Kity Machine A Bois
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Kity Machine A Bois
User reviews and opinions
|symiggy||8:35am on Friday, October 29th, 2010|
|I ordered the printer and received it two days later out of their New Jersey location even with the east coast being shut down because of a snow store...|
|alienyak||9:38pm on Saturday, October 23rd, 2010|
|Draft print setting is adequate for general use. Have not yet used fax and scanner. Easy Setup,Easy To Use,Great Print Quality Bad Battery Life.|
|HomerG||2:34am on Friday, October 8th, 2010|
|Was looking for a wireless AIO and chose this one. has all the bells and whistles and the operation is outstanding. no complaints from owner. Very fast and excellent quality printing. The 2-sided printing feature works great, and set-up is simple. Overall an excellent product so far. I was in the market for an all in one printer to replace a competitors product. I have rarely gone away from HP printers.|
|natangafni||3:17pm on Thursday, September 23rd, 2010|
|I am using this to replace a combination of a color laser printer that was beginning to jam too regularly and a stand-alone scanner. Love the printer! Worked wireless and via USB right out of the box. The scanner set up more tricky but HP's customer support is fantasic!|
|reliable21||1:00pm on Wednesday, September 15th, 2010|
|Getting the rebate for our old printer was a definite added bonus. Recommended Easy Setup","Easy To Use","Fast Operation","Great Print Quality Large Footprint|
|75martin||6:40am on Tuesday, August 31st, 2010|
|The quality of print was not what I expected. My HP 7580 did a better job. The printer is slow to warm up. Noisy","Slow Operation|
|quartz13163||5:41pm on Monday, June 21st, 2010|
|Prints great and uses ink very efficiently and is FAST As a Linux user, I am used to some issues. Networks was printing perfectly for a day. excellent printer, no complains none|
|sidgib||7:50pm on Sunday, May 9th, 2010|
|This is an excellent piece of hardware hobbled by stunningly bad software with useless support. If you are a photographer using a Mac.|
|Stephen Bauman||12:05pm on Sunday, May 9th, 2010|
|Used for a month in my home office and thus far very pleased. easy setup and remote printing capabilities along with good speed and duplex printing. As noted above printers have VERY short service life, recap-bought 5, 1 dead on arrival, 3 died in 1 year. All had same symptom...|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
FROM KITTY HAWK TO TRANQUILITY BASE AND BEYOND
100+ years of powered flight
all pictures are copyrighted by their respective owners
Living American History Institute
Understanding Aviation in the Northwest
What students should come away with after this unit: How important is aviation history in the Northwest The four principals of flight: thrust, lift, drag, gravity Essential Academic Learning Requirements The student understands the origin of aviation and impact of ideas and its technological developments in the Northwest Interpret how changing aviation technologies have shaped ideas and attitudes and analyze the impact of aviation ideas and its development on the Northwest
We saw that the calculations upon which all flying machines had been based were unreliable-Wright brothers in a letter We are beaten! We dont exist!French reaction to watching Wilbur Wright demonstrate the Flyer, 1908 Thats good sport, but for the Army the airplane is of no use.French Marshall Ferdinand Foch, 1910
Where am I? Charles Lindbergh, upon arrival in Paris Dad, I left my heart up there. Francis Gary Powers, CIA U-2 pilot describing his first flight at age 14 As soon as we left the ground I knew I myself had to fly! Amelia Earhart, after her first flight in an airplane, 1920 Aviation is proof, that given the will, we have the capacity to achieve the impossible. Eddie Rickenbacker After about 30 minutes I puked all over my airplane. I said to my self, Man, you made a big mistake. 'Chuck' Yeager, regarding his first flight For more aviation quotes:
I've never known an industry that can get into people's blood the way aviation does.-Robert Six, founder of Continental Airlines
THE BIRTH OF POWERED FLIGHT
December 17, 1903, 10:35am; Kitty Hawk, NC. First powered flight. Flight lasts only 12 seconds and covers 120 feet. Wrights beat out all others in becoming the first to fly. Only 4 newspapers carried the story the next day.
Success four flights thursday morning all against twenty one mile wind started from Level with engine power alone average speed through air thirty one miles longest 57 seconds inform Press home Christmas.-Orville Wrights first telegraph home
Apollo 11; first landing on the moon; July 20, 1969. First words were: Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed. 66 years after Kitty Hawk 2004 is the 35th anniversary of the landing Start of NASA on October 1, 1958. Journey to the Moon began on May 25, 1961 when President Kennedy declared the nations goal to a joint session of Congress. The space program consisted of Mercury (first flight May 5, 1961), Gemini (first flight March 23, 1965) and Apollo missions. 5 more flights to the moon after Apollo 11
Northwest Aids Spaceflight
1958-Boeing awarded the contract for the Minuteman missile program. This is missile is still part of our nuclear deterrent force 1961-Boeing is awarded the contract for building the first stage of the Saturn rocket in support of the Apollo missions 1966-Boeing wins the award to build the Lunar Orbiters. These were the first satellites to orbit the moon 1966- Federal Government gives Boeing the contract to build a Supersonic Transport plane Government withdraws support in 1971 2003- Lt. Col. Michael Anderson, native of Cheney, WA is killed in Columbia Space Shuttle accident
National Historic District
Established in 1926 as the first airport in the Northwest and one of the oldest Federally designated airports in the nation. Air National Guard is based here starting in 1927 Airmail service starts in 1929. August 15, 1930 Lt. Nick Marmer and Art Walker take off from Felts Field and stayed in the air for 120 hours traveling to New York. Several aviation records were set during this flight. The clock tower was built in 1939 as a memorial to Lt. Marmer and 9 others who were killed in a commercial airplane crash in 1938. Another airport was under construction in 1941 and by 1949 military and commercial traffic was moved to what is now Spokane International Airport. Historic district includes: 3 hangers, passenger terminal, National Guard headquarters,clock tower Website: www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/aviation/fel.htm
Spokane International Airport
(Why is Spokane called GEG?)
1941-War Department purchased an area known as Sunset Field from Spokane County for a B-17/C-47 training facility.The base is renamed Geiger Field after Major Harold Geiger. May 17, 1927 Maj. Geiger was commander of Aberdeen (Md.) Field when his plane took a 50-foot nosedive into the ground at Olmstead Field, PA. His plane was covered with 80 gallons of fuel and burst into flames. Maj. Geiger tried several attempts to escape the burning wreckage before being overcome and burned to death. 1946- Part of the airfield is designated a municipal airport and commercial airline operations were moved from Felts Field to Geiger Field. 1960- This facility was renamed Spokane International Airport. Website: www.earlyaviators.com/egeiger.htm
NOTABLE PEOPLE Gov. Issac Stevens 1818-1862 Graduated from West Point in 1839. Fought in the Mexican War Governor and Indian Agent of Washington Territory in 1853 During the Civil War he offered his services to the military and held various commands during the war. He was promoted to general in September 1861 September 1862 he was killed at the Battle of Chantilly which was the last fight of the Second Bull Run Campaign Joel Palmer 1810-1881 Born in Canada and family moved to the New York in 1812; later he moved to Pennsylvania Married in 1836 and moved to Indiana to work on the canals; served in the state legislature Moved to Oregon in 1845 and wrote a book that served as a guide for future immigrations Went to California for the gold rush; upon his returned founded the city of Dayton, OR Became Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon Territory in 1853; removed from post, in 1857, after being criticized as being to lenient with Indian policies Served in the Oregon legislature Died June 9 in Dayton, OR Col. George Wright 1801-1865 Graduated from West Point in 1822 Fought in the Seminole and Mexican wars Fought in both the Yakima and Coeur d Alene Wars Became commander of the Department of Oregon in 1860 During the Civil War it was his job to keep the Indians in check and to keep Southern sympathizers from joining the Confederate forces in the east; commanded the Department of the Pacific Died in 1865 when the ship Brother Jonathan sank Calvin Hale 1818-1887 Born in Maine; served in the state legislature; married Moved family to Washington Territory via a sea trip around Cape Horn- 1851 where he obtained a 320-acre land donation around present day Olympia Served in the first territorial legislature
Appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Washington and Idaho Territories during the Lincoln Administration Given the job to reduce the size of Nez Perce lands due to the discovery of gold in 1860 After leaving the job of Superintendent he held a variety of jobs including school board member, county coroner and city councilman. He helped create the Puget Sound Wesleyan Institute and served on the first Board of Regents for the University of Washington He also formed the franchise called the Washington Water Pipe Manufacturing Company which laid down wooden pipes for the first water system in Olympia. Died in Olympia; Hale Residence is listed on the National Registry of Historic Places in Olympia Gen. Benjamin Alvord 1818-1884 Entered West Point at the age of 16 Served in the Seminole and Mexican Wars; appointed Paymaster for the District of Oregon in 1854 Promoted to general of the US volunteers for the District 1862-65 Served as Paymaster for other areas and retired in 1880 Wrote several books including many dealing with mathematics Gen. Oliver Howard 1830-1908 Served in the Civil War; Described by a junior officer asmore adapted to the church than to the army After the war was first commissioner of the Freedmens Bureau; founded Howard University and was president from 1869-1874 Took command of the Dept. of the Columbia in 1874 Was superintendent of West Point; retired in 1894 Wrote many books, including one on Chief Joseph but nothing about the Civil War Col. Nelson Miles 1834-1925 Received no formal military training but rose to be commander in chief of the Army during the Spanish-American War Started career in the Civil War and rose in the officer ranks. Served as jailer of Jefferson Davis After the war commanded a black regiment; commanded the 5th Infantry during Nez Perce campaign; Took part in the surrender of Geronimo-1886 Retired in 1903 after conflicts with President T. Roosevelt
of the said river, where it empties into the lake. (10) One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort formerly stood. (11) One piece two miles square, at the lower rapids of Sandusky river. (12) The post of Detroit, and all the land to the north, the west and the south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English governments: and so much more land to be annexed to the district of Detroit, as shall be comprehended between the river Rosine, on the south, Lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the general course whereof shall be six miles distant from the west end of lake Erie and Detroit river. (13) The post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island on which that post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English governments; and a piece of land on the main to the north of the island, to measure six miles, on Lake Huron, or the strait between lakes Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water of the lake or strait; and also, the Island De Bois Blane, being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation. (14) One piece of land six miles square, at the mouth of Chikagoriver, emptying into the southwest end of LakeMichigan, where a fort formerly stood. (15) One piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the Illinois river, emptying into the Mississippi. (16) One piece six miles square, at the old Piorias fort and village near the south end of the Illinois lake, on said Illinois river. And whenever the United States shall think proper to survey and mark the boundaries of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give timely notice thereof to the said tribes of Indians, that they may appoint some of their wise chiefs to attend and see that the lines are run according to the terms of this treaty. And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the United States a free passage by land and by water, as one and the other shall be found convenient, through their country, along the chain of posts herein-before mentioned; that is to say, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loromie's store, thence along said portage to the St. Mary's, and down the same to fort Wayne, and then down the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from thence to the river Auglaize, and down thesame to its junction with the Miami at fort Defiance; again, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid, to Sandusky river, and down the same to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the post which shall be taken at or near the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of the lake; and from thence to Detroit. Again, from the mouth of Chikago, to the commencement of the portage, between that river and the Illinois, and down the Illinois river to the Mississippi; also, from Fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said Indian tribes will also allow to the people of the United States, the free use of the harbors and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining the Indian lands, for sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land their cargoes where necessary for their safety. ARTICLE IV In consideration of the peace now established, and of the cessions and relinquishment of lands made in the preceding article by the said tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality of the United States, as the great means of rendering this peace strong and perpetual, the United States relinquish their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the Great
ARTICLE IV. In consideration of the above cession, the United States agree to pay to the said tribe, in addition to the goods and provisions distributed to them at the time of signing this treaty, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in the following manner, that is to say: sixty thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the President of the United States, the first year after the ratification of this treaty, in providing for their removal to the reserve, breaking up and fencing farms, building houses, supplying them with provisions and a suitable outfit, and for such other objects as he may deem necessary, and the remainder in annuities, as follows: for the first five years after the ratification of this treaty, ten thousand dollars each year, commencing September 1, 1856; for the next five years, eight thousand dollars each year; for the next five years, six thousand dollars each year, and for the next five years, four thousand dollars each year. All which said sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of the said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time determine, at his discretion, upon what beneficial objects to expend the same for them. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of the Indians in relation thereto. ARTICLE V. The United States further agree to establish, at suitable points within said reservation, within one year after the ratification hereof, two schools, erecting the necessary buildings, keeping the same in repair, and providing them with furniture, books, and stationery, one of which shall be an agricultural and industrial school, to be located at the agency, and to be free to the children of said tribe, and to employ one superintendent of teaching and two teachers; to build two blacksmith's shops, to one of which shall be attached a tin shop, and to the other a gunsmith's shop; one carpenter's shop, one wagon and ploughmaker's shop, and to keep the same in repair, and furnished with the necessary tools; to employ one superintendent of farming and two farmers, two blacksmiths, one tinner, one gunsmith, one carpenter, one waggon and ploughmaker, for the instruction of the Indians in trades, and to assist them in the same; to erect one saw mill and one flouting mill, keeping the same in repair, and furnished with the necessary tools and fixtures, and to employ two millers; to erect a hospital, keeping the same in repair, and provided with the necessary medicines and furniture, and to employ a physician; and to erect, keep in repair, and provide with the necessary furniture the buildings required for the accommodation of the said employes. The said buildings and establishments to be maintained and kept in repair as aforesaid, and the employes to be kept in service for the period of twenty years. And in view of the fact that the head chief of the tribe is expected, and will be called upon, to perform many services of a public character, occupying much of his time, the United States further agree to pay to the Nez Perce tribe five hundred dollars per year for the term of twenty years, after the ratification hereof, as a salary for such person as the tribe may select to be its head chief. To build for him, at a suitable point on the reservation, a comfortable house, and properly furnish the same, and to plough and fence for his use ten acres of land. The said salary to be paid to, and the said house to be occupied by, such head chief so long as he may be elected to that position by his tribe, and no longer. And all the expenditures and expenses contemplated in this fifth article of this treaty shall be
TREATY OF 1863 The Treaty of 1855 is renegotiated in 1863 due to the increase of white settlers on Nez Perce land TREATY between THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE NEZ PERCE INDIANS, concluded AT THE COUNCIL GROUND IN THE VALLEY OF THE LAPWAI, JUNE 9, 1863. Articles of agreement made and concluded at the council ground, in the valley of the Lapwai, Washington Territory, on the ninth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and Sixty-three, between the United State of America, by C. H. Hale, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Charles Hutchins and S. D. Howe, United States Indian agents for the Territory of Washington, acting on the part and in behalf of the United States, and the Nez Perce Indians; by the chiefs, headmen, and delegates of said tribe, such articles being supplementary and amendatory to the treaty made between the United States and said tribe on the 11th day of June, 1855. ARTICLE I. The said Nez Perce tribe agree to relinquish, and do hereby relinquish to the United States, the lands heretofore reserved for the use and occupation of the said tribe, saving and excepting so much thereof as is described in article 2d, for a new reservation. ARTICLE II. The United States agree to reserve for a home, and for the sole use and occupation of said tribe, the tract of land included within the following boundaries to wit: commencing at the northeast corner of Lake Wa-ha, and running thence northerly to a point on the north bank of the Clearwater river, three miles below the mouth of the Lapwai; thence down the north bank of the Clearwater to the mouth of the Hat-wai creek; thence due north to a point seven miles distant; thence eastwardly to a point on the north fork of the Clearwater, seven miles distant, from its mouth; thence to a point on Ore Fino creek five miles above its mouth; thence to a point on the north fork of the south fork of the Clearwater five miles above its mouth; thence to a point on the south fork of the Clearwater one mile above the bridge on the road leading to Elk City, (so as to include all the Indian farms now within the forks;) thence in a straight line westwardly to the place of the beginning. All of which tract shall be set apart, and the above described boundaries shall be surveyed and marked out for the exclusive use and benefit of said tribe as an Indian reservation; nor shall any white man, excepting those in the employment of the Indian department, be permitted to reside upon the said reservation, without the permission of the tribe and the superintendent and agent; and the said tribe agrees that so soon after the United States shall make the necessary provision for fulfilling the stipulations of this instrument, as they can conveniently arrainge their affairs, and not to exceed one year from its ratification, they will vacate the country hereby relinquished, and remove to and settle upon the lands herein reserved for them, (except as may be hereinafter provided.) In the mean time it shall
ARTICLE III. [The President shall, immediately after the ratification of this treaty, cause the boundary lines to be surveyed, and properly marked and established; after which, so much of the lands, hereby reserved, as may be suitable for cultivation, shall be surveyed, into lots of twenty acres each, and every male person of the tribe who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, or is the head of a family shall have the privilege of locating upon one one lot as a permanent home for such person, and the lands so surveyed shall be allotted under such rules and regulations as the President shall prescribe, having such reference to their settlement as may secure, adjoining each other, the location of the different families pertaining to each band, so far as the same may be practicable. Such rules and regulations shall be prescribed by the President, or under his direction, as will insure to the family, in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession and enjoyment of such permanent home, and the improvements thereon. When the assignments as above shall have been completed, certificates shall be issued by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, or under his direction, for the tracts assigned in severalty, specifying the names of the individuals to whom they have been assigned respectively, and that said tracts are set apart for the perpetual and exclusive use and benefit of such assignees and their heirs. Until otherwise provided by law, such tracts shall be exempt from levy, taxation or sale, and shall be alienable in fee, or leased or otherwise disposed of only to the United States, or to persons then being members of the Nez Perce tribe, and of Indian blood, with the permission of the President, and under such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior or the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall prescribe. And if any such person or family shall at any time neglect or refuse to occupy and till a portion of the land so assigned, and on which they have located, or shall rove from place to place, the President may cancel the assignment; and may also withhold from such person or family their proportion of the annuities or other payments due them, until they shall have returned to such permanent home, and resumed the pursuits of industry; and in default of their return, the tract may be declared abandoned, and thereafter assigned to some other person or family of such tribe. The residue of the land hereby reserved shall be held in common for pasturage for the sole use and benefit of the Indians: Provided, however, That from time to time, as members of the tribe may come upon the reservation, or may become of proper age, after the expiration of the time of one year after the ratification of this treaty, as aforesaid, and claim the privileges granted under this article, lots may be assigned from the lands thus held in common, whenever the same may be suitable for cultivation. No State or Territorial legislature shall remove the restriction herein provided for, without the consent of Congress, and no State or Territorial law to that end shall be deemed valid until the same has been specially submitted to Congress for its approval.] The President shall, immediately after the ratification of this treaty, cause the boundary lines of the diminished reserve to be properly marked and established, after which the Indians may, under the direction of their chiefs and the agent, divide and apportion the same among the members or their tribe and bands, in such manner as will, in their judgment, be most for their benefit and advantage, which allotments made, the Indians and their families shall severally possess and enjoy forever, if they will quietly and peaceably reside thereon. Land not apportioned shall be held in common by the Indians, and may be apportioned and set apart from time to time as the necessities and increase of the Indians may require. The lands hereby set apart for the Indians shall not be taxed or seized upon execution by virtue
lands, as herein provided, so that the rents, profits, and issues thereof, shall inure to the benefit of said tribe, and so that the persons thus licensed, or necessarily employed in any of the above relations, shall be subject to the control of the Indian department, and to the provisions of the act of Congress, "to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and to preserve peace on the frontiers." All timber within the bounds of the reservation is exclusively the property of the tribe, excepting that the United States government shall be permitted to use thereof for any purpose connected with its affairs, either in carrying out any of the provisions of this treaty, or in the maintaining of its necessary forts or garrisons, or constructing highways and bridges. The United States also agree to reserve all springs or fountains not adjacent to or directly connected with the streams or rivers within the lands hereby relinquished, and to keep back from settlement or entry so much of the surrounding land as may be necessary to prevent the said springs or fountains being enclosed; and further, to preserve a perpetual right of way to and from the same, as watering places, for the use in common of both whites and Indians: ``Provided, That there shall first be surveyed and laid off, under the direction of the President, six hundred and forty acres for the site of the town of Lewiston, and if the site, when surveyed and laid off, shall embrace the lands, or any portion of the same, described in the conveyance to said Newell, then said Newell shall be authorized to select six hundred and forty acres of other unimproved land, not mineral lands, ceded herein, and which is not in the occupancy of another; and when so selected the same shall be confirmed to him, and a patent shall issue as in other cases.'' ARTICLE IX. Inasmuch as the Indians in counsel have expressed their desire that Robert Newell should have confirmed to him a piece of land, lying between Snake and Clearwater rivers, the same having been given to him on the 9th day of June, 1861, and described in an instrument of writing bearing that date, and signed by several chiefs of the tribe, it is hereby agreed that the said Robert Newell shall receive from the United States a patent for the said tract of land. ARTICLE X. This treaty shall be obligatory upon the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States. In testimony whereof, the said C. H. Hale, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Charles Hutchins and S. D. Howe, United States Indian agents in the Territory of Washington, and the chiefs, headmen, and delegates of the aforesaid Nez Perce tribe of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place, and on the day and year hereinbefore written.
IN EXECUTIVE SESSION, SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. April 17, 1867. Resolved, (two-thirds of the Senators present concurring,) That the Senate recede from its amendments to the treaty between the United States and the Nez Perc Indians, concluded at the Council Ground, in the valley of the Lapwai, June 9, 1863, which amendments were agreed to by the Senate, June 26, 1866; and that the Senate do advise and consent to the ratification of the said treaty as concluded June 9, 1863. Attest: J. W. FORNEY, Secretary Now, therefore, be it known that I, ANDREW JOHNSON, President of the United States of America, do, in pursuance of the advice and consent of the Senate, as expressed in its resolution of the seventeenth of April, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, accept, ratify, and confirm the said Treaty. In testimony whereof I have hereto signed my name, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this twentieth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the ninety-first. [SEAL.] ANDREW JOHNSON By the President: WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State. TREATY OF 1868 Those who did not sign this treaty are considered the Non-treaty Nez Perce. Whereas to the treaty of the ninth of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, between the United States and the Nez Perce tribe of Indians, an amendatory treaty was concluded at the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, on the thirteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by and between Nathaniel G. Taylor, commissioner, on the part of the United States, and Lawyer, head chief, and Timothy and Jason, chiefs, of the Nez Perce tribe of Indians, on the part of said tribe of Indians, and duly authorized thereto by them, which amendatory treaty is in the words and figures following, to wit: Whereas certain amendments are desired by the Nez Perce tribe of Indians to their treaty concluded at the Council Ground in the valley of the Lapwai, in the Territory of Washington, on the ninth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three; and whereas the United States are willing to assent to said amendments;
me, and rendered the most important services.Neither the commander of Colville nor Walla Walla have intimated to me that they apprehend any immediate outbreak, but it is necessary to be on our guard. I cannot spare any of the troops west of the Cascades, but the dragoon company at The Dalles might be concentrated and sent to Walla Walla, and a small infantry detachment sent from The Dalles to the Warm Springs Reservation, if necessary. I should be very glad to have the company of my regiment now at San Francisco sent up here, if the general can spare it. I have permitted Captain Gregg, Third Cavalry, to obey the orders he has received from the War Department. A reliable sergeant is left in charge of the detachment at the Warm Springs. Captain Sheridan, Thirteenth Infantry, will be relieved from his duties at Yamhill in a few days, as soon as an officer is available. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, G. WRIGHT, Colonel Ninth Infantry, Commanding.
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., September 12, 1861.
Capt. R. C. DRUM, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:
CAPTAIN: I have just returned from Fort Dalles. Much alarm existing in the border settlements in consequence of the threatening aspect of our Indian affairs, I have deemed it proper to call on the Governor of Oregon for a company of volunteer cavalry. A copy of my communication to the Governor is herewith inclosed. Not having received any of the recent laws relating to the organization of volunteer forces, I have adhered to the old organization authorized for this country. I have called for the company for three years, unless sooner discharged. My latest advices from Fort Colville, and also from the Nez Perc country, represent everything as quiet. I keep Captain Whittlesey at Fort Dalles. His services are important there to muster in and take charge of the company I have called for. With the company I have called for I think we shall get along very well. It is barely possible that I may have to call on the Governor of Washington Territory for a company for service north of the Columbia River. All is quiet at the Cascades. Captain Van Voast is at that point with his company, occupying both sides of the river. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, G. WRIGHT, Colonel Ninth Infantry, Commanding.
THE DALLES, OREG., October 8, 1861.
Col. B. L. BEALL, U.S. Army, Commanding Military District, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:
COLONEL: On my way to this place I learned with regret that orders had been received by you to remove all the regular troops from Washington Territory and the State of Oregon. While I fully appreciate the unfortunate necessity which calls for all the available force of the Government in the Eastern States to quell the rebels who are endeavoring to overthrow our institutions, at the same time I cannot be unmindful of the peculiar condition of our own people. Since the close of the Indian outbreak in this country in 1856 the Indians have not been left without the moral effect of quite a large body of troops scattered through various portions of the country. Within the last year discoveries of important mines, almost wholly within the reservation of one of the most powerful tribes of Indians, has induced an influx of miners to that region, thereby rendering outbreaks possible, if not probable. The Government is now in arrears in the fulfillment of treaty stipulations with the Indians, and not unfrequent murmurs have been heard from them on that account, and I firmly believe that the moral effect of the presence of troops is necessary to the maintenance of peace. Difficulties have lately arisen at Colville with the Indians in which one white man was killed, and murders have been reported in or near the Bitter Root Valley by the Snake Indians, and I understand serious apprehensions are felt by the inhabitants of the upper country during the winter when the miners shall have left for the season. Another important consideration which ought to be taken into account is the fact that among the recent influx of miners to the region of Walla Walla and the Nez Perc country are many persons entertaining sentiments of hostility to the Government in the present crisis. They, in fact, compose fully one-half of those who will remain in that region during the winter, and threats of taking the military post in Walla Walla have been made, as I have learned, and I am free to say I myself entertain fears that if the troops are withdrawn from that region we shall witness symptoms of rebellion there. The universal public sentiment here is against the withdrawal of the troops. Occupying the position of superintendent of Indian affairs in Washington Territory, I can only enter my protest against this withdrawal of the last vestige of protection at a time we most need it. In the name of the feeble settlements which have long struggled, and are still struggling, to establish themselves here, and to keep this portion of our country loyal to the Union, I would respectfully protest against this withdrawal of the troops as an act which would not be committed if our condition was fully understood at home. I trust that you may make known the necessity of keeping these troops here, and it possible cause the order of removal to be countermanded. I am, your obedient servant, B. F. KENDALL, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory.
permanent forts. I have seven companies of the Ninth Infantry at the Presidio, but they are very much reduced, one of them having just returned from the East, with only its non-commissioned officers, and 100 of our best men being on the escort of Lieutenant Mullans wagon-road expedition. The three companies of cavalry near this city and the six companies of the Third Infantry California Volunteers, now at Benicia Barracks, I design for the overland mail protection. I have the headquarters and five companies of the Fourth Infantry California Volunteers, encamped at Sacramento. I shall soon move them down to Benicia or in the neighborhood of this city, according to circumstances. In the southern district Colonel Carleton is advancing on Fort Yuma with his own regiment (First Infantry) and First Cavalry (five companies), and the Light Battery Company A, Third Artillery. The roads are still in a bad condition, and loaded wagons cannot move. I have also now in the southern district the Fifth Infantry California Volunteers, Colonel Bowie, and four companies of the Second Cavalry. Colonel Bowie will be left in command of that district after the advance of Carleton. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, Cal., April 28, 1862.
Col. JUSTUS STEINBERGER,.First Infantry Washington Territory Volunteers, under orders for Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:
COLONEL: After assuming command of the District of Oregon, I desire that early measures be taken to concentrate the Oregon regiment of cavalry and move it to the east of the Cascades. The headquarters of that regiment will be established at Fort Walla Walla, from which place a company should be sent to the Nez Perce country, to remain, probably, during the whole summer. But the principal object in having a large cavalry force in the Walla Walla country is to move over the mining district of the Salmon River in the spring and early summer, and as the season advances to be thrown forward to meet the emigrants as they approach from the Eastern States. Let the staff officers of the different departments in your district prepare their estimates and requisitions for everything necessary during the next fiscal year as soon as practicable. I commit to your hands the District of Oregon, with full powers to dispose of the troops as you may deem best to preserve the peace of the country, and to maintain the honor of our flag and respect for our Government. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, G. WRIGHT, Brigadier-General, U.S. Army, Commanding HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, San Francisco, April 30, 1862.
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.:
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge by the steamship Pacific, arrived at Portland on the 17th instant, your communication of the 6th referring to the disposition of the regiment of cavalry under Colonel Cornelius. Before the reception of your letter the two companies of this regiment referred to in my communication of the 14th instant 53
had arrived here in pursuance of directions for that purpose Believing that the commanding general was not informed of the supply of cavalry equipment available at the depot here, and that under the advisement of my letter of the 14th instant approval will be given to the movement of the troops as indicated therein, Colonel Cornelius with his staff and Companies B and E, of his regiment, will leave tomorrow morning for Fort Dalles by water, en route for Fort Walla Walla. I have much confidence that the general commanding will agree with me as to the urgent necessity of this movement, from the reasons mentioned in the letter referred to, and will sanction this departure from his instructions in your letter of the 6th instant. Information is given me by Colonel Cornelius that Lieutenant-Colonel Maury with four companies of the Oregon cavalry will be at Camp Barlow, two miles north of Oregon City. It is the place selected by him for encampment in conformity to instructions to him from department headquarters, to concentrate his force in the Willamette Valley preparatory to his proceeding east of the mountains. Until further directions are received for the movement of these four companies no arrangements will be made for their march. The past winter has been an unusually severe and prolonged one, and since the reception of your letter Colonel Cornelius reports to me that it would be unsafe to attempt to cross the Cascade Mountains until the 1st of August. Other well-informed persons agree in this opinion. The march in that direction will even then be a hard one and attended with some risk. For any operations this summer as a cavalry force, I respectfully submit that it is important that the regiment should be at Walla Walla at the earliest practicable moment. The presence of one company at the Nez Perc Reservation is already urged by the Indian superintendent as of great necessity for the preservation, of our friendly relations with that tribe of Indians. For operations in the Salmon River country and along the emigrant trail I am fearful the object would be defeated if we were compelled to wait for the snow to melt on the Cascade Mountains before marching these troops. Forage of every description is selling at very high rates in the valley and in this neighborhood, and the difference in the cost of supporting these four companies at Camp Barlow and east of the mountains would go far toward paying the transportation by water to Fort Dalles. At Camp Barlow and, indeed, throughout the Willamette Valley, grazing must be hired and short forage purchased, while east of the Cascade Mountains the season is further advanced and forage of all kinds to be procured at less cost to the Government. As some time will of necessity elapse before they can be equipped to move in either direction, the commanding general will have full opportunity to become informed of the proper route to take for these companies. I am well impressed that to promote the successful employment of these troops in the movements indicated in the letter of instructions to myself on leaving San Francisco, that it would be eminently advisable to send them by water to Fort Dalles, and thence to Fort Walla Walla by land as soon as they are in readiness to move. Trusting that my action in the case of Colonel Cornelius, his staff, and Companies B and E will be approved, and awaiting further directions as to the balance of the regiment, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JUSTUS STEINBERGER, Colonel First Washington Territory Infantry, Comdg. District.
Of course great vigilance in guarding your animals will at all times be necessary, not only from Indians, but also from white thieves and robbers who may infest your path. I have suggested to General Connor, at Salt Lake City, the propriety of his sending, if he has them to spare, some troops on the road south of Snake River, at least as far as Salmon Falls. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District. NEZ PERC, AGENCY, Lapwai, Wash. Ter., June 8, 1863.
General B. ALVORD, Commanding Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter.:
GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that there will be no further need of retaining the troops at Lapwai after your reception of this. I am also happy to inform you that the great object of our mission here is accomplished. A treaty has been concluded with the Lawyer party more advantageous to the Government than had been expected. It will be signed to-day or to-morrow. The Big Thunder party have not yet decided as to their course, but I think they will yet come into the arrangement. Very respectfully, yours, C. H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory.
OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Olympia, Wash. Ter., June 29, 1863.
GENERAL: Yours of the 15th instant was duly received. In answer to the inquiry therein made I submit that the latter part of the second article of the treaty contemplates the permission to occupy up to the new boundaries. I have respectfully to ask that you will issue such orders to the officer in command at Fort Lapwai as will secure the enforcement of the provisions of the intercourse act within the boundaries of the new reservation. As to anything further it is not now my province to ask, inasmuch as I have turned over all matters pertaining to the Nez Perc Agency to Governor Wallace, who is ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs for the new Territory of Idaho. Respectfully, yours, C. H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory. P. S.The copy of the treaty published in the Daily Oregonian is correct, with the exception of three verbal mistakes, which are unimportant.
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Port Vancouver, Wash,. Ter., July 16, 1863.
C. H. HALE, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Olympia, Wash. Ter.:
SIR: I am informed that at the recent council of the Nez Perc Indians on the 28th of May, when reference was made to my talk to those Indians on the 24th of October last, you said to the Indians that General Alvord spoke without authority and had nothing to do with this business. I have always perseveringly endeavored to aid you in effecting a treaty with said Indians; I sent you a copy of the talk above mentioned. In it I said, aiming to prepare the way for a successful negotiation The new superintendent, Mr. Hale, is an honorable gentleman who I am sure wishes to do you justice. * * * But the making this treaty is not given to me; it is in other hands. It will be my duty after a new treaty is made to aid the Indian agent in enforcing it. I was thus studiously careful to say nothing relating to the terms of the new treaty, or which could in any way embarrass you. On the contrary, by the establishment of the military post, by that friendly talk to the assembled chiefs (assembled expecting to meet you), by persevering efforts to show by deeds as well as by words our friendly feelings and intentions, by assembling six companies to attend your recent council, I claim that I have materially aided in paving the way for the successful conclusion of the treaty. If, sir, the language above referred to was an inadvertence, if you admit that I have in this letter given a true account of my actions, I desire that you will please indicate the same in your reply. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U.S. Volunteers, Commanding District HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Port Vancouver, Wash. Ter., August 19, 1863.
surrounding tribes. I claim that during the time I have been in command the past two seasons there have been executed the first systematic plans to protect the overland emigration. Each season I have directed the troops not to return to Fort Walla Walla until the end of October. Next spring I shall endeavor to send troops against the Snakes, who have given some trouble in the region south of Auburn and Canyon City. I am happy to announce the commencement of the erection of defenses at the mouth of the Columbia River. I have urged in the strongest terms upon the Government the importance of sending ironclad vessels for the Columbia River and Puget Sound. We are entitled to receive our share of naval defenses. I am, with high respect, your obedient servant, BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U.S. Volunteers, Commanding District. HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF OREGON, Fort Vancouver, Wash. Ter., February 10, 1864.
His Excel1ency A. C. GIBBS, Governor of Oregon, Portland, Oreg.:
GOVERNOR: A letter from a recruiting officer in Oregon to Col. R. F. Maury, of the First Oregon Cavalry, says that the idea prevails that there is no necessity for more troops; indeed, that to keep troops in this district is a useless expense, &c. Every person acquainted with the wants of the frontier understands how idle such remarks are. But I desire to say distinctly that more troops are necessary, and that we have next spring and summer important work for the Oregon cavalry to perform. I shall recommend to the general commanding the department that troops be sent to traverse thoroughly the whole region between Auburn and Canyon City and the California line. I hope to put <ar106_745> two expeditions in the field the whole season for that purpose against the Snake Indiansone from Fort Dalles southeasterly and one from Fort Bois westerly and southwesterly. I shall also recommend a movement from Fort Klamath easterly; but as that post is not in my district I cannot speak so definitely in reference to it. Thus you will perceive that it is hoped that the troops will be able to assist the mining population in prospecting, occupying, and exploring that portion of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains, which is now a center of great attraction to the public on this coast. It contains no doubt immensely valuable mineral deposits. It is doubtless the intention of the brave and hardy miners to explore it; in any event it is my earnest wish to give them all the assistance and protection in my power. To aid in such an interesting development should be the aim and policy of the Government. Besides the ordinary wants of the Indian frontier we shall require troops for the fortifications now building at the mouth of the river. I am just advised from department headquarters that a small expedition will probably be sent from Lapwai next summer to explore the route from Lemhi (the Mormon fort) to the mouth of the Big Horn on the Yellowstone. Until the 1st of March next large bounties are given for recruits--$302 for those who enlist and $402 to those who re-enlist. This is by recent legislation of Congress, of the 12th ultimo. Thus now is the time for adventurous spirits to join the First Oregon Cavalry. Except from the Snakes no Indian troubles are now anticipated.
Those who may lightly say that troops are not wanted are little aware how much the profound peace and security which now reigns on our whole Indian frontier is due to the movements of the troops, and especially of the Oregon cavalry, during the last two summers. For two summers Colonel Maury, with the gallant and efficient regiment under his command, has taken the field upon the emigrant road. He was also ordered to remain out until the end of October. He did not come in prematurely only to hear of a massacre of emigrants in his rear. In May last six companies of troops were assembled at Fort Lapwai, on the Nez Perc Reservations, to attend the great council convened to effect a new treaty with that tribe. These troops were not needed for influence over that tribe, although it was well to hold in salutary check the warlike minority of the Nez Percs. But the council was attended by runners from all the surrounding tribes; most of them had (as the Palouse, Yakimas, Coeur dAlenes, Cayuses, &c.) been once at war with us, while the Nez Percs had remained friendly. They were eagerly waiting the hour when the Nez Percs would strike, as, if they would only say the word, many allies, full of ancient grudges, would cluster around them from those tribes, hugely delighted at the prospect of getting the Nez Percs into a fight. The establishment of the military post at Fort Lapwai in October, 1862, and this assemblage of troops at Lapwai had thus a most salutary effect, evincing that the power of the Government was not gone, as the rebel sympathizers had endeavored to instill. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, and those movements may have anticipated and frustrated hostile combinations. Colonel Maury proceeded from Fort Lapwai through the Salmon River country and thence on the emigrant road. In October, 1862, the moment I knew of the first discoveries of gold near Bois, I wrote to the War Department recommending the establishment of Fort Bois. In January the orders of the Secretary of War were received for the establishment of Fort Bois. In June it was established, and it will always be an important and central point in reference to the defense of that frontier. In February, 1863, it was arranged with Captain Crawford when he started for Washington City that Colonel Maury with his command should meet him at the crossing of Snake River, above Fort Hall, between the 15th and 20th of August. All the arrangements were made accordingly and they met at the ferry on the 17th of August last, at the same moment of time. Colonel Maury returned on the south side of Snake River, sent expeditions up the Bruneau and Malheur and reached Fort Walla Walla on the 26th of October. I am happy to say that thus the most efficient protection has been given to the incoming emigrations of 1862 and 1863. The gallant spirits of the First Oregon Cavalry, who have borne like good soldiers the hardships of the campaigns, are entitled to my thanks for the efficient and cheerful manner in which they have discharged the duty, although they had not the good fortune to meet an enemy. Well do I know that the ardent desire of many of them would be to join in the war in the East, where it would rejoice them to battle in the glorious cause of unity, freedom, and nationality for which the armies of the Republic are now contending. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BENJ. ALVORD, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding District
Battlefield Tour 2 Thiepval to Caterpillar Valley Cemetery. This traces the sites featured in our Personal Stories south of the River Ancre, mainly on the first day of the Battle. Visitors should be aware that most of the battlefields are now private property so please keep to footpaths. Evidence of the Battle in the form of shells, grenades and bullets is still common. These are still live and potentially dangerous and should not be touched. Thiepval From the Ulster Tower continue southeast onto the D73 past Connaught Cemetery on the edge of Thiepval Wood. In the centre of Thiepval turn right in front of the church then fork immediately left off the D151 to approach the Thiepval Memorial and Visitor Centre. On 1 July 1916, the fortified village and ruined Thiepval Chteau was the objective of the 32nd Divisions attack. It was beaten off by German machine guns, which then turned on the Ulster Division which was attacking the nearby Schwaben Redoubt. Thiepval was not taken until September. Wilfred Walton, Second-in-Command of B Company of the 2nd Salford Pals (16th Lancashire Fusiliers), was among the men who fought here. His company had the task of supporting the 1st Salford Pals attack, and providing a defensive flank on the left of the Division. Waltons company moved forward at 07.50, and he was wounded in the thigh. In 1932 the Imperial (now Commonwealth) War Graves Commission completed the Somme Memorial to the Missing. This imposing monument, the work of Sir Edwin Lutyens, 45m high and visible for many miles around, commemorates more than 72,000 British and South African servicemen who fell on the Somme between July 1915 and March 1918 and who have no known grave. The Memorial was built on the site of the Thiepval Chateau. It was inaugurated by The Prince of Wales in 1932. Among the soldiers commemorated on this memorial are Kenneth Macardle, Percy Boswell and Percy Morter. On 24 September 2004, the Thiepval Visitor Centre, adjacent to the Memorial, was inaugurated by HRH The Duke of Kent, Patron of the Thiepval Project, President of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and President of the Board of Trustees of the Imperial War Museum. The Centre was created jointly by the Thiepval Project, the Historial de la Grande Guerre and the Somme County Council. It houses a permanent trilingual exhibition of texts, photographs and videos about the Battle of the Somme and the Great War, and includes a bookshop and facilities for visitors. The Thiepval Visitor Centre 8 rue de l'Ancre
The Battle of the Somme Imperial War Museum http://www.iwm.org.uk/somme
80300 Thiepval France Tel: (0)6047 Fax: (0)6544 Web: http://www.thiepval.org.uk/
The Nab From the Thiepval Memorial and Visitor Centre return to the D151 and turn left before dropping down towards the Ancre Valley to Authuille. In the village, double back to the left taking the small road east towards Ovillers which is signposted to Lonsdale Cemetery. As the road flattens out the back of the Thiepval Memorial can be seen to the northeast. Immediately beyond the road was the Leipzig Salient. About 1.5km beyond Authuille the road dips again into a valley close to the northern edge of Authuille Wood. Where the track crosses the road after it has climbed again was the position known as The Nab. The Nab was a sharp right angle in the trenches at the head of Nab Valley (later known as Blighty Valley) near the northeast corner of Authuille Wood. To the south of the Nab ran the British front line and at one point it ran along what became known as Dead Man's Bank, only a few feet high and halfway across no man's land. It was the scene of many deaths on the first day of the Battle. Among those attacking from here towards Pozires ridge on 1 July 1916 was Percy Boswell of the 8th Battalion, The Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. His unit, was positioned roughly mid-way between the Nab and Ovillers. They were to advance over a long, gentle slope into strong German positions containing well-sited machine guns. The first wave advanced under cover of British artillery, suffering relatively few casualties as they entered the German first line. Behind them, however, over half of the second wave were cut down as they crossed the 320m of no mans land. All 25 officers, including Boswell, were either killed or wounded. Confused fighting continued all day, until the British troops withdrew to their original trenches at the end of the afternoon. The 8th King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry suffered nearly 550 casualties 80% of their attacking strength. Percy Boswell has no known grave and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial. Ovillers, Sausage and Mash Valley At The Nab, continue southeast into Ovillers-la-Boisselle. At the T-junction, turn right and drive out of the village past Ovillers Military Cemetery. Stop about 400m beyond the cemetery, where the road straightens after a slight S-bend. Looking southeast, there is a clear view across Mash Valley to la Boisselle. Ovillers and la Boisselle, 1km to the south on the main Albert-Bapaume road, were key objectives on 1 July. Beyond them lay the second line of German defences running through Pozires. Ovillers was to be attacked by the 8th Division. The German lines ran over a number of spurs, separated by valleys, and no mans land was wide, in places up to 650m. If
the attacks on either flank failed, it was recognised that the 8th Divisions task would be very difficult. Facing Ovillers were the 2nd Battalion, the Devonshire Regiment, on the left and the 2nd Battalion, the Middlesex Regiment on the right closer to the main road. Their line straddled the ground that ran parallel to the area known as Mash Valley. The complementary Sausage Valley ran south of the road. It was over the ground running northeast towards Ovillers Military Cemetery that Cyril Jos and the 2nd Devons attacked at 07.30. Despite edging forward before the bombardment lifted, the battalion suffered very heavy casualties here and across the rising ground to the northwest. Closer to la Boisselle, the 2nd Middlesex suffered the same fate and the loss of his men so distressed their commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel ETF Sandys, that a few weeks later, while on leave in London, he shot himself in the Cavendish Hotel. Over the following fortnight, attacks against Ovillers continued. The village was finally taken on 17 July. La Boisselle, the Glory Hole and Lochnagar Crater From Ovillers, go to the Albert-Bapaume road (D929), turn right and drive back towards Albert. Go round the roundabout and return to la Boisselle. Take the right fork into the village. Passing the Glory Hole on the right, turn right then fork right to the Lochnagar Crater, signed as la Grande Mine. On 1 July, la Boisselle was to be assaulted by the 34th Division as a first step to Contalmaison and the German second line beyond. The front lines in the village were very close and the ferocity of the 1915-1916 fighting, including many small mines, can still be seen in the cratered ground known as the Glory Hole among the houses. The 102nd (Tyneside Scottish) Brigade aimed to capture la Boisselle by flanking attacks supported by large mines. The Y Sap crater, north of the main road, was filled in during the 1970s but its outline can still be seen from Ovillers. Southeast of the village, opposite a British trench called Lochnagar Street, a second mine using 60,000lbs (27 tonnes) of explosive created one of the largest craters on the Western Front. The Lochnagar Crater has been preserved since the 1980s and is the focal point for regular services of remembrance. Although small gains were made around Lochnagar, the Divisions attack was unsuccessful. The German defenders of la Boisselle and Ovillers had deadly fields of fire covering the British advance. This fact can be clearly seen today from the main road just before the village. The result was some of the heaviest British casualties of the day. It was four days before the village was taken. On 7 July Kitty Morters husband Percy was killed in an attack pushing northeast out of la Boisselle in support of an attempt to capture Ovillers.
Fricourt - Mametz From la Boisselle, travel south via Bcourt to Bcordel-Bcourt. There take the D938 east to Maricourt, and beyond Pronne. The road moves directly south of Fricourt and Mametz, before dropping southeast past Devonshire Cemetery. 10km beyond Maricourt the D938 reaches Pronne and the Historial de la Grande Guerre. The L-shaped sector around Fricourt and Mametz literally marked a turning point for the British on 1 July. From Bcourt to the junction with the French line, despite heavy losses, impressive gains were made. Although Fricourt was not taken until 2 July, Mametz and Montauban fell on the first day. Success here meant that between 2 July and 15 September several key thrusts were made by the British from this area. Behind British lines, Dartmoor Cemetery in Bcordel-Bcourt was used from August 1915. Alan Lloyds body was brought here for burial on 5 August 1916. Immediately south of Fricourt, east of the road to the Point 110 Military Cemeteries, was the infamous Bois Franais. It was here that Robert Graves and Siegfried Sassoons close friend, David Thomas, was killed in March 1916 and Sassoon won his Military Cross in May. On 10 August 1916, King George V came to Fricourt to view the fighting around Pozires. Together with the Prince of Wales and other senior officers, the King climbed over Point 110, later known as King Georges Hill, east of Bois Franais to reach a vantage point on its northern slopes. This area can best be seen today looking back from the D938 as it curves round between Fricourt and Mametz. A short distance beyond is Devonshire Cemetery, where 161 men of the 8th and 9th Battalions, the Devonshire Regiment lie buried in the trench from which they attacked on 1 July. Montauban In Maricourt, take the first road north to Montauban immediately beyond Pronne Road Cemetery. After 750m the road crosses the start-line for the 18th and 30th Divisions attack on 1 July 1916. About 1km to the west of the road Wilfred 'Billie' Nevill kicked his football across no mans land before he was killed close to the German barbed wire. An hour later Kenneth Macardle left his trench (about 500m closer to the road) for his attack on Montauban. In the centre of Montauban pass slightly to the right to continue north towards Bazentin-le-Grand. After 500m Quarry Cemetery is reached on the right. Montauban, the first village to be captured by British troops, was one of the few successes on 1 July. It was the objective of the 30th Division, made up of four battalions each of Liverpool Pals, Manchester Pals and Regular battalions. The start-line was close to the British and French junction, and the Division was helped by French heavy artillery, which destroyed the German barbed wire and defences. The attack went well and all the objectives were taken. The village was captured by 10.30, although heavy fighting continued throughout the day. Among the first soldiers into Montauban was Kenneth Macardle of the 2nd Manchester Pals. They came to rest in a captured German trench called Montauban Alley, just beyond the village on the road north to Bazentin-le-Grand. At the road junction in the village is a memorial to the Liverpool and Manchester Pals erected in 1994.
The quarry north of Montauban, now marked by the cemetery that was begun there in July 1916, was an assembly position on 14 July for the attack on Bazentin and Longueval. It was here that Robert Smylie prepared for his attack and over the crest of the hill towards Longueval Ridge that he lost his life. Later that month, Alan Lloyds artillery battery took up a position immediately to the west of the road opposite the quarry. It was while trying to re-establish communication between his Observation Post and this point that he was killed. Caterpillar Valley Cemetery At the crossroads on the Contalmaison-Longueval Road (D20), turn right at Crucifix Corner. The battle damaged Calvary that still stands here today is one of the few remaining signs of 1916. It was hear here that the 2nd Cavalry Division waited to advance towards High Wood on 14 July. Driving east towards Longueval, Caterpillar Valley Cemetery is on the right after about 1 km. Caterpillar Valley Cemetery is the second largest cemetery on the Somme. Established by the 38th Division in August 1918, it was extensively enlarged after the 1918 Armistice by bringing in graves from the battlefield and other smaller cemeteries. Today it contains more than 5,500 graves and special memorials. 3,795 of these commemorate unknown soldiers. The Caterpillar Valley (New Zealand) Memorial recording the names of over 1,200 men from New Zealand who died on the Somme in 1916 but who have no known grave forms the eastern wall of the cemetery. From the front of the cemetery, looking north-east, the main New Zealand Memorial can be seen between High Wood and Flers. In the fields around this point over 1,500 battlefield graves were found after the war. From the back of the cemetery there is a clear view south to the church spire of Montauban and, looking left, first Bernafay, then Trnes Wood, where Kenneth Macardle was killed on 9 July. The ground between the present cemetery and Montauban was captured on 14 July and it was close to here that Robert Smylie died early on that morning. Alan Lloyd was also mortally wounded in the early hours of 4 August only 100m to the right of the cemetery wall while trying to re-establish communications with his battery.
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