Kodak DCS 520
Kodak DCS 520 Digital Camera, size: 3.3 MB
Kodak DCS 520 500 Series Quick Reference Guide
Kodak - SLR - 2 megapixel - ISO 1600 - Optical Viewfinder
Kodak has invested years of research and development perfecting digital photography. Kodak cameras offer stronger security, greater flexibility, and better image quality than ever before. You get unmatched quality, versatility, and value from every camera in the DCS portfolio. Kodak doesn't offer you one camera and say it works for everything - it gives you a choice of cameras that are suited to your specific applications and requirements. Kodak Professional DCS digital cameras let you focus... Read more
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RARIDADE!!! CANON EOS 1 DIGITAL KODAK PRO DCS 520 Digital Camera
User reviews and opinions
|mortalmatt||1:54am on Wednesday, September 8th, 2010|
|Vou avaliar esta cmera baseado no que se encontra hoje em dia no mercado relativo ela, ou seja, cmeras do mesmo nvel, em particular a EOS 1D.|
|hellking||8:03pm on Friday, August 27th, 2010|
|Today was the first day that I had used this particular camera. I am taking a photography course and the camera for the course is the Kodak DCS-520.|
|puchol||8:20pm on Wednesday, May 5th, 2010|
|Vou avaliar esta cmera baseado no que se encontra hoje em dia no mercado relativo à ela, ou seja, cmeras do mesmo nível, em particular a EOS 1D. Vou avaliar esta câmera baseado no que se encontra hoje em dia no mercado relativo à ela, ou seja, câmeras do mesmo nível, em particular a EOS 1D.|
|truth_talker||9:27pm on Tuesday, April 20th, 2010|
|I owned one of these for a few months back in 2008. Mine was badged as a Canon D2000.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
The DCS Story
17 years of Kodak Professional digital camera systems
Jim McGarvey June 2004
Electro-Optic Camera (1988)
By 1987, Kodak had developed the world's first megapixel CCD imager, the M1. A US Government customer contracted with the Federal Systems Division (FSD) to incorporate the M1 into a standard 35 mm camera body to create the first megapixel portable digital camera, truly the prototype of the digital camera system (DCS) product line. It was designed for covert use, with the black box in a camera bag and the ribbon cable to the camera body concealed inside the neck strap. Images were downloaded from the internal hard drive by docking the black box on an Exabyte tape archive unit. (The first digital camera dock!) The Canon F1 film camera body had no electronic interface, so the shutter release was detected by monitoring the battery current. The imager package was mounted to a TE cooler to reduce noise, but cooling was limited to prevent fogging the cover glass and was not very effective. Only one unit was built. The black box electronics were wire wrapped.
Stock Canon F1 body with motor drive Monochrome KAF-1400 (M1) imager (1320 x 1035, 6.8 m) with thermoelectric cooler 10bit A/D Logarithmic amplifier 10-Mbyte buffer for 6-image burst; buffer image count display Internal 100-Mbyte SCSI hard drive holds 60 images; disk image count display Docking archive unit with 2000-MByte Exabyte 8 mm SCSI tape drive and battery charger Raw image files in Unix TAR format; Time/Date stamp Intervalometer; log histogram. Pixel value readout. Image delete. Image recover; disk erase; disk format Alphanumeric LCD with menus, status, and error messages Three-color LED disk, buffer, battery status indicators on camera back Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M Internal lead acid camcorder battery
Tactical Camera (1989)
When FSD marketing saw the electro-opitcal (EO) camera, they saw an opportunity to create digital cameras for the military. Based on the EO camera design, the Tactical camera was made more rugged by eliminating the internal hard drive and using the buffer memory to store images until they could be unloaded to external SCSI storage. With a motor drive, the camera would capture a "movie" at 5 fps and play it back just as fast from memory. Two demo units were built and demonstrated to many government customers.
Selectable 1280 x 1024 or 640 x 512 resolution 20-Mbyte buffer for 12/48 image burst at 5 fps RS-170 NTSC video output with superimposed image data Zoom and pan high res image All other features of EO camera, except TE cooler, hard drive, archive unit
HAWKEYE II Imaging Accessory (1989)
Demonstrations of the Tactical camera generated a lot of interest, but its size and weight precluded military field use. FSD borrowed the mechanical design of the PPD IRIS camera, developed a DRAM image storage module (ISM) with more capacity than the available memory cards, and created a compact camera design with real printed circuit boards. Exotic and expensive lithium batteries kept the power-hungry camera and ISM going. The name imaging accessory was used because Kodak was reluctant to develop digital cameras that might compete with film. Five units were built.
Stock Nikon F3 body Selectable 1280x1024 or 640x512 resolution 8-bit A/D Removable 5-Mbyte DRAM Image Storage Module for 4/16 images Replaceable lithium batteries All other features of Tactical camera, except motor drive
The normal customer response to a demo of integrated Hawkeye II camera was, "That's incredible! It would be perfect for my application if it only had one more special feature." So FSD returned to the tethered camera configuration, designing a totally modular camera system that could be easily expanded and adapted. A patented "image bus" backplane accommodated plugin circuit boards. Interchangeable camera heads, battery and power modules completed the system. A few units were sold with Brier 20-Mbyte floppy drives and built-on video monitors. A two-headed camera was built for stereo photography. The camera achieved real fame in 1991, when it went into orbit on Shuttle mission STS-44.
Stock Nikon F3 body, some units with motor winder Optional monochrome or color Kodak KAF-1300 series image sensor (M3) (1320 x 1035, 16 m) Internal 100-Mbyte hard drive Removable lead acid battery module Intel 80C188 uController, PL/M All other features of integrated Hawkeye II camera
Camera EO Tactical Hawkeye II int Hawkeye II teth Hawkeye II teth Hawkeye II teth
Imager M1 M1 M1 M1 M3 M3
Pixels 1035x1320 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280
CFA Mono Mono Mono Mono Mono 3G RGB
ISO 200-800 200-800 50-400 50-400 50-400 50-400
FPS 2 2
Depth 6 6
Developed by the Electronic Photography Division (EPD), The D-5000, or ECAM was the prototype of all modern professional digital single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras. A compact autofocus SLR with megapixel color imager, memory card slots, JPEG, and what's this? No image display on the back? The DOS model added a PCMCIA-ATA card slot. Although not a product of the FSD or Professional Photography Division (PPD) teams, the camera was marketed by FSD to government customers, and many of the original ECAM team brought their expertise to PPD for later projects.
Color or monochrome Kodak KAF-1300 series image sensor (3M) (1280x1024, 16 m). Color ISO 160 Standard K mount lenses Auto focus with illuminator M, Av, Program auto exposure TTL flash Selectable color balance SRAM or flash memory card slot
Larry McMillan of the Professional Photography Division (PPD) had championed the Kodak 35 mm rapid film scanner (RFS) to meet the news photographer's need to send images home electronically as quickly as possible. He saw that a digital camera could eliminate the time to process film. IRIS was a confidential project to create a memory card camera for photojournalists. The camera was as simple as possible, with no image processing or bells and whistles; it saved the raw imager data to the card. Just a few demo units were built.
Stock Nikon F3 body SRAM memory card slot
Professional Camera Back (1990)
Just as the integrated Hawkeye II camera was cool but not quite enough for the government customers, IRIS didn't meet the real needs of the news shooters. PPD had paid to develop the first color megapixel imager (M3) and conceived a fast frame rate news camera that could directly transmit images from the field without a computer. PPD had the right imager and the right market; FSD had the camera architecture, so the two teams combined the M3 with the Hawkeye II image bus electronics in a sleek and commercial-looking plastic housing. Several demo cameras were shown privately at Photokina and publicly at the NPPA Electronic Workshop in November of 1990. Most of the FSD development team moved to PPD to commercialize a camera in response to the ensuing excitement.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS (1991)
By May of 1991, PPD was ready to announce the first Kodak Professional Digital Camera System at a New York City press conference. The prototype camera was spruced up with a much larger image LCD and optional JPEG compression and serial transmission boards. Six models were priced from $20,000 to $25,000. The slogan "Convert to a new digital system without switching cameras" suggested that the familiar F3 camera body would make the digital transition simple and easy! To make the system easily luggable for the planet-roving photojournalist, a custom nylon hip pack and an enormous hard case were thrown in for free. After the launch of the Kodak Professional DCS 200 IR digital camera, a magazine reviewer named this camera the DCS 100. Although never official, the name stuck, even within Kodak. A total of 987 units were sold from 1991 to 1994.
Stock Nikon F3 body with motor winder Color or monochrome KAF-1300 (M3) imager (1320x1035, 16 m) 8-bit A/D Monochrome LCD image display NTSC video output SCSI interface Removable lead acid camcorder battery Intel 80C188 uController, PL/M multitasking firmware Internal 200-Mbyte hard drive (160 uncompressed/600 compressed images) Optional JPEG compression board, serial interface, and captioning keyboard 8- or 32-Mbyte buffer memory Acquire module software for Adobe Photoshop (Macintosh) Plug-in software for Aldus Photostyler (Windows)
Camera DCS DC3 DCS DC3/32 DCS DC3/B DCS DM3 DCS DM3/32 DCS DM3/B
Imager M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3
Pixels 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280
CFA 3G RGB 3G RGB 3G RGB Mono Mono Mono
ISO 100-800 100-800 100-800 200-1600 200-1600 200-1600
FPS 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Depth 24 6
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 200 (1992)
Announced at MacWorld Boston in August 1992, the DCS 200 targeted desktop publishing rather than photojournalism. In sharp contrast to the complexity and cost of the original DCS, the 200 was the simplest DCS camera ever. Everything but the imager fit onto one circuit board. 2.5-inch hard drives had just appeared and were just the size to tuck under the camera body. The 8008s was the least-expensive Nikon body with a removable back. The simple camera was conceived and commercialized in less than a year and shocked a market expecting minor improvements to the original DCS. The non-i models omitted the internal hard drive to lower the price. All models supported HitchHiker external hard drives for removable storage. For the commercial studio, a monochrome 200 with the Kodak Professional color filter wheel accessory produced superb color images. The filter wheel was an afterthought and was controlled by an interface piggybacked on the SCSI port. The original plan to sell the low-cost back without the body was scrapped. 3,240 cameras were sold from 1992 to 1994.
Stock Nikon 8008s body 8-bit A/D 2-Mbyte buffer Internal 80-Mbyte 2.5-inch SCSI hard drive (50 images) Removable AA batteries in body and back Status LCD, SCSI ID and DELETE buttons SCSI interface Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M firmware
Camera DCS 200c DCS 200ci DCS 200m DCS 200mi
Imager M5 M5 M5 M5
Pixels 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524
CFA Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono
ISO 50-400 50-400 100-800 100-800
FPS 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
Depth 1 1
The use of the familiar and respected Nikon and Canon bodies for most DCS cameras was a marketing advantage, but the Kodak name didn't appear on the "crown" of the camera until the production of the Kodak Professional DCS Pro 14n digital camera. Many thought that the original DCS was a product of Nikon with some Kodak help, when in fact, Nikon was not aware of the project until it was announced. Nikon's actual participation began when they provided technical information for the stock N90 body used in the NC2000 camera. So, to avoid further confusion, the team decided to brand the DCS 200 with the huge Kodak logo on the grip.
DCS 200 + Architecture (NC2000, DCS 4XX, EOS DCS X)
The success of the DCS 200 camera encouraged a new electronic design to fit the same mechanical package as the earlier camera. Major improvements resolved problems with batteries and complaints about the slow performance and internal hard drive of the 200. The PCM CIA slot accepted the new Type III hard drive cards, and audio recording enabled a busy news photographer to add quick comments for captioning images. With only minor changes, the new main board was designed into dozens of camera models for Nikon, Canon, and medium-format bodies, with imagers from 1.2 to 6 megapixels. FSD designed the architecture into several specialized government models, including underwater models based on the Nikonos body.
12-bit A/D Audio recording (WAV files) Status LCD, SCSI ID, and DELETE buttons Single PCMCIA-ATA card slot Internal NiMH battery SCSI interface (undocumented parallel port mode) Intel 80C196 uController, PL/M firmware
AP NC2000 (1994)
Developed by Kodak "in cooperation with AP," announced by the Associated Press in February of 1994, and offered first to AP member newspapers for $17,500, the News Camera 2000 became the standard digital news camera. The Nikon N90s offered snappier autofocus than the 8008s. The NC2000e model with 16-Mbyte buffer memory was offered in 1996. The official relationship with Nikon began in 1994 and Nikon provided confidential documentation on the 10-pin body interface. 550 cameras were produced for the Associated Press.
Stock Nikon N90s body
Camera AP NC2000 AP NC2000e AP NC2000m AP NC2000ir
Imager M3 M3 M3 M3
Pixels 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268
ISO 200-1600 200-1600 200-1600 200-1600
Depth 12 12
From 1995 to 1998, the DCS camera team was part of the new Digital and Applied Imaging (D&AI) Division and later 4XX cameras sported the new "Kodak digital science" logo. Although the original DCS logo was left behind, the honored DCS name would remain to the end.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 4XX Digital Camera (1994)
The NC2000 was followed by a string of Kodak models. The most important was the Kodak Professional DCS 460 digital camera, which introduced the 6megapixel imager. The "world's highest resolution portable digital camera" captured images that begged comparison with film. Problems with charging the internal battery prompted the only DCS safety recall. One camera actually exploded in a customer's studio. Over 5000 cameras were produced.
Camera DCS 410c DCS 420c DCS 420ir DCS 420m DCS 420c P/S DCS 460c DCS 460m DCS 460c P/S DCS 460ir
Imager M5 M5 M5 M5 M5 M6 M6 M6 M6
Pixels 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060
CFA Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Mono
ISO 100 100-400 200-800 200-800 100-80
FPS 2 2/8 2/8 2/8 2/8
KODAK PROFESSIONAL EOS-DCS (1995)
After the many Nikon-bodied DCS cameras, Canon longed to see its lens mount in front of those megapixel imagers, so they joined Kodak to help develop and market the EOS-DCS cameras, which carried the "in cooperation with Canon" label. Canon provided custom firmware and interface connections in the "D" branded EOS-1N body. Canon only sold the 1 and 3 models. Over 1000 cameras were produced.
Modified Canon EOS-1N body
Camera EOS-DCS 1c EOS-DCS 1m EOS-DCS 1ir EOS-DCS 3c EOS-DCS 3ir EOS-DCS 3m EOS-DCS 5c EOS-DCS 5ir EOS-DCS 5m
Imager M6 M6 M6 M3 M3 M3 M5 M5 M5
Pixels 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524
CFA Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB IR Mono
ISO 80 200-1600 400-6400 400-6400 100-400 200-800 200-800
FPS Depth 0.0.0.2.188.8.131.52.2.3 10
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 465 (1995)
Studio photographers loved the Kodak Professional DCS 460 digital camera for its image quality, but they missed the flexibility of their medium format and view cameras. The DCS 465 was a DCS 460 with a standard Hasselblad back mount that could be hung on almost any studio camera with the right adapter. A row of connectors supported both electrical and mechanical trip cameras and studio flash units. About 200 units were produced.
Standard Hasselblad camera back mount Camera sync, electrical trip, mechanical trip, flash sync connectors
Camera DCS 465c DCS 465m DCS 465ir
Imager M6 M6 M6
Pixels 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060
CFA Bay RGB Mono Mono
FPS 2/8 2/8 2/8
DCS 4XX GPS, CIR
After 1990, the FSD continued to create custom cameras to meet the special needs of government and military customers by modifying the commercial DCS products. These include global positioning system (GPS)- compatible models and the color infrared (CIR) models, which provided a unique capability that was ideal for environmental and law enforcement that required forestry and vegetation analysis.
Stock Nikon N90s body Interchangeable filters for selective spectral response
Camera DCS 420 GPS-C DCS 420 GPS-IR DCS 420 GPS-M DCS 420CIR DCS 460CIR
Imager M5 M5 M5 M5 M5
Pixels 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524
CFA Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB
ISO 100-400 200-800 200-800 200-800 200-800
DCS 425, 435
Some of the FSD models became major repackaging projects. The Federal Systems Division (FSD) DCS 425 and DCS 435 digital cameras packed the 200+ electronics, batteries, and PCM CIA slot into a one-inch thick back for the Nikonos RS submersible camera for the serious military photographer.
Stock Nikonos RS body Replaceable 6v Lithium batteries
Camera DCS 425c DCS 425ir DCS 435
Imager M5 M5 M3
Pixels 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1268
CFA Bay RGB IR Bay RGB
ISO 100- 400 200- 800 200-1000
KODAK DIGITAL SCIENCE SCS 1000 Camera
Another ruggedized repackaged camera from FSD, the specialty camera system (SCS) 1000 cameras were noticeably more compact than the corresponding commercial EOS DCS models using the same Canon body.
Stock Canon EOS 1N body Optional MIL SPEC connector for SCSI and serial GPS capability 3v Lithium K123 batteries
Camera SCS 1000ir SCS 1000m
Imager M3 M3
Pixels 1012x1268 1012x1268
CFA IR Mono
ISO 16-3200 16-3200
FPS 2.3 2.3
Depth 10 10
Pro SLR Architecture (DCS 3XX, 5XX, 6XX)
Four years of 200+ family cameras created a long wish list for the next DCS generation. Professionals wanted instant image review and JPEG compression, like consumers enjoyed on their cheap digital cameras. Blue noise and color filter array (CFA) aliasing were the major image quality complaints. The design required a clean sheet and a lot of problem solving. A new PowerPC microprocessor would provide the horsepower for a graphical user interface and quick display of images. The originally designed image-processing path would finish and JPEG-compress images in real time, but that plan died in the details. Some models later provided background JPEG processing. The new Firewire interface made history of SCSI's bulky cables and terminator confusion.
Lithium Niobate blur filter 12-bit A/D Audio recording (WAV files) Color LCD, graphical user interface, 1/4/9 image display, histogram Status LCD White balance, tagging, card format and recover Background JPEG processing Dual PCM CIA-ATA card slots Removable NiCd/NiMH battery. IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface for host computer Folding rigid-flex main circuit board Motorola MPC821 uController, C multitasking firmware Optional cell phone transmission kit
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 5XX, Canon EOS DXXXX (1998)
The partnership with Canon culminated in the first truly integrated DCS camera, where the body and back were seamlessly merged (well, almost). Canon provided an EOS 1N body with special firmware and no film transport parts. The 2-megapixel M15 imager used indium tin oxide (ITO) clock conductors and a new CFA mix to dramatically improve blue channel output. 3.6 superb images per second, no aliasing, and a pong game for downtime made it a winner with news and sports shooters. The revolutionary camera was launched at PMA in 1998 at $14,995 and was the first to carry the new Kodak Professional brand. The EOS D2000 and D6000 were Canon branded and marketed models functionally identical to the Kodak Professional DCS 520 and DCS 560 cameras.
DCS 520c DCS 520x DCS 560c DCS 560m EOS D2000c EOS D6000c
Imager M15 M15 M16 M16 M15 M16
Pixels 1152x1152x1728 2008x3040 2008x3040 1152x1728 2008x3040
CFA Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB
ISO 200-1600 200-1600 80- 200 320- 800 200-1600 80- 200
FPS 3.6 3.1 3.6 1
Depth 12 3
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 3XX (1998)
Since the DCS 200, the team struggled to find a way to make a lessexpensive professional camera. The Calvin project was the first to reach the market after several attempts, and it was the first DCS with popup flash! The M5 imager and the new Pronea APS body made possible the lowest DCS price yet, only $4,995. The 315 introduced background JPEG processing and automatic white balance (scene balance). The Kodak Professional DCS 315 digital camera was the beginning of the "coopetition" relationship with Nikon that continued to the end of the DCS line. The DCS 315 images disappointed customers that were spoiled by the DCS 520 quality, but the much-better and still-affordable 3-megapixel DCS 330 was just the right camera for small portrait studios.
Modified Nikon Pronea 6i body AA batteries
Camera DCS 315c DCS 330c DCS 354c
Imager M5 M17 M24
Pixels 1008x1520 1504x2008 1958x2606
CFA Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB
ISO 100-400 125-400
FPS 2 1
Depth 3 8
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 6XX (1999)
At PMA 1999, Kodak unveiled the super-pro Nikon F5 body, which was seamlessly integrated to the DCS 520 electronics and wrapped in a bulletproof magnesium housing. After Nikon launched the D1, later in '99, Kodak Professional planned to ease out of the photojournalist market and concentrate on studio photography. The Kodak Professional DCS 620x digital camera, with the super high ISO image quality of the Xena CMY imager was planned to be the last DCS photojournalist camera.
Modified Nikon F5 body
Camera DCS 620c DCS 620x DCS 660c DCS 660m DCS 660cir
Imager M15 M23 M16 M16 M16
Pixels 1152x1728 1152x1728 2008x3040 2008x3040 2008x3040
CFA Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Mono Mono
ISO 200-1600 400-6400 80- 200 320- 800 320- 800
FPS 3.6 3.1 1
By 1998, PPD had become Kodak Professional and the DCS team happily reunited with that organization. The rest of the DCS cameras proudly bore the red and gray Kodak Professional brand.
Pro 3 Architecture (DCS Pro Back, 7XX)
The new focus on the studio market meant more and more pixels! Kodak Professional added a TI DSP to the PowerPC to gain the performance to process all of those pixels.
12-bit A/D Audio recording (WAV files) Color LCD, graphical user interface, 1/4 image display, histogram Zoom and pan raw images Status LCD White balance, tagging, card format, and recover In-camera JPEG processing IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface Motorola MPC823 uController, C multitasking firmware Texas Instruments TMS320C6211 DSP
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro Back (2000)
The 16-megapixel M11 imager packed with all the DCS Pro 3 features and horsepower made the Pro Back a worthy successor to the DCS 465. Launched at Photokina 2000, it heralded Kodak's serious attack on the digital studio market. There was no other portable studio back. The Plus model added a connector to support most electrical trip studio cameras. The DCS Pro Back was shipped with Kodak Professional capture studio software as well as the new Kodak Professional DCS Photo Desk application.
Hasselblad 555 ELD camera back mount Adapter for Mamiya RZ67 High-voltage flash sync Dual CF card slots Powered from Firewire cable or external battery
Camera DCS Pro Back DCS Pro Back m DCS Pro Back Plus
Imager M11 M11 M11
Pixels 4080x4080 4080x4080 4080x4080
CFA Bay RGB Mono Bay RGB
FPS 0.5 0.5 0.5
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 7XX (2001)
With Nikon still happy to supply F5s, it was natural, a "no brainer," in fact, to drop the new DCS Pro 3 electronics into the good old 6XX housing and make some very cool cameras. Despite the intent to back out of the market, the Kodak Professional DCS 720x digital camera was yet another great photojournalist camera with its high ISO and high frame rate. But the DCS 760, introduced at only $7,995, was destined to be a cult camera for the portrait and wedding photographers. The cameras were indestructible and made very nice images. Still available on eBay The Kodak Professional DCS camera manager software first shipped with the DCS 760. The Kodak Digital Science SCS2000 C camera was an FSD-modified, weather-resistant version of the DCS 720x.
Camera DCS 720x DCS 760c DCS 760m DCS 760ir SCS 2000c
Imager M23 M16 M16 M16 M23
Pixels 1152x1728 2008x3032 2008xx x 1728
CFA Xena CMY Bay RGB Mono Mono Xena CMY
ISO 400-6400 80-400 320-800 320-800 400-6400
FPS 4.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.3
Depth 25+ 24 25+
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro Back 645 (2002)
The project began as an even smaller Pro Back model to fit the totally new autofocus medium-format camera Hasselblad was secretly developing. The H1 was delayed enough that Kodak introduced models for the Mamiya and Contax 645 AF cameras first. Only the front plate and camera interface flex are different between the three models.
Custom fit for Mamiya 645 AF and AFD, Contax 645 AF, and Hasselblad H1 Single CF card slots Clip on Li ION battery Optional Li Niobate blur filter
Camera DCS Pro Back 645 C DCS Pro Back 645 H DCS Pro Back 645 M
ISO 100-400 100-400 100-400
FPS 0.55 0.55 0.55
PRO 14 Digital Camera Architecture
Bigger, faster, cheaper (and smaller and lighter, too), "the only camera you'll ever need" filled the 35 mm frame with pixels. Fill Factory of Belgium supplied the first non-Kodak and the first CMOS imager to be used in a DCS camera. The successful DCS Pro 3 architecture was supercharged with a much faster DSP to process the huge and messy C14 images. A snazzy user interface with popup menus and lots of new features included a "basic" mode for the overwhelmed user.
CF and SD/MMC card slots Removable Lithium ion battery IEEE 1394 (Firewire) interface Motorola MPC823 uController, C multitasking firmware Texas Instruments TMS320C6414 DSP
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro 14n Digital Camera (2002)
Late in 2002, the decision was made to end the Kodak Professional camera business, which had yet to make a profit. A last-minute reprieve amid hopes that a new projected camera might turn the tide led to the most dramatic DCS announcement ever. After Canon pre-leaked its announcement of the "world's highest resolution digital SLR," the 12-megapixel 1Ds at $9,000, the 14-megapixel DCS Pro 14n at only $4,995 stole the show at Photokina 2002. But the DCS Pro 14n was months late, and high ISO image noise was disappointing. Still, at $4,995, it was a very cheap studio camera that signaled the demise of the medium-format digital back.
Modified Nikon F80 body
Canon DCS Pro 14n DCS Pro 14n 512 DCS Pro 14n m
Imager C14 C14 C14
Pixels 3000x4500 3000x4500 3000x4500
CFA Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono
ISO 6-800 6-800 6-800
FPS 1.7 1.7 1.7
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro SLR/n Digital Camera (2004)
Fill Factory's disappointment in the C14 imager prompted them to redesign it and find a better imager foundry, in hopes of saving the Kodak Professional business. Announced at PMA, February 2004, the DCS Pro SLR/n camera with the new-and-improved X14 imager was the camera the 14n was meant to be. Loyal Pro 14n owners were offered an upgrade to the new imager, making their older cameras nearly the same as the new Pro SLR/n. Also announced in 2004, the Pro 14n and SLR/n could be upgraded by Kodak with the Pocket Wizard transceiver for versatile wireless camera and strobe triggering.
Camera DCS Pro SLR/n DCS Pro SLR/n m DCS Pro 14nx
Imager X14 X14 X14
ISO 6-1600 6-1600 6-1600
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Pro SLR/c Digital Camera (2004)
With the Canon relationship long gone, but with patent cross licenses still in place, Kodak enlisted Sigma to design and manufacture a Canon-mount version of the 14n using Kodak supplied imager modules and a body derived from the Sigma SD-9 digital camera. The new X14 imager came along just in time, so the new camera became the stablemate of the SLR/n. After its revelation at CeBIT 2004, happy Canon shooters celebrated the return of Canon mount DCS cameras. But alas, the party is over with this one.
Custom Sigma body.
DCS Pro SLR/c
CFA Bay RGB
When the original DCS camera was introduced in 1990, it's friendly relationship with Macintosh computers and PCs appealed to the working professional whose income depended on efficiently moving images to print. The still video cameras of the day, and many video-oriented digital cameras to follow lacked the vital "workflow" pros wanted. The essential and acclaimed DCS host software evolved in concert with the features of the cameras.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Acquire Module/TWAIN (1991)
Some things never change. In 1991, Adobe Photoshop was the application of choice in working with high-quality images. It was a Macintosh-only application then. Aldus offered PhotoStyler, a substitute for PhotoShop for Windows. The DCS software team provided plug-ins for both applications. The first few DCS cameras shipped with the Macintosh Acquire module only. Windows users were satisfied a few weeks later. By 1996, PhotoShop was running in Windows and the PC TWAIN standard allowed a single plug in to work with many imaging apps. The Acquire and PC TWAIN plug-ins provided direct control of the cameras through the SCSI interface as well as an efficient browser for images on camera or on disk.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Photo Desk (2000)
Freedom from the limitations of the plug-in environment was the motivation to create two new standalone applications to replace the Acquire/TWAIN software. Photo Desk was a powerful browser and image-processing program that first shipped in December of 2000 and supported images from all DCS 520 and later cameras.
KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS Camera Manager (2001)
Photo Desk provided no tethered camera support, so the Camera Manager application was created to control Firewire connected cameras. Camera Manager was designed to work with Photo Desk. A click of the Take Picture button commanded the camera to capture and image, which Camera Manager could transfer to a folder open in Photo Desk, where the new image would appear. Later, a preview window was added to allow for quick adjustments before saving.
Model EO Tactical D-5000 IRIS Hawkeye II int. Hawkeye II teth. Hawkeye II teth EM PPD prototype DCS DC3 DCS DC3/32 DCS DC3/B DCS DM3 DCS DM3/32 DCS DM3/B DCS 200c DCS 200ci DCS 200m DCS 200mi AP NC2000 AP NC2000e AP NC2000m AP NC2000ir DCS 410c DCS 420c DCS 420ir DCS 420m DCS 420c P/S DCS 460c DCS 460m DCS 460c P/S DCS 460ir DCS 465c DCS 465m DCS 465ir EOS-DCS 1c EOS-DCS 1m EOS-DCS 1ir EOS-DCS 3c EOS-DCS 3ir EOS-DCS 3m EOS-DCS 5c EOS-DCS 5ir EOS-DCS 5m DCS 420 GPS-C DCS 420 GPS-IR DCS 420 GPS-M DCS 420CIR DCS 460CIR DCS 425c DCS 425ir DCS 435 SCS 1000ir SCS 1000m DCS 315c DCS 330c DCS 354c DCS 520c DCS 520x DCS 560c DCS 560m DCS 620c DCS 620x DCS 660c DCS 660m DCS 660cir EOS D2000c EOS D6000c DCS ProBack DCS ProBack m DCS ProBack Plus DCS 720x DCS 760c DCS 760m DCS 760ir DCS ProBack 645 C DCS ProBack 645 H DCS ProBack 645 M SCS 2000c DCS Pro 14n DCS Pro 14n 512 DCS Pro 14n m DCS Pro 14nx DCS Pro SLR/n DCS Pro SLR/n m
Announced 1990 Sep 30, 1990 May 28, 1991 May 28, 1991 May 28, 1991 May 28, 1991 May 28, 1991 May 28, 1991 Aug 6, 1992 Aug 6, 1992 Aug 6, 1992 Aug 6, 1992
Venue FSD FSD EPD PPD FSD FSD FSD PK Kodak Kodak Kodak Kodak Kodak Kodak MacW MacW MacW MacW AP
Imgr M1 M1 M3 M1 M1 M1 M1 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M5 M5 M5 M5 M3 M3 M3 M3 M5 M5 M5 M5 M5 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M6 M3 M3 M3 M5 M5 M5 M5 M5 M5 M5 M6 M5 M5 M3 M3 M3 M5 M17 M24 M15 M23 M16 M16 M15 M23 M16 M16 M16 M15 M16 M11 M11 M11 M23 M16 M16 M16 M11 M11 M11 M23 C14 C14 C14 C14 X14 X14
um 6.8 6.6.8 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.8
Pixels 1035x1320 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1024x1280 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 2036x3060 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1524 2036x3060 1012x1524 1012x1524 1012x1268 1012x1268 1012x1268 1008x1520 1504x2008 1958x2606 1152x1728 1152x1728 2008x3040 2008x3040 1152x1728 1152x1728 2008x3040 2008x3040 2008x3040 1152x1728 2008x3040 4080x4080 4080x4080 4080x4080 1152x1728 2008x3032 2008x3032 2008x3032 4080x4080 4080x4080 4080x4080 1152x1728 3000x4500 3000x4500 3000x4500 3000x4500 3000x4500 3000x4500
CFA Mono Mono 3G RGB Mono Mono Mono 3G RGB 3G RGB 3G RGB 3G RGB Mono Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Mono Mono Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB IR Mono Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Mono Bay RGB IR Bay RGB IR Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Mono Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Bay RGB Xena CMY Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono Bay RGB Bay RGB Mono
ISO 200-800 200-50-400 50-400 50-400 100-800 100-800 100-800 100-800 200-1600 200-1600 200-1600 50-400 50-400 100-800 100-800 200-1600 200-1600 200-1600 200-100-400 200-800 200-800 100-80
Not sold Not sold Not sold
$20,000 $25,000 $20,000 $25,000
Feb 8, 1994 Apr 23, 1996
Aug 15, 1994 1995
$27,495 Mar, 1998
Dec, 1995 Dec, 1998 Jul, 1995 Jul, 1998 Jul, 1998 Feb, 1998 Feb, 1998 Feb, 1998
1997 Oct, 1998 Aug, 1999 Feb 12, 1998 Sep 11, 1998 Feb, 1999 Aug 29, 2000 Oct, 1999 Dec, 1999 Mar, 1998 Dec, 1998 Sep 19, 2000 Dec, 2001 Sep 15, 2001 Apr, 2001
C&GS C&GS C&GS C&GS C&GS PK PPA PMA PK PMA Seybold $14,995 $28,500
200-1600 400-6400 400-6400 100-400 200-800 200-800 100-400 200-800 200-800 200-100-400 200-800 200-1000 16-3200 16-3200 100-400 125-400 200-1600 400-6400 80-200 320-800 200-1600 400-6400 80-200 320-800 320-800 200-1600 80-100 400-6400 80-400 320-800 320-800 100-400 100-400 100-400 400-6400 6-800 6-800 6-1600 6-1600
Not sold Not sold Not sold Not sold Not sold Not sold 819 7329
May, 2001 Jul, 2001 May, 2001 Feb, 2001 May, 2001 Jul, 2001 Dec, 2001
Canon Canon PK $21,995 $6,995 $7,995 Dec, 2002 Mar, 2004 Mar, 2003 Mar, 2003 Mar, 2003 Mar, 2004 Mar, 2004 Mar, 2004
Feb, 2002 Oct, 2002 Feb, Sep 24, Feb 12, 2004 Feb 12, 2004
PK PMA C&GS PK $4,995
Not sold Upgrade Not sold
Jan, 2004 Mar, 2004
Model EO Tactical D-5000 IRIS Hawkeye II int. Hawkeye II teth. Hawkeye II teth EM PPD prototype DCS DC3 DCS DC3/32 DCS DC3/B DCS DM3 DCS DM3/32 DCS DM3/B DCS DCS DCS DCS 200c 200ci 200m 200mi
Body Canon F1 Canon F1 Kodak Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon F3 Nikon 8008s Nikon 8008s Nikon 8008s Nikon 8008s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Med Format Med Format Med Format Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikon N90s Nikonos RS Nikonos RS Nikonos RS Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Nikon Pronea 6i Nikon Pronea 6i Nikon Pronea 6i Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Canon EOS-1N Canon EOS-1N Med Format Med Format Med Format Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Nikon F5 Contax 645 AF Hasselblad H1 Mamiya 645 AF Nikon F5 Nikon N80 Nikon N80 Nikon N80 Nikon N80 Nikon N80 Nikon N80
By Andrew Rodney
The New Wave of High-End Digital Cameras
he last quarter of 1998 will go down in digital imaging history. Thats when instant-capture digital cameras came to matchoften exceedfilm-camera quality! In September 1998, several camera manufacturers announced new instantaneous capture digital cameras at the Seybold show in San Francisco. A few weeks later in Germany, several more cameras were introduced at Photokinasome instant capture, others that use multiple capture or scanning technology. I was lucky enough to have several camera vendors provide me samples of these cameras for review in PEI. Many of the cameras I saw use new generation 3Kx2K (approximately 6,000,000 pixels), two-dimensional sensors that provide files of about 18MB in 24-bit color. Not all the cameras used the same make of CCD, and not all the companies would tell me which manufacturer made the CCDs in their cameras. However, it appears that between advancements in CCD chip manufacturing and recent software developments, these new cameras provide a new level of quality in instantaneous as well as multiple shot capture. Improvements in Instant Capture Light-sensitive CCDs are monochromatic devices, which, by nature, cannot record color images without filtration. Therefore, to create instantaneous color images, it is necessary to use three colored filtersone each for red, green, and blueover the CCD (unless the camera has three separate CCD chips, one for each color). In most instant-capture, single-CCD cameras, the colored filters are painted on in a matrix that allows sharing of the color data. Each sensor sees only one-third of the colors (red, green, or blue), however,
once the filtered CCDs are exposed, the cameras software interpolates the other two colors based on assumptions about a neighboring pixel and the color it records. This data sharing can create considerable problems with artifacting (multicolored noise known as the Christmas tree effect) which shows up in highlights and high-contrast areas. Pixel blooming, which likewise degrades image quality, can also be a problem with CCD sensors that are packed very close together. Blooming is the result of an over-exposed CCD element spilling light over into an adjacent pixel, which causes flare. Advancements in CCDs and digital camera software have virtually eliminated both the Christmas tree effect and blooming problems in most images. If pixel aliasing does appear, it is to a lesser degree. Moreover, these cameras produce such large files that color problems are far less noticeable in the output. A significant advantage of digital capture has always been a wide dynamic range and a lack of graininess (See Film vs. Digital, PEI April 1998). Now that the color of the captured images is so much cleaner, these 18MB files can be output at much larger sizes than with earlier models. The camera CCDs reviewed here are similar in size to a 35mm frame, yet interpolating these files up 200 percent or more produces output of impressive quality. Since the pixel artifacts are minimal and the capture clean, these new cameras provide far more horsepower than youd expect from a scanned 18MB file. Based on my tests, printing these files as large as 30 inches at 200 dpi results in image quality that easily exceeds 35mm enlargements printed on all but the finest grain film. These new cameras also provide some innovative capabilities that make the shooting experience far more productive, and more like conventional film photography than ever before.
With the DCS-560, Kodak retains the superb design and features of the DCS-520, and improves it by incorporating a 3,072x2,048 CCD, measuring 27.5x18.4mm (actual image capture size of the DCS-520 is 3,040x2,008). The camera body is based on the Canon EOS 35mm SLR, so it is a completely portable system that mimics the 35mm shooting experience. Since the CCD is very similar to a 35mm frame, several significant advantages are presented to the photographer. First, placing a standard 35mm Canon lens on the camera produces a focal length close to that of a 35mm film camera. Much like the DCS-520, the viewfinder on the DCS-560 is WYSIWYG. The newer model has a
14 PEI March 1999
beautifully large, clear LCD affixed to the back, with useful features to greatly improve the shooting experience. Naturally, the LCD displays the justcaptured image, but it also allows the user to inspect previous images written to the internal PCMCIA card. Like the LCD on the 520, the newer camera provides image histograms along with highlight and shadow clipping, right on the display. The capability to evaluate the quality of an image immediately after capture makes conventional Polaroid test shots a thing of the past. Users can configure the LCD to display a single large preview, as well as a set of four- or nine-up thumbnails. Virtually all camera controls and functions can be set in the simple menu system displayed on the LCD, as can such manual controls as shutter speed, exposure compensation, ISO settings (80-200), and other controls unique to the digital components of the DCS-560. The removable and rechargeable NiCad batteries (not included) also give this camera an advantage over its predecessor. Kodak claims that one battery will produce up to 100 images per charge, depending on the use of the LCD. Theres an automatic white balance sensor mounted on the body of the camera, along with four manual settingsfor daylight, strobe, tungsten, and fluorescent conditions and a custom white balance function. To download images, the DCS-560 uses FireWire (a.k.a. IEEE 1394), a wonderful way to move images to a host computer. The camera has a beefy RAM buffer, allowing a burst rate of one frame per second with a maximum threeframe buffer. When the buffer is filled, an image is written to the PC card every seven seconds. When shooting in the studio with quick recycling strobes, there were no delays while photographing our models, although your mileage may vary depending on your shooting style. The Version 5.X beta of the Adobe Photoshop acquire module is similar to the software that presently ships with Kodak cameras, with an added
feature for on-the-fly sharpening of DCS-560 files (highly recommended). The module allows the proprietary camera files to be imported to Photoshop at eight or 12 bits per color. Individual images can be rotated, cropped, and named, all prior to image acquisition. With this software, you can also output proof sheets of selected images in three different sizes. (The 35mm frames around the images waste a good deal of space, however, and serve no practical purpose.) Acquiring the full 3Kx2K file on a 266 MHz G3 Macintosh is fastabout 30 seconds. Canon Auto Focus lenses are sharp and blazingly fast. We produced 12x18-inch prints of exceptional quality from our Fuji Pictrography 4000 printer, without Unsharp Mask filtration (but with sharpening in the Kodak Acquire Module). To find any sign of aliasing or blooming on screen, youd have to zoom in far past 100% in Adobe Photoshop. The quality is a quantum leap over the older Kodak DCS-460 or any of the older generation instant capture digital cameras Ive used.The software runs on both Macintosh and Windows 95/NT; suggested retail price of the Kodak DCS-560 is $29,995. More info? Circle 125
Phase One LightPhase
Phase One has been producing some mighty impressive scanning cameras for several years. The new LightPhase marks the companys first non-scanning, instantaneous capture digital back. Like the other Phase One cameras, the LightPhase camera back is designed to fit on a conventional camera body, in this case, a Hasselblad medium format. It has a 2,000x3,000-pixel CCD (36x24 mm) that, like the Kodak DCS-560, produces an 18MB, 24-bit file. The back has an internal 48-bit data path that allows 14-bit analog-to-digital conversion and, for editing in such applications as Photoshop 5.0, the option of a 36MB, 48-bit file. The LightPhase is intended for studio use, and must be tethered to a host computer via FireWire cable (up to 200 feet). Phase One promises a belt-type battery pack and storage unit in the near future, so the camera can be operated without a computer. Images are captured every
PEI March 1999 15
1.5 seconds, and the photographer can continue shooting as long as there is space on the hard drive; the ISO is 50. Three seconds after the image is captured, the cameras excellent software interface presents a large preview on screen. Since the CCD is 36x24mm, it can be quickly rotated on the Hasselblad for portrait or landscape orientation. However, because the chip is smaller than the 2.25x2.25 Hasselblad format, you have to insert a mask into the viewfinder to see the exact capture area. In addition, a standard Hasselblad lens will produce a different field of view when used with the LightPhase digital back. The LightPhase can be used with Hasselblads entire line of mechanical and electronic bodies. For shooting with flash, a standard sync cord attaches to the back, along with the IEEE 1394 FireWire cable; a cable then runs from the LightPhase to the Hasselblad lens. The software that drives the camera is similar to the software that drives Phase Ones scanning cameras, with a few added features. Worth noting is the feature that allows you to apply a standard tonal curve to the high-bit data, much as you would do when scanning conventional film. This curve is applied prior to the image data processing, so that a fully toned 48-bit file can be brought into Photoshop without additional corrections. You can also examine out-of-range clipping of highlights and shadows with this software, and load a custom ColorSync/ICC profile for the camera. A large preview window makes inspecting captured images an easy task. I found the lighting set up to be easy and precise, because I could inspect all of the images on a calibrated 21-inch Mitsubishi SpectraView display. The ability to examine highlight and shadow clipping allows the photographer to set lighting and exposure for optimum results. As with the Kodak DCS-560 LCD display, there appears to be a significant advantage to shooting digitally: The cameras robust tools provide absolute control over lighting and exposure before the capture begins. The only minor disadvantages I found in using this system are working with a masked-off viewfinder, and not having a hot mirror filter affixed to the actual back, so the user must place a filter on the lens, which makes the image look somewhat dark and greenish through the viewfinder.
I found neither the lack of a square format nor the need to rotate the back to be a disadvantage. Its rare that square film format doesnt get cropped to a rectangle, so doing it at the shooting stage didnt hamper my style. LightPhase image quality is truly amazing. Phase One has filed a patent on a new software technology that, according to the company, uses a process that replicates human vision. Im not sure what thats supposed to mean, but the resulting files are significantly better than files of the same size from the DCS-560. Obviously, Phase One has some unique tricks for processing raw files. On the Macintosh G3, the beta version software I used took about 45 seconds to process each 48-bit, 36MB file. The company says the final version of the software will be significantly faster. The 12x18-inch prints made from the LightPhase were of superb quality, tacksharp, and required absolutely no image processing. I was able to interpolate the file to 107MB and output 30inch prints to a Kodak LED printer with excellent results, far sharper than the same print made from the Kodak 560. The LightPhase operates on a Mac or Windows system (FireWire capabilities necessary) and lists for $22,990. More info? Circle 126
The new MegaVision S3 camera back fits onto several medium-format cameras, including the Hasselblad 500 series (200 series custom fit); Mamiya 645, RB, and RZ; Bronica ETRSi and SQB; and Fuji GX680. It provides 2Kx3K instantaneous capture, and the 12-micron, 36x24mm CCD sensor produces a 3,072x2,048-pixel, 36-bit file. As with the LightPhase, a small mask must be placed on the ground glass to indicate the actual capture area, and standard medium-format lenses will exhibit a change in focal length when used with the CCD. No hot mirror filter over the lens is required. The S3 chip is rated at ISO 80. Instead of FireWire, MegaVision uses a proprietary 22-foot cable to connect the camera back to the computer, as well as its own PCI card, which is inserted into the host computer. A grayscale image appears on screen a mere 0.25 seconds after the image is captured, and you can shoot one frame every second. For a slight sacrifice of speed, you can opt for a color preview. The PhotoShoot
16 PEI March 1999
software is speedy because all the images captured are recorded into RAM. Images are downloaded to the hard drive after the shooting. However, the amount of RAM on the host computer directly influences how many photos can be captured. For example, with 192MB of RAM, only 12 images can be captured. An AutoSave function is available, requiring an additional four seconds per image as the files are saved to disk and the RAM buffer freed up. Therefore, your options are to either have a lot of RAM and shoot quickly, or to delay the capture rate. My only concern with the former is that a system failure could wipe out all the images I had just saved to RAM! The PhotoShoot software that drives MegaVision cameras offers significant control and many features, but it has a complex and laborious interface. I appreciate the powerful features the software provides, such as the number of different tonal clipping previews. The features youd expect are all there, such as on-the-fly conversions to CMYK, but it is not ColorSync/ICC-savvy. A pop-up menu allows you to pick one of three processing algorithms to reduce pixel aliasing. While this greatly increases processing time, it does seem to clean up the files a great deal. One superb feature of PhotoShoot is the ability to select as many as 20 areas in the preview to set a neutral value for the file. The quality of images captured with the S3 is very good, as you would expect from the new generation of chips, but the files arent as sharp as those from the LightPhase, and the degree of color pixel aliasing was a more pronounced. With a dose of Unsharp Mask filtration (or better yet, the PhotoShoot sharpening controls), it would be easy to make the S3 capture almost as sharp as the LightPhase. PhotoShoot software supports only Power Macintosh, but an NT version is expected any day now. MegaVision promises an S2 version of its portable BatPack in the near future, which would provide complete mobile location shooting. Suggested price for the camera system is $22,500. More info? Circle 127
Multiple Capture CCDs Among the cameras I evaluated for this article is the three-exposure (one each for red, green, and blue) instant-capture digital system that produces true non-interpolated color with a new 2Kx3K chip. A filter wheel rotates between each exposure, providing red, green, and blue data instantly over the twodimensional CCD. Since three exposures are necessary, this kind of camera can be used to photograph only nonmoving subjects. However, this kind of capture suffers none of the interpolated color problems associated with the instant capture cameras discussed above.
The 2,048x3,096 pixel Active Cooling CCD chip housed in the Leaf Volare camera back yielded stunning images. The Volare back mounts onto conventional camera bodies such as Hasselblad, Mamiya, and the Fuji 680. I used the back on the Leaf SinarCam, which has a built-in internal filter wheel. The Volare has some unique features. For example, by simply twisting a small lever on the back of the camera, the rectangular CCD can be moved instantly to either horizontal or vertical format. Another unique featurewhich I find insanely greatis the live video preview function that allows the photographer to focus, compose, and adjust lighting in real time while examining a black-and-white, high-resolution preview on the computer monitor. The supplied ColorShop software even allows you to focus the lens anywhere in the set with the graphical interface Leaf calls LiveFocus. In addition, the software and LiveFocus support an overlay function that allows a saved, lowresolution image to be superimposed over a live preview while you compose the set. This would be a great aid for photographers who must shoot to an art directors layout specifications. The Volare produces images of superb quality, thanks in large part to the active CCD cooling, which virtually ensures noise-free images, with exposures up
18 PEI March 1999
to 32 seconds. The camera captures 14 bits of data per color, and Leaf states it has a dynamic range of more than 11 f/stops. The ColorShop software is both powerful and userfriendly. Aside from a few shortcomings, it provides all the controls and features I would expect. It supports a sophisticated curve control for optimizing the total 42 bits of data the camera can capture. In addition, ColorShop has some of the most powerful sharpening controls Ive ever used in camera driver software. Global and selective color controls are provided as well. Leaf users rave about the quality of ColorShops RGB to CMYK conversion controls, though I wish Leaf would implement an open workflow. The software doesnt support ICC profiles, and there is no means for saving out any of its proprietary CMYK conversion information; therefore, its impossible to see an accurate preview when you bring a CMYK file from ColorShop into Adobe Photoshop. While the ColorShop conversions may be excellent, the noncompliance with Photoshop and ICC profiles left me less than satisfied. The Volare also requires a dongle (hardware protection) to operate, which I have always found to be an annoyance. Scitex promises that Version 4.1 will support ICC profiles. Yet the quality of the Leaf Volare is no less than outstanding. I used it to photograph textured clothing, a subject that severely taxes many digital cameras and frequently produces moir patterns, without any such artifacts. The anti-blooming technology is also impressive. When I photographed a shiny coin fully reflecting the light source, I could not produce visual pixel blooming in the capture. The 18MB, 24-bit RGB files (36MB in 42 bits) can be interpolated several hundred percent with no evident loss of quality in the output. ColorShops interpolation algorithm, when mated with the excellent sharpening tools, produces files of incredible quality, even when sized as large as 100MB. The instant capture cameras weve discussed are excellent, but not in the same league as a three-shot camera system using the same 2Kx3K chip. For the studio photographer who wishes to shoot with flash
and whose subjects do not move, the Volare is a camera back to seriously consider. It currently operates only on the Macintosh system, but a Windows NT version of ColorSharp is in the works. The list price of the Leaf Volare is $25,000. More info? Circle 127 Scanning Backs For this review, I evaluated two new scanning cameras that operate just like the tri-linear CCDs in conventional desktop scanners. They produce true color, but they can take several minutes to capture an image. Because the CCD is not two-dimensional, manufacturers can produce a CCD that has a great many pixels along a single axis and then simply move that CCD over the image capture plane, which allows for very high-resolution images.
Better Light 6000
Better Light offers three scanning backs, each of which fits onto a conventional 4x5-inch view camera. I tested the Better Light 6000, which has a resolution of 6,000x8,000 pixels (137MB in 24 bits). The camera is beautifully designed and manufactured, with great attention to detail. The back ships with a proprietary cable that looks much like a standard SCSI cable (I used the optional 25-foot version). This cable runs from the camera back to the supplied external hard drive enclosure. The model I used contained a 2GB hard drive, where all the captured images are stored after shooting. I also used the Better Light optional battery kit, which allows the photographer to shoot on location when the external drive is mated to a laptop computer. There are few scanning backs with this option. The Better Light is the fastest scanning camera on the market. I was impressed that while on location, at sunset, with the aperture set at f/22, I produced prescans in about 10 seconds. The camera back has a flicker-free technology so that any continuous lighting can be used, including standard tungsten. My only real criticism of the Better Light system is the antiquated software that drives it. The previews are small, and
PEI March 1999 19
there are few of the controls found on other scanning cameras. The software allows you to create and save capture curves, which are applied to the 14 bits per color to produce a final 24-bit file. The interface is neither intuitive nor well designed, but it is surprising powerful. It ships with a number of pre-set Capture Curves, which worked quite well on location. In other shooting situations, the kind of curve selected or created can have a significant impact on the quality of the resulting file. You can save the raw 14-bit file and apply curves later in Photoshop. The software has a nice focusing aid that allows the user to precisely focus using the prescan, as well as an interface with feedback so you know when the image is sharp. The captured images go directly to the supplied hard drive, and the user must use the File Manager to move the files onto another drive. I would have liked the option to bypass the drive and save files to any drive I desired. The quality of the images I captured from the Better Light was excellent, once I picked the best capture curve. The really good news is that a newer version of the software is promised. The software runs on Macintosh systems, but a Windows version is planned for the end of this month. Retail price of the Better Light 6000 is $19,900. More info? Circle 128
5,140x5,140 pixels (76MB in 24-bit color), with capability of 14 bits per color and a stated dynamic range of 3.3 (which Leica says corresponds to 11 f/stops). The S1 can be used with several kinds of lenses, once the appropriate adapter is mounted. Photographers can choose Leica R and M lenses, Hasselblad, Pentax 6x7, Contax, Canon FD, Nikon, Minolta, and Rodenstock, or Schneider lenses with the optional Shift & Tilt Adapter. Since the CCD is a perfect 36mm square, when mated to a standard 35mm lens, the focal lengths undergo virtually no change. A small viewfinder built into the camera body makes image composition easy. Like the Better Light scanning backs, the S1 incorporates a flicker-free technology, which can be used with tungsten, HMI, and fluorescent lighting. The software that drives the S1, is a superb scanning interface with robust controls, such as Unsharp Mask with highresolution preview, curves, selective color, full ICC/ColorSync support, and the ability to scan into RGB, CMYK, or LAB. The densitometer allows the user to work in any of the supported color spaces. LaserSoft supports a large, resizable interface, unlimited undos, and the ability to save the captured image in high-bit data (16 bits per color), so users can do further work in Adobe Photoshop in 48 bits. Another superb feature of SilverFast is the pre-made corrections that automatically analyze the file and apply some good auto corrections to the raw data. For exacting work, you can override SilverFasts editing functions and manually control exposure and color balance at the hardware level. The quality of the S1 images I captured was
Leica S1 Pro
Leicas entrant in the digital camera arena is a scanning camera (not a back) called the S1. This beautiful camera produces a maximum file size of
20 PEI March 1999
excellent. Scan time was also impressive: I captured a full-resolution image using a few Lowell tungsten lights in less than two minutes. I recommend the Leica S1 camera to studio photographers who dont need huge files, but want excellent software and plenty of lens options. The price of the S1 is $21,500, and it is compatible with Mac and Windows systems. (If your budget is tight, check out the S1 Alpha model, which can be upgraded later.) More info? Circle 129
The Jenoptik eyelike is an interesting modular digital camera back that can be used as a 4x5 view camera back or as a stand-alone camera. The eyelike can actually be used in three different capture modes, all of which provide 12 bits per color. Jenoptik has produces a twodimensional area array CCD of 2,048x2,048 pixels. The eyelike can capture images instantaneously in oneshot mode, or stationary subjects in the fourexposure mode, using filters that move in tandem with the CCD between exposures. The camera takes one red, two green, and one blue filtered exposure to provide superior noninterpolated color files. A cleverly designed third mode allows high resolution scanning capture. In single or four-capture mode, the camera uses a 2K-square area array. However, the sensor can be moved into 36 different positions with the optional scan module controller. This allows the photographer to scan an image in 2Kx2K chunks, producing files as large as 6,144x6,144 pixels. With this two-dimensional area array, you can use continuous lighting, such as tungsten, daylight, HMI, or fluorescent. Because the 2K array moves, the available scanning resolutions are 2,048x2,048 (12MB), 4,096x4,096 (48MB), or 6,144x6,144 (108MB). In stand-alone mode, various front lens adapters allow you to use standard lenses. When capturing images instantaneously, exposure times can range from 1/1,000 to one second with an in-lens shutter. As an option, the
camera itself has a shutter range of 1/60 to one second. Jenoptik claims the eyelike can scan a full-resolution, 108MB file in as little as 40 seconds. The files are transferred from the camera to the computer with a fiber-optic connection to the supplied PCI card. A unique feature of the camera package allows the photographer to compose subjects against a blue background, and then seamlessly superimpose various backgrounds. The eyelike can be set in a live mode, in which an on-screen preview can be updated every half second, allowing the photographer to compose the shot on the set. The eyelike runs on either Macintosh or Windows 95/NT systems. Price begins at $28,000, for the version that can capture the 2Kx2K files in one or four-shot mode, but not scanning mode; the optional scan module adds $9,990 to the price. More info? Circle 130
I wasnt able to test the new SinarBack, but I think its worth a look. The 2Kx2K (2048x2048 pixels) unit fits many cameras, including Hasselblads, Sinar p2 or f2, SinarCam2, Mamiya RZ, Fuji GX680, and Rollei 6008. It shoots both single and four-shot exposure to produce noninterpolated color. This flexibility allows the instant capture of moving subjects, plus the high-quality capture of stationary subjects, under strobes or continuous lighting. The piezoelectronic element repositions the CCD array four ways for use in the multi-shot mode. The incorporation of two drives for the horizontal and vertical movements of the filter is meant to improve registration. According to the specifications, the cooled CCD is rated at ISO 100 with a dynamic range of 11 f/stops and 14-bit color. Three modes of live color video ease composing on set. Im told the interface that drives the camera is Photoshop-like, and allows such features as multiple exposures, ICC profiles, and the ability to export files to TIFF, Photoshop, and other formats. The software runs on a PowerMac, and a Windows NT version is due soon. List price is $26,868. (continued on page 25)
Andrew Rodney continues his review of the latest digital cameras next month in PEI magazine.
22 PEI March 1999
BetterLight 4000* BetterLight 6000 Betterlight 8000* Jenoptik eyelike
Mode of capture
Scanning Scanning Scanning Scanning, Single and Multi-shot
3,750x5,000 pixels, 53MB, RGB 6,000x8,000 pixels, 137MB, RGB 8,000x10,640 pixels, 244MB, RGB 2048x2048, 12MB, RGB, 24 bit up to 6144x6144, 108MB, RGB, 24 bit 1736x1160, 5.7MB, RGB, 24 bit 18MB RGB, 24 bit 18MB RGB, 24 bit 5140x5140, 76MB in 24 bits 18MB RGB, 24 bit 6000X8400, 144MB, RGB, 24 bit 18MB RGB, 24 bit
$11,990 $19,900 $29,900 $28,000 to $37,000 $14,995 $29,995 $25,500 $21,500 $22,990
Kodak DCS-520* Kodak DCS-560 Leaf Volare Leica S1 Phase One LightPhase Phase One PowerPhase MegaVision S3
Instant Instant Three shot Scanning Instant Scanning Instant
* not reviewed in this article
PEI March 1999 25
Kodak has invested years of research and development perfecting digital photography. Kodak cameras offer stronger security, greater flexibility, and better image quality than ever before. You get unmatched quality, versatility, and value from every camera in the DCS portfolio. Kodak doesn't offer you one camera and say it works for everything - it gives you a choice of cameras that are suited to your specific applications and requirements. Kodak Professional DCS digital cameras let you focus on photography, while Kodak focuses on the technology - and you. Your Kodak Professional DCS 520 portable camera system, which combines technologies of Canon and Kodak, allows you to take and store high-resolution digital images of the highest quality. Designed in Canon EOS 1N camera body, it provides a rich set of features. DCS 520 delivers incredible images, incredibly fast.
|Product Type||Digital camera - SLR|
|Optical Sensor Type||CCD|
|Total Pixels||2,000,000 pixels|
|Optical Sensor Size||15.1 x 22.5mm|
|Light Sensitivity||ISO 800, ISO 400, ISO 200, ISO 1600|
|Max Shutter Speed||1/8000 sec|
|Min Shutter Speed||30 sec|
|X-sync Speed||1/250 sec|
|Exposure Metering||Evaluative, partial (23%), center-weighted, spot|
|Exposure Modes||TTL program flash, A-TTL program flash, E-TTL program flash, depth-of-field, bulb, manual, aperture-priority, shutter-priority|
|Exposure Range||EV -1-19 ( ISO 200 )|
|Exposure Compensation||±3 EV range, in 1/3 EV steps|
|Auto Exposure Bracketing||3 steps in 1/3 EV step|
|White Balance||Custom, automatic, presets|
|White Balance Presets||Fluorescent, tungsten light, flash, daylight|
|Status LCD Display Information||Autofocus mode, shutter speed, frame counter, aperture, self-timer mode, film speed, photos remaining, memory card status, date / time, drive mode, white balance indicators, exposure compensation, metering mode, battery condition, program, flash mode|
|Still Image Format||JPEG, TIFF|
|Continuous Shooting Speed||3.5 frames per second|
|Remote Control||Optional - cable|
|Memory / Storage|
|Flash Memory||Flash - PC Card|
|Supported Flash Memory||PC Card|
|Image Storage||1728 x 1152|
|Auto Focus||TTL phase detection|
|Auto Focus Points (Zones)||5|
|Lens System Mounting||Canon EF|
|Flash Terminal||Hot shoe, PC terminal|
|Additional Features||Audio recording, auto power save, date/time stamp, AE/FE lock, depth-of-field preview button|
|Viewfinder Type||Optical - fixed eye-level pentaprism|
|Dioptric Correction Range||-3 to +1|
|Viewfinder Frames||Autofocus frame|
|LCD Display Information||Shutter speed, exposure compensation, AE lock, aperture, metering system|
|Type||LCD display - TFT active matrix - color|
|Display Form Factor||Built-in|
|Type||Microphone - built-in|
|Microphone Technology||Electret condenser|
|Microphone Operation Mode||Mono|
|Connector Type||1 x IEEE 1394 (FireWire/i.LINK) 1 x serial 1 x DC power input|
|Expansion Slot(s)||2 x PC Card - type II/III|
|Software||Drivers & Utilities, Adobe Acrobat Reader|
|Included Accessories||Hand strap, 6.3 mm (1/4") stereo adapter|
|Cables Included||1 x IEEE 1394 cable|
|Power Device||Power adapter + battery charger - external|
|Supported Battery Details||1 x|
|Service & Support||1 year warranty|
|Service & Support Details||Limited warranty - 1 year|
|Universal Product Identifiers|
HT-TZ215T 2490MF 82309 Silverado 2000 LG-95C SW51-120 DVD-HR734A KDL-46W4000 107624-01 Adventure VGN-SZ430N P95F-2 Tc1g-TD Roland A-33 J1253 N130 Ka01 TX-SR604E Yamaha PTX8 FBX1200 BM 220 Dvdr3300H 02 KX-TG8011GR DSC-HX5V Electronic PV400 MS-3446VR M220C 4 Plus J830M Stopwatch W073 RCA D770 DCR-DVD510E DMC-T27 Scales PR-HD1000C ZBB7266 Easypix W311 Neuf TV Jukebox WD-8016F 900087 DMC-TZ Review Powershot A60 BCG34HNB Lexmark Z32 VP201B VR969 AE1850 EMX3500 Ericsson R600 Ricoh 2075 CE107B-B Pocket PC LE32S86BC Pc-nikkor Vista Wolfcraft 6165 4060310 DCR-HC15E Samsung N140 Rrqr230 VP-M51 Compact Ryobi 720R AP-5131 SF3000 Vodafone 527 Panel GRV80 Padkontrol GZ-MG50EK Qosmio F10 Gr-axm910 Phono USB CX650 FG-1025R CE117A-S MP-FUB31 1 1 Mark-S 712D Ppura WM2688HCM E-TEN X500 1255 Cdma HT-DDW700 Drive MAX Batteries PB15 500G Wide HT286 Ldmpm45 WW Series Basslink HTS3154 Ryobi 410R PCA 2450 - Kids DTH 8540 VGN-A497XP FL 8385 RT-707
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