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Kurzweil Mark 2 Digital Piano Manual

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Kurzweil Mark 2 Digital PianoKurzweil Mark Pro Two is 88-Key Dig PIANO/STAND
This digital keyboard features built-in speakers for quality sound while you practice and perform. The 4 programmable zones deliver splits, layers and rhythms for creating original compositions.

Brand: Kurzweil
UPC: 883793402011
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User reviews and opinions

Comments to date: 4. Page 1 of 1. Average Rating:
paalp 2:22pm on Wednesday, November 3rd, 2010 
Fantastic This microphone is amazing, especially for its price. The sound is beautiful.
leonbravo 5:08pm on Friday, August 27th, 2010 
Stagg SG-A108BK Acoustic/Electric Guitar Stand very good guitar stand for a very good price. fits my electro-acoustic bowlback guitar perfectly. Great guitar stand I use this stand for my acoustic guitar and it is great.
pocha 9:54am on Friday, May 21st, 2010 
Low volume, clean sound, sounds filtered. This mic records vocals in ONLY the left channel.
mimundo 10:14pm on Monday, May 17th, 2010 
Jack of all trades, master of none. sadly dissapointing mic let me start off by saying I am a musician, who also happens to produce, mix and master. GarageBand vs Skype I have been searching for a clue as to how I can get the mic to work with Skype - no luck so far.

Comments posted on are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.




Digital Piano Owners Manual

Table of Contents

Important Safety Instructions
Instructions Important Safety Instructions
The Panel of the MARK PRO ONE i Introduction
The Features of the MARK PRO ONE i
1. Sustain Pedal 2. Sostenuto Pedal 3. Soft Pedal
1. USB MIDI Connection 2. MIDI Channels
Setting Up the Instrument Voice/Piano Button
1. Main Voice 2. Reverb & Effect 3. Demo Song 4. Demo Songs List


1. Headphone 2. Audio In Jack 3. Audio Out Jack


1. Using Layers 2. Creating New Electric Piano Voice

Layer Button

1. Adjusting Volume Balance 2. Layer Examples
MIDI Implementation Chart Appendix


Function Button
1. Touch 2. Tune 3. Transpose 4. Local Control 5. Reset
Quick Operation Guide Warranty Card
Metronome & Rhythm Button
1. Metronome 2. Tempo 3. Adjusting Rhythm Pattern Volume 4. Selecting Rhythm Patterns
Record, Play & Stop Button
1. Record 2. Play & Stop
1. Read these instructions. 2. Keep these instructions. 3. Heed all warnings. 4. Follow all instructions. 5. Do not use this apparatus near water. 6. Clean only with dry cloth. 7. Do not block any of the ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. 8. Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat. 9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet. 10. Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus. 11. Only use attachments / accessories specified by the manufacturer. 12. Use only with a cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart / apparatus combination to avoid injury from tip-over. 13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time. 14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped. 15. Allow adequate ventilation for the power adapter. Do not hide it under a carpet or behind a curtain or place it in an enclosed space where heat buildup can occur.
WARNING : To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture. Do not expose this equipment to dripping or splashing and ensure that no objects filled with liquids, such as vases, are placed on the equipment.
To completely disconnect this equipment from the AC Mains, disconnect the power supply cord plug from the AC receptacle. To reduce the danger of explosion if the lithium battery is incorrectly replaced, replace only with the same or equivalent type.

The lightning flash with the arrowhead symbol, within an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage within the products enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons. The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the product.
WARNING : When using electric products, basic precautions should always be followed, including the following:
1. Read all of the Safety and Installation Instructions and Explanation of Graphic Symbols before using the product. 2. Do not use this product near water-for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool, or the like. 3. This product should only be used with a stand or cart that is recommended by the manufacturer. 4. This product, either alone or in combination with an amplifier and speakers or headphones, may be capable of producing sound levels that could cause permanent hearing loss. Do not operate for a long priod of time at a high volume level or at a level that is uncomfortable. If you experience any hearing loss or ringing in the ears, you should consult an audiologist. 5. The product should be located so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. 6. This product should be located away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, or other products that produce heat. 7. This product should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the product. 8. This product may be equipped with a polarized line plug (one blade wider than be other). This is a safety feature. If you are unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact an electrician to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the plug. 9. The power supply cord of the product should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time. When unplugging the power supply cord, do not pull on the cord, but grasp it by the plug. 10. Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings. 11. The product should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: A. The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the product; C. The product has been exposed to rain; D. The product does not appear to be operating normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; E. The product has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged. 12. Do not attempt to service the product beyond that described in the user maintenance instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel. 13. WARNING : Do not place objects on the products power supply cord, or place the product in a position where anyone could trip over, walk on, or roll anything over cords of any type. Do not allow the product to rest on or be installed over cords of any type. Improper installations of this type create the possibility of a fire hazard and/or personal injury.

WARNING : Changes or modifications to this instrument not expressly approved by KURZWEIL could void your authority to operate the instrument. IMPORTANT : When connecting this product to accessories and/or other equipment use only high quality shielded cables. NOTE : This instrument has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This instrument generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this instrument does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the instrument off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Increase the separation between the instrument and the receiver. Connect the instrument into an outlet on a circuit other than the one to which the receiver is connected. If necessary consult your dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions.
NOTICE This apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications. AVIS Le present appareil numerique nemet pas de bruits radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux appareils numeriques de la class B prescrites dans le Reglement sur le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par le ministere des Communications du Canada.


The Panel of the MARK PRO ONE i






Adjust the volume level using this control
Modify parameters of Touch, Tune, Transpose and MIDI channel
Metronome / Rhythm Button
Activate metronome / rhythm function

Record Button

Record user s performance

Play / Stop Button

Playback or stop recorded Performance

h Layer Button

Divide the keyboard into two different sounds

j Voice / Piano Button

Select voices from the world renowned Kurzweil sounds

k Demo Button

Activate demo song playback feature


Welcome to the world of the KURZWEIL MARK PRO ONE i Digital Piano. The MARK PRO ONE i gives you easy access to KURZWEIL's high-quality sound technology. Authentic digital representations of musical instrument sounds are the starting points. The MARK PRO ONE i reproduces the finest details of the original sounds; you'll even hear differences in tone as you play from bass to treble and from soft and loud, just as in the original instruments.
The Feature of the MARK PRO ONE i
88 Fully Weighted Hammer Action Keys Layer mode 3 Pedals 7 Different levels of keyboard 50 Demo songs Line In/Out USB MIDI In/Out 32 Preset voices 2 Headphone jacks Transpose, Tune 10 Reverbs, 10 Variation effects 30 Watt Stereo sound system 20 Rhythm patterns


Setting up the Instrument
Check that all of the following items are present.
Item Keyboard Side Panel (Left) Side Panel (Right) Pedal Box Rear Panel Headphone Hanger No. 1EA 1EA 1EA 1EA 1EA 1EA Item Screws for Side Panel and Keyboard Screws for Side Panel and Pedal Box Screws for Rear Panel Screws for Rear Panel and Pedal Box No. 4EA 4EA 2EA 4EA
We do not recommend attemting to assemble the MARK PRO ONE i alone. The job can be easily accomplished, however, with only two people. Use only the screws provided or replacement of exactly the specified size. Using screws of the wrong size can result in damage to the instrument and personal injury.
Side Panel and Pedal Box assembly
1. Place the pedal box on the side panel and then use screws to fasten the side panel. 2. Place the Pedal Box on the side panel and then use screws to fasten the side panel. 3. You can find the pedal cable in the pedal box. Untie and straighten out the cable attached to the bottom of the pedal box.

Rear Panel assembly

1. Fit into the holes in the side panel brackets and then use the screws to fasten the rear panel. 2. Use the screws to fasten the bottom of the rear panel.

Attach the Keyboard

Pedal cab le jack

Headpho nes jack

Pedal adjuste r
Screws to faste n the keyboard wit h side panel
1. Place the keyboard on the stand so that the wood pegs on the bottom of the keyboard fit into the holes in the side panel brackets. 2. Fasten the keyboard to the side panel using screw number. 3. Insert the pedal cable connector into the pedal jack located on the bottom of the keyboard.
Be sure that the connector is inserted in the correct orientation. Make sure that the cable clamp fastens to the pedal cable.
4. Rotate the pedal adjuster until it comes in firm contact with the floor surface. If the adjuster is not in firm contact with the floor, the pedal will wobble and cause malfunctions. 5. Install the headphone hanger as shown in the figure.
Turning on the Instrument (Power)
The MARK PRO ONE i operates on DC adapter power. A power cord is included with the DC adapter to connect it to an DC outlet. Before connecting the power cord, be sure that the power switch, located left side of the keyboard, is off. First plug the adapter's small, round plug in the matching jack in the back of the piano. Then plug the power cord into an DC outlet. Once the power cord is connected, you can turn the power switch on.

Setting the Volume

To be sure that you can hear the instrument, turn the Volume knob (on the upper side of the left panel) to the middle of its range. This should be a reasonably comfortable level of volume which you can adjust if you wish the sound to be louder or softer.

Voice / Piano Button

For the quickest button operation, please, refer to the Quick Operation Guide on page 29

1. Main Voice

To select one of the 32 primary voices, hold down the [Voice / Piano] button then press and release a keyboard key between C1 and G3. Then release the [Voice / Piano] button. If you want to select the primary acoustic piano sound at any point, simply press and release the [Voice / Piano] button once. The voices are grouped according to the sound types. For instance, you can select one of the acoustic piano voices by pressing a keyboard key between C1 and G1. To select one of the electric piano voices, press a keyboard key between G#1 to B1. For the different types of voices, the different ranges of keys are arranged. The most digital pianos and synthersizers from Kurzweil work the same way for quick and convenient operation. For your reference, below is a list of the available voices, their number, and their assigned keys.
The voices with the names consisting two voice names with + such as Piano+Strings are layered voices. Also, The voices with / in their names such as Piano/Bass are split voices.

No 1 2

Key C1 C#1 D1 D#1 E1 F1 F#1 G1 G#1 A1 A#1 B1 C2 C#2 D2 D#2
Grand Piano Stereo Grand Classic Grand Dynamic Grand Piano+Strings Piano+PAD Piano / Bass Rock Piano Digital E Piano FM Piano Ballad E Piano Soft E Piano Church Organ 1 Pipe Organ Pipes 16', 8', Reed B3 Orgran

E ffect

C#7 [-1] D#7 [+1]

Effects Wet / Dry Mix

C7 [-5] D7 [0]

E7 [+5]

3. Demo Song
While holding down the [Voice / Piano] button, press one of the C1 ~ C#5 keys to select and play a demo song. The MARK PRO ONE i contains 50 demo songs. For the full list of the demo songs, refer to the list on the next page. If you want all demo songs to be played sequentially, press the D5 key will play all of the 50 demo songs. To stop the demo song playback, press the [Layer] button or the [Voice / Piano] button. While playing the demo, the LEDs on the [Layer] button and [Voice / Piano] button are blinking.

D5 [Repeat]

Voice / Piano Button - Demo Song
4. The List of The Demo Songs

Song Name

Prelude I BWV 846 Invention NO. 4 Invention NO. 8 Prelude II BWV 847 ARIA Goldenberg-Variationen BWV 988 Fuga II (A3 VOCI) Sonatine Op. 36 No. 4 Klavierstck K. 15v Piano Sonata K. 333 1st mov. Rondo in D-dur K. 485 Piano Sonata K. 331 Rondo Turkish March Piano Sonata K. 545 1st mov. Minuett in G Bagatelle No. 25 Fr Elise Sonatine Op. 55 No. 1 March Militaire Op. 51 No. 1 Moments Musicaux 3. Kinderszenen Impromptu Op. 90 No. 4 La chevaleresque Without word song Op. 38 No. 2 Venetianisches Gondellied Sostenuto Valse KK IVb-Mazurkas I Op. 7 No. 1 Valse Op. 69. NO. 2 Grande Valse Brillante Op. 18 Valse Op. 64 No. 2 Nocturn Op. 9 No. 2 Valse Op. 64 No. 1 Preludes in D Major Op. 28 No. 15 Fantaisie-Impromptu Op. 68 Trumerei Frlicher Landmann Op. 68-10 Von fremden Lndern und Menschen Op. 15 Liebestrume Nr. 3 Dollys Dreaming And Awakening Frhlingsstimmen Op. 410 The Swan Blumenlied Valsette Old French Air Mazurka Polka Barcarolle Humoreska Suit Peer Gynt Op. 46-3 Anitras Tanz Suite Bergamasque Prelude Reverie Arabesque I


J. S. Bach J. S. Bach J. S. Bach J. S. Bach J. S. Bach J. S. Bach M. Clementi W. A. Mozart W. A. Mozart W. A. Mozart W. A. Mozart W. A. Mozart L. V. Beethoven L. V. Beethoven Fr. Kuhlau F. P. Schubert F. P. Schubert R. Schumann F. P. Schubert J. F. Burgmler J. L. F. Mendelssohn J. L. F. Mendelssohn F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin F. F. Chopin R. Schumann R. Schumann R. Schumann F. Liszt T. Oesten J. Strauss Saint-Seans G. Lange F. Borowski P. I Tchaikovsky P. I Tchaikovsky P. I Tchaikovsky P. I Tchaikovsky A. Dvorak E. Grieg C. A. Debussy C. A. Debussy C. A. Debussy

1. Mixing Two Voices

Layering is an easy way to make fatter sounds by mixing an additional sound to the current one. With the layering function, your MARK PRO ONE i can sound like a huge ensemble as played by multiple performers. To layer an additional sound to the current one, while holding down the [Layer] button, select sounds by pressing one of the C1 ~ G3 keys as you select the primary sounds. Thats it. Your MARK PRO ONE i will generates the two selected sounds together when you play the keyboard. You can select any of 32 primary sounds for the layering sounds. If you press the [Layering] button only, the Piano+String sound will be selected.
# The layered sounds cannot be saved. Turning off the MARK PRO ONE i or selecting another sounds will erase the previous layering.

2. Layering Example

The most often used layering techniques are mixing two sounds (Piano with Strings or Pads) each with fast attack and slow attack for richer and punchier sounds, or layering a few similar sounding programs (Brasses, Strings, Analog Synths, etc.) to fatten the sounds. Also, mixing pitched and non-pitched instruments together can be very interesting. Most of all, experiment and enjoy! It is all about your taste. You can adjust the volume balance between the primary voice and the layered voice. The MARK PRO ONE i has the volume range from 0 to 127. Adjust the volume level of the layered sound by pressing one of the C5 ~ E5 keys while holding down the [Layer] button. The D5 key sets the volume level to 100, which is the default. Pressing the C#5 key increases the volume level by 1 and the D#5 key decreases the volume level by 1. The two adjacent keys, the C5 and D5 adjust the wet/dry mix by +,-5%. Use the C#7 and D#7 keys for more precise control.
# The default volume levels for the primary sound and the layered sound are 127 and 100.

C#5 [-1] D#5 [+1]

C5 [-5]

D5 [100]

E5 [+5]

Layer Volume

1. Touch
You can adjust how sensitively the keyboard responses to your playing - how the dynamics of the sounds respond to key velocity. By default, a value of Linear is the standard, unaltered level of keyboard sensitivity. Values of Light1 - Light3 are for players who prefer a light touch. You can play more lightly and still get the same attack-velocity values with these settings. The sensitivity level increases as the numeric number suggests. Values of Hard1 - Hard3 are for players who have a heavier touch. You should play harder to get the same attack-velocity values. Also, the numeric number suggests the sensitivity level. Linear is less sensitive than Light1 and more sensitive than Hard1. The MARK PRO ONE i has 7 levels of the touch sensitivity. Select the appropriate level for you by pressing one of the C2 ~ F#2 keys while holding down the [Function] button.
C#2 Touch.2 Light 1 D2 Touch.3 Light 2 D#2 Touch.4 Light 3 E2 Touch.5 Hard 1 F2 Touch.6 Hard 2 F#2 Touch.7 Hard 3

C2 Touch.1 Linear

2. Tune
You can finely tune the pitch of the MARK PRO Key Tune ONE i up or down. This function is useful when C1 -5 you play the RE-110 along with other instrument C#1 -1 that cant be easily retuned. DD#1 +1 While holding down the [Function] button, press E1 +5 the C#1 or D#1 key to adjust the pitch by steps of 1 cent. The C1 or E1 key adjust the pitch in steps of 5 cents. The tuning range is 64 cents flat to 64 cents sharp. Because the MARK PRO ONE i does not display the tuned pitch numerically, you should memorize the setting when you use this function.

C#1 [-1] D#1 [+1]

C1 [-5] D1 [0]

E1 [+5]

3. Transpose
Transpose allows you to play the keyboard in one key and have the notes sound in another key. This is useful when accompanying singing, if the key of the written music is too high or too low for the singer, or when playing music written for a transposing instrument, such as a clarinet. The transpose function makes it possible to shift the pitch of the entire keyboard up or down in semitone intervals up to six semitones. While holding down the Function button, press one of the F#3 ~ F#4 keys to set the desired amount of transposition.

F#3 G#3 A#3 C#4 D#4 F#4


G3 A3 B3 C4 D4 E4 F4

F#3 G3 G#3 A3 A#3 B3 C4

Transpose Value

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

C#4 D4 D#4 E4 F4 F#4

+1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

0 (Default)

4. Local Control
Local Control is the connection between the keyboard of the MARK PRO ONE i and the internal sound producing circuitry of the instrument. Normally, Local Control is ON; in fact, every time you power-up the MARK PRO ONE i, it automatically sets to Local Control ON, so you can play the keyboard and hear the sounds of the instrument. But, there are reasons for setting Local Control to OFF especially when MIDI Out of the MARK PRO ONE i is connected to feed back to the instrument's MIDI In port. One example of this is when using an external sequencer whose MIDI In port is connected to MIDI Out of the MARK PRO ONE i and whose MIDI Out port is connected to MIDI In of the MARK PRO ONE i. In such a case, you can eliminate the doubling of Key Local Control notes by setting Local Control to OFF.

C5 ON(Default) OFF

While holding down the Function button, press the key C5 or C#5 to set Local Control. See Page 22 for more about your MARK PRO ONE i's MIDI features

Local On/Off

C5 C#5

5. Reset

Since the MARK PRO ONE i does not have a display, it is hard to know the current settings. If you get confused or want to restore the default settings, just hold down the Function button then press and release the C8 key. After doing this, all of the settings will be reset to their defaults.

Recording a new performance will erase the previously recorded performance. You cannot record your performance with the internal rhythm pattern either.

1. Play and Stop

Press the [Play / Stop] button to start playback or to stop it. When the MARK PRO ONE i is in the recording mode, pressing the [Play / Stop] button will start or stop playback.
Record the harmony parts first, and play the melody part with different voices, or percussion voices. You can have real fun.


The sustain pedal (rightmost pedal) functions in the same way as the damper pedal of an acoustic piano. When the sustain pedal is pressed, notes continue to play after their keys have been released. Releasing the pedal will silence the sustained notes.

Soft Sostenuto Sustain

If you play a note on the keyboard and press the sostenuto pedal while the notes are held, those notes will still sustain as long as you hold the pedal. But all subsequently played notes will not be sustained.


The soft pedal reduces the volume while the pedal is pressed. The soft pedal will not affect notes that are already playing when it pressed.
MIDI (Musical Interface Digital Interface) is an industry-standard protocol for electronic musical instruments to communicate with each other. MIDI data does not contain any audio signal. It carries digital performance data such as the pitch, note velocity, control signals, etc. For more information about your MARK PRO ONE is MIDI features, see the MIDI Implementation chart on page 25.

1. USB MIDI Connection

The MARK PRO ONE i has a single USB port on its rear panel. - The MIDI In port is for receiving MIDI data from another digital instruments equipped with MIDI Out port. - The MIDI Out port is for transmitting MIDI data that the SP2 generates to another digital instruments equipped with MIDI In port. Without a MIDI interface, the MARK PRO ONE i can be connected to a computer via USB. A single USB cable can carry incoming and outgoing MIDI data between the MARK PRO ONE i and a computer.
USB is the abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus, which is a serial bus standard to interface devices. The MARK PRO ONE i support Plug and Play feature of Windows XP. So, you dont even need to install any additional driver.


You can also use the MARK PRO ONE is MIDI feature to record and play your music with computer based sequencer programs. When you record your performance into the memory of the MARK PRO ONE i , you are actually recording MIDI data, which does not contain any audio signal but the digitized performance data. You can do that with any of the computer based sequencer programs with several more advantages such as unlimited memory and flexible editing feature. You can connect the MARK PRO ONE i to a personal computer as illustrated in the diagram below.



2. MIDI Channel

The MIDI protocol can transmit multiple channels of performance data. In other words, you can even playback musical pieces performed by multiple instruments. Typical MIDI instruments can play up to 16 channels at the same time which equal 16 soloists!
If you want to use the MARK PRO ONE i with a computer via USB, a sequencer program must have been installed on your computer.


A headphone jack allows private practice. Plugging in a pair headphones turns off the speakers. You can also insert a "dummy" stereo headphone adapter. This is useful if you want to mute the internal speaker system while using a more powerful external amplification system connected to Audio out jack. There are two identical headphone jacks on the MARK PRO ONE i.


The Audio In jacks allow you to play along with a tape, CD player or to have an external tone module connected to the MARK PRO ONE i audio system. It is best to use a tone module, tape or CD player that has its own output volume control because the volume control of the MARK PRO ONE i does not affect the signal coming from the Audio In jacks.


The Audio Out jack is used to boost the sound level coming from the piano by hooking it to external amplifier and speaker systems. It can also be connected to an audio recorder to preserve your performance. The MARK PRO ONE i's volume control also affects the signal at the Audio Out jacks. If you wish to silence the MARK PRO ONE i's speakers while using the Audio Out jacks, plug a pair of headphones into either Headphone jack.

1. Using Layers

The most often used layering techniques are mixing two sounds (Piano with Strings or Pads) each with fast attack and slow attack for richer and punchier sounds, or layering a few similar sounding programs (Brasses, Strings, Analog Synths, etc.) to fatten the sounds. Follow the tutorial below a couple of times and you will get the idea quickly and realize how useful this feature will be.

2. Creating New Electric Piano Voice
We are going to start with an existing electronic piano sound and layer it with an acoustic piano sound to create a new electric piano sound suitable for ballad tunes. 1. Select the Grand Piano sound by pressing the C1 key while holding down the [Voice / Piano] button.
2. Select the FM Piano sound by pressing the A1 key while holding down the [Layer] button.
You can try any combination to your taste. Enjoy your new sounds with the internal rhythm patterns for more fun.
MIDI Implementation Chart
Manufacturer : YOUNG CHANG Model : MARK PRO ONE i Digital Piano
Basic Channel Default Changed Default Messages Altered Key range True Voice Note ON Note OFF Keys Channels 0, True # Song Pos. Song Sel. Tune Clock Messages Local Control All Notes Off Active Sense Reset O O Version 1.0


1 All Any X 0 - - 127 O O X X X X X X X X X O O O X O O X X 1 - - 31 X X X X X X X O X X


1 All Poly Mode - - 127 O O X X O X O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 1 - - 31 X X X X X X X O X X


Mode Note Number Velocity After Touch Pitch Bender

Control Change

Bank Select Mod Wheel Data Entry Volume Pan Expression Sustain Pedal Sostenuto Pedal Soft Pedal Reverb Select Reverb Wet/Dry Chorus Wet/Dry All Sound Off Reset All Controllers
Program Change System Exclusive System Common

System Real Time

Aux Messages
Mode 1 : Omni On, Poly Mode 3 : Omni Off, Poly Mode 2 : Omni On, Mono Mode 4 : Omni Off, Mono O = Yes X = No




Depth Length Weight 32.3 inch 16.5 inch 54.3 inch 112 lbs 82 cm 42 cm 138 cm 51 kg
30 Watt Amplification 2 Speakers Audio Outputs Audio Inputs Headphone Output
2 x 15 Watts RMS Per Channel 4 x 6 inch (10cm x 15cm) Oval Type Impedance : 1K source Level : nominal 0.5V RMS Impedance : 50K Load Level : nominal 0.5V RMS Impedance : 47 source Level : nominal 0.5V RMS


Safe Voltage Range Safe Frequency Range Power Consumption
90~125 Volts or 190~250 Volts depending on adapter 47 ~ 63Hz 20 Watts nominal (Piano sound at normal volume)


Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Operating Humidity Storage Humidity
5 to 40 -25 to +to 95% (non ~ condensing) 5 to 95% (non ~ condensing) (40 to 104 ) (-13 to 185 )

Quick Operation Guide

select voices, layer voices or functions.
While holding down the [Voice/Piano], [Metro/Rhythm] or [Function] button, press the keys shown below to
Linear Light 1 Light 2 Light 3 Hard 1 Hard 2 Hard 3

-5 -+1 +5

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 C+1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
2/3/4/6/Ballad Ballad Ballad Ballad Pop Pop Pop Pop R&B R&B Dance Dance Rock Rock Country Country Latin Latin Jazz Jazz 2 20
Grand Piano 1 Stereo Grand 2 Classic Grand 3 Dynamic Grand 4 Piano+Strings 5 Piano+PAD 6 Piano / Bass 7 Rock Piano 8 Digital E Piano 9 FM Piano 10 Ballad E Piano 11 Soft E Piano 12 Church Organ Pipe Organ 14 Pipes 16', 8', Reed 15 B3 Orgran 16 Flim Score 17 Fast Strings 18 Phantom Strings 19 Studio Strings 20 Kupiter 21 Orch Pad 22 U Say Tomita 23 Synth Strings 24 Williams Brass 25 Synth Brass Solo Tenor Sax 27 Brass Section 28 Celesta 29 Marimba 30 Studio Drums 31 Virtuoso Percussion 32
Tune Touch Transpose Local

Metronome Rhythm

Voice/Piano Reverb
Booth Booth RoomRoomRoomChamber Chamber Hall Hall Hall -5 -+1 +5 Chorus Chorus Flange Flange Delay Delay Delay Distortion Distortion Compressor 10 -5 -+1 +5

On Off

Rhythm Volume
Effect Reverb Wet/Dry Effect Wet/Dry



:: Atom Heart Mother (1970)
Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo Organ Hammond M-102 'Spinet' Organ /with Leslie 145 Cabinet Steinway & Sons Baby Grand Piano Mellotron M400 Mark II

:: Meddle (1971)

Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo Organ Hammond M-102 'Spinet' Organ /with Leslie 145 Cabinet Acoustic Grand Piano & Leslie Cabinet 145 EMS VCS3 (Putney) Synthesizer

Live at Pompeii (1972)

Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo Organ Hammond M-102 'Spinet' /with Leslie 145 Cabinet Steinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand Piano
:: Obscured by Clouds (1972)
Hammond M-102 Spinet Organ /with Leslie 145 Cabinet Fender Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano EMS VCS3 (Putney) Synthesizer EMS VCS3 Synthi A (Portabella) Synthesizer ARP Solina String Ensemble (model IV) Synthesizer

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:: The Dark Side of the Moon (1973) European & American Tour (1973)
Hammond RT-3 Two-Manual Console /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Wurlitzer EP-200 Electric Piano EMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer EMS VCS3 Synthi A (Portabella) Synthesizer (not on tour) Steinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand Piano MOOG Minimoog Synthesizer Fender Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano (not on tour) Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo Organ (not on tour) EMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar Synthesizer (on tour only)
:: Wish You Were Here (1975) European & American Tours (1974-75) / Knebworth 75 (1975)
Hammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet MOOG Minimoog Synthesizer ARP Solina String Ensemble (Model V) Synthesizer Wurlitzer EP-200 Electric Piano EMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer EMS VCS3 Synthi A (Portabella) Synthesizer (not on tour) Hohner Clavinet D6 EMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar Synthesizer Steinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand Piano MOOG Taurus II Footpedal Synthesizer
:: Animals (1977) Europe 77 & In the Flesh Tour (1977)
Hammond B-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano MOOG Minimoog (Model D) Synthesizer ARP Solina String Ensemble (Model V) Synthesizer Yamaha C-7 Baby Grand Piano Hohner Clavinet D6 Korg VC-10 Vocoder (not on tour) EMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer (not on tour)

:: Wet Dream (1978)

Fender Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano Hammond B-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Oberheim Four-Voice Polyphonic Synthesizer ARP Solina String Ensemble Synthesizer Yamaha C-7 Acoustic Grand Piano Hohner Clavinet D6

:: The Wall (1979)

Hammond B-3 & C-3 Organs /with Leslie 122 Cabinet SCI Prophet V Synthesizer Yamaha C-7 Acoustic Baby Grand Piano Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano Farfisa Accordion The Wall Live [Is There Anybody Out There?] (1980-81) Hammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet SCI Prophet V Synthesizer Yamaha CP-70 Electric Piano Acoustic Grand Piano ARP Quadra Synthesizer Farfisa Accordion

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:: The Final Cut (1983)
Hammond C-3 /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Steinway Acoustic Grand Piano Harmonium

:: Zee - Confsion (1984)

Fairlight CMI Series II Synthesizer/Sampler
:: A Momentary Lapse Of Reason (1987)
Roland Super JX (JX-10) Digital / Analogue Synthesizer Kurzweil K250 Synthesizer / Sampler Hammond B-3 & C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Kurzweil MIDIBoard Controller Roland Vocoder VP-330 Plus Lapse of Reason Tours [Delicate Sound Of Thunder] (1987-89) / Knebworth 90 (1990) Roland JX-10 (Super JX) Digital/Analogue Synthesizer Hammond B-3 Organ & Leslie 122 Cabinet Kurzweil MIDIBoard Controller Kurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer
:: The Division Bell (1994)
Kurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer Hammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 Cabinet Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano Steinway & Sons Grand Piano World Tour [p.u.l.s.e.] (1995) Hammond B-3 Organ & Leslie 122 Cabinet Kurzweil K2000 / K2000VP & K2000RS Digital Synthesizers Kurzweil MIDIBoard Controller EMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer

:: Broken China (1996)

Kurzweil K2000 / Kurzweil MIDIBoard Controller Hammond XB-5 Portable Dual-Manual Digital Organ Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano AKAI S1100 Digital Sampler E-mu Proteus/2 (Orchestral) Sample Playback Module
Rick Wrights Home Studio Equipment (1996)
Kurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer / Kurzweil MIDIBoard Controller Hammond XB-5 Portable Dual-Manual Digital Organ Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano AKAI S1100 Digital Sampler E-mu Proteus/2 (Orchestral) Sample Playback Module Alesis D4 Drum Machine
Mackie 24+8-extension Multitrack Console Apple Mac Performa 475 / Steinberg Cubase Otari Radar 24-track Hard Disk Recorder Tascam DA-30 DAT Recorder Yamaha SPX990 20-bit Multi-Effects Processor Lexicon LXP-5 Multi-Effects Unit MXR Digital Delay (M-113) / Pitch Transposer (M-129) Rack Mount Effect Units Yamaha REV7 Digital Reverb Unit Studer Ampli VSP Amplitude Panning Unit Drawmer DL241 Dual Channel Auto Compressor Urei 1176 Mono Solid-State Compressor/Limiter Neumann U87 Microphones ATC SCM-16 Monitoring Speakers

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Equipment Description & Analysis


The acoustic piano has always been an element of the Floyd's sound and -unlike other groups of the timeWright insisted on carrying acoustic pianos (although not always grand) on tour throughout the 70s, as opposed to replacing the piano parts with an electric piano; the way Genesis Tony Banks did on stage. It is difficult to say which make of piano is featured on each album. It has been suggested that there are many different makes used by Wright through the years, however there seem to be a couple of favourite brands: Steinway & Sons and Yamaha. Piano parts on Dark Side of the Moon were recorded with a classical Steinway & Sons Baby Grand Piano, which can be seen in the Abbey Road studios during the documentary sections of Live At Pompeii. The Pompeii live recordings also featured a Steinway Grand (A Saucerful Of Secrets). Wright has also been a fan of Yamaha pianos and has used the Yamaha C-7 Acoustic Grand Piano for some of the early albums and then for Animals and The Wall. From 1987 onwards, Wright has been using the Kurzweil K2000 digital sampler series (see SYNTHESIZERS and SAMPLING & SEQUENCING sections below) for their sampled piano sound -as opposed to real pianoswhen playing live. Piano samples were used in Momentary Lapse/Another Lapse of Reason/Delicate Sound Of Thunder (1987-89) & Division Bell (1994) tours. Sampled piano was also used during the Division Bell sessions, although the two songs on the album where piano was dominant subsequently had the parts replaced by real piano; Marooned was originally recorded with a K2000 and Gilmours original demo of High Hopes was played on a sampler, but was replaced by real piano played by Jon Carin. Wright performed the piano parts of Wish You Were Here on a K2000 for the bands induction to the Rock n Roll Hall of Fame. Ricks current grand piano in his home studio is a Steinway.


WURLITZER Electric Piano (1972-1975) Wrights use of the Wurlitzer piano is one of the defining
elements in Floyd sound. Rick used the EP-200 series model (vanilla white) in the studio and a black EP-200A on tour. The funky vibe and tremolo of the Wurly introduced an electric vibe that sat somewhere between the jazzy piano and the vibraphone two of Wrights loves. The Wurlitzer was first used in Obscured by Clouds (1972) but the real showcase has been in Dark Side (1973) and Wish You Were Here (1975), more specifically in Breathe; during the funky staccato counter-rhythm sections against Gilmour's guitar in "Time" (1973); in "Have a Cigar" (1975); and in the jazzy solo in Shine On You Crazy Diamond Part 8 (1975). Wright used a wah-wah pedal to great effect in "Money" (1973) making it one of his more characteristic moments. The same treatment was also used in What Do You Want From Me? (1994), but Wright was either using his Rhodes (see below) or the sampled sound of his Kurzweil K2000 by then (as in the 1994 tour).

(FENDER) RHODES Stage/Suitcase Electric Piano (1977-1981) - The intro to "Sheep" (1977) is
Wrights most obvious example of the Rhodes. The Rhodes produces a jazzier vibrating sound and is used mainly for leads and melodic passages, as opposed to the more rhythm-oriented Wurlitzer. While Wurlitzer was mainly used in Dark Side (1973) and Wish You Were Here (1975), Fender Rhodes was used in Mudmen from Obscured by Clouds (1972), in Animals (1977) and The Wall (1979); in Hey you, for example. Wright used a Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I for the studio and on the road, along with his favourite two Fender Twin Reverb amps. He has also used a Fender Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I. Since 1987, a custom Kurzweil K2000 with 64Mb of RAM is used for samples of Rhodes and Wurlitzer Electric Pianos, when Floyd performed live, however Rick still has a Rhodes as part of his home studio, which was last used for the recordings of Broken China (1996). A Suitcase model was also used for Ricks guest appearance in Gilmours 2002 concerts in Royal Festival Hall. The Rhodes sound has grown to become a Floyd trademark through the years, although it was, in fact, the sound of the 73-75 era Wurlitzer that most people would be referring to, which is of course very similar to that of the Rhodes. Many would argue that this can also be attributed to the bands durability and the relative timelessness of their work. Floyd were certainly pioneers and on the edge of technology up until a certain point in the seventies and managed to formulate a trademark sound; and sounds like that of the Rhodes, the Hammond or the lush synth strings became staples of that Floyd sound. So, in a way, bands like Pink Floyd, which managed to sustain if not increase- their popularity from generation to generation, are largely responsible for the post-90s revival and popularity of many vintage instruments and sounds, including that of the Rhodes and Wurly, both of which have become staples in most trip-hop, funky and electronica acts since the 1990s.

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HOHNER CLAVINET D6 (1975 - 1978) The Clavinet is a bass-type keyboard distinctive for its staccato
sound and its quick attack & decay and has been indelibly associated with funk. The riffs from Stevie Wonders Superstition and Led Zeppelins Trampled Underfoot are two known examples of Clavinet use. The Clavi was not very often used by Wright, however he owned a D6 woodgrain model (which can be seen in the Photo Gallery Appendix) and toured with it in 75 and 77. It is unmistakably featured in Have a Cigar (1975) for the rhythm bass line heard during the guitar solo, as well as in Part 8 of "Shine On You Crazy Diamond" where Wright plays the funky riff on top of Wurlitzer chords, accompanied by VSC3 Synthi sweeping effects. It is also very discreetly- used in Animals (1977), however this cannot be easily verified just by listening to the album; a Clavi is buried somewhere in the mix during the complex rhythm section of Pigs (3 different ones). Wright also used it in "Funky Deux", Waves and other tracks from Wet Dream (1978), his first solo album.

YAMAHA CP-70 Electric Grand Piano (1979 - 1981) The Yamaha CP-70 was prominently used in
The Wall live shows, albeit not by Wright himself, but mostly by the late Pete Woods. In the more straightforward electric piano parts, i.e. where no Rhodes was used, the CP-70 was used instead, although this only applies to the live shows and not to the studio album. It was the CP-70 that was used in the extended solo passages like the ones played by Woods during the live renditions of Young Lust and Another Brick in the Wall Part 2.


popular Hammond organ (see below), the Farfisa produces a more classic organ sound. Wright included a Binson Echorec device for echo as part of his combo and managed to produce many unusual sounds out of it, by experimenting with the Echorec and the organs tone and pan settings. The Farfisa was Wright's main keyboard in the early years, when he was playing with Waters, Mason, Barrett, Klose et al. as Sigma 6, The (Screaming, Architectural, etc.) Abdabs, T-Set, the Pink Floyd Sound, etc. and was used almost exclusively up until The Piper At The Gates Of Dawn in 1967. Between 1967-72, the Farfisa organ played a crucial role in Floyds sound and was used for many of Ricks leads, which he often panned around the auditorium using a special joystick (an azimuth co-ordinator pot) stacked on top of the Echorec unit. Wright used the Farfisa for virtually every solo up until that point, e.g. The Embryo, Fat Old Sun, Cymbaline. He can be seen playing one in Live at Pompeii (1972) and in the studio it was last used for Dark Side (1973). On stage, Floyd kept touring with a Farfisa as part of their equipment while they were still performing live their pre-Dark Side set (e.g. Careful with that axe, Eugene, Echoes and Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun). This organs sound has been strongly associated with certain tracks. In the last ever live performance of Careful with that axe, Eugene (in 5 May 1977) the absence of the Farfisa sound was clearly heard. Wright employed his Hammond (see below) and his array of MiniMoog synthesizers (see SYNTHESIZERS section) to play that rendition and the synth sound was somewhat alien to the piece. The organ in the intro of Time is the last time the Farfisa was featured in a Floyd recording.

FARFISA organ (1965-1972) The Farfisa is a two-manual organ console. In comparison to the more
HAMMOND organ (1967 to date) & LESLIE cabinet speakers - The Hammond is a two manual
console (RT-3,B-3,C-3) or spinet (M102) tonewheel organ. The Leslie cabinet is a speaker with rotary components which gives the organ sound a very distinctive swirling effect (tremolo) that sets it apart from other organs, like the Farfisa (see above). Wright has used several different kinds of Hammonds & Leslies. He started with the M-102 (1968-1972) that was featured in the early Floyd albums up until Obscured by Clouds. The RT-3 Model (1972-1973) was used in the Dark Side of the Moon recording sessions and is also featured in Live at Pompeii during "A Saucerful of Secrets". The B-3 (1973-1994) and its twin sister, the C-3, were the most popular of all Hammond models and were used in every Floyd album from Dark Side onwards depending on the recording studios (check Equipment List by album for details). As for the Leslie cabinets, his most commonly-used Leslie model, since Dark Side, was Model 122. Prior to that, Wright had been using a Leslie cabinet Model 145 for Atom Heart Mother, Meddle and Obscured by Clouds. Wright has used the Hammond in a variety of distinctive ways: for its aggressive swirl overtones (e.g. Mudmen, Sheep); as a basic organ layer on top of which other keyboard sounds (or Gilmours guitar) were stacked e.g. in Mudmen (1972), Shine On You Crazy Diamond (1975) or, for a more recent example, Keep Talking (1994). With the gradual advent of synthesizers and other keyboards from 1972 onwards, the Hammond gradually became the dominant organ in Ricks gear and eventually replaced the Farfisa altogether. Wright still uses Hammonds to this day, and it has been the only vintage keyboard he refused to substitute with latter-day samplers, as its rotor sound and timbre simply cannot be accurately imitated. A B-3 was used in the 1987-89 and 1994 tours; and a Hammond/Suzuki XB-5 Digital Organ Emulator -a more recent digital incarnation of the portable classic- was used in the recording of Broken China (1996) and is now part of Wrights home studio gear.

MOOG Minimoog Synthesizer (1973-1977) The Minimoog was the worlds most popular analogue synthesizer at some point, so it was just a matter of time for the Floyd to get their hands on one. Wright used the Minimoog for many years mainly as a solo lead instrument and in the Dark Side, Wish You Were Here and the 1973-75 tours, and used it as his main synthesizer in the Animals (1977) album and tour. According to his own admission, Wright used the Moog for the first time in Any Colour You Like (1973) by overdubbing the echo-heavy synth leads. He started touring with a Minimoog in the Dark Side Of The Moon 1973 tour (the 72 tours did not feature a Minimoog). A Minimoog was also famously used for the synth horn sound in "Shine On You Crazy Diamond" parts 1-9 (1975). Wright also used Moog Taurus Footpedals for additional bass drones in the complex introduction of "Shine On You Crazy Diamond". A Minimoog was used for the main synth melody of Have a Cigar (1975) and in the live versions of Raving and Drooling (1974-5) and Dogs (1977). There is some ambiguity as to which synth leads are played with a Minimoog and which with a VCS3. As a rule of thumb, the sweeping synth effects and drones are made with a VSC3, whereas most post-Dark Side leads are played with a Minimoog. Floyds gear during the 77 tour included no less than three(!) Minimoog units. It is believed that the parts that were originally recorded with a VCS3 for the studio version of Welcome to the machine were recreated with the Minimoog in the 77 Tour, and that Rick did not actually carry a VCS3 on tour with him in 1977. Parts that featured the VCS3 (e.g. the intro of Shine On You Crazy Diamond and the middle section of Dogs) were played back by the Front-Of-House engineer who triggered tapes (specially prepared from the multitrack recordings) that contained some synth layers and other noises and effects, so that Rick could play Hammond and Minimoog on top of them. A certain amount of debate covers the use of the Minimoog during The Wall recording sessions. The solo of Run like hell sounds like a Minimoog but it is more likely that Wright used the polyphonic Prophet V instead (the Prophet was also an additive analogue synthesizer, capable of producing very similar sounds to the Minimoog but could do much more). The distinctive Moog lead sounds were also used in latter years, for the solos of "Wearing the Inside Out" and "Keep Talking" (1994), which Wright performed with a Kurzweil K2000 instead (see separate section).
It has been suggested that a Moog synth may have been used for the recording of The Narrow Way, but it is quite unlikely that the Floyd would have access to one during April-June 1969. George Harrison had one especially made for him and used it in Abbey Road, which was recorded before August 1969, and Floyd were recording in Studio No 2 next door so, in theory, an engineer may have allowed Gilmour to use some of the equipment from No 2. On the other hand, it has been well documented that the Floyd only met the Beatles (while still a recording unit) once, during Sgt Pepper, and that Studio No 2 was known as the Fab Four shrine, and hence not that much of a free access area. So, it is rather unlikely that a Moog is featured in Ummagumma and the fact that a Moog was mentioned probably stems from the latters popularity later in the 70s than an actual fact. However, the question remains: were the effects heard during Narrow way part 1 manipulated guitar effects? Was it, indeed, a Moog? Or did Abbey Road studios have access to an early VCS3 (the model also used by the BBC Radio Workshop for Dr.Who) in 1969? The most likely assumption is that Gilmour fed his guitar signal through some of the studios modulation/frequency-altering devices, thereby achieving a similar effect without using a proper synthesizer unit (yet).

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ARP SOLINA STRING Ensemble / Odyssey / QUADRA Synthesizer (1972-1981) - The ARP
(acronym for the companys founder, Alan R. Pearlman) synthesizer series became popular, especially in the US, primarily for their string sounds. The Solina String Ensemble (model IV) otherwise known as the String Synthesizer was apparently first used in Obscured by Clouds (although it was definitely not part of Ricks keyboard rig yet) during Absolutely Curtains (1972) and by Gilmour in the intro to "Childhoods End" (1972). The Solina String Ensemble model V was probably the first ARP synth to become a part of Wrights rig, from 1974-75 onwards, and it was unofficially dubbed as The Floyd's String Machine. Other British artists started recording with an ARP in 75, including Mike Oldfield whose album Ommadawn (1975) also featured the same string sound. Wright undoubtedly left a mark by using it for the high-string layers in "Shine On You Crazy Diamond" and in all of the tracks of Wish You Were Here (1975), as well as on "Dogs" (backing the guitar harmony section), "Pigs" and "Sheep" (1977). The string sounds are also prominent in The Wall 1980-81 live shows, e.g. during the "Almost Gone" improvisation (officially titled "Last Few Bricks"). It is, however, a subsequent ARP model that was used in The Wall sessions (it is debated whether it was a Quadra or the more popular Odyssey -possibly a Mk III).
EMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar Synthesizer (1973-1977?) The Hi-Fli (originally named Sound Freak)
was the first British guitar synthesizer, a concept/device that was very innovative at the time (1973) and was bound to appeal to Gilmour, given his aptitude for experimenting with his guitar sound back then (also see section on MiniMoog above about the effects in Narrow Way part 1). According to EMS description, the Hi-Fli was a guitar treatment unit built as a console on a stand with two pedal controllers which could be routed as control voltages to any of the slider functions. The Hi-Fli could be used to apply treatments to the guitar signal that were also found in other analogue synthesizers, like a ring modulator, phasing, waw-waw (sic), fuzz, octave- and frequency-shift sliders, etc. Following the success of Dark Side, Gilmour acquired one and used it to great effect on stage, on the post-73 tours. It often caused puzzlement to the audience and journalists who could not figure out what this curious spacey device was doing on stage. There are certain 74-75 performances of Echoes that feature some interesting frequency-shifting effects coming from the Hi-Fli. It is not clear if a Hi-Fli was used in Animals.
Although not a typical synthesizer as such, the vocoder is nonetheless a voice-synthesising device, activated through voice input, to add a robotic quality to vocals. Floyd first used a Vocoder in Animals (recording during 1976) for Rogers lead vocals in Pigs and for the bastardised psalm on Sheep, as well as for the treated barking sounds and other effects in Dogs. Ricks keyboards were also fed through the Vocoder, notably during the middle section of Dogs. Although it is not documented which particular model was used in Britannia Row studios for the recording of Animals, it is reported that they used the -now classic- Korg VC-10 model. However, it may be possible -through Floyds established association with the UK-based EMS and because of the production date (1976) of EMS vocoder device, that Floyd might as well have used the EMS Studio Vocoder (also known as Vocoder 5000). Another Vocoder device was also used, ten years later, for the recording of A New Machine (1987) presumably the extremely popular then- Roland VP-330 model. It was Waters and Gilmour respectively who mainly operated the Vocoder device not Wright. Yet Wrights vocoder-processed keyboards during Dogs had a most chilling effect and have become a classic Floyd moment. Being on the subject of vocal-synthesising devices, Gilmour also used a talk-box device (also referred to as a voice-box) that has been used by Peter Frampton and Frank Zappa among others, to manipulate his guitar signal through his mouth; in Pigs (1977) and again in Keep Talking (1994).

Korg VC-10 / EMS Vocoder 5000 (1976-1977) / Roland VP-330 Plus Vocoder (1987)
YAMAHA GX1 Polyphonic Synthesizer (197?) - The GX1 (also known as the GX-1 -with a dash)
was a polyphonic synth with the distinction of being extremely rare among the synthesizer community. Wright is mentioned in various sources as having owned a GX1 (presumably for a brief period of time) but it is not clear when that was. It had an official production date of 1975 so Wright may have actually used it before the (also polyphonic) Oberheim. The GX1 was a legendary machine that looked more like a silver space-age cathedral organ and offered features unheard of at the time: it was polyphonic, multitimbral, had multiple (3) keyboards, nearly every note was duophonic, offered patch storage, and even had a primitive beat box. Its tone-cartridge architecture and sound synthesis were (and still are) unique, which added to the fact that it was not at all straightforward to program and operate. It was developed by Yamaha as a test bed for later consumer synths (the CS50, CS60 and CS80 were its descendants) so only about 50 were produced and few of them actually left Japan. ABBAs Benny Andersson had one, Stevie Wonder had two; and Keith Emerson had at least two, one of which he bought from Led Zeppelins John Paul Jones and one recently sold to Hans Zimmer. If, indeed, Rick ever used one, it was probably a transitional instrument before he switched to the other cheaper and lighter polyphonic synths. The GX1 weighed nearly a tonne and was incredibly fragile, so a likely assumption is that Rick could not cope with the logistics of storing it and handling it, let alone touring with it (although ELP famously did).

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Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipment Overall, the GX1 was a technically outstanding and highly expressive instrument that came very close to simulating the nuances of an acoustic instrument. It featured probably the only keyboard ever built that offered three modes of touch sensitivity: velocity sensitivity, which controlled the sounds initial attack rate and pitch; pressure sensitivity, which controlled pitch, volume and a full set of parameters; and, thirdly, a side-to-side wiggle, which controlled vibrato, wah-wah and resonance. Additionally, it supported polyphonic portamento, variable sustain and modulation, which could controlled by a knee controller, and a ribbon controller that played the pitch of each key, not unlike a fretless bass or a cello. All that is impressive even for todays standards. It is remarkable then, that there are no known recordings of GX1 in the Floyd (or Wrights solo) cannon, despite Wrights name persistently appearing in the lists of those who have owned one.

OBERHEIM FOUR-VOICE Polyphonic Synthesizer (1977-1978?) - It is certain that Wright used
an Oberheim synthesizer, but not which model exactly; and this was probably the 4-Voice, the first polyphonic synthesizer to be announced at the time along with Moogs Polysynth. All of the synthesizers mentioned above (except from the GX1) were monophonic, i.e. capable of producing only one note at a time. It is possible that an Oberheim was part of the equipment in Floyds Britannia Row Studios, where both Animals (1977) and Wet Dream (1978) were recorded, but it was almost certainly not used in Animals at all. The credits of Wet Dream (1978) mention "Oberheim synthesizer" so it is safe to assume that Rick got his hands on one circa 1977-8. The familiar synth horn lead in Mediterranean C is played with the Oberheim, harking back to the brass melody of Atom heart mother and Summer 68, a sound he would try again, in 1994, for Wearing the inside out. Rick probably did not use the Oberheim for too long, favouring the superior Prophet V (see below) which appeared a year later.
SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS (SCI) PROPHET V Polyphonic Synthesizer (1979-1981) Wright
acquired this polyphonic synthesizer when it first came out and used it for The Wall sessions and live shows. Prophet V was the first fully programmable analogue synth that offered unsurpassed (until then) polyphony, could play multi-sounds & effects with echoes & repeats, and had extremely flexible analogue filters, envelopes and LFOs. The Prophet quickly become the de facto 80s analogue classic, inevitably favoured by the synth pop bands of the romantic era, but its sound and programming flexibility (notwithstanding its instability) made it a favourite among people like Rick Wakeman, Peter Gabriel, Laurie Anderson and Richard Barbieri (who uses it as his main synthesizer with Porcupine Tree to this day) as well as to synth pioneers like Vangelis, Jarre and Tangerine Dream. Even now, Wright refers to the Prophet as his favourite synth. This poses a bit of an argument regarding the debate about how much of the keyboards/synthesizers heard in The Wall (which was -by Floyd standards- not that much anyway) was actually played by Wright, as opposed to session musicians. The keyboard/synth credits for The Wall has been a very sticky issue, indeed. Through the years, it has been assumed that most of the keyboard duties were not handled by Wright, but by Bob Ezrin, Pete Woods, Freddie Mandell and Michael Kamen (even Gilmour claims to have played some). Yet, this might be a slight exaggeration, for all we know. It is unanimously accepted that Rick did not pull his weight during the recordings. However, it is also known that Wright did play keyboards up until the point when Roger made it clear that neither him nor Mason would receive a production credit. It is well-documented that, once Ezrin was established as the arbiter of the sessions, Wright lost interest and got himself infamously sacked after the summer of 79. Therefore, several keyboard parts were left unfinished including the finishing overdubs (obligatory, because of the way the Floyd demoed the material), and keyboards for tracks that were only finished later in the process (e.g. Nobody Home). James Guthrie, who co-produced and engineered the sessions, has said that Rick did some great playing on that album, whether or not people remember it some fantastic Hammond parts. It would then be fair to say that Wright did contribute up to a certain point in the albums development. Generally speaking, the keyboards in The Wall assumed a role very different to that of previous Floyd albums. There was a lot of material, the tracks had to be tighter, so there was not much space for extended sections and solos. The overall production (heavily influenced by seasoned hard-rock producer Ezrin) called for guitars that were harder, full of delay and flanger and keyboard parts that suited the mock-heavy rock style of tracks like In The Flesh, Young Lust and Waiting for the worms, so inevitably the focus was on rock organ-type Hammond parts and piano that was quite different to Ricks usual jazzy style. Several sections were orchestrated and had to be precise, something that Rick an improvisation fan and not the most competent pianist- could never really cope with; whereas session keyboardists could. On demand and on the spot; exactly the way Waters and Ezrin would like. Synthesizers were relatively subdued in the album and nowhere near as prominent as in previous albums: adding a certain edge in places (e.g. the piano-complementing synth sweeps in Thin Ice or the synthbehind-the-vocal melody in Goodbye blue sky); providing atmospheric embellishments (like the unmistakably Sheep-reminiscing passages of Dont leave me now or the synth in Is there anybody out there?) and complementing some orchestral parts. All in all, a far cry from the bands adventurous keyboard arrangements. So, assuming that several of Ricks Hammond parts were actually used, surely

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MELLOTRON (1968-1971) Rick Wrights use of the Mellotron is more extensively discussed in the
dedicated paragraph (above), but the Tron definitely deserves a mention in this category, as it is essentially the first (analogue and manual) sampler in history. It reproduced pre-loaded sets of tapes, each with recorded notes for existing instruments (most famously strings, flutes, choir and brass). Mellotron has been notorious as a highly vulnerable instrument (Robert Fripp's comments on King Crimsons adventures while touring with a mellotron are priceless). It required constant tuning and was extremely volatile, which explains why it was exclusively used in the studio by Floyd. A black Mellotron M400 Mark II belonged to the band between 1968-71.
TAPE EFFECTS (1967-1983) - Not an instrument as such, but a crucial element of Floyds sound
nonetheless. Floyd have been using reel-to-reel tape recorders and loops of tape-recorded effects since day one, initially with the aid of their early producer Norman Smith, who had previously worked with the Fab Four (the latter being, among other things, pioneers of Stockhausen-influenced tape experimentation). In the analogue days, there was no other way to reproduce the bits of musique concrte, the spoken dialogues, voices and assorted sound effects used by the band. Almost every single record up until The Final Cut (1983) features some sort of effect, played back from multitrack tapes. In Ummagumma (1969) Floyd displayed impressive prowess with manipulated tape effects, whereas the Dark Side Of The Moon (1973) famously featured dialogues, clocks, heartbeats and tossed coins. Had the abandoned Household Objects (1974) project come into fruition, we would have been treated with a complete piece made of such taped sounds, but this was not to be, although Shine On You Crazy Diamond part 1 (1975) famously features a taped recording of tuned wineglasses, taken from these sessions. From the early stuff of The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967) and its assortment of morse code, bike sounds and various squeaky noises; the animals in Several Species. and the bird sounds (almost a Floyd-trademark) in Ummagumma (1969) and More (1969); the breakfast-making noises from Alans Psychedelic Breakfast (1970) as well as the horse and motorcycle sounds in Atom Heart Mother (1970); the footstep sequence during the 1970-71 live performances of Cymbaline; the (VSC3-generated) wind in One of these days (1971) and the cheering crowd singing Youll never walk alone in Fearless (1971); the tribal chant in Absolutely Curtains (1972); to the instantly recognisable clocks in Time (1973); the cash register sounds in Money (1973); the bar noises in the coda of Welcome to the machine (1975); the AM radio wave scanning noises in Have a cigar (1975); the various animal sounds in Animals (1977), etc. By the time of the The Wall (1979), the subsequent Music From The Film (1982) and The Final Cut (1983) Floyd had been using a vast array of spoken bits, TV dialogue, cars, phone operator conversations, smashed objects, helicopters, explosions and assorted sounds and noises that were seamlessly incorporated into the music, to the point that they were featured as an essential instrument. Waters continued to rely even more on such effects in his subsequent solo releases, particularly in The Pros and Cons of Hitch-Hiking (1984) and Amused to Death (1992). But this tradition went strong in postWaters Floyd releases as well, with the opening boat sequence in Signs of life (1987); the dialogue in Terminal frost (1987); the earth noises in Cluster One (1994); the carousel in Poles Apart (1994); Stephen Hawkings voice in Keep Talking (1994); the boxing ring sounds from Lost for Words (1994); and the bee buzzing and bell tolling of High Hopes (1994). Tape effects have been used in Floyd records as if they were an extra musical instrument. Most of the effects heard on records, had to be played back in live gigs, by multi-track tapes especially prepared for the live shows, that were fired up at the appropriate time during the bands performance.

The original draft of this document was based on a significant amount of information about the bands vintage equipment that was culled from the website, where the content of posts submitted by Wrightkeys to the online forum was reproduced, as well as information courtesy of Mr Mike Kiker. These web pages have since been removed, so no exact link can be given at present. Those looking for the original alt-music-pink-floyd posts may search them manually in Usenet archives. New posts can also be searched in Relevant bibliography: Nicholas Schaffner Saucerful of Secrets, The Pink Floyd Odyssey, Sidgwick&Jackson, 1991 Miles & Andy Mabbett Pink Floyd, The Visual Documentary, 3rd ed., Omnibus Press, 1994 Andy Mabbett The Complete Guide To the Music of Pink Floyd, Omnibus Press, 1995 Cliff Jones - Echoes: The stories behind every Pink Floyd song Bruno McDonald, ed., - Pink Floyd Through the eyes of. , Sidgwick & Jackson, 1996 Glenn Povey & Ian Russel Pink Floyd: In The Flesh, The complete performance history, Bloomsbury, 1997 Joel Chadabe - Electric Sound, The Past and Promise of Electronic Music, Prentice Hall, 1997 MOJO magazine features & interviews (1993, 1999, 2001)
This document would have been grossly inaccurate without the information of WrightKeys. Many thanks are due for his posts on Ricks organs and electric pianos.



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