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19-0100; Rev 6; 12/08
KIT ATION EVALU ILABLE AVA
NiCd/NiMH Battery Fast-Charge Controllers
Fast-Charge NiMH or NiCd Batteries Voltage Slope, Temperature, and Timer Fast-Charge Cutoff Charge 1 to 16 Series Cells Supply Batterys Load While Charging (Linear Mode) Fast Charge from C/4 to 4C Rate C/16 Trickle-Charge Rate Automatically Switch from Fast to Trickle Charge Linear Mode Power Control 5A (max) Drain on Battery when Not Charging 5V Shunt Regulator Powers External Logic
The MAX712/MAX713 fast-charge Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries from a DC source at least 1.5V higher than the maximum battery voltage. 1 to 16 series cells can be charged at rates up to 4C. A voltage-slope detecting analog-to-digital converter, timer, and temperature window comparator determine charge completion. The MAX712/MAX713 are powered by the DC source via an on-board +5V shunt regulator. They draw a maximum of 5A from the battery when not charging. A low-side current-sense resistor allows the battery charge current to be regulated while still supplying power to the batterys load. The MAX712 terminates fast charge by detecting zero voltage slope, while the MAX713 uses a negative voltage-slope detection scheme. Both parts come in 16pin DIP and SO packages. An external power PNP transistor, blocking diode, three resistors, and three capacitors are the only required external components. The evaluation kit is available: Order the MAX712EVKITDIP for quick evaluation of the linear charger.
PART MAX712CPE MAX712CSE MAX712C/D MAX712EPE MAX712ESE MAX712MJE TEMP RANGE 0C to +70C 0C to +70C 0C to +70C -40C to +85C -40C to +85C -55C to +125C PIN-PACKAGE 16 Plastic DIP 16 Narrow SO Dice* 16 Plastic DIP 16 Narrow SO 16 CERDIP**
Battery-Powered Equipment Laptop, Notebook, and Palmtop Computers Handy-Terminals Cellular Phones Portable Consumer Products Portable Stereos Cordless Phones
Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet. *Contact factory for dice specifications. **Contact factory for availability and processing to MIL-STD-883.
Typical Operating Circuit
DC IN C4 0.01F Q1 2N6109 R2 150
VLIMIT 1 BATT+ 2 PGMPGMTHI 5 TLO 6 TEMP 7 FASTCHG REF 15 V+ 14 DRV
THI V+ C1 1F R3 68k TEMP VLIMIT REF
BATT+ C3 10F
13 GND 12 BATT11 CC 10 PGMPGM2
LOAD CC BATT- TLO GND C2 0.01F
DIP/SO ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim's website at www.maxim-ic.com.
NiCd/NiMH Battery Fast-Charge Controllers MAX712/MAX713
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
V+ to BATT-...-0.3V, +7V BATT- to GND..1V BATT+ to BATTPower Not Applied..20V With Power Applied..The higher of 20V or 2V x (programmed cells) DRV to GND..-0.3V, +20V FASTCHG to BATT-...-0.3V, +12V All Other Pins to GND..-0.3V, (V+ + 0.3V) V+ Current...100mA DRV Current...100mA REF Current...10mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70C) Plastic DIP (derate 10.53mW/C above +70C.842mW Narrow SO (derate 8.70mW/C above +70C.696mW CERDIP (derate 10.00mW/C above +70C.800mW Operating Temperature Ranges MAX71_C_E..0C to +70C MAX71_E_E.. -40C to +85C MAX71_MJE.. -55C to +125C Storage Temperature Range..-65C to +150C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s)..+300C
Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
(IV+ = 10mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Refer to the Typical Operating Circuit. All measurements are with respect to BATT-, not GND.) PARAMETER V+ Voltage IV+ (Note 1) BATT+ Leakage BATT+ Resistance with Power On C1 Capacitance C2 Capacitance REF Voltage Undervoltage Lockout External VLIMIT Input Range THI, TLO, TEMP Input Range THI, TLO Offset Voltage (Note 2) THI, TLO, TEMP, VLIMIT Input Bias Current VLIMIT Accuracy Internal Cell Voltage Limit Fast-Charge VSENSE PGM3 = V+ Trickle-Charge VSENSE PGM3 = open PGM3 = REF PGM3 = BATTVoltage-Slope Sensitivity (Note 3) Timer Accuracy Battery-Voltage to Cell-Voltage Divider Accuracy DRV Sink Current 2 VDRV = 10V MAX713 MAX712 -15 -1.1.2V < VLIMIT < 2.5V, 5mA < IDRV < 20mA, PGM0 = PGM1 = V+ VLIMIT = V+ 0V < TEMP < 2V, TEMP voltage rising 0mA < IREF < 1mA Per cell V+ = 0V, BATT+ = 17V PGM0 = PGM1 = BATT-, BATT+ = 30V 30 0.1.96 0.35 1.-10 -1 -30 1.1.5 4.5 12.0 26.0 1.3.9 7.8 15.6 31.3 -2.15 1.5 2.04 0.50 2.30 1.7.0 12.0 20.0 38.0 mV/tA per cell % % mA mV CONDITIONS 5mA < IV+ < 20mA MIN 4.5 TYP MAX 5.5 UNITS V mA A k F nF V V V V mV A mV V mV
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(IV+ = 10mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Refer to the Typical Operating Circuit. All measurements are with respect to BATT-, not GND.) PARAMETER FASTCHG Low Current FASTCHG High Current A/D Input Range (Note 4) CONDITIONS V FASTCHG = 0.4V V FASTCHG = 10V Battery voltage number of cells programmed 1.4 MIN 1.9 TYP MAX UNITS mA A V
Note 1: The MAX712/MAX713 are powered from the V+ pin. Since V+ shunt regulates to +5V, R1 must be small enough to allow at least 5mA of current into the V+ pin. Note 2: Offset voltage of THI and TLO comparators referred to TEMP. Note 3: tA is the A/D sampling interval (Table 3). Note 4: This specification can be violated when attempting to charge more or fewer cells than the number programmed. To ensure proper voltage-slope fast-charge termination, the (maximum battery voltage) (number of cells programmed) must fall within the A/D input range.
1.CELL TEMPERATURE (C) CELL VOLTAGE (V) V
5 MINUTE REST BETWEEN CHARGES 1.60
1.55 5-HOUR REST BETWEEN CHARGES 1.50 T 1.45
15 CHARGE TIME (MINUTES)
1.50 CELL VOLTAGE (V)
CELL VOLTAGE (V)
1.60 CELL VOLTAGE (V)
PIN NAME VLIMIT BATT+ FUNCTION Sets the maximum cell voltage. The battery terminal voltage (BATT+ - BATT-) will not exceed VLIMIT x (number of cells). Do not allow VLIMIT to exceed 2.5V. Connect VLIMIT to VREF for normal operation. Positive terminal of battery PGM0 and PGM1 set the number of series cells to be charged. The number of cells can be set from 1 to 16 by connecting PGM0 and PGM1 to any of V+, REF, or BATT-, or by leaving the pin unconnected (Table 2). For cell counts greater than 11, see the Linear-Mode, High Series Cell Count section. Charging more or fewer cells than the number programmed may inhibit V fast-charge termination. Trip point for the over-temperature comparator. If the voltage-on TEMP rises above THI, fast charge ends. Trip point for the under-temperature comparator. If the MAX712/MAX713 power on with the voltage-on TEMP less than TLO, fast charge is inhibited and will not start until TEMP rises above TLO. Sense input for temperature-dependent voltage from thermistors. Open-drain, fast-charge status output. While the MAX712/MAX713 fast charge the battery, FASTCHG sinks current. When charge ends and trickle charge begins, FASTCHG stops sinking current. PGM2 and PGM3 set the maximum time allowed for fast charging. Timeouts from 33 minutes to 264 minutes can be set by connecting to any of V+, REF, or BATT-, or by leaving the pin unconnected (Table 3). PGM3 also sets the fast-charge to trickle-charge current ratio (Table 5). Compensation input for constant current regulation loop Negative terminal of battery System ground. The resistor placed between BATT- and GND monitors the current into the battery. Current sink for driving the external PNP current source Shunt regulator. The voltage on V+ is regulated to +5V with respect to BATT-, and the shunt current powers the MAX712/MAX713. 2V reference output
THI TLO TEMP FASTCHG PGM2, PGM3 CC BATTGND DRV V+ REF
The MAX712/MAX713 are simple to use. A complete linear-mode fast-charge circuit can be designed in a few easy steps. A linear-mode design uses the fewest components and supplies a load while charging. 1) Follow the battery manufacturers recommendations on maximum charge currents and charge-termination methods for the specific batteries in your application. Table 1 provides general guidelines. and PGM1 must be adjusted accordingly. Attempting to charge more or fewer cells than the number programmed can disable the voltage-slope fast-charge termination circuitry. The internal ADCs input voltage range is limited to between 1.4V and 1.9V (see the Electrical Characteristics), and is equal to the voltage across the battery divided by the number of cells programmed (using PGM0 and PGM1, as in Table 2). When the ADCs input voltage falls out of its specified range, the voltage-slope termination circuitry can be disabled. Choose an external DC power source (e.g., wall cube). Its minimum output voltage (including ripple) must be greater than 6V and at least 1.5V higher than the maximum battery voltage while charging. This specification is critical because normal fastcharge termination is ensured only if this requirement is maintained (see Powering the MAX712/MAX713 section for more details). For linear-mode designs, calculate the worst-case power dissipation of the power PNP and diode (Q1 and D1 in the Typical Operating Circuit) in watts, using the following formula: PD PNP = (maximum wall-cube voltage under load - minimum battery voltage) x (charge current in amps) Limit current into V+ to between 5mA and 20mA. For a fixed or narrow-range input voltage, choose R1 in the Typical Operation Circuit using the following formula: R1 = (minimum wall-cube voltage - 5V)/5mA Choose RSENSE using the following formula: RSENSE = 0.25V/(IFAST)
Table 1. Fast-Charge Termination Methods
Charge Rate > 2C NiMH Batteries V/t and temperature, MAX712 or MAX713 V/t and/or temperature, MAX712 or MAX713 V/t and/or temperature, MAX712 NiCd Batteries V/t and/or temperature, MAX713 V/t and/or temperature, MAX713 V/t and/or temperature, MAX713
2C to C/2
2) Decide on a charge rate (Tables 3 and 5). The slowest fast-charge rate for the MAX712/MAX713 is C/4, because the maximum fast-charge timeout period is 264 minutes. A C/3 rate charges the battery in about three hours. The current in mA required to charge at this rate is calculated as follows: IFAST = (capacity of battery in mAh) (charge time in hours) Depending on the battery, charging efficiency can be as low as 80%, so a C/3 fast charge could take 3 hours and 45 minutes. This reflects the efficiency with which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy within the battery, and is not the same as the powerconversion efficiency of the MAX712/MAX713. 3) Decide on the number of cells to be charged (Table 2). If your battery stack exceeds 11 cells, see the LinearMode High Series Cell Count section. Whenever changing the number of cells to be charged, PGM0
8) Consult Tables 2 and 3 to set pin-straps before applying power. For example, to fast charge at a rate of C/2, set the timeout to between 1.5x or 2x the charge period, three or four hours, respectively.
Table 2. Programming the Number of Cells
NUMBER OF CELLS PGM1 CONNECTION V+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATTPGM0 CONNECTION V+ V+ V+ V+ Open Open Open Open REF REF REF REF BATTBATTBATTBATT-
Table 3. Programming the Maximum Charge Time
TIMEOUT (min) A/D SAMPLING INTERVAL (s) (tA) VOLTAGESLOPE TERMINATION PGM3 CONN PGM2 CONN
Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Enabled
V+ V+ V+ V+ Open Open Open Open REF REF REF REF BATTBATTBATTBATT-
Open REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATT-
V+ +5V SHUNT REGULATOR PGM2 PGM3 FASTCHG TIMED_OUT TIMER BATTFAST_CHARGE PGM2 PGM3 V DETECTION V_DETECT CONTROL LOGIC IN_REGULATION BATTPOWER_ON_RESET N
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE REGULATOR
DRV CC BATTGND VLIMIT BATT+ PGMx 100k PGM0 100k
THI TEMP TLO
HOT TEMPERATURE COMPARATORS COLD
CELL_VOLTAGE MAX712 MAX713 0.4V BATT-
INTERNAL IMPEDANCE OF PGM0PGM3 PINS
Figure 1. Block Diagram _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7
The MAX712/MAX713 fast charge NiMH or NiCd batteries by forcing a constant current into the battery. The MAX712/MAX713 are always in one of two states: fast charge or trickle charge. During fast charge, the current level is high; once full charge is detected, the current reduces to trickle charge. The device monitors three variables to determine when the battery reaches full charge: voltage slope, battery temperature, and charge time. Figure 1 shows the block diagram for the MAX712/ MAX713. The timer, voltage-slope detection, and temperature comparators are used to determine full charge state. The voltage and current regulator controls output voltage and current, and senses battery presence. Figure 2 shows a typical charging scenario with batteries already inserted before power is applied. At time 1, the MAX712/MAX713 draw negligible power from the battery. When power is applied to DC - (time 2), the IN power-on reset circuit (see the POWER_ON_RESET signal in Figure 1) holds the MAX712/MAX713 in trickle charge. Once POWER_ON_RESET goes high, the device enters the fast-charge state (time 3) as long as the cell voltage is above the undervoltage lockout (UVLO) voltage (0.4V per cell). Fast charging cannot start until (battery voltage)/(number of cells) exceeds 0.4V. When the cell voltage slope becomes negative, fast charge is terminated and the MAX712/MAX713 revert to trickle-charge state (time 4). When power is removed (time 5), the device draws negligible current from the battery. Figure 3 shows a typical charging event using temperature full-charge detection. In the case shown, the battery pack is too cold for fast charging (for instance, brought in from a cold outside environment). During time 2, the MAX712/MAX713 remain in trickle-charge state. Once a safe temperature is reached (time 3), fast charge starts. When the battery temperature exceeds the limit set by THI, the MAX712/MAX713 revert to trickle charge (time 4).
1.4 1.3 0.A
CURRENT INTO CELL
mA A 3 TIME 4 5
1. NO POWER TO CHARGER 2. CELL VOLTAGE LESS THAN 0.4V 3. FAST CHARGE 4. TRICKLE CHARGE 5. CHARGER POWER REMOVED
Figure 2. Typical Charging Using Voltage Slope
VREF = VLIMIT THI CELL VOLTAGE (V) CURRENT INTO CELL 1.5 1.4 1.3
A mA A 2 TIME 3 4
mA A 3 TIME 4
1. NO POWER TO CHARGER 2. CELL TEMPERATURE TOO LOW 3. FAST CHARGE 4. TRICKLE CHARGE
1 1. BATTERY NOT INSERTED 2. FAST CHARGE 3. TRICKLE CHARGE 4. BATTERY REMOVED
Figure 3. Typical Charging Using Temperature 8
Figure 4. Typical Charging with Battery Insertion
The MAX712/MAX713 can be configured so that voltage slope and/or battery temperature detects full charge. Figure 4 shows a charging event in which a battery is inserted into an already powered-up MAX712/MAX713. During time 1, the chargers output voltage is regulated at the number of cells times VLIMIT. Upon insertion of the battery (time 2), the MAX712/MAX713 detect current flow into the battery and switch to fast-charge state. Once full charge is detected, the device reverts to trickle charge (time 3). If the battery is removed (time 4), the MAX712/MAX713 remain in trickle charge and the output voltage is once again regulated as in time 1. battery pack is higher during a fast-charge cycle than while in trickle charge or while supplying a load. The voltage across some battery packs may approach 1.9V/cell. The 1.5V of overhead is needed to allow for worst-case voltage drops across the pass transistor (Q1 of Typical
Q1 DC IN R2 R1 2N3904 D1
Powering the MAX712/MAX713
AC-to-DC wall-cube adapters typically consist of a transformer, a full-wave bridge rectifier, and a capacitor. Figures 1012 show the characteristics of three consumer product wall cubes. All three exhibit substantial 120Hz output voltage ripple. When choosing an adapter for use with the MAX712/MAX713, make sure the lowest wall-cube voltage level during fast charge and full load is at least 1.5V higher than the maximum battery voltage while being fast charged. Typically, the voltage on the
Figure 5. DRV Pin Cascode Connection (for high DC IN voltage or to reduce MAX712/MAX713 power dissipation in linear mode)
Table 4. MAX712/MAX713 Charge-State Transition Table
POWER_ON_RESET 0 1 UNDER_VOLTAGE x 1 x x x x x 0 x IN_REGULATION x x 1 x x x x 0 x COLD x x x 0 x x x x x HOT x x x x 1 x 0 x x Set trickle No change No change No change No change*** Set fast No change No change Set fast Set fast No change*** Set fast** Trickle to fast transition inhibited Trickle to fast transition inhibited Set trickle Set trickle Set trickle RESULT*
Only two states exist: fast charge and trickle charge. * Regardless of the status of the other logic lines, a timeout or a voltage-slope detection will set trickle charge. ** If the battery is cold at power-up, the first rising edge on COLD will trigger fast charge; however, a second rising edge will have no effect. *** Batteries that are too hot when inserted (or when circuit is powered up) will not enter fast charge until they cool and power is recycled. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9
DC IN V+
REF DRV VLIMIT
charge until one of the three fast-charge terminating conditions is triggered. If DC IN exceeds 20V, add a cascode connection in series with the DRV pin as shown in Figure 5 to prevent exceeding DRVs absolute maximum ratings. Select the current-limiting component (R1 or D4) to pass at least 5mA at the minimum DC IN voltage (see step 6 in the Getting Started section). The maximum current into V+ determines power dissipation in the MAX712/MAX713. maximum current into V+ = (maximum DC IN voltage - 5V)/R1 power dissipation due to shunt regulator = 5V x (maximum current into V+) Sink current into the DRV pin also causes power dissipation. Do not allow the total power dissipation to exceed the specifications shown in the Absolute Maximum Ratings.
CURRENT-SENSE AMPLIFIER PGM3 FAST_CHARGE Av X V+ OPEN REF BATT128 64
The MAX712/MAX713 enter the fast-charge state under one of the following conditions: 1) Upon application of power (batteries already installed), with battery current detection (i.e., GND voltage is less than BATT- voltage), and TEMP higher than TLO and less than THI and cell voltage higher than the UVLO voltage. 2) Upon insertion of a battery, with TEMP higher than TLO and lower than THI and cell voltage higher than the UVLO voltage. RSENSE sets the fast-charge current into the battery. In fast charge, the voltage difference between the BATTand GND pins is regulated to 250mV. DRV current increases its sink current if this voltage difference falls below 250mV, and decreases its sink current if the voltage difference exceeds 250mV. fast-charge current (IFAST) = 0.25V/RSENSE
BATTIN_REGULATION 1.25V BATT-
Figure 6. Current and Voltage Regulator (linear mode)
Operating Circuit), the diode (D1), and the sense resistor (RSENSE). This minimum input voltage requirement is critical, because violating it can inhibit proper termination of the fast-charge cycle. A safe rule of thumb is to choose a source that has a minimum input voltage = 1.5V + (1.9V x the maximum number of cells to be charged). When the input voltage at DC IN drops below the 1.5V + (1.9V x number of cells), the part oscillates between fast charge and trickle charge and might never completely terminate fast-charge. The MAX712/MAX713 are inactive without the wall cube attached, drawing 5A (max) from the battery. Diode D1 prevents current conduction into the DRV pin. When the wall cube is connected, it charges C1 through R1 (see Typical Operating Circuit) or the current-limiting diode (Figure 19). Once C1 charges to 5V, the internal shunt regulator sinks current to regulate V+ to 5V, and fast charge commences. The MAX712/MAX713 fast
Selecting a fast-charge current (IFAST) of C/2, C, 2C, or 4C ensures a C/16 trickle-charge current. Other fastcharge rates can be used, but the trickle-charge current will not be exactly C/16. The MAX712/MAX713 internally set the trickle-charge current by increasing the current amplifier gain (Figure 6), which adjusts the voltage across R SENSE (see Trickle-Charge VSENSE in the Electrical Characteristics table).
Table 5. Trickle-Charge Current Determination from PGM3
PGM3 V+ OPEN REF BATTFAST-CHARGE RATE 4C 2C C C/2 TRICKLE-CHARGE CURRENT (ITRICKLE) IFAST/64 IFAST/32 IFAST/16 IFAST/8
Q1 DC IN V+ DRV 10k FASTCHG 10k
R7 BATTERY Q2
Nonstandard Trickle-Charge Current Example
Configuration: Typical Operating Circuit 2 x Panasonic P-50AA 500mAh AA NiCd batteries C/3 fast-charge rate 264-minute timeout Negative voltage-slope cutoff enabled Minimum DC IN voltage of 6V Settings: Use MAX713 PGM0 = V+, PGM1 = open, PGM2 = BATT-, PGM3 = BATT-, RSENSE = 1.5 (fast-charge current, IFAST = 167mA), R1 = (6V - 5V)/5mA = 200 Since PGM3 = BATT-, the voltage on RSENSE is regulated to 31.3mV during trickle charge, and the current is 20.7mA. Thus the trickle current is actually C/25, not C/16.
Figure 7. Reduction of Trickle Current for NiMH Batteries (Linear Mode)
output voltage exceeds the number of cells times VLIMIT, or when the battery current exceeds the programmed charging current. For a linear-mode circuit, this loop provides the following functions: 1) When the charger is powered, the battery can be removed without interrupting power to the load. 2) If the load is connected as shown in the Typical Operating Circuit, the battery current is regulated regardless of the load current (provided the input power source can supply both).
Further Reduction of Trickle-Charge Current for NiMH Batteries
The trickle-charge current can be reduced to less than C/16 using the circuit in Figure 7. In trickle charge, some of the current will be shunted around the battery, since Q2 is turned on. Select the value of R7 as follows: R7 = (VBATT + 0.4V)/(lTRlCKLE - IBATT) where V BATT = battery voltage when charged ITRlCKLE = MAX712/MAX713 trickle-charge current setting IBATT = desired battery trickle-charge current
The voltage loop sets the maximum output voltage between BATT+ and BATT-. If VLIMIT is set to less than 2.5V, then: Maximum BATT+ voltage (referred to BATT-) = VLIMIT x (number of cells as determined by PGM0, PGM1) VLIMIT should be set between 1.9V and 2.5V. If VLIMIT is set below the maximum cell voltage, proper termination of the fast-charge cycle might not occur. Cell voltage can approach 1.9V/cell, under fast charge, in some battery packs. Tie VLIMIT to VREF for normal operation. With the battery removed, the MAX712/MAX713 do not provide constant current; they regulate BATT+ to the maximum voltage as determined above.
The regulation loop controls the output voltage between the BATT+ and BATT- terminals and the current through the battery via the voltage between BATT- and GND. The sink current from DRV is reduced when the
The voltage loop is stabilized by the output filter capacitor. A large filter capacitor is required only if the load is going to be supplied by the MAX712/MAX713 in the absence of a battery. In this case, set COUT as: COUT (in farads) = (50 x ILOAD)/(VOUT x BWVRL) where BWVRL = loop bandwidth in Hz (10,000 recommended) COUT > 10F ILOAD = external load current in amps VOUT = programmed output voltage (VLIMIT x number of cells) terminated. Note that each cycle has two tA intervals and two voltage measurements. The MAX712 terminates fast charge when a comparison shows that the battery voltage is unchanging. The MAX713 terminates when a conversion shows the battery voltage has fallen by at least 2.5mV per cell. This is the only difference between the MAX712 and MAX713.
Temperature Charge Cutoff
Figure 9a shows how the MAX712/MAX713 detect overand under-temperature battery conditions using negative temperature coefficient thermistors. Use the same model thermistor for T1 and T2 so that both have the same nominal resistance. The voltage at TEMP is 1V (referred to BATT-) when the battery is at ambient temperature. The threshold chosen for THI sets the point at which fast charging terminates. As soon as the voltage-on TEMP rises above THI, fast charge ends, and does not restart after TEMP falls below THI. The threshold chosen for TLO determines the temperature below which fast charging will be inhibited. If TLO > TEMP when the MAX712/MAX713 start up, fast charge will not start until TLO goes below TEMP. The cold temperature charge inhibition can be disabled by removing R5, T3, and the 0.022F capacitor; and by tying TLO to BATT-. To disable the entire temperature comparator chargecutoff mechanism, remove T1, T2, T3, R3, R4, and R5, and their associated capacitors, and connect THI to V+ and TLO to BATT-. Also, place a 68kQ resistor from REF to TEMP, and a 22k resistor from BATT- to TEMP.
Figure 6 shows the current-regulation loop for a linearmode circuit. To ensure loop stability, make sure that the bandwidth of the current regulation loop (BWCRL) is lower than the pole frequency of transistor Q1 (fB). Set BWCRL by selecting C2. BWCRL in Hz = gm/C2, C2 in farads, gm = 0.0018 Siemens The pole frequency of the PNP pass transistor, Q1, can be determined by assuming a single-pole current gain response. Both fT and Bo should be specified on the data sheet for the particular transistor used for Q1. fB in Hz = fT/Bo, fT in Hz, Bo = DC current gain Condition for Stability of Current-Regulation Loop: BWCRL < fB The MAX712/MAX713 dissipate power due to the current-voltage product at DRV. Do not allow the power dissipation to exceed the specifications shown in the Absolute Maximum Ratings. DRV power dissipation can be reduced by using the cascode connection shown in Figure 5. Power dissipation due to DRV sink current = (current into DRV) x (voltage on DRV)
The MAX712/MAX713s internal analog-to-digital converter has 2.5mV of resolution. It determines if the battery voltage is rising, falling, or unchanging by comparing the batterys voltage at two different times. After power-up, a time interval of tA ranging from 21sec to 168sec passes (see Table 3 and Figure 8), then a battery voltage measurement is taken. It takes 5ms to perform a measurement. After the first measurement is complete, another t A interval passes, and then a second measurement is taken. The two measurements are compared, and a decision whether to terminate charge is made. If charge is not terminated, another full two-measurement cycle is repeated until charge is
NEGATIVE ZERO VOLTAGE VOLTAGE SLOPE SLOPE CUTOFF FOR MAX712 CUTOFF FOR MAX712 OR MAX713 ZERO RESIDUAL NEGATIVE RESIDUAL
tA ms tA ms tA ms tA ms tA ms tA ms INTERVAL INTERVAL INTERVAL INTERVAL INTERVAL INTERVAL NOTE: SLOPE PROPORTIONAL TO VBATT
Figure 8. Voltage Slope Detection
REF R3 IN THERMAL CONTACT WITH BATTERY
HOT R4 +2.0V COLD TLO TEMP 0.022F R5 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Some battery packs come with a temperature-detecting thermistor connected to the battery packs negative terminal. In this case, use the configuration shown in Figure 9b. Thermistors T2 and T3 can be replaced by standard resistors if absolute temperature charge cutoff is acceptable. All resistance values in Figures 9a and 9b should be chosen in the 10k to 500k range.
NOTE: FOR ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE CHARGE CUTOFF, T2 AND T3 CAN BE REPLACED BY STANDARD RESISTORS.
Figures 13 and 14 show the results of charging 3 AA, 1000mAh, NiMH batteries from Gold Peak (part no. GP1000AAH, GP Batteries (619) 438-2202) at a 1A rate using the MAX712 and MAX713, respectively. The Typical Operating Circuit is used with Figure 9as thermistor configuration. DC IN = Sony AC-190 +9VDC at 800mA AC-DC adapter PGM0 = V+, PGM1 = REF, PGM2 = REF, PGM3 = REF R1 = 200, R2 = 150, RSENSE = 0.25 C1 = 1F, C2 = 0.01F, C3 = 10F, VLIMIT = REF R3 = 10k, R4 = 15k T1, T2 = part #14A1002 (Alpha Sensors: 858-549-4660) R5 omitted, T3 omitted, TLO = BATT-
Figure 9a. Temperature Comparators
10 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
HIGH PEAK 9
TEMP 1F TLO 0.022F 0.022F R4 T3
T1 BATTIN THERMAL CONTACT WITH BATTERY
1000 LOAD CURRENT (mA)
Figure 9b. Alternative Temperature Comparator Configuration
Figure 10. Sony Radio AC Adapter AC-190 Load Characteristic, 9VDC 800mA
Linear-Mode, High Series Cell Count
The absolute maximum voltage rating for the BATT+ pin is higher when the MAX712/MAX713 are powered on. If more than 11 cells are used in the battery, the BATT+ input voltage must be limited by external circuitry when DC IN is not applied (Figure 15). battery stacks internal resistance. The circuit in Figure 16 can be used to shunt the sense resistor whenever power is removed from the charger.
Figure 17 shows a circuit that can be used to indicate charger status with logic levels. Figure 18 shows a circuit that can be used to drive LEDs for power and charger status.
Efficiency During Discharge
The current-sense resistor, R SENSE, causes a small efficiency loss during battery use. The efficiency loss is significant only if R SENSE is much greater than the
10 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) HIGH PEAK 7 LOW PEAK 600 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 120Hz RIPPLE
16 OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
14 HIGH PEAK 12 LOW PEAK 120Hz RIPPLE LOAD CURRENT (mA) 800
Figure 11. Sony CD Player AC Adapter AC-96N Load Characteristic, 9VDC 600mA
Figure 12. Panasonic Modem AC Adapter KX-A11 Load Characteristic, 12VDC 500mA
5.0 4.9 BATTERY VOLTAGE (V) 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.V
BATTERY TEMPERATURE (C) BATTERY VOLTAGE (V) 32 30
5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 V
BATTERY TEMPERATURE (C)
T 30 TIME (MINUTES) 90
T 4.4 4.3 4.TIME (MINUTES) 26 24
Figure 13. 3 NiMH Cells Charged with MAX712
Figure 14. NiMH Cells Charged with MAX713
Q1 DC IN R33k QTO BATTERY POSITIVE TERMINAL D1
OV = NO POWER 5V = POWER
MAX712 MAX713 10k FASTCHG
OV = FAST VCC = TRICKLE OR NO POWER
Figure 15. Cascoding to Accommodate High Cell Counts for Linear-Mode Circuits
Figure 17. Logic-Level Status Outputs
DC IN D1 R1 >4 CELLS MAX712 MAX713 100k V+ * 100k V+ RSENSE * LOW RON LOGIC LEVEL N-CHANNEL POWER MOSFET 470MIN MAX712 MAX713 FAST CHARGE FASTCHG
Figure 16. Shunting RSENSE for Efficiency Improvement
Figure 18. LED Connection for Status Outputs
Ordering Information (continued)
PART MAX713CPE MAX713CSE MAX713C/D MAX713EPE MAX713ESE MAX713MJE TEMP RANGE 0C to +70C 0C to +70C 0C to +70C -40C to +85C -40C to +85C -55C to +125C PIN-PACKAGE 16 Plastic DIP 16 Narrow SO Dice* 16 Plastic DIP 16 Narrow SO 16 CERDIP**
BATT+ VLIMIT REF V+
*Contact factory for dice specifications. **Contact factory for availability and processing to MIL-STD-883.
(For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.)
PACKAGE TYPE 16 Plastic DIP 16 Narrow SO 16 CERDIP PACKAGE CODE P16-1 S16-1 J16-3 DOCUMENT NO. 21-0043 21-0041 21-0045
0.126 (3.200mm) BATT-
FASTCHG 0.80" (2.032mm)
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 2193 SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+
REVISION NUMBER 6 REVISION DATE 12/08 DESCRIPTION Removed switch mode power control and added missing package information PAGES CHANGED 1, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 ____________________ Maxim Integrated Products is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
MAX713 Switch-Mode Evaluation Kit
The MAX713SWEVKIT-SO is a fully assembled and tested surface-mount board. The MAX713 high-current, switchmode battery charger controls a P-channel power MOSFET, allowing charge currents up to 1A. Switch-mode operation typically provides 75%-efficient conversion, reducing heat compared to linear-regulator solutions. The MAX713SWEVKIT can also be used to evaluate the MAX712 just by replacing the MAX713CSE with a MAX712CSE.
o Up to 1A Charge Current o 45V Peak Input Voltage Range o Switch-Mode Operation Reduces Heat Dissipation o Surface-Mount Components o Charges 1 to 16 Series Cells
PART MAX713SWEVKIT-SO TEMP. RANGE 0C to +70C BOARD TYPE Surface Mount
SUPPLIER Tantalum Capacitors AVX Sprague Dale-Vishay IRC CoilCraft Semiconductors Central Semiconductor International Rectifier Motorola Nihon: USA Nihon: Japan (516) 435-1110 (310) 322-3331 (602) 244-3576 (805) 867-2555 81-3-3494-7411 (516) 435-1824 (310) 322-3332 (602) 244-4015 (805) 867-2556 81-3-3494-7414 (207) 282-5111 (603) 224-1961 (402) 564-3131 (512) 992-7900 (708) 241-7876 (207) 283-1941 (603) 224-1430 (402) 563-1841 (512) 992-3377 (708) 639-1469 PHONE FAX
DESIGNATION QTY C1 C2 C3, C5, C6 C4 D1, D2 D3 D4 J1, J2 L1 M1 Q1, Q3, QDESCRIPTION 1F, 25V capacitor Sprague 595D105X0025A 220pF, 50V capacitor 10F, 50V capacitors Sprague 595D106X0050R 0.1F, 50V capacitor 3A, 40V Schottky diodes Motorola MBRS340T3 Red LED 8.2mA, 50V current-limiting diode Central Semiconductor CCLHM080 2-pin power connectors 220H, 1.5A inductor CoilCraft DO3340-224 0.3, 50V P-channel MOSFET International Rectifier IRFR9024 50V NPN transistors Central Semiconductor CMPTA06 or Motorola MMBTA06LT1 50V PNP transistor Central Semiconductor CMPT2907A or Motorola MMBT2907ALT1 Reserved for optional resistors 5.1k, 5% resistor 0.25, 1/2W resistor Dale WSL-2512-R250-J or IRC LR2010-01-R250-K 1.5k, 5% resistor 470, 5% resistor 68k, 5% resistor 22k, 5% resistor Maxim MAX713CSE IC MAX712/MAX713 data sheet 3.0" x 3.0" printed circuit board
Please indicate that you are using these parts with the MAX713 when contacting the above vendors.
Q2 R1, R6 R2 R3 R4 R5 R7 R8 U1 None None
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products
Call toll free 1-800-998-8800 for free samples or literature.
MAX713 Switch-Mode Evaluation Kit Evaluates: MAX712/7MAX13
The MAX713 Switch-Mode EV kit is a fully assembled and tested surface-mount board. Follow these steps to verify board operation. Do not turn on the power until all connections are completed. 1) Set the charging parameters to match the charge current and number of cells of the battery being charged. Refer to the section Setting the Charging Parameters and to the MAX712/MAX713 data sheet for instructions. The board is shipped configured for six cells and 1A of charge current. 2) Connect the input power source (14V to 16V, 1.3A as configured) to the 2-pin power connector. Observe the polarity indicated next to the connector. The input supply must be 2V greater than the maximum battery charging voltage, and capable of providing the charge current. 3) Connect the battery to the 2-pin battery terminal. Observe the polarity markings. 4) Turn on the power to the board and use a DVM to confirm the voltage across the battery and the sense resistor. time, and 42 seconds between battery voltage measurements. The default conditions require an input source greater than 14V and capable of greater than 1.3A. Be sure to read the section titled Setting the Charging Parameters before connecting any battery. A current-limiting diode (D4) on the EV kit allows a wide input voltage range. This diode provides a fixed 8mA of current to the MAX713 shunt regulator. For applications with a narrow input voltage range, you can replace the diode with a resistor selected for the same current flow between the input source and the V+ pin.
Setting the Charging Parameters
For each battery type connected, the EV kit must be set for the proper number of cells, the proper maximum charging time and sampling intervals, and the proper charging current. Select the number of cells by connecting the PGM0 and PGM1 pins per Table 1. Whenever changing the number of cells to be charged, PGM0 and PGM1 need to be adjusted accordingly. Attempting to charge more or fewer cells than the number programmed may disable the voltage-slope fast-charge termination circuitry. The EV kit is shipped with PGM0 and PGM1 open, which sets the number of cells at six. You can alter the programmed number of cells by installing jumper wires across the holes provided on the board. For example, to configure the board for four cells, solder wires between pins 1 & 4 of SW1 (PGM0) and pins 1 & 2 of SW2 (PGM1).
Input Supply Range
The input power supply must be at least 2V greater than the peak battery voltage. The upper limit is determined by the breakdown voltage of the P-channel power MOSFET and the capacitors across the input supply. When choosing an adapter for use with the MAX712/MAX713 switch-mode circuit, make sure that the lowest wall-cube voltage level during fast charge and full load is a least 2V higher than the maximum battery voltage while being fast charged. Typically, the voltage on the battery pack is higher during a fast-charge cycle than while in trickle charge or while supplying a load. The voltage across some battery packs may approach 1.9V/cell. This minimum input voltage requirement is critical, because its violation may inhibit proper termination of the fast-charge cycle. A safe rule of thumb is to choose a source that has a minimum input voltage = 2V + (1.9V x the maximum number of cells to be charged). The components included in this kit are rated at 50V, so the input source must never exceed 50V. Depending on your application, you can substitute capacitors and other components with different ratings. The EV kit is shipped with all programming inputs (PGM0-PGM3) open. This sets the MAX713 for six cells, 1A of charging current, 45 minutes maximum charge
Table 1. Programming the Number of Cells
NUMBER PGM0 SW1 PGM1 SW2 OF CELLS CONNECTION JUMPER CONNECTION JUMPER V+ V+ V+ V+ Open Open Open Open REF REF REF REF BATTBATTBATTBATT V+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATTV+ Open REF BATT14
MAX713 Switch-Mode Evaluation Kit Evaluates: MAX712/MAX713
M1 IRFR9024 C5 10F 50V D4 CCLHM080 (8mA CURRENTLIMITING DIODE) 1 JU1 JUMPER Q3 CMPTA3 C6 10F 50V L1 DO3340 220H D1 D2 MBRS340T3 MBRS340T3
D3 LED RED
R2 5.1k 1
3 Q1 CMPTA2 Q2 2N2907 3
3 Q4 CMPTA1
2 R4 1.5k REF SWSW1 DRV THI V+ PGM0 PGM1
JU2 CUT HERE
11 CC BATT+ 2
C2 220pF BATT+ C3 10F 50V CURRENTSENSE RESISTOR BATT-
BATT TLO R6 OPEN GND 13 GND R3 0.25
1 VLIMIT 16 REF
1 R7 68k 7
C1 1F 10V
Figure 1. MAX713 Switch-Mode EV Kit Schematic
Table 2. Programming the Timing Functions
TIMEOUT (MINUTES) SAMPLE INTERVAL (SECONDS) SLOPE LIMIT Off On Off On Off On Off On Off On Off On Off On Off On TRICKLE VOLTAGE (mV) PGM2 CONNECTION Open REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATTOpen REF V+ BATTSW3 JUMPER PGM3 CONNECTION V+ V+ V+ V+ Open Open Open Open REF REF REF REF BATTBATTBATTBATTSW4 JUMPER 12 12
This jumper configuration connects PGM0 to V+ and PGM1 to BATT-. Select the maximum charging time and the time interval between cell voltage readings for delta-slope termination by connecting the PGM2 and PGM3 pins per Table 2. Refer to the MAX712/MAX713 data sheet for detailed information on the operation of these pins. The charge current is determined by the value of the current-sense resistor (R3) and the fixed 250mV across the resistor during fast-charge. To change the charge current, calculate the new current-sense resistor value and install that value in the position provided (R8), then remove the factory-installed R3. Choose RSENSE using the following formula: RSENSE = 0.25V/IFAST See the MAX712/MAX713 data sheet for detailed information on setting the fast-charge and trickle-charge currents. Transistors Q1 and Q2 provide a low-impedance drive to the gate. If the DCIN voltage is less than 15V, the MAX713 DRV pin can be directly connected to Q1 and Q2. For DCIN voltages greater than 15V, a transistor level shifter (Q3, R4) is inserted to provide the proper voltage swing to Q1 and Q2. Q3 is mounted on the evaluation board, but it is not used in the standard configuration. If Q3 is needed, then cut the trace across JU2 and solder a jumper across JU1.
The inductor value is not critical to circuit operation. However, the greater its value, the lower the output ripple current. The CoilCraft inductor used on the evaluation board was chosen because it is the highest value (220H) surface-mount inductor with a 1.5A rating currently available. Larger inductors, such as toroids, may be used for lower output ripple current or higher current-charge rates.
The voltage swing on the gate of the power MOSFET (M1) must be greater than 8V and less than 15V.
Figure 2. MAX713 EV Kit Component Placement Guide Component Side
Figure 3. MAX713 EV Kit PC Board LayoutComponent Side
Figure 4. MAX713 EV Kit PC Board LayoutSolder Side
Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.
4 ___________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 737-Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
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