic sound never caught on in a big way in this country. It had two strikes against it from the beginning: magnetic sound prints are more costly than optical prints, and magnetic recordings can't be played back with the optical soundheads installed in hundreds of thousands of 16mm projectors in service. But now we have Super-8. It's a whole new ballgame, a new era, and an opportunity to develop standards that are not locked into the technology of the past. Films made in Super-8 with magnetic sound meant for Super-8 projection or TV display ought to be shot at 18 fps. In terms of sound qualit\ there is no reason not to. Why stick to standards based on an obsolete med um for original scund recordinc developed in an era that used tubes instead of printed circuit chips?
Former M.I.T. students Del Hiligartner and Lisa Jackson on location with the early Super-8 sync rigs. The equipment is remarkably light and simple to operate, yet retains certain design features, such as built in slate-light systems and "through the lens" light metering, that enable beginning students to learn double-system filmmaking in an inexpensive but professional manner.
camera work be judged and editing ti ming be accurately and adequately evaluated. Also, in classroom situations, starting in (and keeping in) sync is a necessity in order to preserve sanity and egos. It simply isn't possible to evaluate an out-of-sync film. Finding a satisfactory projector for double-system work has been one of our toughest problems to solve at MIT. In general, the most frustrating Super-8 projector problems are automatic threading systems that are difficult to unthread and gates and film paths that are inaccessible for cleaning. We have gone through too many projector/recorder combinations to mention. We've tried projectors with sync motors, Super-8 mag film reproducers slaved to projectors, and both projector and magnetic film reproducer "locked" to the line with simultaneous start. We've been through projectors that had ravenous appetites for film and splices and projectors that were very gentle but dim. Finally, we've put xenon arc lamps in dim gentle projectors. The last two of these trials deserve the most attention. Our first really reliable machine was the Kodak TVM100A. Its AC sync motor made double-system sync problems easier, it threaded easily, and the gate opened wide for cleaning. It also had a five-blade shutter, so it could be used for video transfers. The one problem was that it was too dim. So we put a G.E. Marc 300 lamp in it. Because the lamp was putting out a beam for 16mm and wasn't as efficient as it would have been if condensed for the Super-8 aperture, it was still too dim. Thus, we went to another similar Kodak machine, the M 100A (which is unfortunately no longer manu-
factured). The M 100A with its normal projection lamp puts more light through the film because it has a threeblade shutter and, with a f/1.2 lens, it gives a superb bright image. The problem was that since it wasn't a TV projector, Kodak didn't put a sync motor in it. So we added one, but we had to leave in the existing motor because of the complexity of the on-off controls. The switching for the two motors is more complicated than it needs to be, but it works. For playing back magnetic film double-system with the M 100A we use another reliable product, the Superb Sound Recorder. on remote start, with its motor locked to the A.C. line. This discussion of the history, equipment experiences, teaching dispositions, and beliefs about the values of Super-8 filmmaking of the M.I.T. Film Section would be incomplete without an indication of our thoughts about the pedagogical, aesthetic and formal implications that this Super-8 dynamic might have for the f uture of film and visual communication. In a following article, a review of some of the films made by our students in Super-8 attempts to show how these thoughts are elicited by the fil ms themselves.
At Bellevue-Pathe Lab in Toronto, Murray Fallen and his colleagues use a variety of standard and modified equipment to provide many Super-8 printing services. (LEFT) A modified Depue single-strand printer is threaded prior to printing workprints and Double Super-8 internegatives. (CENTER) A converted 16mm printer is used for release printing Double Super-8 from internegatives. (RIGHT) Using a high-speed Double Super-8 projector, ali processed film is screened prior to slitting.
(LEFT) In operation at Bellevue-Pathe Lab, a HFC Super-8 panel printer makes high-speed Super-8 reduction prints at the rate of 200 feet per minute. (RIGHT) The Filmline processor is a positive processor for developing prints at 150 feet per minute. Laboratory services for Super-8, stili in the formative stages, are continually changing. It is definitely a specialized service thus far, as compared to standard 16mm-35mm operations.
Many of Bellevue-Pathe's Super-8 prints are screened in continuous-loop Super-8 cartridge projectors. Prints are lubricated in the machines shown here prior to loading the cartridges for smooth running of the film through the projector. Ultra-sonic cleaners are used to remove dirt, grease and other materials from the negatives before printing.
A Super-8 slitter, manufactured by the Hollywood Film Company, slits Double Super-8 to single strand. The Double Super-8 format offers low-contrast color reversal (ECO) and negative stocks not yet available in Cartridge Super-8.
"Super-8 Video" is a new concept in video production, utilizing inexpensive Super-8 film cameras as the original medium, and Super-8 editing, studio, and transfer equipment in post-production. Four factors combine to make Super-8 Video the lowest cost video production method: Super-8 cameras, with built-in single-system or external double-system sound recording facilities, are the least expensive means of original program production for video release or television broadcast. While there is a noticeable loss of picture quality, especially in the areas of picture resolution and image stability, the difference is easily detectable only on broadcast monitors. Super-8 editing equipment, with its capabilities for multiple sound tracks, and straightforward physical editing (cutting) at an exact frame, is the least expensive and most versatile means of editing an original production for video or television. Super-8 sound studio equipment, with up to three sound tracks and a sync control track on an inexpensive but high-fidelity four-channel tape recorder, is the least expensive means of sophisticated post-production sound for video or television. Super-8 television film chains, especially the extraordinary Kodak Videoplayer flying-spot scanner, are the least expensive means of transfer to video, or direct broadcast of film. The $1350 Videoplayer replaces between $10,000 and $20,000 of conventional 16mm film/video transfer equipment, and a new external sync version will soon allow A & B roll transfers to video, with video special effects and live video camera inserts where desired. Super-8 Video thus offers the video producer the lowest cost production and post-production techniques available, including color, sync sound, sound and picture editing, and multiple sound track capability. Super-8 Video offers all this, plus the extreme portability of three-pound cameras and lightweight cassette sync-sound recorders, or the new single-system Super-8 cameras that combine sound and picture recording in a single unit. Super-8 cameras go anywhere, operate on penlight or rechargeable batteries, and fil m in extreme low light situations (approximately 10 footcandles) in full color.
One of the areas in which Super-8 would seem to have a great future is in the recording of events to be transferred later to videotape
manently into their film chain. Consequently, the transfer of Super-8 to videotape is usually a makeshift arrangement and very often the quality of the final transfer suffers greatly. However it so happens that the three executive officers of National Video Center, Robert Weisgerber, the President; Alan Rogers, V.P. of Marketing, and Philip Mancino, V.P. of Engineering, all have an extensive background in motion pictures as well as in videotape, which is unique for a video service company. Because of their interest, experience, and faith in the future of Super-8 fil m and videotape, they have installed a Kodak TVM 100 Super-8 telecine projector permanently in their broadcast-quality filmchain island. They can transfer Super-8 film to any format of videotape, 1/2-inch, 3/4-inch videocassette, 1-inch or 2-inch Quad videotape. They can transfer the sound either from the magnetic stripe on the side of the Super-8 film, from a Super-8 fullcoat recorder (Super8 Sound Recorder) or from a 16mm mag track in interlock. Many television broadcasters and CATV operators have installed Super-8 projectors in their telecine chains, often as a temporary lashup for occasional use. Others, avoiding the need for modifying existing telecine equipment, project the Super-8 films onto a small white or gray screen to pick up the optical images with a live television camera that can be mounted into position on a dolly in their studio. If care is taken, you can obtain television transfers in this manner, but the quality will be quite low. The next step up in obtaining better quality Super-8 film-to-tape transfers is to use a small Multiplexer unit whereby you can project Super-8 film directly to a color television tube. With a unit li ke this you can put your television camera into position when you want to transfer film to tape, and it can be taken out and used for other purposes the rest of the time. This way you do not tie up a color TV camera the way you would have to do if it had to be permanently fixed to the Multiplexer. The telecine chain at National Video Center is a most complete and complex unit for transferring film to videotape. It has several film projectors and a 35mm still photo projector feeding into the unit, and has a high-quality video camera dedicated to the telecine chain work. National Video recommends transferring camera original Super-8 film to 2-inch Quad Videotape, and then to do ali the editing electronically, with scene-to-scene density correction and color correction. Kodachrome 40 is the best film to shoot for maximum sharpness in Super-8, even though it has inherently high contrast and is not a good film to shoot with if you want film prints to be made. The density can easily be controlled electronically. A problem in using Kodachrome is that it is still considered an amateur film by Kodak, and they develop it with less controls than they develop their 16mm Ektachrome films. The result is that once in a while you get a critically i mportant roll back with developing streaks, water marks, dirt, or other problems which are not noticeable to most amateurs, but which are ruinous to a person trying to use this format of fil m for professional purposes. Kodak does make a low-contrast Ektachrome 7252 available in 100-foot rolls of Double Super-8, and this film does get developed in the same bath as their 16mm Ektachrome 7252. While it does not give as sharp an image as the dye-structured Kodachrome, it is still quite sharp and gives very good results when transferred to videotape, where it will only be shown on a 26-inch TV screen at most. A note of caution here to Super-8 fil mmakers. film shot at 18 fps CAN be transferred to videotape, BUT ONLY with a flying-spot scanner videoplayer such as the Kodak VP-1 or VP-X. The problem is that, as yet, not too many video houses have this unit, and if you have film shot at 18 fps and want to transfer it to 2-inch Quad videotape for broadcast use, it cannot be done with any of the conventional highqualify broadcast telecine chains! If in doubt, shoot at 24 fps. for then you can have it transferred by both the VP1 or the conventional telecine cameras. the slight amount of film you save is not worth the price you may have to pay later when you find you have a great production, and a television station is willing to pay good money for it, but it cannot be transferred! If possible the Super-8 film should be ultrasonically cleaned after all
SUPER-8 LABORATORY SERVICES AND STOCKS Continued from Page 1270
Moonachie, N. J., is now supplying Takita Printers, for Super-8 original stocks, including Optical Printers, Contact Step Printers, and Continuous Contact Printers. Most labs are processing Super-8 in their 16mm processing equipment. Only recently have processing equipment manufacturers turned their attention to special requirements for the processing of Super-8 original, e.g. the Jamieson Compac Model S. If Super-8 film becomes widely used as an original production medium, especially outside the U.S., in the developing countries, there will be an increasing demand for Super-8 processors. Eastman Kodak has anticipated this market, and the need for rapid turnaround processing of Super-8 in the U.S. for television news applications. They have announced a new fully-automatic processor and a new film stock intended for use with the new ES-8 process. The Supermatic 8 Processor can be loaded in daylight with any Super-8 cartridge (50 foot, 200 foot, and special 400 foot cartridges). The processed fil m, ready to project, emerges 13 1/2 minutes later (50 feet). The machine needs only sources of water and electricity, and a drain. Chemicals are added from prepared packages, and the processor automatically maintains chemistry quality. When chemicals are exhausted, the machine disposes of them, cleans itself, and calls for new chemicals before it will restart. The Supermatic 8 processor can at present process only a single emulsion, the new Kodak SM 7244, which is available in 50 foot and 200 foot silent and sound cartridges. The price of the Supermatic 8 processor is $12,500. About 10-20 Super 8 cartridges per day will amortize such a capital outlay, over a few years' period, by comparison with typical commercial processing costs. Since Kodak hopes that much Super 8 film will be transferred directly to video using their new flying-spot scanner Videoplayer, the combination of the automatic in-house processor and video as a release medium may limit the growth of a truly large volume Super-8 business for motion picture laboratories.
(ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Richard Lerman is an independent filmmaker, composer of electronic music and writer. He teaches at the Boston Museum School of Fine Arts and is co-owner of the Super-8 Workshop, a film school and production house in Cambridge, MA.) AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. NOVEMBER 1975
SUPER-8 VIDEO A NEW PRODUCTION CONCEPT Continued from Page 1308
fil m is the same whether the original film is 16mm or Super8. With a crisp Super-8 original, with image enhancement as is generally used for 16mm film transfers, and with electronic color correction, it is extremely difficult to distinguish Super-8 from 16mm in off-the-monitor tests reported in the SMPTE Journal, and shown in this issue of American Cinematographer in the article by Chuck Cyberski.
Accessories are available for counting frames and cleaning film. Several manufacturers have recently introduced tape splicers that leave a space in the area of the magnetic edge stripe, allowing cutting of single-system original film. The Guillotine splicer (a plastic version of the best-known professional film splicer) cuts sprocket holes and cuts a shortened piece of tape on the sound track side, to avoid covering the magnetic edge stripe. Two recently introduced splicers use prepared splices and apply them fully automatically so that fingers, editing gloves with little hairs, dust, etc., never get near the sticky side of the tape. The HPI Quik-Splice Super Splicer and the less expensive Hervic Minette Tape Splicer work this way. Filmmakers should realize that it's very difficult to get intelligble sound when pulling Super-8 film by hand. No one as yet manufactures a motorized sound editor/viewer, but single-system versions of the Super8 Sound Editing Benches, the MKM Editing Tables, and the Super-8 Research Associates Post-Production Consoles are available. These allow both single-system and doublesystem editing. It is also possible to edit single-system by eliminating the 18-frame sound and picture separation with a displacement recorder. The Moser Displacement Recorder will pick up the sound from the 18-frame advance position and rerecord it on the edge stripe in "editorial sync" (i mmediately next to the corresponding picture). When picture is cut, the accompanying sound is also cut. After editing, the Displacement Recorder replaces the sound on the edited footage at the normal 18-frame advance position for projection or transfer to video. If you want to keep in touch with the rapid pace of new introductions of Super-8 equipment, write to Super8 Sound, Dept. JBM, 95 Harvey Street, Cambridge, Mass., 02140 for copies of the Super8 Sound Catalog ($2), and the Reference Book Super-8 ($15), a comprehensive compilation of original manufacturers' literature and data sheets on Super-8 cameras, recorders, and post-production equipment.
(ABOUT THE AUTHOR: JULIE MAMOLEN is the National Sales Manager of Super8 Sound, Inc. Her background was in computer systems and design of the Wide-Area-Telephone-System at AT&T. She and Bob Doyle have studied all the sync sound Super-8 cameras on the market and have designed various integrated production systems based on most of them.)
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SUPER 8 PROJECTION
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SUPER 8 EDITING
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