Here you can find all about LG GR-399SNQ like manual and other informations. For example: review.
LG GR-399SNQ manual (user guide) is ready to download for free.
On the bottom of page users can write a review. If you own a LG GR-399SNQ please write about it to help other people. [ Report abuse or wrong photo | Share your LG GR-399SNQ photo ]
LG GR-399SNQ Fridge, size: 1.8 MB
User reviews and opinions
No opinions have been provided. Be the first and add a new opinion/review.
REFRIGERATOR SERVICE MANUAL
BEFORE SERVICING THE UNIT, READ THE "SAFETY PRECAUTIONS" IN THIS MANUAL.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS..... 2 SERVICING PRECAUTIONS..... 3 SPECIFICATIONS..... 4 PARTS IDENTIFICATION..... 5 REPLACEMENT OF DOOR OPENING TYPE.... 6 DISASSEMBLY...... 7-8 DOOR...... 7 DOOR SWITCH...... 7 FAN AND FAN MOTOR..... 7 DEF' CONTROL ASM...... 8 LAMP..... 8 ADJUSTMENT..... 9-10 COMPRESSOR...... 9 PTC-STARTER..... 9 OLP (OVER LOAD PROTECTOR)..... 10 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM..... 10 TROUBLESHOOTING...... 11-16 COMPRESSOR AND ELECTRIC COMPONENTS.... 11 PTC AND OLP...... 12 ANOTHER ELECTRIC COMPONENT.... 13 SERVICE DIAGNOSIS CHART..... 14 REFRIGERATING CYCLE..... 15-16 MICOM FUNCTION & PCB CIRCUIT EXPLANATION.... 17-34 EXPLODED VIEW...... 35-38 REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST..... 39-
Please read the following instructions before servicing your refrigerator. 1. Check the set for electric losses. 2. Unplug prior to servcing to prevent electric shock. 3. Whenever testing with power on, wear rubber gloves to prevent electric shock. 4. If you use any kind of appliance, check regular current, voltage and capacity. 5. Don't touch metal products in the freezer with wet hands. This may cause frostbite. 6. Prevent water from following onto electric elements in the mechanical parts. 7. When standing up after having checked the lower section of the refrigerator with the upper door open, move with care to avoid hitting the upper door. 8. When tilting the set, remove any materials on the set, especially the thin plates(ex. Glass shelf or books.) 9. When servicing the evaporator, wear cotton gloves. This is to prevent injuries from the sharp evaporator fins. 10. Leave the disassembly of the refrigerating cycle to a specialized service center. The gas inside the circuit may pollute the environment. 11. When you discharge the refrigerant, wear the protective safety glasses or goggle for eye safety. 12. When you repair the cycle system in refrigerator, the work area is well ventilated. Especially if the refrigerant is R600a, there are no fire or heat sources. (No smoking)
Figure 23. LOKRING
Figure 24. LOKRING TOOL
- 17 -
Features of refrigerant (R600a)
Achromatic and odor less gas. Flammable gas and the ignition (explosion) at 494C. Upper/lower explosion limit: 1.8%~8.4%/Vol. After the refrigerant (R600a) is completely discharged, repair any defective parts and replace the dryer. At any case you must use the LOKRING for connecting or replacing any part in the cycle (No Fire, No Welding). Connect the Schrader valve to pump with the coupler. And then turn the pump on for vacuum state (Figure 3). Let the pump run until the low-pressure gauge indicates the vacuum (gauge pressure 0, absolute pressure -1atm or -760mmHg). Recommended vacuum time is 30 min. Charge the N2 gas in order to check for leakage from welding points and the LOKRING. If leakages are found, repair the defects and repeat the vacuum process.
Features of the R600a refrigerator
Charging of 60% refrigerant compared with a R134a model The suction pressure is below 1bar (abs) during the operation. Because of its low suction pressure, the external air may flow in the cycle system when the refrigerant leak, and it causes malfunction in the compressor. The displacement of compressor using R600a must be at least 1.7 times larger than that of R134a. Any type of dryer is applicable (XH-5, 7, 9). The EVAPORATOR or any other cycle part that has welding joint is hidden in the foam. (If not hidden inside, the whole electric parts must be tested with the LEAKAGE TEST according to the IEC Standard.) The compressor has label of the refrigerant R600a. Only the SVC man must have an access to the system.
TO THE VACUUM PUMP PRESSURE GAUGE
Figure 3 After the system is completely vacuumed, fill it with the refrigerant R600a up to what has been specified at your refrigerator Name Plate. The amount of refrigerant (R600a) must be precisely measured within the error of 2g by an electron scale (Figure 4). If you use the manifold connected with both the refrigerant (R600a) cylinder and the vacuum pump simultaneously, make sure the pump valve is closed (Figure 5).
REFRIGERANT (R600a) CHARGING HOSE COUPLE
Must be well ventilated. Must be 20 m3 or larger. Must be no-smoking area. No ignitable factors must be present.
Refrigerant cylinder (MAX NET 300g) Manometer Vacuum pump (600 /min) Piercing Clamp Quick coupler Hoses (5m-1EA, 1m-3EA) LOKRING Portable Leakage detector (3g/year) Nitrogen cylinder (for leakage test) Concentration gauge
Make sure before Servicing
Refrigerant Confirm the refrigerant by checking Name Plate and the label on the compressor, after opening the COVER ASSY, BACK-M/C. If the refrigerant is R600a, you must not weld or apply a heat source. Figure 4
THROTTLE VALVE WEIGH SCALE
FILLING OR CHARGE TUBE
VALVE TO BE OPENED WHEN REFILLING
Air Recharging in Compressor
Before refilling the refrigerant, you must perform the test according to Chapter 5 (TROUBLESHOOTING CHART). When the defects are found, you must discharge the residual refrigerant (R600a) in the outdoor. For discharging the refrigerant R600a, break the narrow portion of tube extension by hand or with a pipe cutter as shown in Figure 1. Leave it for 30min in outside to stabilize the pressure with ambient. Then, check the pressure by piercing the dryer part with piercing pliers. If the refrigerant is not completely discharged, let the refrigerator alone for more 30min in outside.
POINT TO BE BROKEN CHARGE TUBE EXTENSION
TO THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
TO THE CHARGE CYLINDER VALVE TO BE CLOSED AFTER VACUUM
TO THE VACUUM PUMP
Connect the charging hose (that is connected to the refrigerant (R600a) cylinder) to the Schrader valve installed on the service tube. Then, charge the refrigerant (R600a) by controlling the Throttle valve. When you do so, do not fully open the Throttle valve because it may make damage to the compressor. Gradually charge the refrigerant (R600a) by changing open and close the Throttle Valve (5g at each time). The charging hose must use a one-way valve to prevent the refrigerant refluence. Close the Schrader valve cap after the refrigerant (R600a) is completely recharged. After you completely recharge the refrigerant (R600a), perform the leakage test by using a portable leakage detector or soapy water. Test the low pressure (suction) parts in compressor off time and high pressure parts in compressor on time. If the leakages are found, restart from the refrigerant (R600a) discharging process and repairs defects of leaks. After the leakage test, check the temperature of each parts of the cycle. Check with hands if the CONDENSER and the case (HOTLINE pipe) that is contacted to the door gasket are warm. Confirm that frost is uniform distributed on the surface of the EVAPORATOR.
SERVICE TUBE EXTENSION
SCHRADER VALVE (ONE-WAY VALVE) LOKRING
Attach the service tube installed with a Schrader valve (one-way valve) by using the LOKRING (Figure 2). Then, connect the Schrader valve (one-way valve) to the pump that is connected to the discharging hose leading to the outside. When discharging the residual refrigerant, repeat 3 cycle that includes 3min of the pump running->pump off->30sec of the compressor running.
1.Ref. No: GR-399
ITEMS DIMENSIONS (mm) NET WEIGHT (kg) COOLING SYSTEM TEMPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CONTROL FREEZER DEFROSTING SYSTEM Heater Defrost DOOR FINISH OUT CASE INNER CASE INSULATION DEFROSTING DEVICE REFRIGERANT LUBRICATION OIL Pre-Coated Metal or Vinyl Coated Metal Painted Steel Sheet ABS Polyurethane Foam Heater, Sheath & Heater, Cord-L R600a(54g) FREOL S10(280 cc) FREEZER COMPARTMENT COMPRESSOR EVAPORATOR CONDENSER * Optional Parts SPECIFICATIONS 595(W)X626(D)X1880(H) 74 Fan Cooling Knob Dial Button Full Automatic DOOR POCKET Little Pocket(5 EA) Bottle Pocket(1 EA) Tray Drawer(4 EA) Ice Tray(1 EA) PTC Starting Type Fin Tube Type Side & Wire Condenser REFRIGERATOR COMPARTMENT ITEMS SPECIFICATIONS Transparent Shelf(3 EA) Vegetable Container(2 EA) Vegetable Container Cover(1 EA) Chilled Container(1 EA)* Dairy Pocket Cover(1 EA) Egg Tray(2 EA)
2.Ref. No: GR-359
ITEMS DIMENSIONS (mm) NET WEIGHT (kg) COOLING SYSTEM TEMPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CONTROL FREEZER DEFROSTING SYSTEM Heater Defrost DOOR FINISH OUT CASE INNER CASE INSULATION DEFROSTING DEVICE REFRIGERANT LUBRICATION OIL Pre-Coated Metal or Vinyl Coated Metal Painted Steel Sheet ABS Polyurethane Foam Heater, Sheath & Heater, Cord-L R600a(54g) FREOL S10(280 cc) FREEZER COMPARTMENT COMPRESSOR EVAPORATOR CONDENSER * Optional Parts SPECIFICATIONS 595(W)X626(D)X1710(H) 69 Fan Cooling Knob Dial Button Full Automatic DOOR POCKET Little Pocket(3 EA) Bottle Pocket(1 EA) Tray Drawer(4 EA) Ice Tray(1 EA) PTC Starting Type Fin Tube Type Side & Wire Condenser REFRIGERATOR COMPARTMENT ITEMS SPECIFICATIONS Transparent Shelf(2 EA) Vegetable Container(2 EA) Vegetable Container Cover(1 EA) Chilled Container(1 EA)* Dairy Pocket Cover(1 EA) Egg Tray(1 EA)
Freezer Temperature Control
Egg Tray(1 or 2)
Removable Glass Shelf(2 or 3) Lamp Multi-air Flow Duct Fresh Meat Keeper (Optional) Refrigerator Temperature Control Vegetable Drawer Used to keep fruits and vegetables, etc. fresh and crisp. Ice Cube Tray
Rotatable Door Basket (3 or 5)
Utility Corner (movable)
2 Bottle Door Basket
Freezer Compartment Removable Plinth Leveling Screw
NOTE : This is a basic model. The shape of refrigerator is subject to change.
3) PTC-Applied Circuit Diagram to Starting Method for the Motor
OVERLOAD PROTECTOR(O.L.P) C PTC S S 3 M COMPRESSOR MOTOR M M S HERMETIC TERMINAL
PTC STARTER RSIR RELAY ASSY
4) Motor Restarting and PTC Cooling (1) For restarting after power off during normal Compressor Motor operation, plug the power cord after 5 min. for pressure balance of Refrigerating Cycle and PTC cooling. (2) During normal operation of the Compressor Motor, PTC elements generate heat continuously. Therefore, if PTC isn't cooled for a while after the power has been shut off, Motor can't operate again. 5) Relation of PTC-Starter and OLP (1) If the power is off during operation of Compressor and the power is on before the PTC is cooled, (instant shutoff within 2 min. or reconnect a power plug due to misconnecting), the PTC isn't cooled and a resistance value grows. As a result, current can't flow to the subcoil and the Motor can't operate and the OLP operates by flowing over current in only in the main-coil. (2) While the OLP repeats on and off operation about 3-5 times, PTC is cooled and Compressor Motor performs normal operation. If OLP doesn't operate when PTC is not cooled, Compressor Motor is worn away and causes circuitshort and fire. Therefore, use a properly fixed OLP without fail. 6) Note to Use PTC-Starter (1) Be careful not to allow over-voltage and over-current. (2) No Strike Don't apply a forcible power or strike. (3) Keep apart from any liquid. If liquid such as oil or water away enter the PTC, PTC materials it may break due to insulation breakdown of the material itself. (4) Don't change PTC at your convenience. Don't disassemble PTC and mold. If the exterior to the PTC-starter is damaged, resistance value is altered and it may cause poor starting of the compressor motor may cause. (5) Use a properly fixed PTC.
1) Composition of PTC-Starter (1) PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) is a no-contact semiconductor starting device which uses ceramic material and this material consists of BaTiO3. (2) The higher the temperature is, the higher becomes the resistance value. These features are used as starting device for the Motor. 2) Role of PTC-Starter (1) PTC is attached to Hermetic Compressor used for Refrigerator, Show Case and starts Motor. (2) Compressor for household refrigerator applies to single-phase induction Motor. For normal operation of the single-phase induction motor, in the starting operation flows in both main coil and sub-coil. After the starting is over, the current in subcoil is cut off. The proper features of PTC play all the above roles. So, PTC is used as a motor starting device.
NOTE : 1. This is a basic diagram and specifications vary in different localities.
- 10 -
TROUBLESHOOTING (Mechanical Part)
1 COMPRESSOR AND ELECTRIC COMPONENTS 1
Power Source. Remove the Relay Assy from the Compressor and measure the voltage between Terminal C of Compressor and Terminals M or S of Relay Assy (Rating Voltage 10%)?
Applied voltage isn't in the range of Rating Voltage 10%.
Advise the customer to use a regular Trans.
Check the resistance of Motor Compressor.
Check the resistance among M-C, S-C and M-S in Motor Compressor.
YES NO Replace Compressor.
Check the resistance of PTC-Starter.
Check the resistance of two terminals in PTCStarter.
Replace Relay Assy
Check if applying a regular OLP.
OLP works within 30 sec. in forcible OLP operation by turning instant power on and off.
Check starting state.
Measure minimum starting voltage after 5 min. for balancing cycle pressure and cooling the PTC.
Components start in the voltage of Rating Voltage 10% below.
- 11 -
2 RELAY ASSY (PTC AND OLP)
Normal operation of Compressor is impossible or poor. Observation value is 220V/50Hz : 2230% 115V/60Hz : 6.830% 240V/50Hz : 3330% 127, 220V/60Hz : 2230% Check another electric components.
Separate the Relay Assy from Compressor and measure the resistance between M and S with a Tester or Whistone Bridge. (Figure 21)
The resistance value is 0 or serveral hundreds.
Replace Relay Assy.
The value is.
Separate the Relay Assy from the Compressor and check the resistance value between two terminals of OLP with a Tester. (Figure 22)
Check another electric components.
- 12 -
3 ANOTHER ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
w Cooling is impossible Compressor doesn't run. Check if current flows to the following components. Cause.
a. Thermistor b. Starting devices c. OLP d. Compressor coil e. Circuit Parts
Poor contacting. Shorted or broken. Poor contacting or shorted. Coil shorted. Poor contacting or shorted. Replace each component.
Running state of Compressor is poor.
Check a starting voltage. Check if current flows to starting devices. Check current flowing in sub-coil of Compressor.
Low voltage. Poor contacting and broken.
Raise the voltage. Replace each component.
Check capacity of OLP.
Lack of capacity. Coil of motor Compressor. Replace the compressor.
The items described above are normal. w Cooling ability is poor
Fan motor doesn't run.
Check current flowing in SWITCH, DOOR. Check current flowing in the MOTOR[MECH], FAN.
Poor contacting. Replace each component. Coil is shorted.
Much frost are sticked to the EVAPORATOR.
Check current flowing of the following components. THERMISTOR FUSE, MELTING Check current flowing of the following components. HEATER, SHEATH HEATER, CORD-L
Replace each component.
Defect on Heater, Cord-L
Replace the Heater, Sheath Replace the Heater, Cord-L
- 13 -
4 SERVICE DIAGNOSIS CHART
COMPLAINT Cooling is impossible. POINTS TO BE CHECKED Is the power cord unplugged from the outlet? Check if the power switch is set to OFF. Check if the fuse of power switch is shorted. Measure the voltage of power outlet. Check if the set is placed close to wall. Check if the set is placed close to stove, gas cooker and direct rays. Is the ambient temperature high or the room door closed? Check if put in is hot. Did you open the door of the set too often or check if the door is closed up? Check if the Damper Control is set to "cold-position". Is foods placed in cooling air outlet? Check if the control is set to "cold-position". Is the ambient temperature below 5C? Is liquid food stored? Check if put in is hot. Did you open the door of the set too often or check if the door is closed up. Check if ambient temperature and humidity of surroumcling air are high. Is there gap in the door packed? Are the set positioned in a firm and even place? Are any unnecessary objects set in the back side of the set? Check if the Tray Drip is not firmly fixed. Check if the cover of mechanical room in below and front side is taken out. To close the door is not handy. Check if the door packing is dirty with filth such as juice. Is the set positioned in a firm and even place? Is too much food putted in the set? Ice and foods smell unpleasant. Check if the inside of the set is dirty. Did you keep smelly foods without wrapping? It smells of plastic. REMEDY Plug to the outlet. Set the switch to ON. Replace a regular fuse. If voltage is low, wire newly. Place the set with the space of about 10cm. Place the set apart from these heat appliances. Make the ambient temperature below. Put in foods after cooled down. Don't open the door too often and close it firmly. Set the control to mid-position. Place foods in high temperature section. (Front Part) Set the control to "mid-position". Set the control to "warm-position". Seal up liquid foods with wrap. Put in foods after cooled down. Don't open the door too often and close it firmly. Wipe dew with a dry cloth. This occurrence is solved naturally in low temperature and humidity. Fill up the gap. Adjust the Adjust Screw, and position in the firm place. Remove the objects. Fix it firmly on the original position. Place the cover at the original position. Clean the door packing. Position in the firm place and adjust the Adjust Screw. Keep foods not to reach the door. Clean the inside of the set. Wrap smelly foods. The new products smells of plastic, but it is eliminated after 1-2 weeks.
Cooling ability is poor.
Foods in the Refrigerator are frozen. Dew or ice forms in the chamber of the set. Dew forms in the Exterior Case.
Abnormal noise generates.
In addition to the items described left, refer to the followings to solve the complaint. Check if dew forms in the Freezer. Defrosting is poor. Replace the Components of defrosting circuit.
Check Refrigerating Cycle.
The cycle is faulty.
Repair the cycle.
Check the Damper Control
The operation of the Damper Control is poor.
Replace the Damper Control
- 14 -
5 REFRIGERATING CYCLE
w Troubleshooting Chart
PARTIAL LEAKAGE LEAKAGE CLOGGED BY DUST DEFECTIVE COMPRESSION
STATE OF THE SET
Freezer room and Refrigerator don't cool normally. Freezer room and Refrigerator don't cool normally. Freeze room and Refrigerator don't cool normally. Freezer room and Refrigerator don't cool. Cooling operation stops periodically. Freezer and Refrigerator don't cool. No compressing operation.
STATE OF THE EVAPORATOR
Low flowing sound of Refrigerant is heard and frost forms in inlet only
TEMPERATURE OF THE COMPRESSOR
A little high more than ambient temperature. Equal to ambient temperature.
A little Refrigerant discharges. Normal cooling is possible when injecting of Refrigerant the regular amount. No discharging of Refrigerant. Normal cooling is possible when injecting of Refrigerant the regular amount. Normal discharging of refrigerant. The capillary tube is faulty. Normal discharging of Refrigerant. Cooling operation restarts when heating the inlet of capillary tube. The pressure of high pressure part in compressor is low. No pressure of high pressure part in the compressor.
Flowing sound of Refrigerant is not heard and frost isn't formed. Flowing sound of Refrigerant is heard and frost forms in inlet only. Flowing sound of Refrigerant is not heard and frost isn't formed. Flowing sound of Refrigerant is not heard and frost melts. Low flowing sound of Refrigerant is heard and frost forms in inlet only. Flowing sound of Refrigerant is not heard and no frost.
A little high more than ambient temperature. Equal to ambient temperature. Low than ambient temperature A little high than ambient temperature. Equal to ambient temperature.
WHOLE CLOG MOISTURE CLOG COMPRESSION NO COMPRESSION
w Leakage Detection
discharging point of refrigerant which may be in the oil discharging part in the compressor and hole of evaporator.
Whether Compressor runs or not.
Whether frost forms or not in Evaporator.
No frost or forms in inlet only
Whether oil leaks or not.
Frost formed normally Normal amount
Observe the discharged amount of Refrigerant. No or much amount
Inject Refrigerant to Compressor and check cooling operation.
Clogged by dust. Frost formed normally
Gas leakage. (Check the leakage point)
- 15 -
w General Control of Refrigerating Cycle
CONTENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS
(1) H 30 (1) Chemical Ingredients (1) Ag: 30%, Cu: 27%, Zn: 23%, Cd: 20% (1) Brazing Temperature: 710~840C (2) Bcup-2 (1) Chemical Ingredients (1) Cu: About 93% (1) P: 6.8~7.5% (1) The rest: within 0.2% (1) Brazing Temperature: 735~840C (1) Ingredients and how to make (1) Borax 30% (1) Borax 35% (1) Fluoridation kalium: 35% (1) Water: 4% (1) Mix the above ingredients and boil until (1) they are transformed into liquid. (1) Both of the tube is inserted up to the stop. (2) Both of the LOKRING is pushed up to the stop (3) The bending point is not too close to the joint ending. (4) During the assembly it is important that both ends remain completely within the joint. (1) Assemble the drier within 30min. (1) after unpacking. (2) Keep the unpacked drier at the temperature of 80~100C. (1) When measuring with pirant Vacuum (1 )gauge the charging M/C, vacuum (1 )degree is within 1 Torr. (2) If the vacuum degree of the cycle inside is (2) 10 Torr. below for low pressure and 20 Torr. (2) for high pressure, it says no vacuum (2) leakage state. (3) Vacuum degree of vacuum pump must be (3) 0.05 Torr. below after 5 min. (4) Vacuum degree must be same to the value described item (2) above for more than 20 min. (1) The pressure of dry air must be more han 12~16kg/cm2 (2) Temperature must be more than -20~-70C. (3) Keep the pressure at 12~6kg/cm2 also when substituting dry air for Nitrogen Gas. (1) Check if gas leaks with soapy water. (2) Replace Quick Coupler in case of leakage. (1) Put all Joint Pipes in a clean box and (1) cover tightly with the lid so that dust or (1) humidity is not inserted.
Recommend H34 containing 34% Ag in the Service Center.
Make amount for only day. (1) Holding period: 1 day Close the cover of container to prevent dust putting in the FLUX. Keep it in a stainless steel container.
LOKRING (Figure 23,24)
For a hermetically sealed metal/metal connection, the tube ends have to be clean. LOKPREP is distributed all of out-surface of the tube ends.
Don't keep the drier in a outdoors because humidity damages to it.
Apply M/C Vacuum Gauge without fail. Perform vacuum operation until a proper vacuum degree is built up. If a proper vacuum degree isn't built up, check the leakage from the Cycle Pipe line part and Quick Coupler Connecting part.
DRY AND AIR NITROGEN GAS
NIPPLE AND COUPLER PIPE
Check if gas leaks from joint of the Coupler.
- 16 -
MICOM FUNCTION & PCB CIRCUIT EXPLANATION
This description is made for GR-349, 389SQ. Please refer to overall PCB circuits for other models.
1 FUNCTION EXPOSITION
(1) The refrigerator starts from optimum condition when electric power is first on. But the operation condition changes "Mid" "Mid/Max" "Max" "Min" "Min/Mid" "Mid" whenever pressing the FREEZE TEMP button. (2) It returns to "Mid" conditions if power off and on again.
NOTCH TEMP(C) ROOM 2) QUICK FREEZER
Min/ Mid -16.5
Mid/ Max -19.5
(1) Function to raise the freezing speed by operating the COMP successively. As pressing the QUICK FREEZE button, the QUICK FREEZE LED is displayed. Then after 3 hours' successive operation of COMP, the QUICK FREEZING function will be released. (2) Defrosting During the QUICK FREEZING operates as follow. When the QUICK FREEZING time is below 90 minutes, defrost and then operate the QUICK FREEZING for the remaining time. When the QUICK FREEZING time is over 90 minutes, defrost and then operate the QUICK FREEZING for 2 hours (3) If QUICK FREEZE button is pressed during defrosting, the QUICK FREEZE LED is lit up. But the QUICK FREEZING operates for 3 hours after 7 minutes from the end of defrosting. (4) If VACATION button is pressed during the QUICK FREEZING, the QUICK FREEZING LED function is released. (5) If power off during the QUICK FREEZING and power on again, the QUICK FREEZING function is released.
3) VACATION FUNCTION
(1) Function for Energy Saving. As pressing the VACATION button, the VACATION LED is displayed and this function is operated. (2) Freezer Compartment is not kept by compressor at the notch displayed but at -13C differential. (3) Defrosting and Fan control is same as normal operation. (4) If QUICK FREEZE button is pressed during the VACATION FUNCTION, VACATION FUNCTION is released. (5) If power off during the VACATION FUNCTION and power on again, the VACATION FUNCTION is released.
- 18 -
4) DOOR OPENING ALARM
(1) When the REFRIGERATOR DOOR is opened and won't be closed after 1 minute from the its opened, BUZZER sounds to notify it. (2) At frist, BUZZER sounds three times at each intervals of 0.5 second. Then makes a 0.5 second ON/OFF alarm three times at intervals of 30 seconds. (3) If the REFRIGERATOR door closed during ALARM, it is released.
REFRIGERATOR DOOR CLOSE
OPEN three times three times three times
within 1 minute
5) DISPLAY BUTTON RING
(1) If display function button(FREEZE TEMP, QUICK FREEZE, VACATION) of the front of the TOP COVER is pushed, BUZZER rings with "DING~ DONG~"(See the BUZZER OPERATION CHECK)
(1) If the accumulated time for the operation of the COMPRESSOR is meet with 7 hours, the DEFROSTING HEATER is started. (2) The first defrosting is performed at 4 hours(compressor ON) later since the power is on. (3) If DEFROST SENSOR is over 7C during DEFROSTING, end the operation of DEFROSTING with DEFROSTING HEATER paused, And after 7 minutes, the operation for the freezing is started. But, if DEFROST SENSOR is not reach to 7C after 2 hours' operation of the defrosting heater, it represents a defrosting trouble.(See the TROUBLE REPRESENTING FUNCTION) (4) If DEFROST SENSOR is short or open, defrosting is not performed.
7) ORDERLY OPERATION OF ELECTRIC PARTS
To avoid NOISE and DAMAGE, the items containing an electric parts such as COMP, DEFROSTING HEATER and FAN MOTOR operate in order as follows. OPERATION STATE WHEN DEFROST SENSOR TEMPERATURE IS OVER 7C. (WHEN PURCHASING OR MOVING) WHEN DEFROST SENSOR TEMPERATURE IS BELOW 7C. (WHEN POWER FAILURE OR SERVICING) OPERATION ORDER
POWER after 0.5 sec. ON
after 0.5 sec.
WHEN RETURNING TO NORMAL STATE FROM TEST MODE
WHEN PLUGGED AT FIRST
DEFROSTING after 10 sec. DEFROSTING HEATER ON HEATER ON
All Elec. Parts after 7 min. COMP OFF ON
- 19 -
(1) Function to make service easy in case of occuring a trouble in the product. (2) When occurring a trouble, if the button is pushed, but the function could not operate. (3) If a toruble release during the representation of trouble, a refrigerator performs the normal function(RESET). (4) To represent a ERROR CODE, it use FREEZE TEMP LEDs on TOP COVER. If ERROR occurs, the other LEDs except ERROR CODE LEDs are all off.
Even though LAMP-R is operated a normal ON/OFF according to DOOR S/W-R, but the MICOM couldn't detect a DOOR-R opened or closed of lead wire of the A , B is abnormal or S/W of the A , B of DOOR S/W-R is abnormal. When DOOR-R open isn't detected : Even though DOOR-R is opened, FAN MOTOR couldn't stop. When DOOR-R close isn't detected : Even though DOOR-R is closed, BUZZER sounds a DOOR OPEN ALARM. check a lead wire of the A , B and DOOR S/W-R.
- 23 -
(3)BUZZER OPERATION CHECK
DISPLAY FUNCTION BUTTON RING (DING~ DONG~)
0.05s 0.2s 0.1s 1s 5V 0V 5V 0V 2.66khz (DING~) 2.232khz (DONG~)
DOOR OPEN ALARM (SCREECHING)
IC1 (No.23 Pin)
5V 0V 5V
IC1 (No.22 Pin)
- 24 -
5) TEMP SENSOR CIRCUITS
The above circuit reads the surrounding temperature, DEFROSTING temperature and FREEZER ROOM temperature into MICOM(IC1). OPEN or SHORT state of each SENSOR is as follows. SENSOR ROOM TEMPERATURE SENSOR DEFROST SENSOR FREEZER SENSOR CHECK POINT POINT A Voltage POINT B Voltage POINT C Voltage 0.5V ~ 4.5V 0V 5V NORMAL (-30C~50C) SHORT OPEN
6) SWITCH INPUT CIRCUIT
The following circuit is a test switch input circuit for checking the refrigerator.
- 25 -
7) TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION
FREEZER ROOM RESISTANCE VALUES(R1) 180 k 56 k 33 k 18 k 12 k 10 k 8.2 k 5.6 k 3.3 k 2 k 470 TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION + 5.0C +4.0C +3.0C +2.0C +1.0C 0C -1.0C -2.0C -3.0C -4.0C -5.0C COMPENSATE COOLLY STANDARD REMARKS COMPENSATE WARMLY
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION TABLE by adjusting resistance values. (the temp difference compared to the present temp.) eg) If the compensation resistance of freezer compartment is changed from 10K (present resistance) to 18K (revised resistance), the temp of freezer compartment goes up by +2C.
- 26 -
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION OF FREEZER ROOM Revised resistance 470 Present resistance 470 2k 3.3k 5.6k 8.2k FREEZER ROOM (R1) 10k 12k 18k 33k 56k 180k NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 8C 9C 10C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 8C 9C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 8C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C 4C 3C 2C 1C 5C 4C 3C 2C 6C 5C 4C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 7C 6C 5C 4C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 8C 7C 6C 5C 4C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 9C 8C 7C 6C 5C 4C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 10C 9C 8C 7C 6C 5C 4C 3C 2C 1C NOT COMPENSATE 2k 3.3k 5.6k 8.2k 10k 12k 18k 33k 56k 180k
NOT 1C COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C NOT COMPENSATE 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C
This circuit is aimed to input the necessary temperature compensation values into the MICOM in order to adjust the freezer temperature which is different in each model.
- 27 -
8) LIGHTING CIRCUITS OF KEY BUTTON INPUT AND DISPLAY PARTS
The above circuit is to judge the operation conditions of function key and to light each function indicating LED. It is operated by SCAN method.
- 28 -
3. SENSOR RESISTANCE CHARACTERISTICS TABLE
MEASURED TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE OF FREEZER SENSOR RESISTANCE OF DEFROST SENSOR, ROOM TEMPERATURE SENSOR
-20C -15C -10C -5C 0C +5C +10C +15C +20C +25C +30C +40C +50C
22.3k 16.9k 13.0k 10.1k 7.8k 6.2k 4.9k 3.9k 3.1k 2.5k 2.0k 1.4k 0.8k
77k 60k 47.3k 38.4k 30k 24.1k 19.5k 15.9k 13k 11k 8.9k 6.2k 4.3k
The tolerance of sensor resistance is 5%. Be sure to measure the sensor resistance after keeping the sensor more than 3 minutes at a measuring temperature. (It needs delay due to sensor speed.) Measure the resistances of SENSORs with a digital tester after disconnecting CON 3 of MAIN PWB ASSY.
- 29 -
4. MAIN PWB ASS'Y AND PARTS LIST
1) MAIN PWB ASS'Y
D1 D2 D3 D4
+ CM2 + CM1 CE1 IC2 + CE2 D5 J01 OSC1 IC1 RF2 R10 D6 R7 RF1 D7 D8 R1 CC7 R16 CC8 R15 CC10 J05 J06 J07 J04 CC3 CC4 R6 Q5 + IC3 R8 IC6 CC9 OP1 CC5 OP2 + Q4 CE6 J03 R9
R17 R20 R21
R3 R18 R4
J02 Q1 JCON2
RY1 VA1 L COMP FAN HEATER1 HEATER2
D10 R-DOOR F D 1 RT CON3
- 30 -
2) REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
- 31 -
3) PWB ASS'Y, DISPLAY AND PARTS LIST
- 32 -
5. PWB circuit drawing- The PWB circuit drawing may change without notice.
- 33 -
- 34 -
EXPLODED VIEW & REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
The parts of refrigerator and the shape of each part are subject to change in different localities.
102A 103B 114A 103A 281B 503B 102B 120H 109C 281F 501A 120D RING 120E 120B 409B 406B 407B
1.Ref. No : GR-399
120C 304A 282B 604F 301A 401A
120A 405C 404A
610E 109A 105A 411A 283B 318A 317A 307A 314A 420A 328A 312A 329C 327A 6921 104C 106B 104A 323B 315C 315B 103C 109B 310A 4860 104A 104C 106B
319C 315C 315B
- 35 -
230A 136E 235A 136E 233A
136F 145C 140A 155A
249B 241A 249C 249A 237A
241C 151A 151B 125A 203A
136A 281D 136B
- 36 -
2.Ref. No : GR-359
102A 103B 114A 103A 281B 503B 102B 120H 109C 281F 501A 120D RING 409B 120E 120B 406B 407B
W.C.R.I. Energy Efficiency Project
Amber Cantell (20072141) Christine Michie (20060462) Aurora McAllister (20064048) Tyler Thomas (20061289) Andrea Peplinski (20061414) December 5th, 2002
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Research Question and Objective 1.3 Definitions 2.0 Background Information 2.1 Literature Review 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Assumptions Made 4.0 Systems Analysis 3.1 Actor Systems 3.2 W.C.R.I. Systems Diagram 5.0 Results 5.1 Appliances 5.21 Refrigerators 5.22 Stoves 5.23 Washers 5.24 Dryers 5.25 Lighting 6.0 Educational Component 7.0 Conclusions 8.0 Recommendations 9.0 Literature Cited
The Waterloo Co-Operative Residences Incorporated (W.C.R.I.) are preparing to undergo major renovations (Spano, 2002), which offers the residence many opportunities to create a "greener" living space for its residents. To these ends, this project seeks to make recommendations on energy efficient appliances and how they might be used in the new apartments to both save W.C.R.I. money and help them become less detrimental to the environment in the process.
Since the Green the Campus (and now Community) course started in 1990, it has provided the impetus for the creation of over 190 projects that have set out to "green" the University of Waterloo campus and many parts of the Kitchener/Waterloo and Cambridge communities as a whole (WATgreen, 2002). The purpose of this project is to aid W.C.R.I. in the decision making process involved in choosing appliances for the new apartments. This will help achieve the goals of WATgreen by aiding a student community have less negative environmental impacts through their electricity use, as well as raise awareness of energy efficiency among the residents and staff of W.C.R.I. This project also seeks to create an educational component that will be used by W.C.R.I. to help students become informed about energy efficiency and conservation.
Education is an important part of establishing any environmental ethics, and will help promote energy conservation within the residences.
1.2 Research Question and Objective
What are the most energy efficient and cost-effective appliances from the following list that could be purchased for the W.C.R.I. renovations? Refrigerators Stoves Washing Machine Dryer Lighting
Additional Objective: To produce an educational item to help encourage energy conservation in W.C.R.I.
Energy efficiency: Is usually understood in terms of technological efficiency. As explained by the World Energy Council, "it encompasses all changes that result in decreasing the amount of energy used to produce one unit of economic activity (e.g. the energy used per unit of GDP or value added) or to meet the energy requirements for a given level of comfort" (2002). Energy efficiency is associated with economic efficiency and improvements in efficient involve behavioural, technological and economic changes (World Energy Council, 2002).
Improvements in energy efficiency imply a reduction in the amount energy used for a given energy service, for instance heating, lighting or level of activity (World Energy Council, 2002). Reduction of energy consumption is not necessarily associated to technical changes, since it can also be an outcome of better organization and management, or improved economic efficiency in the sector (World Energy Council, 2002).
Kilowatt Hours (kWh): Energy is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) (Wind Power, 2002). I kWh is equal to 1000 watts (Electric Power, 1999). One kilowatt hour is equivalent to burning a 100-watt light bulb for 10 hours, or running the hot water in the shower for three minutes (OEE, 2002a).
2.0 Background Information
The W.C.R.I. renovations that are being planned include a renovation of "Hammar", at a cost of 3 million dollars, the creation of a new set of apartments at 280 Phillip St. at a cost of up to 25 million dollars, or a combination of the two or a "do nothing" approach. The architects that have been hired for the project are Quadrangle, from Toronto (Demko, 2002). In total, there is a need to purchase 630 appliances: 268 Phillip Street 96 Refrigerators (20 ft capacity) 96 Stoves (4 burner with oven) 96 Air Conditioners (btu) 10 Washing Machines
280 Phillip Street 128 Refrigerators 128 Stoves 15 Washers 15 Dryers
139 University Avenue: 15 Refrigerators 15 Stoves 3 Microwaves 3 Dishwashers
Prior to November, 2002, increased prices in electricity in Ontario following government regulation lead to a surge of concerns with regards to energy cost, use and efficiency. In November, 2002 the Ontario government declared that after months of varying prices for electricity, a cap would be placed on it at 4.3 cents per kilowatt hour.
2.1 Literature Review
Much of the most valuable literature on energy efficiency comes from government sources, (in particular Natural Resources Canada), and consumer based sites, such as
MySimon.com. The most valuable resource, by far, was the Office of Energy Efficiency within Natural Resources Canada which sets out the guidelines for (and implements) the EnerGuide program.
To rate different appliances, Natural Resources Canada's "EnerGuide" system was used. Data on the cost of some potential models were gathered from the Office of Energy Efficiency within Natural Resources Canada.
Overall, this study primarily represents exploratory research (Palys, 1997), primarily due to time constraints. A wide body of resources have been used to describe the ways in which energy efficiency can be achieved by careful selection of appliances during the purchasing process. As with an exploratory project, it serves to help future studies be worked out more exactly (Festinger, 1953). This will allow this project to serve as a starting point for future WATgreen projects, supplying a base of information for new projects, and allowing this area of study to grow in the ERS 250 course.
3.1 Assumptions Made
For the purpose of examining the long-term financial costs and benefits of the appliances, it was assumed that the price of electricity would remain at its cap of 4.3 cents per kilowatt hour for the next ten years (Frame, 2002). With distribution and other charges, the
price to the consumer for electricity was estimated to be approximately 8 cents per kilowatt hour for energy savings calculations.
4.0 Systems Analysis
There are two primary systems of importance with regards to energy efficiency at W.C.R.I. the actor system and the decision making system.
4.1 Actor Systems
Table 1 Energy Efficiency Actor System Actor W.C.R.I. Board Influence Final decisions given to architects and planners Interest Wishes to see W.C.R.I.
reflect interests of residents Staying within budget Improved quality of life within W.C.R.I. Buildings built with environmental impact in mind (extent of this to be seen through studies) Cost is kept within
what is acceptable to students Architectural Firm Research team (via access to information) W.C.R.I. board (via professional opinions) Government Affecting electricity price Being re-elected Ensuring affordable
to consumers via policy and caps
access to electricity for Canadians
Cost of products (Potentially) architecture firm (by selling idea.)
Making a profit Becoming more well known
4.2 W.C.R.I. System Diagram
Fig. 1 W.C.R.I. Decision Making and Energy System
What the preceding systems diagram shows is how cost of electricity can influence rent at W.C.R.I., which in turn affects the resident's desire for energy efficiency and the purchasing of energy efficient appliances. One important aspect of this system is that rent is affected both by the purchasing of appliances as well as the cost of electricity. Although it is beyond the scope of this project, it would be useful to include a weighting on both of these arrows, to show how much each affects the cost of rent. (Because as it stands, it does not show any difference between the costs of energy efficient appliances and cost of electricity, thus failing to suggest any net savings over time).
The results of this study represent data gathered from various resources on the differences in energy efficiency among the following types of appliances (life expectancies in brackets source: OEE, 2002d): Refrigerators (17 years) Stoves (18 years) Washers (14 years) Dryers (18 years) Lighting (n/a)
Data was also collected on the average prices of appliances, and how much energy efficiency would change money spent on energy over time.
The energy efficiency of appliances varies by model and brand. Efficiency can vary because of size, insulation, and other factors.
The EnerGuide Appliance Directory 2002 (OEE, 2002a) was a major source for the following information on appliances. The data from this directory was used and re-arranged in way to help compare sizes and energy-efficiency rating. The prices are calculated based an electricity cost of 8 cents per kWh. The model name and number will accompany the most appropriate recommendations for this particular study. It should be noted that the EnerGuide Appliance Directory 2002 shows the model name and number in a certain manner. Sometimes the symbols * and # are used in the model numbers (OEE, 2002a). These symbols indicate a brand name series of models that have the same energy rating and features (OEE, 2002a). The asterisk stands for a series of letters showing the relation between a series of models (OEE, 2002a). The number sign stands for a series of model numbers (OEE, 2002a). Also, some models have additional prefix or suffix number or letters, which mean that the appliance has additional features or is of a certain color (OEE, 2002a). The differences reflected by variations in model numbers do not affect the energy consumption rating (OEE, 2002a).
It is uncertain whether all the model suggested by the Appliance Directory may still be available on the market. It must be noted that there are new and even more energyefficient models that can be currently found on the market. However, due to the new technology involved in these appliances, they are usually much more expensive.
The Second Price Tag is used in order to help determine the cost of the approximate amount of electricity used by and appliance during its lifetime (OEE, 2002b).
Calculating the Second Price Tag
EnerGuide rating (kWh/year) x the appliance life in years x local electricity costs (dollars/kWh) = The Second Price Tag Source: OEE, 2002b.
When the time comes to choose a new appliance, one can calculate the second price tag and add it to the first in order to gain a better idea of what the appliance will actually cost in the long run (OEE, 2002b).
The most efficient refrigerator according to Energy Guide has a rating of 559 kWh per year (OEE, 2002b).The least efficient refrigerator has a rating of 767 kWh per year (OEE,
2002b). This information has been determined based on ratings for frost free, two-door refrigerators with top-mounted freezer in the 20.5-22.4 ft size range (OEE, 2002b). Generally, side-by-side door refrigerators consume more energy than refrigerators with top-mounted freezers (OEE, 2002b). A side-by-side refrigerator uses about 7 to 13% more energy than a top-freezer model of similar size (Hassol, 1994). There are ways of selecting energy-efficient refrigerators other than checking the EnerGuide rating. A refrigerator with a switch to turn down heating coils can help save energy (OEE, 2002b). It is better to choose a refrigerator without an ice-maker because the purchase cost will be lower, you will not have to pay extra money for the energy it uses and will not have to pay for the frequent repairs ice-makers require (Hassol, 1994). Typically an ice-maker increases energy consumption by 14 to 20% (Hassol, 1994). Also consumption can be increased by 5 to 10% due to anti-sweat heaters (Hassol, 1994). When choosing a refrigerator, it is important to consider how many people will be using the refrigerator and the amount of space they will require. The following guidelines help determine the size of refrigerator for general needs (as opposed to the needs of a chef, for example):
For one or two people, consider a refrigerator of about 340 L (12 cu. ft.); For three or four people, consider a unit of about 395 to 480 L (14 to 17 cu.ft.); And for each additional person, add 55 L (2 cu. ft.). (OEE, 2002b)
For the purpose of this project, research was done on refrigerators with top-mounted freezers and without ice-makers or water dispensers. The refrigerators considered have Energy Star labels. Only refrigerators that feature automatic defrosting can qualify for the
Energy Star mark (OEE, 2002a). All the Energy Star qualified refrigerators must achieve energy efficiency levels of at least 10 percent higher than the minimum regulated standard in Canada (OEE, 2002a). Table 2 Refridgerator Costs and Efficiencies Refrigerators Annual Total Energy Annual Electricity Model Number Difference in:
Volume Consumption Electricity Costs for (cu.ft.) (kWh) Cost 17 years Annual 18.17.89 304.13 Kenmore 6199*10* Energy
Consumption = 34 kWh Annual Electricity Cost =
Kenmore 6198*10* Kenmore 7198*10*
1.46$ cubic feet = 1.2 electricity costs for life
time of appliance = 24.82$
334.9 Annual Energy
Consumption = 7 kWh Annual Electricity Cost =
cubic feet = 1.6 electricity costs for life
341.53 334.05 Kenmore 6128*10* Kenmore 7120*10* Kenmore 7128*10* Kenmore 7129*10*
time of appliance = 5.10$
Table 2 contains data partly from the EnerGuide Appliance Directory for 2002 (OEE, 2002a). The data used was that of Type 3 refrigerators, which are defined as refrigeratorfreezers with automatic defrost, with top-mounted freezer, without through-the-door ice service, and all refrigerators without freezers but with automatic defrost (OEE, 2002a). The data was rearranged and some information was added. Information on 20 cubic feet refrigerators was requested, however, according to the EnerGuide Consumers Guide to Buying and Using Energy-Efficient Appliances, the most efficient size for a refrigerator for 3 to 4 people is between 14 to 17 cubic feet. For the apartment style buildings for 4 people, it is probably more efficient to purchase refrigerators between 17 and 20 cubic feet, just to make sure there is enough space for the students to store their food. According to the above chart, choosing an 18.8 cubic foot fridge instead of a 20 cubic foot fridge, one can save about $24.82 over the fridges lifetime, which is determined to be
The following is a list of conventional element, self-cleaning electric ranges. They are put in order of increasing usable oven space (L), annual energy consumption (kWh), annual electricity costs, lifetime electricity costs and model. Table 3 Costs and Efficiencies of Ranges Ranges with Conventional Cooking Tops Nominal Width: 30 in Annual Usable Energy Annual Electricity Model Number Oven Consumption Electricity Costs for Space (L) (kWh) Cost 18 years 50.$55.20 $993.60 Frigid. CFEF216* 52.$59.84 $1,077.12 Maytag MER6550+*# Maytag MER6770+*#
$58.00 $58.56 $56.96 $58.32 $59.52 $59.92
u sable oven space = 14.3 L A. Energy Consumption=22 Maytag MER6771+*# kWh Maytag MER6772+*# . Electricity Cost = 1.76$ A electricity costs for life time Maytag MER6870+*# of Maytag MER6871+*# ppliance = 31.68$ a Maytag MER6872+*# $1,044.00 Inglis I**898** $1,054.08 Kit.Aid YKERS507**** $1,025.28 Frigid. CFES359* $1,049.76 Crosley CE1340 Frigid. CCEF355* GRSL3640Z** $1,071.36 Gen.El 1 $1,078.56 Beaumrk 10581-1 HRSL3600A**Hotpnt 1 sable oven space = 4.7 L u GRSF3201Z** A. Energy $1,101.60 Gen.El 1 Consumption=13kWh MRSF3180Z** Moffat 1 A . Electricity Cost = 1.04$
769 68.6 69.743
$61.52 $58.56 $58.00 $58.40 $58.80 $59.12 $59.20 $59.36 $59.52 $59.60 $60.24 $60.64 $51.12 $54.72 $59.44
CRSL3400Z** $1,105.92 Conc II 1 GRSF3301Z** Gen.El 1 HRSF3180A** Hotpnt -1 MRSL3400Z** Moffat 1 $1,107.36 Beaumrk 10561-1 Beaumrk 10571-1 $1,054.08 Gen.El JCSP31* $1,044.00 Whirlpl W**548** Whirlpl W**838** $1,051.20 Whirlpl G**852** Whirlpl G**858** $1,058.40 Whirlpl G**842** $1,064.16 Inglis I**338** $1,065.60 Inglis I**878**
electricity costs for life time of ppliance = 18.72$ a
sable oven space = 3.1 L u A. Energy Consumption=86 $1,068.48 kWh $1,071.36 A. Electricity Cost = 6.88$ electricity costs for life time $1,072.80 of $1,084.32 ppliance = 123.84$ a $1,091.52 $920.16 Amana ZRRS6550* $984.96 Amana ZRRSC8050* $1,069.92 Amana ZRR6400*
Table 3 contains data from the EnerGuide Appliance Directory 2002 (OEE, 2002a). Data has been rearranged and presented in a slightly different format. Some additional calculations have been added. It is uncertain whether all the model suggested by the Appliance Directory may still be available on the market. Some of the models were left out due to the fact that their energy efficiencies were not comparable to others.
A type of range with an average or small oven will be the most energy-efficient. When deciding on a range using size as a criteria, it is important to consider the increments of
size and the EnerGuide rating. It turns out to be most cost efficient to increase usable oven space increment from 50.9 L to 65.2 L to 69.9 L to 73.0 L, if a larger oven is required. The yellow fill demonstrates the differences between the best size increments. In general, the smaller the usable oven space, the lower the EnerGuide rating and the less money spent on electricity. A range with a smaller usable oven space such as 50.9 L or 65.2 L is recommended.
According to MySimon.com, a websource for purchasing information, top loading washers are cheaper upfront but front-loading washers cost less to operate. Front loaders are more energy efficient due to the fact that they use less water, including hot water. Another benefit to front loaders is that, because of their design, they have larger capacities for the same sized machine than top loaders do. They are also louder than front loaders, which is an important consideration for students whose rooms are next the laundry areas. Front loaders are also easier on clothes. An important feature is a washer, which sets the water level automatically, thus conserving more water than a machine without the feature.
Although front-loading washing machines use fewer resources, they only make back the difference in price in areas with high water and energy bills.
In consumer reports tests all washers clean clothes on a comparable level, so this was not a big concern when selecting the best models. Front loaders are ideal as they use less water and energy, and they are quieter.
According to MySimon.com, if six loads of laundry are washed per week a frontloading machine can save almost 6,000 gallons (litres) of water per year.
It is better to recommend phosphate free detergents to residents, as phosphates are very harmful to the aquatic systems that the wastewater winds up in. Table 4 Cost and Efficiencies of Clothes Washers
(L) 45.4 46.0 48.0 (kWh) 362 Cost 18.16 20.48 19.68 20.16 21.36 24.24 25.76 16.08 15.12 16.72 20.16 25.28 20.16 20.72 22.00 28.08 23.44 25.44 22.56 24.16 28.years 254.24 286.72 275.52 282.24 299.04 339.36 360.64 225.12 211.68 234.08 282.24 353.92 282.24 290.08 308.00 393.12 328.16 356.16 315.84 338.24 405.44
48.3 48.5 50.0
57.0 59.0 75.0
Source: OEE, 2002a
The United States Environmental Protection Agency offers a "money savings" tool based on the efficiency of washing machines. It can be found online at: http://www.epa.gov/nrgystar/purchasing/calculators/cw-main.html
According to MySimon.com, while most dryers function on more or less that same principles, there are a few key aspects that can affect energy efficiency. Sensors (either moisture or thermostat) allow the machines to turn off on their own once the clothes are dry, while different sources of fuel (natural gas, electric) effect. Machines with moisture sensors tend to detect dry laundry faster than ones with thermostats, and thus use less electricity.
Dryers typically range in size from 27 to 29 inches (with drum capacities ranging from 5 to 7 cubic feet) for average models, and around 24 inches (with a drum capacity of 3 cubic feet) for "space-savers".
Table 5 Costs and Efficiencies of Dryers
Dryers Drum Capacity (L) Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) 906 Annual Electricity Cost 66.96 70.16 72.00 71.84 72.48 Electricity Costs for 18 years 1205.28 1262.88 1296.00 1293.12 1304.64
Source: OEE, 2002a (For specific models, please see the EnerGuide Appliance
Consumer reports have found that nearly all dryers dry clothes equally well. (MySimon.com, 2002).
Fluorescent light bulbs come in a variety of shapes and wattages to fit the various needs of consumers. Fluorescent light bulbs have been traditionally a linear light source, but also come in u-shape, circular and compact shapes (Speec Inc 2002). Some fluorescent light bulbs are compact sources that give lots of light in a small source at a low wattage. Compact florescent lights (CFL) have been used extensively in building applications where energy consumption is of high concern (Speec Inc 2002). CFL bulbs are far more energy efficient that the standard incandescent light bulbs used in most residential applications (Speec Inc 2002). A biax or bent tube bulb is the traditional CFL and offer substantial energy savings (DOE 1996). Compact fluorescent light bulbs will help save energy and money. Savings up to 80% in energy costs and not having to change bulbs as often are two of the many positive aspects of CFLs. With energy efficient CFLs light output is not sacrificed, they're brighter and come in a wide variety of sizes shapes and colours (Speec Inc 2002). Alternative energy and conservation comes in many forms. A lot of people talk about alternative energy sources like solar and wind power, but an inexpensive alternative energy idea is energy saving light bulbs. Alternative energy conservation goals can be helped by simply converting conventional incandescent bulbs to CFLs (Speec Inc 2002). A 20 watt energy saving triple biax CFL provides the light equivalent to that of a 75 watt incandescent bulb while only using 20 watts (NCS 2002). With a lifetime averaging over 9000 hours CFLs in some cases are guaranteed by the manufacturer to last over 7 years and 10 times longer than an incandescent bulb. CFLs help pay for themselves in not only energy savings but also the reduced cost of building maintenance by not having to change them as
as 20 percent of the heat escapes, and the oven has to work that much harder to replace it (EnerGuide, 2002). Thaw frozen foods inside the refrigerator. This will help cool the interior and eliminate the use of energy for thawing in an oven or microwave (EnerGuide, 2002). Keep the drip pans under conventional burners clean. Don't line them with aluminum foil; this may reflect too much heat and damage the element (EnerGuide, 2002). Use the convection oven setting whenever possible; it will reduce baking times up to 30 percent by circulating heated air around the food (EnerGuide, 2002). Make sure all pots are right-sized for the elements. A small fry pan on a large element wastes energy (Home and Family Guide, 2000). Save energy, water and vitamins when cooking vegetables by using a steamer with a small amount of water and a tight-fitting pot lid (Home and Family Guide, 2000). For stews, roasts, vegetables and many other dishes, a pressure cooker cuts down greatly on cooking time (EnerGuide, 2002). A microwave uses less than half the energy of a conventional oven for most cooking jobs. Savings are greatest with small to medium quantities of food that would normally be heated in the oven. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to get maximum performance (EnerGuide, 2002). When using a conventional oven, cook a number of dishes at once (EnerGuide, 2002).
Don't fill the kettle every time you boil water -- boil only as much as you will need (EnerGuide, 2002). Avoid using electrical gadgets -- can openers, knives and coffee grinders (even corkscrews!!) -- when manual appliances will do the trick. Often these gadgets are hard to repair and end up in the garbage after a limited time of use (Home and Family Guide, 2000). Washing Dishes Don't run the tap to get a cold, cold glass of water. Keep a pitcher of water in the fridge for that purpose (EnerGuide, 2002). If you have a double sink, put a few inches of water in each -- one with soapy water for washing, the other for rinsing (EnerGuide, 2002). A dishwashing soap-wand is inexpensive and can help reduce water use. Check in hardware, department and grocery stores. You dilute liquid dishwashing detergent with water and pour into the handle of the wand. Soap is automatically dispensed through the sponge or scrubber end (these are replaceable) as you wash the dishes. Don't leave the hot water running as you scrub. Turn the water on to rinse the dishes (Home and Family Guide, 2000). Use phosphate-free and/or biodegradable cleaning products available in hardware and health food stores (Home and Family Guide, 2000). In the Bathroom To reduce the amount of water used, you can spend less time in the shower and turn the water off between soaping and rinsing. If the room is cold - work fast! (Home and Family Guide, 2000). Water-saving or low-flow shower heads or shower head inserts effectively use less water to give a good spray action and can save
up to three-quarters of the water used by conventional shower heads. These shower heads use between 5 and 8 litres a minute (1.1 to 1.7 gallons per minute). Choose the type that allows you to turn the water on and off while showering without having to readjust the temperature. (Turn the water on to get wet and off to soap and shampoo, then on again to rinse) (Home and Family Guide, 2000). Doing Laundry The Clothes Dryer Shake out the wet clothes before placing them in the dryer (EnerGuide, 2002). Reduce the drying time for lighter loads (EnerGuide, 2002). Organize your washing and drying so that you are always doing full loads (EnerGuide, 2002). Clean the filter in the dryer before every load to ensure maximum operating efficiency (EnerGuide, 2002). "Perma-press" drying cycles offer a "cool-down" feature that finishes the job and prevents heat-set wrinkles by using residual heat from the dryer (EnerGuide, 2002). The Washer Limit the use of hot water when washing your clothes (a large portion of the energy consumed by clothes washers goes towards heating the water). Use the cold wash option whenever possible (modern detergents are formulated to make it easier to wash clothes in cold water) (EnerGuide, 2002). Wash only full loads whenever possible. If a partial load is necessary, adjust the water level accordingly (EnerGuide, 2002).
Level your clothes washer; an unleveled machine works harder, wearing out parts before their time (EnerGuide, 2002). Lighting in the Home Lighting accounts for as much as 25% of our home energy consumption! (EnerGuide, 2002). Turn off lights when not in use (EnerGuide, 2002). Reduce wattage on bulbs to the minimum required to do the job (EnerGuide, 2002). When buying new lighting -- buy fluorescent. Some studies suggest that artificial lighting inhibits vitamin D production and, during the winter, certain people experience depression (seasonally affected disorder) if they don't get enough natural light. You may want to choose full-spectrum fluorescent bulbs. Compact fluorescent bulbs come with an adaptor to screw into regular sockets and use 70 to 80% less energy than standard bulbs and may last as long as 10 years each. Since the initial cost is fairly high (starting at $15 for one bulb), you may want to spread the expense over a period of time. These bulbs are designed for continuous long hours of operation which enable their efficiency to offset the initial high cost (EnerGuide, 2002). Make the light shine on the task or work area -- on your desk or kitchen counter -- rather than lighting the whole room (EnerGuide, 2002).
References Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency 2002. Operating tips. http://energuide.nrcan.gc.ca/default.cfm?PageID= 1&Lang=e&Fiptop=hg&Header=hg&LefCol=main Rocky Mountain Instititute 1995. Home Energy Brief. http://www.rmi. org /images/other/E-HEB-Washers.pdf The Harmony Foundation of Canada 2000. Home and Family Guide. http://perc.ca/waste-line/rrr/home/index.html
There is a wide range of energy efficient products available on todays market, although sometimes this is not made clear to the purchasing public.
Future areas of research related to this study could include: How use of educational components affects energy consumption in W.C.R.I. How purchasing decisions at W.C.R.I. could influence other similar residences undergoing purchasing of new appliances Tracking changes in energy efficiency technology Creating a system of standards for purchasing of energy efficient products by the University of Waterloo.
1) That energy efficient appliances be purchased for the W.C.R.I. renovations, with financial concerns taken into consideration, and that these decisions should be made in consultation with an electrical engineer working with the Quadrangle Architectural Firm. 2) That the findings of this study be made available to future groups interested in energy efficiency appliances through the WATgreen website. 2) That the text based educational material be incorporated into an educational item for W.C.R.I. residents, whether this takes the form of posters, papers in introductory material, newsletters, mailing lists, etc.
9.0 Literature Cited
American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.aceee.org/ Cureton, M., Reed, D. 1995a. Home Energy Brief #5: Cooking Appliances and Dishwashers. Rocky Mountain Institute. Available online at: http://www.rmi.org/images/other/E-HEB-Ovens.pdf Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Cureton, M., Reed, D. 1995. Home Energy Brief #6: Washers, Dryers and Miscellaneous Appliances. Rocky Mountain Institute. Last Accessed: Available online at: http://www.rmi.org/images/other/E-HEB-Washers.pdf Danish Wind Industry Association, 2002. Wind Energy Reference Manual Part 2: Energy and Power Definitions Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.windpower.dk/stat/unitsene.htm Demoke, M. 2002. Demko's Redevelopment Diary - October 4th, 2002. W.C.R.I. Publications. Festinger, L. 1953. Research Methods in the Behavioural Sciences. The Dryden Press, New York, U.S.A. Frame, A. Hydro in Ontario: Bring Back Public Ownership. The Record, A11, Tuesday November 26th, 2002. FutureShop. 2002. LG GR-131R Compact Refrigerator Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.futureshop.ca/catalog/proddetail.asp?sku_id=0665000FS49122133&catid=17131 &atab=2&logon=&langid=EN&dept=12&WLBS=fs%2Dweb4 The Harmony Foundation of Canada 2000. Home and Family Guide. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://perc.ca/waste-line/rrr/home/index.html Hassol, S. 1994. Home Energy Brief #3: Refrigerators and Freezers. Rocky Mountain Institute. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: www.rmi.org/images/other/E-HEB-Refrigerators.pdf Kurtus, R. 1999. Electric Power.
Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electpower.htm Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency 2002. Operating tips. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://energuide.nrcan.gc.ca/default.cfm?PageID=1&Lang=e&Fiptop=hg&Header=hg&LefC ol=main Noli Control Systems (NCS). 2002. Biax Lamps Available online at: http://www.nolico.com/saveenergy/high_output.htm. Last accessed December 4th, 2002. Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE). 2002a. EnerGuide Appliance Directory 2002. Office of Energy Efficiency. Natural Resources Canada. Available online at: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/appliances/index.cfm Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE). 2002b. EnerGuide Consumers Guide to Buying and Using Energy-Efficient Appliances. Office of Energy Efficiency. Ministry of Natural Resources. Available online at: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/infosource/pub/home/Buying_and_Using_EE_Appliances. cfm#toc Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE). 2002c. EnerGuide. Appliances: Buying tips for ranges. Office of Energy Efficiency. Ministry of Natural Resources. Available online at: http://energuide.nrcan.gc.ca Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE). 2002d. Appliances: Making the right investment when buying appliances. Office of Energy Efficiency. Ministry of Natural Resources. Available online at: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/english/media/articles_appliances_may99_rightinvestment.cfm Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Palys, T. 1997. Research Decisions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives Second Edition. Harcourt Canada Ltd., Canada. Rocky Mountain Instititute 1995. Home Energy Brief. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.rmi. org /images/other/E-HEB-Washers.pdf Spano, B. Personal Communications. November, 2002. Speec Inc. 2002. Fluorescent Light Bulbs.
Last Accessed December 4th, 2002. Available online at: http://www.buylighting.com/fluorescent.htm. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 1996. Residential Lighting Use and Potential Savings. Last Accessed December 4th, 2002. Available online at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/lighting/contents.html#tabcont. WATgreen. 2002. The History and Direction of WATgreen: Its Evolution. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infowast/watgreen/history.html Whirlpool. 2002. Energy-saving products. Whirlpool Home Appliances. Last accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.whirlpoolcanada.com/whirlpool/english/resources/resources_appliances.php World Energy Council. 2002. Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators: Energy Efficiency Progress Achieved. Last Accessed: December 5th, 2002 Available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/eepi/introduction/definition.asp
XMC2000 BIW103W Wars Kane Mixer BDZ-T55 Roadster Samsung 920N CC4001 C4480 Testastretta CLP-310 XAA Precision 410 Point For MAC Razr V3I YP-S3JAW XL-2000 Serie KDC-BT6044 SGH-C260M FTR9964 12S TH-37PA20 F250-2000 OFX 1900 Eheim 2215 EP4233 26LX1D Magic III Phone VL-SD20S 7AIV0 MY-M230 Latitude D810 CX-J910 LN40S81BD Partner 352 MC7646U L1917S-BN MCD 570 PV400 32LG4000-ZA AEU MCM166 12 Electric A835 P-793H Gps-910EU Bizhub 211 Bizhub 751 Roland TU-2 Singer 7468 RX-V990 Pentax Z-70 CT-14S10KE VGN-NS11m S X-18H Carrera S KLV-32BX300 P3600 TH-L1 Lrspc2031T DCR-HC62E Madeira CD33 SWD-2000 ER8115B Pioneer EX DEH-5250SD Lrfd25850ST HQ8240 17 DVD-2600 Thinkpad 240Z Group 200 TH-42PX70EA IC-F3026t-S 360 CLP-170-CLP-150 BDP-V6000 - FAX Cpwbs054-00 LT850-M26 ASK 145 URC 7721 KX-TG2550B Whatzit NM600 Hdmi Professional F Charger UE46B6000 Review Go 520 Nuvi 215 32LG80FR DSC-P200 DCR-TRV7 40353 Glass Coolpix S630 AVR 355 SLV-SE830N DRX6575Z XM601 Gf-350 SF370-XEU
manuel d'instructions, Guide de l'utilisateur | Manual de instrucciones, Instrucciones de uso | Bedienungsanleitung, Bedienungsanleitung | Manual de Instruções, guia do usuário | инструкция | návod na použitie, Užívateľská príručka, návod k použití | bruksanvisningen | instrukcja, podręcznik użytkownika | kullanım kılavuzu, Kullanım | kézikönyv, használati útmutató | manuale di istruzioni, istruzioni d'uso | handleiding, gebruikershandleiding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101