Lada Niva 1600
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Lada Niva 1600 CAR, size: 1.5 MB
Lada Niva 1600
lada niva 1600
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Driver s Manual for the Niva 1600 (Vaz 2121 series)
Operator s Manual
This Manual contains a description of the Lada Niva car, description of its parts, driving tips and specifications. This Manual was scanned from an original Manual supplied with a 1989 Niva 1600. Some details may have changed for subsequent Niva models, notably the Niva 1700 Bushmaster. This Manual complements the Niva Maintenance Manual which I produced in early 1998. This Manual provides information useful for everyday drivers of the Niva such as descriptions of buttons, gauges, switches etc. There is also a good description of the car s appointments for the prospective driver. The Manual is intended to provide a replacement Manual for owners of Lada Nivas who were not provided with a Manual when purchasing their car. It is not an extra Manual and does not contain any information other than what is contained in the original driver s Manual (except for a few comments I have added and the table of contents). It has been designed to print double sided - hence the arrangements of the wider inner margins.
The Manual contains the following sections:
Introduction A brief description of the car Important notices Information about practices and procedures that must be adhered to, to ensure optimal performance of the car over a long time. Contains do s and dont s of driving a Niva. Description This section contains description of parts of the Niva 1600 - (Vaz 2121). Explanations are given of what things are, not necessarily how they work. Instruments and Controls Gives a detailed explanation of how to use all of the instruments and controls on the car dashboard, steering wheel and central panel. Appointments Explains the use of such things as rear-vision mirrors, ventilation, heating, ash-tray, doors(window-wipers, opening etc), adjusting seats, tail-gate and opening the hood. Operating instructions This section provides advice and instructions on how to drive the car - including advice on how to start the engine in particularly cold weather.
' 1989 - 1999. You may freely print as many copies of this manual for your own use only as you wish provided that you own a Lada Niva. You may not copy, modify, print or in any other way distribute this manual for a profit or cost. You may not charge may money what-so-ever including; copying, printing, paper or others costs for this manual. This manual may not be stored on shareware CD-Roms, web-sites other than Galactic Niva or other storage medium. Galactic Niva (http://members.tripod.com/~vaz2121/niva/index.htm). Support a starving Uni student today! Send cheques / money / postcards to: Jason Chapman 3/125 Grange Rd
Glen Huntly 3163 Victoria, Australia
Lada Niva Driver s Manual
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION... 2 IMPORTANT NOTICES.. 2 DESCRIPTION.. 6 IDENTIFICATION DATA.. 6 LUBRICATING SYSTEM.. 7 FUEL SYSTEM.. 7 Crankcase breathing system.. 7 Cooling system.. 7 IGNITION SYSTEM.. 7 EXHAUST SYSTEM.. 7 TRANSMISSION.. 8 Clutch.. 8 Gearbox.. 8 Transfer case... 8 Propeller shafts.. 8 Front axle.. 8 Rear axle.. 8 SUSPENSION.. 8 Front suspension. 8 Rear suspension. 8 STEERING GEAR AND WHEELS.. 8 Steering gear.. 8 Wheels.. 9 Tyres.. 9 BRAKES.. 9 Service brakes.. 9 Parking brake.. 9 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.. 11 Storage battery.. 11 Alternator.. 11 Voltage regulator.. 11 Starter.. 11 Car radio.. 11 Windshield wiper.. 11 Heater motor.. 11 Ignition switch.. 11 External lighting and light signalling system.. 11 Instrument panel.. 11 Bulbs.. 11 BODY... 12 Car appointments:.. 12 Ventilation and heating. 12 Keys... 12 Air Conditioning.. 12 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS. 13 1. Headlight switch lever.. 13 2. direction indicator switch lever.. 14 3. Ignition switch.. 14 Anti-theft lock.. windshield wiper switch lever. 14 11. parking brake lever. map shelf.. swivelling air deflectors. air intake port cover control lever. heater cock control lever. heater fan three position switch. back window wiper and washer switch.external lighting switch.. choke control knob.. coolant temperature gauge. brake fluid low level warning lamp. transfer differential lock warning lamp headlight upper beam warning lamp. direction indicator warning lamp. marker light warning lamp.. trip counter resetting.. tachometer.. choke warning lamp. battery no charge warning lamp.. parking brake warning lamp.. low oil pressure warning lamp. low fuel warning lamp.. instrument lighting switch. headlight wiper switch. back window heater switch.. cigarette lighter.. rear fog lamp switch.. emergency flasher warning light switch.19 APPOINTMENTS.. 20 Sun visors.. 20 Rear view mirrors.. 20 VENTILATION AND HEATING.. 20 Windshield Demisting.. 21 Heating.. 21 DOORS.. 22 SEATS... 22 Engine hood... 23 Installing the number plates.. 23 Fuel tank cap.. 23 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS. 24 Starting the engine from cold. 24 Starting from Hot.. 24 MOVING OFF.. 24 DRIVING HINTS... 25 Stopping and parking the car. 25 Running in.. 26 Seat belts.. 26 Adjusting the spark advance angle. 27 Towing the car.. 27 TABLES.. 29 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS. 29 ENGINE... 31 FILLING CAPACITIES. LITRES.. 31 MAIN ADJUSTMENT AND TEST DATA. 32
The VAZ2121 is a comfortable, high speed, all wheel drive, cross country, economy car intended to carry passengers and loads on paved roads of any kind and on dirt roads. The car design makes it possible to operate the car at ambient temperatures ranging from plus 45"C down to minus 40 "C. The advanced design and use of high quality lubricants ensure reliable engine starting at low ambient temperatures down to minus 25"C without a starting pre-heater. If the car is to be operated at ambient temperatures below minus 25"C, it should be kept in a warm garage to ensure reliable starting of the engine. A double circuit brake system incorporating a low brake fluid level warning device and a rear brake pressure regulator comply with the modern safety standards for passenger cars. High operating properties and dependability, long service life and low labour input in maintenance largely depend upon strict observance of the operating and servicing rules. The present Manual contains basically a description of the VAZ2121 car, whereas the design features VAZ21212 car are given in a separate chapter. Inasmuch as the design of the VAZ cars is being constantly perfected, some units and mechanisms may somewhat differ from those described in the present Manual. IMPORTANT NOTICES Prior to starting the regular operation of the car the Owner is invited to carefully study the present Manual. The excellent performance of the car will become more conspicuous and its life will be considerably longer if the Owner strictly adheres to the recommendations laid down below. The comfortable car is easy to steer and exhibits high spurt and speed capabilities on the road which fact ranks the car with ordinary passenger cars. However, it differs from them in its cross-country ability on slushy dirt roads, sand and snow. Nevertheless, the Owner should always remember that the car is not intended for constant operation un der heavy road conditions. If the car is driven in heavy sections of the road (on mud or sand), wash the car carefully and examine the following parts more frequently than usual: Front wheel hub seals and lubricant Front brake friction pads; Protective rubber boots of the suspension ball supports, steering rod joints, and front wheel drive joints. If the boot is damaged, water and mud penetrate into the joint, causing its abnormal wear and failure. A damaged boot should be immediately replaced with a new one.
After negotiating a deep (0.5 m) ford, check before a trip for water in the power transmission units. Do it by loosening the drain plugs until drops appear. Oil drops indicate that there is no water in the unit. Do not overload the car in excess of the specified limits. Overloading results in damage of the front suspension elements, bending of the rear axle beam, premature wear of the tyres, vibration of the body end loss of road stability. The mass of the load on the roof luggage carrier (including that of the carrier) should not excess 50 kg with the payload not exceeding 400 kg. Elastic suspension of the car absorbs vibrations when driving speedily on bad roads. Sharp jolts, how ever, may cause deformation of the lower wishbone shafts and damage other parts of the Therefore, when driving roads, do not speed up and avoid striking the curb-stones. Do not lock the differential at the moment of slipping of both wheels of one of the car driving axles. Lock the differential in advance, taking into consideration the road conditions. Upon negotiating the difficult sections, unlock the differential since driving along good roads with the differential locked running gear. on such shortens the life of the power transmission mechanisms, and increases the tyre wear and fuel consumption; when braking. the car may go skidding. The differential locking is in dictated by the warning lamp on the instrument panel. The engine, gearbox, transfer case, front and rear axles of the Ear should be lubricated only with the oils recommended by the Manufacturer (refer to Appendix 2). The use of oils of other grades will result in premature failure of said units and mechanisms. The engine is designed to run on gasoline with an octane number not lower than 91. Operation on gasoline with lower octane numbers is not allowed. Red-orange tinted gasoline AN-93 is ethylated. Ethylated gasoline is poisonous, therefore keep it off the hands, skin, clothes and upholstery. Any operations which could result in penetration of ethylated gasoline or its vapours into the mouth are particularly intolerable. Never use the starter to move the car from rest. Move off only in the 1st gear. If the engine fails to run after three attempts to start it, check the fuel system or ignition system, and eliminate the cause of poor engine starting. Do not apply the starter with the engine running, since that may lead to breakage of the starter pinion or flywheel teeth. Never race the engine to the speed bringing the tachometer pointer in the red zone of the scale. If the tachometer pointer is found within the yellow zone, the engine speed approaches the maximum permissible limit (the edge of the red zone). Bear in mind that exhaust gases are poisonous. Therefore, the premises where the engine is started and warmed up should be properly ventilated. Do not operate the car with the low engine oil pressure warning lamp glowing. Lighting up of this lamp is permissible at the minimum idling speed. On increasing the engine speed, the lamp must go off. Glowing of the lamp at the engine service speeds indicates
insufficient oil pressure in the engine lubricating system. Extremely important! Never run
the car with the low oil pressure warning lamp on! This will cause rapid engine wear which will cease the engine resulting in total engine destruction!
Take care of the tyre pressure since driving on under inflated tyres results in their premature wear and impairs car stability and steerability. When on the move, do not turn the ignition key to position III PARKING (CTORHKA) as it may result in locking the steering shaft by the antitheft device, thus making the car non-steerable. Prior to moving off, check the parking brake lever position; start motion only with the lever all the way down. While in motion, do not switch off the ignition, since the brake vacuum booster becomes inoperative when the engine is stopped, and the force to be applied to the brake pedal rises considerably. The car is fitted with highly effective front disc brakes. However, their long service life can be ensured only with due care. Prevent accumulation of dirt in the brake mechanisms, and wash them after driving in deep mud. If one of the brake circuits fails, braking of the car will be ensured by the other. The trouble, however, results in longer travel of the brake pedal and lower braking efficiency; at the first instant that even may be taken for complete failure of the brakes. Do not release the brake pedal in this case nor depress it repeatedly, since that will only result in lengthening the braking time and distance; instead, press the pedal until the maximum possible braking effect is attained. With the engine inoperative, never leave the ignition turned on, as this will discharge the storage battery and damage the ignition system units. To ensure normal functioning of the lighting and signalling systems, make use of the electric bulbs specified in Appendix 1. To prevent damage to the alternator rectifier, proceed as follows: When installing the storage battery on the car, see to it that the wires are connected in compliance with the polarity signs stamped on the wire clamps and battery terminals (the positive terminal is larger then the negative one). The storage battery must be connected to terminal "30" of the alternator only by the positive wire (wire lug marked " + "); When the storage battery installed in the car is being slave charged from an external source, be sure that the battery is disconnected from the alternator; do not check the alternator serviceability by short-circuiting its terminal "30" to the ground or to terminal "67" (to check for sparking); Do not operate the alternator unless its terminal "30" is connected to the battery. The car is equipped with an ignition coil that has no series resistor. Therefore, do not shortcircuit its terminals to facilitate starting the engine with the starting crank, as it will damage the moving contact spring of the ignition distributor breaker and ruin the ignition switch contact block.
The clutch is single plate, dry, with diaphragm pressure spring, and is hydraulically controlled.
The gearbox is four speed, all forward gears synchro-meshed The gearshift lever is mounted on the floor tunnel. Gear ratios: 1st gear 3.667; 2nd gear 2.100; 3rd gear1.361; 4th gear 1.000; Reverse gear 3.526. Car versions with a five speed gearbox and 5th gear ratio of 0.819 are available.
The transfer case is of two range type, three shaft, with a centre differential having a positive lock. The differential lock lever and range shift lever are mounted on the floor tunnel. Gear ratios: High range 12 Low range 2.135
The intermediate propeller shaft (gear box to transfer case) is provided with an elastic coupling and a needle bearing universal joint. The front and rear axle propeller shafts are provided with needle bearing universal joints at the ends. Each propeller shaft has grease fittings in the splined connections and joints.
The front axle reduction unit with the centre differential is attached to the engine. The final drive is bevel gear, hypoid. gear ratio 4.1. The front wheel drive propeller shafts are provided with oiled for life universal joints.
The rear axle is a rigid beam. The rear axle reduction unit is provided with a centre differential. The final drive is bevel gear, hypoid, gear ratio 4.1. Suspension
Independent, on swinging lateral wishbones, with coil springs, double acting telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers and antiroll bar. The joints need no periodical lubrication.
Coil springs, double acting telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers, four longitudinal and one transverse radius rods. Steering Gear and Wheels
The steering mechanism including an hourglass worm on ball bearings and a roller on needle or ball bearings is enclosed in an aluminium case. The steering gear ratio is 16.4. The steering linkage side rods are actuated by the pitman arm and centre rod with an idler arm. The steering rod joints need no periodical lubrication. The steering gear is injury safe.
Wheels are of drop forged disc type. The rim size is 127-J406 (5J-16). The wheel is fastened with five nuts. The spare wheel is in the engine compartment.
are cross-ply 6.9516 (175-406), or radial-ply 175/801116. Brakes Used in the car is a two circuit hydraulic brake system.
(combined with emergency brake) Include front disc brakes with movable callipers and three cylinder blocks, and rear aluminium drum brakes with cast iron liners on the working surface, with self aligning shoes and hydraulic cylinders. The front and rear brakes are hydraulically operated by the foot pedal through master brake cylinder with two coaxial pistons, and a vacuum booster. The rear brake hydraulic circuit incorporates a pressure regulator which reduces the probability of rear wheel locking at braking; in the case of wheel locking, the pressure regulator allows the front wheels to lock earlier which reduces the possibility of skidding. Note - switching off the engine while in travel deactivates the brake booster pump which in turn makes braking distances greatly longer!
is hand operated. The rear wheel shoes are cable operated by the lever mounted on the floor tunnel between the front seats.
Electrical Equipment The system is single wire. negative ground return type. Rated voltage is 12 V.
Type 6CT55A, capacity 2 105C (55 A at 20h discharge rate. The current output at h) intensive discharge in cold state (minus 18"C) is 255 A.
Is an enclosed type machine with a built in rectifier employing silicon diodes; the current output at the engine speed of 5,000 rpm is 42 A.
Is of two stage, vibration type.
With a solenoid switch and an overrunning clutch. Its power rating is 1.3 kW.
"Bylina207" or "Kruis 201" is a stationary set, with an external antenna AP-108 on the front left fender, installed on some of the cars.
Is an electrical, two-blade device with two operating modes: continuous and intermittent. Motor power rating is 20 W. Headlight wipers and washers are electrical devices, installed to special order.
Has a power rating of 20 W.
The switch controls ignition, external lighting, instrument lighting, and engine starting. It is installed on the steering column and provided with an antitheft device. Horns are electrically operated.
External lighting and light signalling system.
Two headlights with lighting units made to meet European Standards, ride lights combining marker lights and direction indicators, side direction indicators, tail lights combining marker lights, direction indicators, stoplights, backing lamps and reflectors, and rear number plate lamps.
Tachometer with parking brake warning lamp, choke warning lamp, and battery no-charge warning lamp; speedometer with odometer and trip counter, and with marker light, direction indicator, and headlight upper beam warning lamps; fuel gauge with low fuel warning lamp; coolant temperature tyre gauge; oil pressure gauge with low engine oil pressure warning lamp; differential lock and brake fluid low level warning lamps.
See Appendix 1 for places of installation and types.
Body Body three door, unitized (anodised?), all metal. Its side doors have front mounted hinges and windows provided with two glasses: swivelling vent and roll down. Tailgate (luggage compartment door) opens upwards. The windshield and back window are scenaramic. The triplex windshield and heat tempered back and side glasses are polished and splinter proof. The bumpers are rubber plated at the front and provided with plastic end pieces. The split front seats fitted with headrests are adjustable fore and aft and for rake (or drivers and passengers comfort. The front seats are hinged to provide access to the back seat which can be folded to increase the luggage compartment area. The seat upholstery is of artificial leather.
Instrument panel, cigarette lighter, ashtrays in the instrument panel and side walls near the back seat, glove compartment, sun visors, external and internal rear view mirrors, armrests on both doors, seat belts, electric windshield washer, heater, map shelf under the instrument panel on the passengers side, front end rear wheel splash aprons, and a fire extinguisher holder under the drivers seat. On request, the car may be equipped with an electrically heated back window, rear fog lamp, and back window wiper and washer.
Ventilation and heating.
The heating system is connected to the engine cooling system. Air is distributed by two air deflectors on the instrument panel. The deflectors direct heated air on the windshield or to the upper part of the body interior; heated air is supplied into the lower part of the body interior when the heater cover is open. Air circulation is intensified by an electric fan with two modes of operation. At an ambient temperature of minus 25 "C, an average temperature inside the car is as high as 20 "C with the heating system at full blast; in the area around the drivers and passengers feet the temperature is about 25 "C. The body interior is ventilated through the holes in the body side panels.
Each car is furnished with two sets of keys. Each set contains a larger key (Fig. 3) for the ignition switch, and a smaller one for the doors. Each key bears a stamped Series No.
The Niva 1600 is not fitted with air conditioning, but it is possible to fit it. This will effect your fuel consumption though. In Australia, you can contact Richmond Auto Electricals on (03) 9428-3185 or (03) to have air conditioning fitted - Jason
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Fig. 4. Instrument and Controls:
1 headlight switch lever; 2 direction indicator switch lever; 3 ignition switch; 4 clutch pedal; 5 brake pedal; 6 windshield wiper switch lever; 7 accelerator pedal; 8 heater lid lever; 9 transfer differential lock lever; 10 transfer range shift lever; 11 parking brake lever; 12 gearshift lever; 13 radio seat decorative cover; 14dashin panel with additional controls; 15 map shelf; 16 glove compartment; 17 ashtray; 18 plug; 19 _ swivelling air deflectors; 20 air intake port cover control lever; 21 heater cock control lever; 22 heater fan three position switch; 23 back window wiper and washer switch; 24 external lighting switch; 25 choke control knob; 26 horn switch; 27 instrument panel; 28 coolant temperature gauge; 29 brake fluid low level warning lamp; 30 transfer differential lock warning lamp; 31 speedometer; 32 trip counter; 33 odometer; 34 headlight upper beam warning lamp; 35 direction indicator warning lamp; 36 marker light warning lamp; 37 trip counter resetting knob; 38 tachometer; 39 choke warning lamp; 40 battery no charge warning lamp; 41 parking brake warning lamp; 42 oil pressure gauge; 43 _ low oil pressure warning lamp; 44 fuel level gauge; 45 low fuel waring lamp; 46 instrument lighting switch; 47 fuse blocks; 48 hood lock release lever; 49 headlight wiper switch; 50 back window heater switch; 51 cigarette lighter; 52 rear (lasher warning light switch fog lamp switch; 53 emergency flasher warning light switch.
1. Headlight switch lever.
When external lighting switch 24 is turned on and the ignition key is in position I or III, the headlight switch lever may be set in the following positions: Position I: headlights OFF Position II: lower beam ON Position III: upper beam ON The upper beam of the headlights can also be turned on with the external lighting switch in the OFF position by pulling up the lever along the axis of the steering column. The upper beam of the headlights When released, the lever returns to the initial position automatically.
40 battery no charge warning lamp
(red). It comet on when the ignition is turned ON; the lamp goes off immediately on starting the engine. If the lamp stays ON with the engine running, the alternator drive belt is slack or the alternator is faulty. From experience this is most often caused by a worn fan belt. Replace the fan belt immediately or you risk burning out the alternator! - Jason
61 parking brake warning lamp
(red). If the ignition is ON, the lamp comes on in flashing light after the brake lever is shifted to the upper position.
42 oil pressure gauge. 43 low oil pressure warning lamp
(red). The lamp comes on when the ignition is ON. The lamp must go off when the speed of the started engine is above the minimum rpm. Extremely important! Never run the car with the low oil pressure warning lamp on! This will cause rapid engine wear which will cease the engine resulting in total engine destruction! Make sure you are always topped up on oil!
44 fuel level gauge. 45 low fuel warning lamp
(red). It comes on when less than 4-6.5 litres of fuel remains in the tank.
46 instrument lighting switch.
It is energised when external lighting switch 24 is turned ON. Instrument lighting is turned on and its brightness is regulated by turning the switch knob.
47 fuse blocks 48 hood lock release lever. 49 headlight wiper switch.
The headlight wipers and washer are turned ON by depressing the switch button, if the headlight lower beam is ON. When released, the button automatically returns to the initial position.
50 back window heater switch
This is installed instead of the plug if the car is equipped with a back window heater. When the rocker riffled portion is depressed to the fixed position, the back window heater is turned ON and the warning lamp with an orange lens in the switch comes on.
51 cigarette lighter.
To use the lighter, depress and release immediately the holder button which remains depressed for approximately 15 s. Then the button automatically returns to the initial position and the lighter is ready for use. With the instrument lighting ON, a special lamp illuminates the lighter socket.
52 rear fog lamp switch
Is in stalled instead of the plug if the car is equipped with a rear fog lamp. The lamp is turned on by depressing the left part of the switch rocker. The warning lamp with an orange lens in the switch proper comes ON in this case.
53 emergency flasher warning light switch.
Pressing on the button results in flashing of all direction indicators and of a warning lamp in the button proper. The emergency flasher warning lights are switched off by pressing on the button for the second time.
Are intended to protect the driver and passenger from the dazzling sun. In case of head on rays, set the visor (Fig. 5) in position I, in case of side rays, in position II.
Rear view mirrors
Internal rear-view mirror(Fig. 6) ensures observation of the road behind the Ear. If the driver is dazzled by the headlights of a vehicle following behind, use the lever to change the mirror tilt. External rear-view mirrors serve for observing the road behind the car, particularly when the dimensions of the load carried in the luggage compartment of the car obstruct observation of the road by means of the internal rear-view mirror, or when the back window is covered with mist.
To open the ashtray, pull handle 1 (Fig. 7). To empty, depress cigarette put out strip 2, and remove the ashtray.
are mounted on the front seats. Adjustable in height, the headrests are held in the required position by spring detents. Inspection lamp socket is located in the engine compartment on the bracket of the hydraulic brake fluid reservoir. Ventilation and heating Depending on the temperature of outside air, ventilation and heating of the car can be adjusted as described below. The outside sir can enter the car body as follows: through the open swivelling vent windows; to open, depress button 1 (Fig. 8), and turn handle 2; through the window if the roll-down glasses are lowered by rotating handle 3; through air deflectors 1 (Fig. 9) when lower lever 4
controlling the air intake port cover is shifted to the right. Shifting the lever right wards increases the supply of the outside air through the heater radiator; through the heater grille if the lid is opened by means of lever 5, with lower lever 4 shifted to the right. Turning of the deflectors changes the direction of the air flow. If the car moves at a low speed, the amount of supplied air can be increased by cutting in the heater fan with switch 2. The fan is driven at the lower speed on depressing the lower part of the switch rocker to the first fixed position, and at the higher speed on depressing the rocker to the second fixed position. The fan is switched off by depressing the upper part of the switch rocker as far as if will go.
To demist the windshield it is enough to blow cold air on it. For this purpose, shift lower lever4 to the right and, having closed the heater lid with lever 5 turn air deflectors 1 so that the air stream is spread over the greater area of the windshield. To warm slightly the supplied air, shift upper lever 3 part way to the right. When the lever is shifted to the right, coolant delivery from the engine to the heater radiator is increased.
To heat the car interior and to demist and defrost the windshield proceed as follows: shift levers 3 and 4 to the right;
Fig. 9. Heating System Controls: 1 swivelling air deflectors; 2 heater fan three position switch; 3heater cock control lever; 4 air intake port cover control lever; 5 heater lid levers
if necessary, cut in the heater fan with switch 2; open the heater lid with lever 5. Hot air will be directed to the drivers and passengers feet zone, as well as onto thewindshield. To speed up warming of the windshield, close the heater lid. If the ambient air temperature is very low, shift lever 4 part way to the right so as to limit the inflow of cold air. Doors To open the side doors, press the door handle upwards (Fig. 10). As soon as the door is opened, the interior lamps come on automatically. For locking the doors from the outside, locks 1 are provided. From the inside, the lock is engaged by depressing the lock button (fig 11) Do not press the button when the door is open, since in this case the inside locking mechanism is inoperative. (ie, there s no point trying to open an already open door) To open the door from the inside pull handle 1, irrespective of the position of the locking button. To open the luggage compartment tailgate, unlock it with the side door key and depress lock button 1 (Fig. 12). In the open position, the tailgate is retained by gas filled telescopic props. Seats For fore and aft adjustment of the front seats, turn down lock handle 1 (Fig. 13). Release the handle after the seat is shifted to the desired position and slightly move it to and fro to make sure it is fixed reliably. To tilt the seat backrest Fig. 13. Front Set: (lock handle; 2 slightly, rotate knob 2. To back rake adjusting knob: 3 handle incline the seat backrest through a larger angle, raise knob 2, adjust the seat backrest to a desired rake, and release the knob. To make berths in the car, remove the headrests, shift the seats to the foremost position, and throw back the seat backrests, setting them in plane with the back seat. To provide access to the back seat, depress handle 3 and tilt the front seat as shown in Fig. 14. The back seat is folding. To enlarge the luggage
Stopping and parking the car
To stop the car remove the foot from the accelerator pedal, depress the clutch pedal all the way down, throw the gearshift lever into the neutral, and depress the brake pedal. The design of the car brakes ensures efficient braking. Nevertheless, apply the brakes smoothly and gently in all instances, avoiding abrupt braking. When parking the car on a level ground, apply the parking brake, but when parking on a slope, besides applying the parking brake, shift into the 1St or reverse gear, depending on whether the car is parked on an upgrade or a downgrade.
During the first 2.0003.000 Km: 1. Check the tyre inflation pressure and bring it to normal before each trip. 2. While in motion, and in the warm-up time after starting the engine (especially after starting from cold) do not rev up the engine in excess of 4,000 rpm 3. Do not take heavy roads (deep mud or snow, sand and steep upgrades). 4. Avoid towing a trailer. 5. Timely shift into a lower gear in compliance with the road conditions, trying to avoid engine over loading. 6. Do not change the engine oil filled at the Manufacturers. For better running-in, the crankcase is filled with winter grade oil. Therefore, during the running-in in a hot season the oil pressure may be somewhat lower than the rated value of 0.35 MPa (3.5 kgf/cm2), which fact should not be considered as a symptom of trouble of the lubricating system. Bear in mind that high reliability and long service life of all units and mechanisms of the car largely depend on operation of the car during the running-in period.
The seat belts are an effective means of protecting the driver and passengers against grave consequences of traffic accidents. The cars are equipped with the belts of two types: with inertia reels and without the reels. In the first case the belts need no adjustment in length, while in the second case adjustment is necessary. The length of the belt should be adjusted so that a palm is free to pass between the breast and diagonal strap 2 (Fig. 22), while waist strap 4 tightly fits the hips. The length is set by length adjuster 3. To fasten the belt, insert tongue 5 into lock 7 until a click is heard. Prevent twisting of the straps. Do not strap down a child sitting on the passengers lap. To unfasten the belt, press button 6 of the lock. After unfastening the belts without inertia reels insert tongue 5 into the pocket of cover plate 1. In case of fouling clean the straps with a soft soap solution. Never iron the belts. If the belt has been subjected to a critical load in a traffic accident, or is chafed, ruptured or otherwise damaged, it must be replaced with a new one.
Adjusting the spark advance angle
While in service, sometimes it becomes necessary to adjust the spark advance angle in order to suit the quality of the fuel used. Perform adjustment on a warmed up engine. Driving the car in the high gear on a level road at a speed of 50 km/h, abruptly depress the accelerator pedal. If this is accompanied by slight and short time detonation, the spark advance angle is set correctly. In case of heavy detonation (early ignition), note the position of the middle mark of scale 3 (Fig. 23) on the cylinder block, loosen nut 1 and turn body 2 through 0.51 division clockwise (towards the + sign). In case there is no detonation (late ignition), turn body 2 through 0.51 division counterclockwise (towards the "+" sign). Adjustments over, tighten nut 1 and repeat checking the spark advance angle on the move.
Towing the car
For towing attach the towing cable only to front towing lugs 1 (Fig. 24) or rear towing lugs 2 provided for the purpose. Tow the car smoothly, without jerks or sharp turns.
Basic Characteristics and Dimensions Seating capacity, Persons Seating capacity with back seat folded, persons Payload, kg luggage allowed, Kg Maximum with 4 person with 2 Persons with driver only Dry mass (mass of car less fuel, oil, coolant and accessories), kg Kerb mass. (mass or car in running order less payload). Kg Gross mass, kg Mass of front axle, kg kerb gross Mass on rear axle, kg Overall dimensions (at 322 mm static tyre radius), mm Minimum road clearance, loaded, at 322 mm static tyre radius, mm: to front suspension cross member to rear axle beam to engine oil sump Minimum outer turning radius over from bumper extremity, m Minimum outer turning radius over front wheel track axis: m Maximum speed ***, km/h -fully loaded -with driver and passenger only Acceleration time *** from rest to 100 km/h through gears, s: Maximum fuel consumption*** per 100 Km in summer, fully loaded, L (not over): at 90 km/h in 4th gear under city traffic conditions Maximum gradeability, % Maximum braking distance, fully loaded, at 80 km/h on level section of dry, straight asphalt road, m: (presumes good tyres) service braking emergency braking (ons circuit of service brakes) 4 or 1,070 1,150 1,See Fig. 5.8 5.132 25
10.5 13.4 58
Fig 31. Sequence of tightening camshaft bearing housing nuts
sequence shown in pig. 31. To adjust the valve clearances, proceed as follows: Remove the cylinder head cover with its gasket; if necessary, first remove the heater air intake box; Rotate the crankshaft clockwise to align mark A (Fig. 32) on the sprocket with mark B on the camshaft housing; in this case the piston of the No. 4 cylinder will be on TDC at the end of the compression stroke, and both valves will be closed Adjust the rocker-to-cam clearances of the exhaust valve on the No. 4 cylinder (8th cam) and of the intake valve on the No. 3 cylinder (6th cam); for this purpose, loosen locknut 2 (Fig. 33) and rotate adjusting bolt 1 to set the required clearance, using a flat feeler gauge inserted between the cam and the rocker (the feeler gauge should move in this case with a slight biting) Holding bolt 1 in this position with a wrench, tighten locknut 2 by applying a torque of 52 Nm (5.2 and recheck the kg m) clearance Turning the crankshaft each time through hall a revolution, adjust the clearances of other valves, following the sequence given in Table 3 below.
Fig 32. Setting No. 4 Cylinder piston in TDC
Fig 33. Adjusting valve clearances: 1- adjusting bolt, 2- adjusting bolt locknut
Table 3 - Sequence of Valve Clearance Adjustment. Crankshaft angle degrees No of cylinder in which piston is on TDC at end of compression stroke Valves under adjustment exhaust
Cylinder No. Cam No.
Reinstall the cylinder head cover with its gasket. Adjustment over, check the tightening torque of the crankshaft jaws, which should be 122 Nm (12.2 kg m).
Tensioning the Valve Gear Chain
Every 10.000 Km, adjust the tension of timing chain 2 (Fig. 34). Do it on a new car after the first 2,000- 3,000 Km. For this purpose, loosen retaining nut 7 and turn the crank- shaft through 1-1~5 revolutions in the direction of its normal rotation. In this case spring 10 actuates shoe 6 through plunger 11 and automatically sets the required chain tension. Adjustment over, tighten nut 7. Adjust chain tension also in case of excessive operation noise in the valve gear.
Every three years or every 60,000 Km (whichever comes first), flush the cooling system and fill it with fresh coolant. Drain coolant from the system through two drain holes 1 and 2 (Fig. 39), one of which is located in the radiator bottom tank and the other one in the cylinder block at the left side. In doing so shift the heater cock control lever to the right most position.
Fig 39. Cooling system drain holes. 1- drain hole in radiator bottom, 2- drain hole in cylinder block.
For screwing the radiator drain hole plug in or out, use two wrenches; one to keep in place the plug union soldered into the radiator tank, and the other to screw the plug in or out. After draining the coolant completely from the system through the above holes, remove the coolant remaining in the expansion tank and hose connecting the tank to the radiator by disconnecting the hose from the expansion tank or by raising the tank proper to a required height. To flush the cooling system, proceed as follows. Fill the system with clean water, start the engine and run it until the bottom tank of the radiator gets warmed and, with the engine idling, drain water through the radiator and cylinder block drain holes. Let the engine cool down, refill the system with clean water and repeat the above operation. After the flushing pour coolant into the cooling system. If the coolant of the specified grade is not avail- able, it is permissible (at ambient temperatures above zero) to use clean water, as soft as possible to avoid heavy scale deposition which leads to engine overheating under normal operating conditions. When using hard water, flush the cooling system twice a year with special descaling agents. If an aluminium radiator is in- stalled in the car do not use water in the cooling system as water affects corrosion resistance of the radiator. Cooling System Thermostat Every 20.000 Km and also in case of abnormal temperature of the engine (overheating under normal operating conditions or excessively long warm-up period after starting), check thermostat 4 (Fig. 40) for normal functioning. A simple check is the hand- feeling of the thermostat directly on the car. Upon starting the cold engine with the thermostat serviceable, the bottom tank of the radiator starts getting warm as soon as the coolant temperature is 80-85 "C. Alternator Drive Belt
Fig 40. Checking tension of Alternator drive belt. 1- nut, 2- nut of alternator joint pin, 3- alternator, 4- thermostat, 5- water pump, A- belt deflection.
Every 10.000 Km (and after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new), check the belt for tension. Normal deflection A (Fig. 40) is 10-15 mm if a force of 100 N (10 kg) is applied. To increase the belt tension, proceed as follows. Loosen nut 1 that fastens the alternator to the adjusting arm.
Loosen nut 2 of the alternator joint pin. Shift alternator 3 away from the engine and tighten the fastening nuts. Avoid over tightening the belt so as not to overload the bearings of alternator 3 and water pump 5. IGNITION SYSTEM
Every 10,000 Km: 1. Check the working surfaces of breaker contacts 3 (Fig. 41). In case of heavy transfer of metal from one contact point to the other, dress them with a flat barette file. Do not eliminate completely the crater on the breaker arm contact point. Check and, if necessary, dress the contacts in the distributor cap and on the rotor. 2. Use a piece of clean, gasoline- soaked chamois leather or some other lint-free material to clean the breaker 1- noise contact points, the rotor, and the outer and inner Figure 41. Ignition distributor.contacts, resistor suppressor, 2- rotor, 3- breaker 4surfaces of the distributor cap. screw, 5- slot, 6- terminal, 7- spring catch, 8scale, 10- bracket, 11- nut, 12- body, 3. Check the breaker point gap which should be 0.4+0.05 capacitor, 9-spark timer, 14- lubricator, 15- cam 13- vacuum mm, for which purpose. Shift the gearshift lever into the neutral. Apply the parking brake; Rotate the crankshaft with the starting crank to set cam 15 in the position at which the breaker contacts are wide open. Check the gap with a feeler gauge; if the gap differs from the rated value, loosen screws 4 and, using a screwdriver inserted into special slot 5, shift the breaker con- tact post as required; adjustment eve, tighten screws 4. 4. Check ignition timing, for which purpose Connect one end of the wire of a 12-V test lamp to terminal 6, and ground its other end. Turn on the ignition and slowly rotate the crankshaft with the starting crank; with the ignition set properly, the test lamp should come on when mark 4 (Fig. 42) on the crankshaft pulley is aligned with mark 2 on the timing gear cover, and the contact of rotor 2 (Fig. 41) should be opposite the contact of the No. 1 cylinder on the distributor cap. 5. If the marks are not aligned at the moment the test lamp comes on, adjust the ignition timing as follows. Rotate the crankshaft with the starting crank to set it in the position at which the rotor contact faces the contact of the No. 1 cylinder on the distributor cap, and mark 4 (Fig. 42) is aligned with mark 2 (in this position the piston of the No. 1 cylinder will be 5" before TDC as measured in crankshaft degrees); Loosen nut 11 (Fig. 41) and turn distributor body 12 clockwise until the breaker points are closed.
Fig 42. Timing marks on pulley and valve gear drive cover. 1- 10o, 2- 5 o, 3-0 o, 4mark on pulley
Slowly rotate the distributor body counter-clockwise until the test lamp comes on; in doing so, slightly press the rotor counter- clockwise to take up clearances. Stop the distributor body exactly at the moment the test lamp comes on (the breaker contact points are at the beginning of opening phase). Holding the distributor body in this position, tighten nut 11. Switch off the ignition, install the distributor cap on its body, and secure it with two spring catches 7. On a new car, check the breaker point gap and ignition timing after the first 2,000-3,000 Km. Every 20.000 Km deliver 2-3 drops of engine oil into the hole of lubricator 14. Spark Plugs Every 10,000 Km proceed as follows: 1. Using gasoline and a stiff brush, remove carbon deposit from the spark plugs. 2. 2. Check the spark plug gap with a round wire feeler gauge. Fig 43. Checking spark plug gap The gap should be 0.5-0.6 mm (Fig. 43); the gap must be adjusted only by bending the side electrode. Every 20,000 Km replace the spark plugs with new ones. For re- liable starting of the engine at low sub-zero temperatures, it is recommended to replace the long-used spark plugs with new ones, even if the used spark plugs are still serviceable; they can be used again in warm seasons of the year. TRANSMISSION
Clutch Fluid Reservoir
Every 10,000 Km check fluid level in the reservoir (Fig. 44) and replenish, if necessary, to the lower edge of the filler neck. Add HeBa (Neva) or Tomb (Tom) brake fluid only. It is recommended to change the brake fluid with fresh one after five years of service. Adjusting the Clutch Control Mechanism Every 30,000 Km (and also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km and 10,000 Km if the car is new) check and, if necessary, adjust the clutch control mechanism for which purpose.
Check clearance between pushrod 3 (Fig. 45) and piston 2 of master cylinder 1 which should be 0.1-0.5 mm. The clearance corresponds to the travel of pedal 5 through 0.4-2 mm and it is adjusted with stop 4. Check free travel of pushrod 6 of operating cylinder 10 which should be 4-5 mm. Pushrod free travel is adjusted with nut 8 after loosening locknut 9. Adjustment over, tighten locknut 9. Upon completion of the above adjustments free travel of the clutch pedal before the beginning of clutch release should be 25-35 mm. Check the clutch pedal free travel also after the bleeding of the hydraulic control system. Presence of air in the system is indicated by the spongy pedal and incomplete release of the Fig 45. Adjusting Clutch control mechanism. 1- Clutch master cylinder, 2- pushrod piston, 3- pushrod, 4- pedal travel stop, 5- clutch clutch (clutch drags). Bleed the system pedal, 6- operating cylinder pushrod, 7- clutch release fork, 8- nut, 9through the union of operating cylinder 10 locknut, 10- operating cylinder. in the same way as the brake system.
Mount the steering knuckle on the propeller shaft drive end, connect the ball support to the lower wishbone, secure the shock absorber, and connect the side steering rod to the steering knuckle arm; Install the hub complete with the brake disc on the propeller shaft drive end, and install tapered bushing 6; screw on new hub nut 7 and adjust bearing clearances, as described above; Fit the hub cap, remove the support, install and secure the brake calliper, and reinstall the wheel. If the car is frequently driven on bad roads (deep mud), change grease every 10,000 Km.
Examining the Front Suspension Ball Supports and Steering Rod joints
If tyre inflation pressure and clearance in the front wheel hub bearings correspond to rated values, the joints of the front wheel suspension wishbones are in good condition, pitman arm, steering gear case, idler arm brackets and steering shaft are fastened securely, adjustment of the steering gear fails to ensure normal play of the steering wheel, check following:
the the but the
1. Clearances in the ball supports. Check the clearances by rocking the hub with the front wheel suspension jacked up and wheels braked (to exclude the effect of clearances in the hub bearings). If the steering knuckle displacement at the level of the ball pin sphere relative to the wishbones exceeds 0.8 mm, replace the ball support. 2. Clearances in the steering rod joints. Determine the clearances by the method of mutual displacement of the steering rods when turning the steering wheel. Premature wear of the ball joints is generally caused by damaged protective rubber boots which allow ingress of water and dust into the joints. If the boot is in good condition, the service life of the joints is practically unlimited. Therefore, check the protective rubber boots for condition at regular intervals, and replace them with new ones even if the slightest damage is detected, after making sure that the ball joints are serviceable and that there is enough grease U1P6-4in
Every 100 Km use a tyre pressure gauge to check tyre inflation pressure, including the spare wheel. It is advisable to have the pressure gauge periodically checked at a service station. Whenever tyre inflation pressure is checked, check the tube valve for air leaks (best of all it may be done by applying soap suds to the valve inlet hole). In case of air leak- age (indicates by air bubbles) tighten the tube valve core with the valve cap, or replace it with a new one. If the valve core is in good condition, but-the tyre gets constantly deflated, demount the tyre, check and repair the tube, or replace it with a new one. Prior to demounting the tyre, use a piece of chalk to make a mark on the tyre casing opposite the tube valve with a view to mount the tyre in compliance with this mark. This is necessary to preserve wheel balance. Demount the tyre from the wheel disc with the tyre tube deflated completely; see to it that the part of the casing opposite to the zone being demounted is in the
wheel rim well. Use tyre irons for the de- mounting/mounting jobs. The di- stance between the tyre irons when catching the tyre bead should not exceed 150 mm. Upon installation of new tyres, be sure to check the wheel balance at a service station. It is not advisable to drive the car on new tyres at a speed greater than 100 km/h during the first 500 Km. Every 10.000 Km interchange the wheels as shown in Pig. 52 to ensure uniform wear of tyres. If abnormal vibrations in motion are detected, check wheel balance.
Lada Niva Manual - Maintenance Replacing the Wheels
To replace a wheel, proceed as follows: Place the car on a level ground and apply the parking brake; Prepare the jack, tyre pump, tools bag and spare wheel; Use the combination wrench to slacken the wheel nuts one Fig 52. Wheel rotation diagram revolution; Insert the jack arm into the socket nearest to the wheel being replaced (Fig. 53), and rotate the jack handle until the wheel clears the ground (the jack should not sink in the ground when the car is being raised); Unscrew the wheel nuts and remove the wheel. Install the Fig 53. Jacking up car for spare wheel and uniformly tighten the wheel nuts; replacement of wheels. Lower the car onto the wheels, and withdraw the jack; Tighten the nuts to a torque of 70-90 Nm (7-9 kg m), check tyre inflation pressure and bring it to normal; Stow the tools and the spare wheel under the hood, and secure them as shown in Fig. 54.
Fig 54. Stowage and fastening of tools and accessories. 1, 6, 8, 11elastic straps, 2- jack, 3starting crank, 4- tyre irons, 5inspection lamp, 7- tools bag, 9- wing nut, 10 spare wheel, 12 air pump
Every 20,000 Km (and also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new) as well as in case of rapid and irregular wear of the front wheel tyres and impaired steering of the car, check the front-end alignment. It is advisable that this operation is performed at a service station equipped with a precision optical stand ensuring high-accuracy checking and front-end alignment. Given below is a method, though less accurate, of checking only the wheel camber and toe-in by the Owner himself, on condition that the following requirements are met: Tyre inflation pressure is normal; Radial and axial runout of the front wheel rims does not exceed 3 mm; End play in the front wheel bearings does not exceed 0.15 mm; Backlash in the steering worm- to-roller mesh ensures a steering wheel play not exceeding 5"; there is no clearance between the idler arm shaft and shaft bushings; The rubber elements in the joints of the front suspension wish- bones have no ruptures and ultimate distortions; Shock absorber rods are not jamming; there are no excessive clearances in the steering rod ball joints and in the ball supports of the front suspension wishbones. Check the wheel alignment with the car in the running order, with a load of 3,200 N (320 kg) which roughly corresponds to the weight of four persons plus 400 N (40 kg) of luggage in the
Before installation of the brake shoes, make sure that brake disc 5 is not damaged nor deeply scored. Replace the disc if it is worn to a thickness below 9.5 mm. To install the brake shoes push the pistons as deep into the cylinders as possible. When doing so see that the protective rubber seals of the pistons are in their sockets and are not damaged; replace the seals, if necessary. When the pistons are pushed into the cylinders, the brake fluid level in the reservoir rises. To prevent overflowing, remove the reservoir cap and timely remove the required amount of fluid from the reservoir.
Then install brake shoes 6, fit the calliper complete with the cylinder block, and fix it with the pressure levers; for this purpose press off the lower lever and shift the calliper so that it is pressed by the lower lever; install the upper lever, insert axle 7 and fit cotter pin 8. Upon the installation of the brake shoes the brake system needs no bleeding. It is sufficient to depress the brake pedal in order to attain the normal operation of the brake system. Bleeding of the system is necessary only after disassembly of the cylinder block, or when air is trapped in the system; use bleeder valves 3 to evacuate air from the system. The adjustment required to compensate for the natural wear of the brake friction pads is effected automatically. Rear Brakes Every 20.000 Km check the condition of the brake shoes for which purpose unscrew two bolts 1 (Fig. 60), insert them into holes A and screw them in until brake drum 2 is moved off its place. Check the condition of brake shoes 2 (Fig. 61) with friction linings 1 and inspect the working surface of the brake drum. If the brake shoes are broken or distorted which prevents uniform shoe-to-drum contact and reduces efficiency of braking, replace the shoes with new ones. Also replace the brake shoes when thickness of their linings is reduced to 2 mm. Replace the shoes in pairs only. If deep notches are formed on the drum working surface, have the drums turned in a lathe and ground. Prior to installing the drum, coat the mounting surface with a thin layer of graphite grease. Adjust the shoe-to-drum clearance as follows: Depress the brake pedal until the shoes contact the drum; Keeping the shoes pressed to the drums, turn adjusting eccentric heads 1 (Fig. 62) until they contact the shoes; release the brake pedal and turn the heads in the opposite direction through approximately 10"; Sharply depress the brake pedal 3-4 times and, having released it, check the brake drum; if it is jammed, repeat the adjustment.
Lada Niva Manual - Maintenance Adjusting the Free Travel of Brake Pedal
Every 20.000 Km (and also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new), check and adjust, if necessary, the brake pedal free travel. With the brake system serviceable and the shoe-to-drum clearances of the rear wheels normal, the brake pedal free travel, with the engine shut down, should be 3-5 mm. Adjust free travel by shifting stop- light switch 4 (Fig. 63) together with buffer 6 after unscrewing nut 5. Adjustment over, tighten nut 5.
Brake Vacuum Booster
Every 30.000 Km check the vacuum booster for serviceability in the following manner: depress the brake pedal 5-6 times, with the engine shut down, and holding the brake pedal pressed, start the engine. With the vacuum booster serviceable, the brake pedal should move further down upon starting the engine. If the pedal does not move further down, check for tightness the hose connections to the intake manifold and to the vacuum booster, as loose connections cause in leakage of air and sharply reduce vacuum booster efficiency. If the trouble persists apply to a service station.
Every 20,000 Km (and also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new) adjust the parking brake.
Adjusting brake Correct adjustment of the parking brake ensures Fig 64. 1- adjustingparking locknutleaver travel. nut, 2reliable operation of the whole brake system of the car. Perform adjustment of the parking brake after adjustment of clearances in the rear brakes and also when the car cannot be braked on a gradient of up to 30 % with the brake lever shifted through 4-5 teeth of the quadrant.
Parking brake lever travel is adjusted by means of the tensioning device as follows: Shift the lever into the lower- most position and then pull it upwards through two teeth of the quadrant; Loosen locknut 2 (Fig. 64), and turning adjusting nut 1, tighten the cable; Tighten locknut 2 and check that the car remains braked after shifting the lever through 4-5 teeth of the quadrant. To prevent shoe-to-drum freezing after travelling over wet roads at sharp fluctuations of ambient temperature, do not apply the parking brake when leaving the car in a parking lot or a non-heated garage, unless the brakes are dried by applying them smoothly while driving to the parking area.
The car wiring diagram is shown in Fig. 65. Do not tamper with the car electric circuits. Additional power consumers should be connected only by qualified electricians at a service station. To ensure trouble-free operation of the electrical equipment check that the wires are clean, the contacts in connections are reliable and that the protective rubber caps on the ignition coil, ignition distributor and spark plugs are sound.
Lada Niva Manual - Maintenance Wiring diagram
Fig. 65. Wiring Diagram: 1- ride direction indication; 2- ride lights; 3- headlight; 4 head- light wiper motor; 5- horn; 6- ignition distributor; 7- spark plugs; 8- alternator, 9- Inspection lamp socket; 10- windshield wiper pump; (1- headlight washer pump; (I-k~ fluid level transmitter; 13- coolant temperature transmitter; 14- low oil pressure warning lamp transmitter; 15- oil pressure gauge transmitter; (6ignition coil; 17- idling electromagnetic valve; 18- starter; 19- voltage regulator; 20- battery no-charge warning lamp relay 21- windshield wiper relay; 22-headlighl wiper relay; 23-headlight upper beam relay; 24- headlight lower beam relay; 25- back window hooter relay; 261 windshield wiper P1- storage battery; 28- back window wiper pump; 19- additional furs block; 30-main fuse block; 31- emergency flasher system and direction indicator (lather unit; 32-aatk) tan; 33- heater fan series resistor; 34- instrument lighting Switch; 35- stop-light switch: 1~- choke warning lamp switch; 37- external lighting switch; 38- heater fan switch; 39-blcL window wiper and washer switch; 40- back window heater switch; 41- rear fog lamp (witch; 42- backing light switch; 43- transfer differential lock warning lamp switch; 44- parking brake warning lamp switch; 45- parking brake warning lamp flasher unit; 46- headlight wiper twitch; 47- cigarette lighter with illumination lamp; 41- emergency flasher system switch and warning lamp; 49- ignition switch; 50- headlight switch: 51- direction indicator switch; 52wind- shield wiper and washer switch; 53- horn button; 14- fuel level gauge; 55- low fuel warning lamp; 56- oil pressure gauge; 57- low oil pressure lamp; 58- tachometer; 59- par- king brake warning lamp; 60- battery no-charge warning lamp; 61- choke warning lamp; 62speedometer; 63- marker light warning lamp; 64- direction indicator warning lamp; 65-headlight upper beam warning lamp; 6~-cooln~ temperature gauge; 67-lantlor differential lock warning lamp; 68- brake fluid low level warning lamp; 69- interior lamp door switches; 70interior lamps and switches; 71- fuel level and low fuel transmitter; 72-brit window wiper; 73- back window heater; 74- tail light; 75number plate lamps: 76-fog lamp Wire Colour Code: P- pink; 3- green; Trl blue with black tracer; T- blue; 6-whih; 0- amber; m- yellow; C- grey; K~- brown; ~- black; Kred; 6~- white with black tracer; mCI-yellow with black tracer; CLi-green with black tracer; 3Lt- green with black tracer; r6- blue with white tracer; CK-grey with rod tracer; TK- blue with red tracer; 0,- violet; pi- pink with black tracer; 61- white with blue tracer
Lada Niva Manual - Maintenance Storage Battery
Every 2,500 Km or every four months check the electrolyte level in the battery cells (Fig. 66). The level should be between the MIN and MAX marks on the semi-trans- parent battery case; otherwise the level should reach the lower edge of the filler holes. Top up the cells only with distilled water. Never add non-distilled water or distilled water kept in a metal vessel. Electrolyte should be added into the storage battery only in case when it is known for sure that lowering of the electrolyte checking level has occurred due to splashing out. In this case, the added Fig 66. Holes for in storage battery electrolyte level electrolyte should be of the same specific gravity as that cells contained in the battery. Operation of the battery with a low electrolyte level is impermissible since it results in sulphation of the exposed portions of the plates and reduction of the battery capacity. Check the electrolyte level more frequently in hot weather. The battery should always be clean and dry, particularly its upper surface. Remove the traces of electrolyte with clean rags soaked in a 10 % solution of ammonia water or soda. Regularly check cleanness of the vent holes in the plugs and condition of the battery container. Every 10,000 Km and also in case of frequent failures in engine starting, check the state of charge by measuring the electrolyte specific gravity with a hydrometer. Check the hydrometer readings against the data given in Table 4. (Not included yet) If the electrolyte temperature is other than 25"C, introduce corrections to the hydrometer readings (see Table 5). Every 20,000 Km check the battery for cleanness and for reliable fastening of terminals and clamps; clean them and coat with aerosol lubricant BTB-l. If the car is to be inoperative for less than a month, disconnect the negative (ground) wire from the battery. Do not leave the wire clamp on the battery surface. When the car is to be out of service for a longer period remove the battery from the car, fully charge it and keep it, whenever possible, in a dry cool room at a temperature not above O"C. The minimum storage temperature should not be below minus 50 "C. Never store the discharged battery since this will lead to sulphation of plates, and finally, to a complete failure of the battery. Therefore, be sure to check the battery specific gravity every month, charging it whenever necessary.
Every 10.000 Km carefully dress the alternator slip rings with glass cloth, check the brushes for wear and seating and replace them if necessary. The brushes should move easily in the holders and should have no chippings. When the car is driven constantly on dusty and dirty roads perform this operation more frequently.
Every 40.000 Km carefully dress the commutator, check the brushes for wear and seating and, whenever necessary, replace them with new ones, having them bedded properly to the commutator.
At the same time be sure to clean and lubricate the helical splines of the starter shaft, the bushings of both end shields and the drive pinion with engine oil, and the pinion shift ring of the starter drive, with grease.
Any servicing of the voltage regulator must be performed by qualified specialists only. When installing the voltage regulator on the car or removing it from the car, see to it that the regulator is not subject to blows which may bring it out of adjustment.
Aiming the Headlight Lower Beam
Every 20.000 Km (end also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new) aim the headlights. The car is equipped with head lights that have an asymmetric light distribution of the lower beam, with a sharp boundary between the light and dark zones; such light distribution makes it possible, with the headlight aimed properly, to reduce the dazzling effect on the drivers of the oncoming vehicles. To aim the headlight lower beam proceed as follows: 1. Place the car in running order with a load of 750 n (75 kg) on the drivers seat and with normally inflated tyres on a level ground (Fig. 67) at a distance of 5 m from a vertical white screen located in a shade. A white wall of a building may serve as a screen. 2. Rock the car sideways to stabilise the car suspensions. 3. Draw on the screen axial line O located in the car Fig 67. Aiming headlight lower beam symmetry plane. Symmetrically to the axial line, draw lines A and B (a distance of 1160 mm between them should correspond to the distance between the headlight centres). Then draw horizontal line 1 at height h (which is a distance from the headlight centre to the ground), and line 2 which should be 120 mm below line 1. 1. Switch on the lower beam and rotating screws 1 and 2 (Fig. 68), set the light units so that the horizontal border-line between the light and dark zones passes along line 2 (Fig. 67), and the inclined limiting lines come from the points of intersection of lines A and B with line 2.
Replacing the Bulbs
To replace a bulb in the headlight, turn out screws 5 (Fig. 68) which secure decorative grille 4 of the radiator and remove the grille; loosen screws 3 securing the light unit rim, turn the rim counterclockwise and remove it. Take out light unit 7 and throw off the bulb spring clamps.
Fig 68. Headlight. 1- horizontal adjustment screw, 2- vertical adjustment screw, 3- headlight rim screw, 4- radiator decorative grille, 5- radiator grille screw, 6- headlight rim, 7- light unit
To replace the bulb in the side light or in the rear fog lamp turn out the lens fastening screws, remove the lens, gently press on the bulb, turn it counter-clockwise, and take it out.
A burnt-out bulb in the side direction indicator should be replaced after removing the socket with the bulb on the engine compartment side.
To replace the bulb in the tail light turn off the upper screws which secure the luggage compartment lining, screw off nut 2 (Fig. 69) and remove lens 3. To replace the bulb in number plate lamp 9, disconnect connector 1 and remove the holder with the bulb. To replace the bulb in the body interior lamp. Carefully pull it out The lamp is kept in the recess of the centre pillar by two springs 4 (Fig. 70).
Fig 70. Interior lamp. 1lens, 2- bulb, 3- switch, 4 fastening spring. Fig 69. Tail light and number plate lamps. 1connector, 2- nut, 3- lens, 4-pin, 5- direction indicator bulb, 6- reverse light bulb, 6- marker light bulb, 8- stop light bulb, 9- number plate lamp.
Fuses are installed in two blocks. The first block contains a 16 A fuse (Fig. 71) and nine 8 A fuses. The second block contains four 8 A fuses and two 16 A fuses. Fuses are held in the blocks by spring contacts. The circuits protected by fuses are listed in Table 6. The electric circuits of ignition, engine starting, alternator (except for the field winding), headlight lower beam relay and headlight upper beam relay are not protected by fuses. Prior to replacement of a blown- out fuse, find out and eliminate the cause of trouble.
Fuse No amperage in Fig (16 A)
Horns Body interior lamps Inspection lamp socket Cigarette lighter step-light bulbs
Fuse No amperage in Fig (8 A)
3 (8 A)
Windshield wiper Heater fan Windshield washer Headlight wiper relay LH headlight (upper beam)
Headlight upper beam warning lamp
4 (8 A) 5 (8 A) 8 (8 A) 7 (8 A)
RH headlight (upper beam) LH headlight (lower beam) RH headlight (lower beam) LH side light (marker light) Marker light warning lamp RH tail-light (marker light)
10 (8 A) 11 (8 A) 12 (8 A) 13(8A) 14 (I6 A)
8 (8 A)
9 (8 A)
RH member plate lamp 15 (16 A) Instrument lighting lamps 16 (8 A) RH side light (marker light) LH tail-light (marker light) Cigarette lighter illumination lamp LH number plate lamp Oil pressure gauge Low oil pressure warning lamp Fuel level gauge and low fuel warning lamp Coolant temperature gauge Direction indicators with warning lamp Backing light lamps Parking brake warning lamp Brake Fluid low level warning lamp Differential look warning lamp Battery no-charge warning lamp Choke warning lamp Tachometer Carburettor electromagnetic valve Flasher unit of parking brake warning lamp Direction indicator flasher unit Back window heater (control circuit)
Voltage regulator Alternator field winding Rear fog lamp Electric motors of headlight wipers and washer Back window wiper and washer Back window heater (power circuit) Reserve fuse Emergency flasher system switch end direction indicators operating in emergency mode
Care of Body
To preserve the attractive appearance of the car give constant attention to the car body surfaces. To prevent scratches on the body do not remove dirt and dust from the car with dry rags. Wash the car when mud is still wet, using a weak water spray end a soft sponge. In hot weather wash the car outdoors in the shade. If this is impossible, immediately wipe the washed surfaces dry, since drops of water that dry under the sun rays leave stains on the body painted surface. At sub- zero ambient temperatures, having washed the car in a warm room, wipe the body dry before a trip because frozen drops of water may cause cracks on the body paint coating. It is not recommended to use soda and alkaline solutions, as they may tarnish the paint coating. When using a hose for washing, see that water does not get on the electric units in the engine compartment.
Minor chipping of paint on the car body should be timely sanded and coated with the paint contained in the tin furnished with the car. In case corrosion of the car body parts is detected (corrosion traces, local paint blisters, etc.), take necessary measures to eliminate corrosion and prevent its further spreading. To facilitate examination of boxed spaces of the front fenders, the shields with weatherstrips are made detachable. To retain lustre of the body paint- work, particularly of the cars kept outdoors, regularly polish the paint coating with the use of polishing pastes or wax compounds. To ensure prolonged shining of the body surfaces, do not leave the car under the sun rays for a long period of time; prevent acids, soda solutions, brake fluid and gasoline from getting on the painted surfaces. To prevent stains on the paint coating under the fuel tank access flap caused by spilled gasoline, wipe the surface with clean dry rags before and after the fuel servicing. In the course of operation the car underbody coating is attacked by gravel, sand and salt. As a result, the anticorrosion compound and primer come off, and the exposed metal gets corroded. Therefore regularly check the condition of the car underbody coating and timely recondition the damaged areas. Clean the chrome-plated parts with soft rags and petrolatum. Wipe the plastic parts with wet rags. It is not recommended to use gasoline or solvents; otherwise, the plastic parts will be tarnished. Use soft linen rags or chamois leather to clean the glasses. To clean heavily soiled glasses first wash them with water solution of HMMCC-1liquid or Glass Autocleanser-2 (30 cm3 per litre of water). Never use gasoline or solvents to clean the body interior upholstery made of artificial leather. Use neutral soap with water for the purpose, then wipe the surfaces dry with soft rags or chamois leather. Simultaneously thoroughly wipe with wet rags the rubber weatherstrips and the door parts in contact with them. Periodically, depending on the specific conditions of the operation (very cold climate, dusty roads, atmospheric effects during long parking periods), lubricate the following parts and units: - door lock keyholes; (a) in hot weather with graphite powder; (b) in cold weather, particularly after washing, with aerosol lubricant BTB-1: as a preliminary, dry the lock keyholes with compressed air; Door hinges, hood lock re- lease cable and seat hinges, with engine oil; friction surfaces of the door checks and the fuel tank flap hinge and spring, with aerosol lubricant BTB-1; - seat slides, with grease cDMOn-l ; pin 4 (Fig. 72), spring 5 and points of contact of block 2 with door lock striker plate 1, with grease cDMOn-1 after disassembling the striker plate and washing its parts with gasoline.
Door lock striker plate. 1The car body doors should open and close easily. If the door Fig 72.plate, 2- block, 3, bolt, 4- pin, striker closes with difficulty or loosely, adjust the position of the door 5- spring, 6 bushing. lock striker plate. Prior to beginning the adjustment, outline the position of striker plate 1 on the car body pillar with a pencil. If the door is hard to close, loosen bolts 3, move the striker plate outward and tighten the bolts. If the door closes loosely, move the striker plate inward. If the door sags in closing, raise the striker plate, and on the contrary, lower it, if the door
rises. If, for some reason or other, the door lock has been disassembled, wash it to remove old grease and, prior to assembly, lubricate it with grease. It is not re- commended to use other grades of grease because at low temperatures the lock may fail to operate, or the door may get spontaneously opened in motion.
Windshield and Headlight Washers
Periodically clean the windshield and headlight washer nozzles end also check the direction of the washing spray which should be aimed at the upper zone of the sector swept by the wiper blade. Adjust the direction of the spray by turning the nozzle with the fastening screw loosened. Adjustment over, tighten the screw. In hot weather the washer reservoir may be filled with clean water, while in cold weather, at an ambient temperature down to minus 25"C, only with a mixture of the HMMCC-4 fluid or Glass Autocleanser-2 (25-33 %) and water.
Windshield and Headlight Wipers
In winter, prior to switching on the wipers, make sure that the wiper blades are not frozen to the glass. Failure to observe this recommendation may lead not only to breakage of the blades, but also to failure of their electric drives.
Fastening of Units and Mechanisms to Car Body
Every 20,000 Km (and also after the first 2,000-3,000 Km if the car is new) check and, if necessary, tighten the fastenings of various units and mechanisms to the car body. MAINTENINCE IN LONG-TERM STORIGE The best method is to store the car in a dry, dark and well-ventilated room at a temperature of not below 5 "C and a relative humidity of 50- 70 %. In this case the storage battery and the car radio may be left in the car. When the car is stored in a cold room, remove the storage battery and the radio and keep them separately; drain fluid from the washer tank. If the cooling system is filled with water, drain it. When storing the car in a room lighted by sun rays protect the car body and tyres with a cover made of moisture-permeable material. The employment of covers made of water- proof materials (canvas, plastic film, and the like) having no vent holes within the zone of the windshield and back window leads to condensation of moisture on the body surface; prolonged action of moisture on the body paintwork may ruin it. If the car is kept outdoors under a cover, the cover should not contact the body painted surfaces, otherwise the paint coating may be damaged (blisters, peeling, etc.). To provide normal ventilation, place soft spacers, at least 20 mm high, between the cover and the body. When preparing the car for long- term storage, proceed as follows: 1. Wash the car and wipe its body dry. Remove traces of corrosion. Touch up damaged painted surfaces. Apply a wax compound to the body and polish the latter. 2. Start the engine and warm it up. Turn out the spark plugs and pour 25-30 g of engine oil heated to 70-80"C into each cylinder. To spread the oil uniformly on the entire surface of the cylinders, give the crankshaft 10-15 revolutions with a starting crank, and screw in the spark plugs.
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