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3. Computer Hardware and System Software Requirements
The MOVES application software components require a computer hardware and software platform upon which to operate. The hardware platform can consist of a single computer system or a network of computers. Computer(s) used to run either of the MOVES application programs should have at least 512MB of RAM. (Having additional memory is highly recommended, and is now relatively inexpensive). Execution run time performance is a constraint with MOVES so high speed dual-core processor(s), at least 1-2 GHz and preferably faster, are highly recommended. The MOVESDefault database distributed with MOVES requires approximately 1.3 GB of disk storage. MOVES Worker and Output databases are also often voluminous, so several gigabytes of disk space should be available on all machines used to run either MOVES program. Extensive users of MOVES will want to use the highest performance microcomputer systems that they can afford.
3.1. Details on JAVA Platform Requirements
The MOVES GUI/Master and the MOVES Worker are Java programs and for operation require a Java RunTime Environment (also sometimes referred to as the Java Virtual Machine). The Java Software Development Kit (SDK) includes the Run Time Environment. This version of MOVE uses version 1.4.2 of the Java SDK, produced by SUN Microsystems Inc. The MOVES Program Suite Distribution includes an installation package for this Java version, suitable for installation on WINDOWS NT, WINDOWS 2000, WINDOWS XP, and 32-bit Vista systems. MOVES does not operate successfully on 64-bit Vista or on versions of WINDOWS that predate WINDOWS 2000. Users should not attempt to operate either MOVES program with other versions. While Java is available for other software operating systems, such as LINUX, UNIX, etc. and porting MOVES to such software operating systems should not be difficult, EPA has not tested such configurations and is not prepared to support them. Suns main web site for information related to Java is http://java.sun.com/. Several extensions to Java are also required by MOVES and are included in the MOVES Installation Package. These include JUnit and JFCUnit, which facilitate
software testing, and JavaHelp used to construct the on-line help facility in MOVES. The ANT software build utility is also included.
3.2. Details on MySQL Platform Requirements
The MySQL database management software has a client-server architecture. The MOVES GUI/Master, the MOVES Command Line interface/Master, and MOVES Worker programs function as MySQL clients and require access to MySQL server(s). Since both programs require a MySQL database to be located on the same computer (MOVESExecution and MOVESWorker), all computers that run any of these MOVES components must also operate a MySQL server. Additional computers operating MySQL servers can also be utilized; e.g., for MOVES Output databases. This version of MOVES uses MySQL version 5.0.27. The DRAFT MOVES2009 Program Suite Distribution includes an installation package for this MySQL version, suitable for installation on WINDOWS NT, WINDOWS 2000, WINDOWS XP and 32bit Vista systems. The version of DRAFT MOVES2009 will not operate with MySQL version 4.0.21 or earlier, neither will the future MOVES versions. Users are not recommended to attempt to operate MOVES program with MySQL versions of 5.1 or later since EPA has not tested MOVES on them. While MySQL is available for other software operating systems, such as LINUX, UNIX, etc. and porting MOVES to such software operating systems should not be difficult, EPA has not tested such configurations and is not prepared to support them. DRAFT MOVES2009 does not operate successfully with versions of WINDOWS which predate WINDOWS 2000. The MySQL installation includes a command line MySQL client program. The MOVES Program Suite Distribution also includes an installation package for the MySQL Query Browser which is a GUI MySQL client program. Either of these MySQL client programs can be used to help construct MOVES input databases or to analyze the contents of MOVES output databases. Other data base management software, such as Microsoft ACCESS can also be used via an ODBC driver. Appendix B of the DRAFT MOVES2009 User Guide explains how this can be accomplished. Additional information about MySQL is available at the MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) operated by MySQL AB/Sun Microsystems.
This arrangement appears simple but
association outside the model. Depending on the accuracy and detail desired, multiple model runs might be necessary. In most portions of the model the month, portion of the week, and hour time periods are simply categories, and do not even have an assumed sequence. Because estimation of evaporative emissions is based on an hourly diurnal temperature cycle all 24 hourly categories of the day must be included in the run specification when estimating evaporative emissions, and this area of the model does assume an hourly time sequence.
9.3. Characterizing Emission Sources (Vehicle Classification)
A long-standing challenge in the generation of on-road mobile source emission inventories is the disconnect between how vehicle activity data sources characterize vehicles and how emission and fuel economy regulations characterize vehicles. The crux of this issue is that there is a fundamental difference between factors influencing how vehicles are used, and their fuel consumption and emission performance. An example of this is how vehicles are characterized by the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) by a combination of the number of tires and axles and EPAs weight-based emission classifications such as LDV, LDT1, LDT2 etc. This disconnect is fundamental to matching activity data and emissions data, and generally requires some mapping of activity data to emission data. The MOBILE series of models have traditionally grouped vehicles according to the EPA emission classifications, and provided external guidance on mapping these categories to the sources of activity data, such as HPMS. MOVES is designed to take these mappings into account internally, such that the casual user of MOVES will not have to deal with external mapping. Doing this, however, requires some complexity in the design. Vehicles are characterized both according to activity patterns and energy/emission performance, and are mapped internal to the model. Thus the model uses data for both the activity and energy/emission methods of characterization. On the activity side, vehicles are grouped into Source Use Types, or Use Types, which are expected to have unique activity patterns. Because the HPMS is a fundamental source of activity information, the MOVES use types are defined as subsets of the HPMS vehicle classifications. These use types are shown in Table 9-1.
Table 9-1. MOVES Source Use Type Definitions
HPMS Class Passenger Cars
MOVES use type 21. Passenger Car 31. Passenger Truck
Other 2-axle / 4-tire Vehicles 32. Light Commercial Truck
Source bins are defined independently from use types, but are mapped to use types internal to MOVES by the SourceBinDistributionGenerator.
9.4. Emission Pollutants
MOVES estimates two fundamentally different kinds of results: energy consumption and mass emissions. For convenience, all these quantities are considered to be emissions. Energy emissions estimated by DRAFT MOVES2009 are total energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption, and petroleum fuel energy consumption. The more familiar mass emissions estimated by DRAFT MOVES2009 are total gaseous hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfate particulate matter, tire wear particles under 2.5 microns, brake wear particles under 2.5 microns, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) on an atmospheric basis, and the CO2-equivalent of CO2 combined with N2O and CH4.
9.5. Emission Processes
On-road vehicles consume energy and produce mass emissions through several mechanisms or pathways, which are known within MOVES as emission processes, or just processes, and are accounted for and reported (if desired by the user) separately. The MOVES mechanisms for pump-to-wheel energy consumption are limited to operation of the engine and emissions from the tailpipe. The MOVES mechanisms for gaseous emissions, however, include other processes such as fuel evaporation, tire wear and brake wear, which merit treatment as separate emission processes. In addition to all these pump-to-wheel energy and exhaust emission processes MOVES also includes a well-to-pump emission process. The processes for DRAFT MOVES2009 are as follows: Running Exhaust, meaning the energy consumed or the tailpipe emissions produced during vehicle operation over freeways and surface streets while the engine is fully warmed up. Start Exhaust, meaning the additional energy consumed or tailpipe emissions produced during the period immediately following vehicle start-up. An important note is that this quantifies the energy consumed or emissions produced in addition to the running energy/emissions produced immediately following start-up. Start emissions represent the incremental emissions produced following vehicle start-up, after accounting for the baseline running emissions.
All of these computational shortcuts (except COUNTY and HOUR) involve compromises to the accuracy of the results. The MOVES GUI adjusts the levels of geographic and time period detail specified for the output if necessary so that levels of output detail which can no longer be produced due to data preaggregation are not requested by the RunSpec. 10.4.1. Sequence of the Database Pre-Aggregation Operations: After creation of the MOVESExecution database by the input data manager the geographic and time period preaggregation operations are performed as follows: a. If the GeographicSeletionType = NATION, the model creates an average county which represents the entire nation. To do this the MOVESExecution database is aggregated to a level where the nation consists of a single representative state and this state consists of a single county, and a single zone. For macroscale there is a single link for each road type in the RunSpec. b. If the GeographicSeletionType = STATE, then the MOVESExecutionDatabase is aggregated to a level where each state selection in the RunSpec consists of a single county and a single zone. For macroscale there is a single link in each such state for each road type in the RunSpec. c. if the Time Aggregation Level value is DAY, MONTH, or YEAR, all data pertaining to the 24 separate hours of the day in the MOVESExecution database is aggregated into a single pseudo-hour representing the entire day. Time period preaggregation is not allowed if evaporative emissions are being estimated. d. if the Time Aggregation Level value is MONTH, or YEAR, all data pertaining to any day-based portions of the week in the MOVESExecution database is further aggregated into a single pseudo-day representing the entire week. If the Default MOVES Database divides the week into a 5 weekday portion and a 2 weekend day portion, MONTH or YEAR data preaggregation would remove this distinction. e. if the Time Aggregation Level value is YEAR, all data pertaining to the 12 separate months of the year in the MOVESExecution database are further aggregated into a single pseudo-month representing the entire year.
If analysis year is in future, establish analysis year aggregate VMT across domain from base year VMT and growth Allocate aggregate VMT to roadway type, use type and age Allocate annual VMT to hourly VMT Convert to total activity basis at domain level: SHO, Starts, Extended Idle Hours, Source Hours Parked (a portion of Source Hours)
7a 7b 7c 7d 7e TAG-8 8a 8b 8c 8d 8e TAG-9
Allocate total activity to locations using geographic allocation factors
Calculate Source Hours by Zone and Roadway Calculate Distance Traveled Calculate SHO.distance from SHO and average speeds
Some overall considerations when performing these calculations are: 1. The TotalActivityGenerator signs up for the Master Loop at the Year level which means the calculations are performed individually for each year at each location (i.e. link) for each emission process requiring SHO, start, extended idle hour, or source hour activity information. 2. The MOVES design allows the user to provide some or all of the values in core model input tables such as SHO, Starts, ExtendedIdleHours and SourceHours. The InputDataManager places any such user-supplied values in the MOVESExecution database before the TotalActivityGenerator is activated. The TotalActivityGenerator does not replace such user-supplied values. 3. When the Total Activity Generator encounters a missing value when performing a calculation, the result of the calculation is considered as missing. Records for which the results are missing are not represented by a value of zero but are left out of the database. Detailed descriptions of the calculations in each TAG step follow. Each of the variables used in the TAG calculations either exists in the MOVESExecution database or is calculated by a previous TAG step. All of the database variables are described in the database documentation included in the database. The table in which each variable can be found is indicated in parentheses in the Input Variablesportion of each TAG step description. 10.6.1. TAG-0: Determine the Base Year Before any calculations can be done, the appropriate base year must be determined using the year of analysis and the isBaseYear information in the Year table. Input Variables:
isBaseYear (Year) calendar year (from RunSpec)
yearID = calendar year IF isBaseYear(yearID) = "Y", then baseYear=yearID. ELSE
baseYear = maximum value of yearID which is less than the calendar year and for which isBase(Year)= "Y
10.6.2. TAG-1: Calculate Base Year Vehicle Population By Age. Input Variables:
sourceTypePopulation (SourceTypeYear) ageFraction (SourceTypeAgeDistribution) baseYear (from previous step)
HPMSBaseYearVMT VMTGrowthFactor roadTypeVMTFraction averageSpeedFraction idleSHOFactor SHOAllocationFactor startAllocFactor idleAllocFactor Detailed descriptions of the calculations in each TAG step follow. Each of the variables used in the TAG calculations either exists in the MOVESExecution database or is calculated by a previous TAG step. All of the database variables are described in the database documentation included in the database. The table in which each variable can be found is indicated in parentheses in the Input Variables portion of each TAG step description.
10.7.1. TAG-0: Determine the Base Year Before any calculations can be done, the appropriate base year must be determined using the year of analysis and the isBaseYear information in the Year table. Input Variables:
yearID = calendar year IF isBaseYear(yearID) = "Y", then baseYear=yearID. ELSE baseYear = maximum value of yearID which is less than the calendar year for which isBase(Year)= "Y
10.7.2. TAG-1: Calculate Base Year Vehicle Population By Age. Input Variables:
10.7.3. TAG-2: Grow Vehicle Population from Base Year to Analysis Year NOTE: This step is only required if the analysis year is in the future relative to the base year. For future projection, these TAG-2 steps are repeated in every year until the analysis year is reached.
This calculation loops through AgeID=x, where x is 1 through 29. Input Variables:
10.7.4. TAG-3: Calculate Analysis Year Travel Fraction
10.7.5. TAG-4: (reserved) 10.7.6. TAG-5: Allocate Analysis Year VMT by Roadway Type, Use Type, Age Because VMT is divided out at the end, real VMT is not needed and is removed from this calculation. However, the model does need the distribution of VMT among sourcetypes & ages. RoadType distinctions are needed for the next step.
Input Variables: TravelFraction(yearID, sourceTypeID, ageID) Output Variable: AnnualVMTbyAgeRoadway Calculation:
AnnualVMTby AgeRoadway(YearID, roadTypeID, sourceTypeID, AgeID) = TravelFraction(YearID, sourceTypeID, AgeID)
opModeIDbySecond (sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID, second)
For each sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID and second:
An opModeID is assigned for each second in each drive schedule based on where the VSP, speed and accel values in that second falls. VSP and speed are compared against the VSP and speed bounds to determine to appropriate bins. Then the braking (ID=0) and idle bins (ID=1) should be assigned based on accel and speed, respectively. This sequence is important since there is overlap in the definitions between the non-braking/idle bins and the braking/idle bins.
10.8.6. OMDG-6: Calculate operating mode fractions for each drive schedule Once all the seconds in each operating mode bin are known, the distribution of the bins is determined. The sum of the operating mode fractions sums to one for each source type and drive schedule combination. This is done for each source type and schedule. Input Variables:
OpModeFractionbySchedule (sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID, opModeID)
For each sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID and opModeID: OpModeFractionbySchedule = (Number of Seconds in opModeID during DriveSchedule) / (Total number of seconds in DriveSchedule)
10.8.7. OMDG-7: Calculate overall operating mode fractions This step calculates the overall operating mode fractions by weighting the operating mode fractions of each drive schedule by the drive schedule fractions. This is done for each source type, road type, day of the week, hour, and operating mode. Input Variables:
OpModeFractionbySchedule (sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID, opModeID) DriveScheduleFraction (sourceTypeID, roadTypeID, hourDayID, driveScheduleID)
OpModeFraction (sourceTypeID, roadTypeID, hourDayID, polProcessID, opModeID)
For each sourceTypeID, roadTypeID, hourDayID and opModeID: OpModeFraction = Sum of OpModeFractionbySchedule*DriveScheduleFraction over all DriveSchedules
The Results of OMDG-7 populate the OpModeDistribution table of the Execution Location Database.
The opModeFraction in the OpModeDistribution table is:
opModeFraction (sourceTypeID, linkID, hourDayID, polProcessID, opModeID) The value of linkID needed for this table is determined from roadTypeID and zoneID.
10.9. Running OperatingModeDistributionGenerator (OMDG) for Mesoscale Lookup
The OperatingModeDistributionGenerator is used for the running, and brakewear emission processes and is only relevant for pollutant-processes which have multiple operating modes. For these pollutant-processes the OMDG calculates the distribution of operating modes for each source type on each roadway type modeled using data from the MOVESExecution database. The resulting distributions are added to the OperatingModeDistribution core model input table. This version of the OMDG is used for Mesoscale Lookup and takes advantage of the duplication of LinkAverageSpeeds produced by the LookupTableLinkProducer. Some calculations that are done at the roadtype level for Macroscale must be done at the link level for Mesoscale Lookup. The method used to generate these operating mode distributions in MOVES is a refinement of the method described in section 7.1.3 of the Draft Design and Implementation Plan for MOVES. The task of the OMDG is to produce operating mode distributions, in terms of a set of VSP-and-speed-range-based operating modes, for each combination of source type, link, hour of the day, and period of the week using as input average speed information for each link. Driving schedules representing typical operation at different average speeds for each source type operating on each road type play an intermediate role in translating average speed information into VSP distributions. Each average speed bin used as a link average speed is represented by a pair of bracketing driving schedules one of which has a slightly higher average speed and one of which has a slightly lower average speed. VSP is calculated on a second by second basis for the source use type operating over these two schedules and the results are weighted appropriately to represent the link average speed. A full discussion of the operating mode definitions and the use of vehicle specific power (VSP) and driving schedules in MOVES is contained in a separate report, MOVES2004 Energy and Emissions Inputs, downloadable from the MOVES web site. This algorithm is divided into seven steps referred to as OMDGs (operating mode distribution generator steps) in this document. Most OMDGs reference the MOVESExecution database and all implement a simple mathematical formula. Steps 1-3
For each sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID and second: An opModeID is assigned for each second in each drive schedule based on where the VSP, speed and accel values in that second falls. VSP and speed are compared against the VSP and speed bounds to determine to appropriate bins. Then the braking (ID=0) and idle bins (ID=1) should be assigned based on accel and speed, respectively. This sequence is important since there is overlap in the definitions between the non-braking/idle bins and the braking/idle bins.
10.9.6. OMDG-6: Calculate operating mode fractions for each drive schedule Once all the seconds in each operating mode bin are known, the distribution of the bins can be determined. The sum of the operating mode fractions sums to one for each source type and drive schedule combination. This is done for each source type and drive schedule. Input Variables:
For each sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID and opModeID: opModeFractionbySchedule = (Number of seconds in opModeID during driveSchedule) / (Total number of seconds in driveSchedule)
10.9.7. OMDG-7: Calculate overall operating mode fractions This step calculates the overall operating mode fractions by weighting the operating mode fractions of each drive schedule by the drive schedule fractions. This is done for each source type, link, day of the week, hour of the day and operating mode. The opmodeFractions created should vary only by sourceType, roadType, and link speed. They should be the same for each zone, day, and hour. Input Variables:
OpModeFractionbySchedule (sourceTypeID, driveScheduleID, opModeID) DriveScheduleFraction (sourceTypeID, roadTypeID, avgtSpeedBinID, driveScheduleID) Link(linkID, countyID, zoneID, roadTypeID) LinkAverageSpeed(linkID, hourDayID, sourceTypeID)
OpModeFraction (sourceTypeID, linkID, hourDayID, polProcessID, opModeID)
For each sourceTypeID, linkID, hourDayID and opModeID: opModeFraction = Sum of OpModeFractionbySchedule*DriveScheduleFraction over all DriveSchedules where the roadTypeID of the Link equals the roadTypeID of the driveScheduleFraction and the averageSpeed of the Link equals the averageSpeed of the avgSpeedBinID.
The OpModeFraction in the OpModeDistribution table is: OpModeFraction (sourceTypeID, linkID, hourDayID, polProcessID, opModeID)
10.10. Source Bin Distribution Generator (SBDG)
The Source Bin Distribution Generator produces the distribution of source bins by source type and model year. This information provides the mapping between the activity elements of MOVES (total activity and operating modes), which are based on source use type, and the emission rates, which are based on source bin. The SBDG takes as input fleet distributions of source bin categories (e.g. weight class, engine size, fuel type etc.) by model year. Data about the characteristics of the existing and projected vehicle fleet are stored in several of the tables within the MOVESExecution database as shown in table 10-5. The Source Bin Distribution Generator uses information in the first seven of these tables to populate the last two: SourceBin and SourceBinDistribution which are core model input tables. Table 10-5. Tables used by SourceBinGenerator
Table Name SourceTypePolProcess Key Fields sourceTypeID polProcessID Additional Fields isSizeWeightReqd isRegClassReqd isMYGroupReqd Notes Indicates which pollutant-processes the source bin distributions may be applied to and indicates which discriminators are relevant for each sourceType and polProcess Joint distribution of vehicles with a given fuel type and engine technology. Sums to one for each sourceType & modelYear Joint distribution of engine size and weight. Sums to one for each sourceType, modelYear and fuel/engtech combination.
sourceTypeModelYearID fuelTypeID engTechID
sourceTypeModelYearID fuelTypeID engTechID weightClassID engSizeID
sourceTypeModelYearID fuelTypeID engTechID regClassID
Fraction of vehicles in a regulatory class. Sums to one for each sourceType, modelYear and fuel/engtech combination. Defines model year groups. Defines short model year group Ids. Decodes ID field into modelYearID and sourceTypeID List of sourceBins
PollutantProcessModel Year ModelYearGroup SourceTypeModelYear
polProcessID modelYearID modelYearGroupID sourceTypeModelYearID
shortModYrGroupID modelYearGroupName modelYearGroupID modelYearID sourceTypeID engSizeID fuelTypeID engTechID regClassID modelYearGroupID weightClassID sourceBinActivityFract ion
Calculations: temperatureAdjustment = 1.0 + (tempAdjustTermA * (temperature-75.0)) + (tempAdjustTermB * (temperature-75) * (temperature-75)) K= 1.0 ((boundedSpecificHumidity 75.0) * humidityCorrectionCoeff) Where boundedSpecificHumidity = GREATEST(21.0,LEAST(specificHumidity,124.0))
Step CEIC-2: Calculate AC Adjustment Factor This step has 3 substeps: Step CEIC-2a: Calculate AC On Fraction Input Variables: heatIndex from ZoneMonthHour table ACActivityTermA, B, and C from the MonthGroupHour Table MonthOfAnyYear table used to associate month groups and months Output Variables: An intermediate ACOnFraction table: Key Fields: zoneID, monthID, hourID Date Field: ACOnFraction Calculation: ACOnFraction = ACActivityTermA + ACActivityTermB * heatIndex + ACActivityTermC * heatIndex * heatIndex If ACOnFraction < 0.0 Then ACOnFraction = 0.0 If ACOnFraction > 1.0 Then ACOnFraction = 1.0 Step CEIC-2b: Calculate AC Activity Fraction Input Variables: ACOnFraction from previous sub-step ACPenetrationFraction from SourceTypeModelYearTable functioningACFraction from SourceTypeAge Table
Output Variables: An intermediate ACActivityFraction table: Key Fields: zoneID, monthID, hourID, sourceTypeID, modelYearID Date Field: ACActivityFraction Calculation: ageID = calendar year modelYearID (needed to join to the SourceTypeAge table) ACActivityFraction = ACOnFraction * ACPenetrationFraction * functioningACFraction Step CEIC-2c: Calculate ACAdjustmentFraction Input Variables: ACActivityFraction from previous sub-step fullACAdjustment from FullACAdjustment table Output Variables: An intermediate ACAdjustment table: Key Fields: zoneID, monthID, hourID, sourceTypeID, modelYearID, polProcessID Date Field: ACAdjustment Calculation: Assume FullACAdjustment populated only for a single opModeID ACAdjustment = 1.0 + ((fullACAdjustment-1.0) * ACActivityFraction)
Step CEIC-3: Calculate SourceBin-Weighted Emission Rates This step weights emission rates, which vary by source bin, by the source bin distribution, retaining, however, the fuel type distinction because it is needed by subsequent steps and in the eventual output. The model year group distinction within source bin is subsumed by the broader model year distinction required in the output. Input Variables:
meanBaseRate from the EmissionRate table sourceBinActivityFraction from the SourceBinDistribution table The SourceBin table is needed to decompose sourceBinID values into their constituent components. The SourceTypeModelYear table is needed to decompose sourceTypeModelYearID values into their constituent sourceTypeID and modelYearID values. Output Variables: An intermediate SBWeightedEmissionRate Table Key fields: polProcessID, sourceTypeID, modelYearID, fuelTypeID Data field: meanBaseRate Calculation: In joining these tables it can be assumed that only one modelYearGroupID will be present in the source bin distributions for a polProcessID and modelYearID. SBWeightedEmissionRate.meanBaseRate = sum(sourceBinActivityFraction * EmissionRate.meanBaseRate)
10.30. Liquid Leaking (LL) Calculator
10.30.1. General Information This calculator executes at the MONTH master looping level. Input Tables OpModeDistribution SourceHours EmissionRateByAge SourceBinDistribution IMCoverage Miscellaneous MOVES Database category and association tables
Output Table: MOVESWorkerOutput (has structure of MOVESOutput Table) 10.29.2. Detailed Calculation Steps LL 1 Compute I/M Adjustment Fraction Information (same as CREC 1-a except for different value(s) of pollutant-process) Input Variables: IMCoverage table zoneID, yearID, polProcessID from masterloop context AgeCategory table RegulatoryClass Table FuelType table Input Variable: IMAdjustment Table Keys: zoneID, yearID, polProcessID, modelYearID, fuelTypeID, regClassID Data: IMAdjustFract Calculation: For zoneID, yearID in masterloop context For Vapor Venting and Liquid Leaking processes of all pollutants in runspec which this calculator calculates For all ageID in AgeCategory For all regClassID in RegulatoryClass except regClassID=0 For FueltypeID = 1 & 5 (right?)
modelYearID = yearID ageID IMAdjustFract.IMAdjustFract = IMCoverage.IMAdjustFract if record exists With begModelYearID <= modelYearID <= endModelYearID = 0.0 otherwise LL-2: Calculate I/M-Adjusted MeanBaseRates Input Variables: EmissionRateByAge table SourceBinDistribution table SourceBinTable IMAdjustment table (from step LL-1) AgeCategory PollutantProcessModelYear
Output Variables: An intermediate WeightedMeanBaseRate table o Keys: yearID, polProcessID, sourceTypeID, fuelTypeID, zoneID, monthID, hourDayID, modelYearID, opModeID o Data: weightedMeanBaseRate Calculation: modelYearID = yearID ageID fuelTypeID = 1 (gasoline) or 5 (E85) weightedMeanBaseRate = (meanBaseRateIM * sourceBinActivityFraction * IMAdjustFract) + (meanBaseRate * sourceBinActivityFraction * (1IMAdjustFract)) summed over portions of sourceBinID not needed in the output, namely regClassID and engTechID. LL-3: Calculate MOVESWorkerOutput by Source Type and FuelType Input Variables: - WeightedMeanBaseRate table from previous step - SourceHours table - OpModeDistribution table - HourDay table - County table - Zone table - PollutantProcessAssoc table - Link table Output Variables:
- MOVESWorkerOutput table, which has structure of MOVESOutput Calculation: emissionQuant = weightedMeanBaseRate * sourceHours * opModeFraction hourID = hourDay.hourID dayID = hourDay.dayID stateID = county.stateID countyID = zone.countyID pollutantID = PollutantProcessAssoc.pollutantID processID = PollutantProcessAssoc.processID roadTypeID = Link.roadTypeID SCC = null LL- 4 Conditionally Convert SourceType Output to SCC This step is performed only when output by SCC is requested by the run specification and, if performed, is the same as that performed in several other EmissionCalculators, e.g. CREC step 10.
OMDG (Operating Mode Distribution Generator, for running and braking, includes version for Mesoscale Lookup) SBDG (Source Bin Distribution Generator) METG (Meterology Generator) StartOMDG (Start process operating mode distribution generator) TTG (Tank Temperature Generator) EvapOMDG (Operating mode distribution generator for the evaporative emission processes) TFG (Tank Fuel Generator) AVFT (Alternative Vehicle Fuels and Technologies Strategy) EC (EmissionCalculators for the Exhaust, TireWear and Brake Wear emission processes which are not chained to other calculators, includes Distance Calculator.) ChainEC (Emission calculator which are chained to other calculators) EvapEC (EmissionCalculators for the Evaporative emission processes)
Table 11.1 MOVES Input Database Tables Use by Software Components
Table Name Type Function /Description Writers Readers (as DIST, CMIT or INF) AgeCategory CVL Defines the valid age categories of SourceUseTypes. ageID=0 represents new vehicles; ageID=30 represents vehicles 30 years old or older. modelyearID=calendarYearIDageID AgeGroup CVL Defines the valid age groups, a single set of which is used for all pollutant-processes. The gasoline in the fuel tanks of gasoline-fueled vehicles. Allows modeling of mixtures of fuel formulations from the fuel supply. Temperature of the fuel in the tanks of vehicles. Defines the average speed bins.
CMIT CVL INF DIST
EvapEC LTLP TAG OMDG TAG
Distribution of time spent in
average speed bins, by source type, roadtype, hour and day. The fraction of cold soaking in each hour-day that began in each hour, by source type, zone and month. Temperature of the fuel in tanks of cold-soaking vehicles, by zone, month, and hour Establishes the set of counties. Counties belong to states, but their IDs, based on FIPS state and county codes, are globally unique. Associates years with counties Terms used to calculate tank vapor vented from tank vapor generated. Somewhat analogous to emission rates by age for TVV process. Stored by regClass, modelYearGroup, and ageGroup. Metadata for emission rate records. Establishes set of dayIDs which identify a kind of day of the week. Distributes VMT for a source type in a month on a roadtype to the kinds of days of the week. Defines the set of driving schedules or patterns. Each schedule has an average speed information item. Associates a driving schedule with a combination of source type and road type. Also indicates whether schedule is a ramp schedule. Records contain the speed for one second of a driving schedule. Schedules start at second = 0. Time gaps are allowed. Such gaps divide schedule into snippets. Establish the set of emission processes. Contains emission rates for most pollutant-processes which do not depend upon vehicle age and which are not calculated from other pollutant-processes. Rates depend upon polprocessID, opModeID, and
Could not determine final Operating Mode Distribution. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine fraction of drive schedules in each speed bin. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine fractions of Operating Modes per Drive Schedule An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine hot soak temperatures. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine operating mode for sample vehicle trips. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine operating mode fraction. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine Operating Mode ID distribution. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine soak activity fraction. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine soak times for sample vehicle trips. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES.
Could not determine the distribution of drive schedules for non ramp drive cycle. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not determine the distribution of drive schedules for ramp drive cycle. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not do link operating mode setup An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not do TFG sql. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not flag marker trips An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Could not load InternalControlStrategy text The RunSpec file is corrupt, likely due to a typo. Could not load InternalControlStrategy XML. The RunSpec file is corrupt, likely due to a typo. Could not load runspec XML. The RunSpec file is corrupt, likely due to a typo. Could not remove Source Bin Distribution data from previous run. An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. DROP TABLE failed An error occurred while working with a database. The database could have become unavailable or could have been modified externally from MOVES. Error removing generated data from the execution database.
Official Journal of the European Union
DIRECTIVE 2009/24/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the legal protection of computer programs
(Codified version) (Text with EEA relevance) THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,
computer program technology can accordingly be considered as being of fundamental importance for the Community's industrial development.
Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community and in particular Article 95 thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
Certain differences in the legal protection of computer programs offered by the laws of the Member States have direct and negative effects on the functioning of the internal market as regards computer programs.
Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),
Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty (2),
Existing differences having such effects need to be removed and new ones prevented from arising, while differences not adversely affecting the functioning of the internal market to a substantial degree need not be removed or prevented from arising.
The content of Council Directive 91/250/EEC of 14 May 1991 on the legal protection of computer programs (3) has been amended (4). In the interests of clarity and rationality the said Directive should be codified.
The Community's legal framework on the protection of computer programs can accordingly in the first instance be limited to establishing that Member States should accord protection to computer programs under copyright law as literary works and, further, to estab lishing who and what should be protected, the exclusive rights on which protected persons should be able to rely in order to authorise or prohibit certain acts and for how long the protection should apply.
The development of computer programs requires the investment of considerable human, technical and financial resources while computer programs can be copied at a fraction of the cost needed to develop them independently.
Computer programs are playing an increasingly important role in a broad range of industries and
For the purpose of this Directive, the term computer program shall include programs in any form, including those which are incorporated into hardware. This term also includes preparatory design work leading to the development of a computer program provided that the nature of the preparatory work is such that a computer program can result from it at a later stage.
(1) OJ C 204, 9.8.2008, p. 24. (2) Opinion of the European Parliament of 17 June 2008 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and Council Decision of 23 March 2009. (3) OJ L 122, 17.5.1991, p. 42. (4) See Annex I, Part A.
In respect of the criteria to be applied in determining whether or not a computer program is an original work, no tests as to the qualitative or aesthetic merits of the program should be applied.
The Community is fully committed to the promotion of international standardisation.
A person having a right to use a computer program should not be prevented from performing acts necessary to observe, study or test the functioning of the program, provided that those acts do not infringe the copyright in the program.
The function of a computer program is to communicate and work together with other components of a computer system and with users and, for this purpose, a logical and, where appropriate, physical interconnection and interaction is required to permit all elements of software and hardware to work with other software and hardware and with users in all the ways in which they are intended to function. The parts of the program which provide for such interconnection and interaction between elements of software and hardware are generally known as interfaces. This functional interconnection and interaction is generally known as interoperability; such interoperability can be defined as the ability to exchange information and mutually to use the information which has been exchanged.
For the avoidance of doubt, it has to be made clear that only the expression of a computer program is protected and that ideas and principles which underlie any element of a program, including those which underlie its interfaces, are not protected by copyright under this Directive. In accordance with this principle of copyright, to the extent that logic, algorithms and programming languages comprise ideas and principles, those ideas and principles are not protected under this Directive. In accordance with the legislation and case-law of the Member States and the international copyright conventions, the expression of those ideas and principles is to be protected by copyright.
The unauthorised reproduction, translation, adaptation or transformation of the form of the code in which a copy of a computer program has been made available constitutes an infringement of the exclusive rights of the author. Nevertheless, circumstances may exist when such a reproduction of the code and translation of its form are indispensable to obtain the necessary infor mation to achieve the interoperability of an indepen dently created program with other programs. It has therefore to be considered that, in these limited circum stances only, performance of the acts of reproduction and translation by or on behalf of a person having a right to use a copy of the program is legitimate and compatible with fair practice and must therefore be deemed not to require the authorisation of the right holder. An objective of this exception is to make it possible to connect all components of a computer system, including those of different manufacturers, so that they can work together. Such an exception to the author's exclusive rights may not be used in a way which prejudices the legitimate interests of the rightholder or which conflicts with a normal exploitation of the program.
For the purposes of this Directive, the term rental means the making available for use, for a limited period of time and for profit-making purposes, of a computer program or a copy thereof. This term does not include public lending, which, accordingly, remains outside the scope of this Directive.
Protection of computer programs under copyright laws should be without prejudice to the application, in appro priate cases, of other forms of protection. However, any contractual provisions contrary to the provisions of this Directive laid down in respect of decompilation or to the exceptions provided for by this Directive with regard to the making of a back-up copy or to observation, study or testing of the functioning of a program should be null and void.
The exclusive rights of the author to prevent the unauthorised reproduction of his work should be subject to a limited exception in the case of a computer program to allow the reproduction technically necessary for the use of that program by the lawful acquirer. This means that the acts of loading and running necessary for the use of a copy of a program which has been lawfully acquired, and the act of correction of its errors, may not be prohibited by contract. In the absence of specific contractual provisions, including when a copy of the program has been sold, any other act necessary for the use of the copy of a program may be performed in accordance with its intended purpose by a lawful acquirer of that copy.
The provisions of this Directive are without prejudice to the application of the competition rules under Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty if a dominant supplier refuses to make information available which is necessary for inter operability as defined in this Directive.
The provisions of this Directive should be without prejudice to specific requirements of Community law already enacted in respect of the publication of interfaces in the telecommunications sector or Council Decisions relating to standardisation in the field of information technology and telecommunication.
This Directive does not affect derogations provided for under national legislation in accordance with the Berne Convention on points not covered by this Directive.
3. Where a computer program is created by an employee in the execution of his duties or following the instructions given by his employer, the employer exclusively shall be entitled to exercise all economic rights in the program so created, unless otherwise provided by contract.
This Directive should be without prejudice to the obli gations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives set out in Annex I, Part B,
Article 3 Beneficiaries of protection Protection shall be granted to all natural or legal persons eligible under national copyright legislation as applied to literary works.
HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:
Article 1 Object of protection 1. In accordance with the provisions of this Directive, Member States shall protect computer programs, by copyright, as literary works within the meaning of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. For the purposes of this Directive, the term computer programs shall include their preparatory design material.
Article 4 Restricted acts 1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 5 and 6, the exclusive rights of the rightholder within the meaning of Article 2 shall include the right to do or to authorise:
2. Protection in accordance with this Directive shall apply to the expression in any form of a computer program. Ideas and principles which underlie any element of a computer program, including those which underlie its interfaces, are not protected by copyright under this Directive.
(a) the permanent or temporary reproduction of a computer program by any means and in any form, in part or in whole; in so far as loading, displaying, running, trans mission or storage of the computer program necessitate such reproduction, such acts shall be subject to authoris ation by the rightholder;
3. A computer program shall be protected if it is original in the sense that it is the author's own intellectual creation. No other criteria shall be applied to determine its eligibility for protection.
(b) the translation, adaptation, arrangement and any other alteration of a computer program and the reproduction of the results thereof, without prejudice to the rights of the person who alters the program;
4. The provisions of this Directive shall apply also to programs created before 1 January 1993, without prejudice to any acts concluded and rights acquired before that date.
(c) any form of distribution to the public, including the rental, of the original computer program or of copies thereof.
Article 2 Authorship of computer programs 1. The author of a computer program shall be the natural person or group of natural persons who has created the program or, where the legislation of the Member State permits, the legal person designated as the rightholder by that legislation.
2. The first sale in the Community of a copy of a program by the rightholder or with his consent shall exhaust the distri bution right within the Community of that copy, with the exception of the right to control further rental of the program or a copy thereof.
Article 5 Exceptions to the restricted acts 1. In the absence of specific contractual provisions, the acts referred to in points (a) and (b) of Article 4(1) shall not require authorisation by the rightholder where they are necessary for the use of the computer program by the lawful acquirer in accordance with its intended purpose, including for error correction.
Where collective works are recognised by the legislation of a Member State, the person considered by the legislation of the Member State to have created the work shall be deemed to be its author.
2. In respect of a computer program created by a group of natural persons jointly, the exclusive rights shall be owned jointly.
2. The making of a back-up copy by a person having a right to use the computer program may not be prevented by contract in so far as it is necessary for that use.
3. The person having a right to use a copy of a computer program shall be entitled, without the authorisation of the right holder, to observe, study or test the functioning of the program in order to determine the ideas and principles which underlie any element of the program if he does so while performing any of the acts of loading, displaying, running, transmitting or storing the program which he is entitled to do.
Article 7 Special measures of protection 1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 4, 5 and 6, Member States shall provide, in accordance with their national legislation, appropriate remedies against a person committing any of the following acts:
Article 6 Decompilation 1. The authorisation of the rightholder shall not be required where reproduction of the code and translation of its form within the meaning of points (a) and (b) of Article 4(1) are indispensable to obtain the information necessary to achieve the interoperability of an independently created computer program with other programs, provided that the following conditions are met:
(a) any act of putting into circulation a copy of a computer program knowing, or having reason to believe, that it is an infringing copy;
(b) the possession, for commercial purposes, of a copy of a computer program knowing, or having reason to believe, that it is an infringing copy;
(a) those acts are performed by the licensee or by another person having a right to use a copy of a program, or on their behalf by a person authorised to do so;
(c) any act of putting into circulation, or the possession for commercial purposes of, any means the sole intended purpose of which is to facilitate the unauthorised removal or circumvention of any technical device which may have been applied to protect a computer program.
(b) the information necessary to achieve interoperability has not previously been readily available to the persons referred to in point (a); and
(c) those acts are confined to the parts of the original program which are necessary in order to achieve interoperability.
2. Any infringing copy of a computer program shall be liable to seizure in accordance with the legislation of the Member State concerned.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not permit the infor mation obtained through its application:
3. Member States may provide for the seizure of any means referred to in point (c) of paragraph 1.
(a) to be used for goals other than to achieve the interoper ability of the independently created computer program;
Article 8 Continued application of other legal provisions The provisions of this Directive shall be without prejudice to any other legal provisions such as those concerning patent rights, trade-marks, unfair competition, trade secrets, protection of semi-conductor products or the law of contract.
(b) to be given to others, except when necessary for the inter operability of the independently created computer program; or
(c) to be used for the development, production or marketing of a computer program substantially similar in its expression, or for any other act which infringes copyright.
Any contractual provisions contrary to Article 6 or to the exceptions provided for in Article 5(2) and (3) shall be null and void.
3. In accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention for the protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the provisions of this Article may not be interpreted in such a way as to allow its application to be used in a manner which unreasonably prejudices the rightholder's legitimate interests or conflicts with a normal exploitation of the computer program.
Article 9 Communication Member States shall communicate to the Commission the provisions of national law adopted in the field governed by this Directive.
Article 10 Repeal Directive 91/250/EEC, as amended by the Directive indicated in Annex I, Part A, is repealed, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law of the Directives set out in Annex I, Part B. References to the repealed Directive shall be construed as references to this Directive and shall be read in accordance with the correlation table in Annex II. Article 11 Entry into force This Directive shall enter into force on the 20th day following its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. Article 12 Addressees This Directive is addressed to the Member States.
Done at Strasbourg, 23 April 2009.
For the European Parliament The President
For the Council The President
ANNEX I PART A Repealed Directive with its amendment (referred to in Article 10) Council Directive 91/250/EEC (OJ L 122, 17.5.1991, p. 42) Council Directive 93/98/EEC (OJ L 290, 24.11.1993, p. 9) Article 11(1) only
PART B List of time-limits for transposition into national law (referred to in Article 10)
Directive Time-limit for transposition
31 December June 1995
ANNEX II Correlation table
Article 1(1), (2) and (3) Article 2(1), first sentence Article 2(1), second sentence Article 2(2) and (3) Article 3 Article 4, introductory words Article 4(a) Article 4(b) Article 4(c), first sentence Article 4(c), second sentence Articles 5, 6 and 7 Article 9(1), first sentence Article 9(1), second sentence Article 9(2) Article 10(1) Article 10(2) Article 11
Article 1(1), (2) and (3) Article 2(1), first subparagraph Article 2(1), second subparagraph Article 2(2) and (3) Article 3 Article 4(1), introductory words Article 4(1), point (a) Article 4(1), point (b) Article 4(1), point (c) Article 4(2) Articles 5, 6 and 7 Article 8, first paragraph Article 8, second paragraph Article 1(4) Article 9 Article 10 Article 11 Article 12 Annex I Annex II
Ca65EX Ixus 55 EX 800 DVD 37 LM465 CW F500 RAF25NH4 Toshiba XV50 Keyboard RO102 SCD-XA333ES Optio 430 RS-1506US 25C340 EMR899 PCG-R505JSK Laserjet 4P DVR4300 KX-TG8120FX TP4-20 GR-DVL510u-gr-dvl510 Activys CHM-S652RF Av-14 Review TH-42PV70PA MB-0944B WM1255A DSC-V1 Samsung 721S SLV-R355 Travelpilot 300 ICN330 9 SP4 Verona C51 5 0 1911-tlxb WD-85260NP Folio FX8 CD723-00 AFL631CB WT-H755TH With VCD Samsung D900 Wagon N130-JA01 Lounge 2 DCR-DVD605E EQS750 SW008 RC389H UA-25 PCR-80 YZ250F-2007 MP100 WOM EBM-911 Unlimited II EWF1445 SF-2218 P5100 10 V TE-8000F WF8802LSW 600XL YP-K3JQB TC2120 Dell 540 ME99B P4BMX SC-HT730 LW26A33W 500GO LM500 Studio24 Mosca029 A HCH4051 42PFL5322-10 V2 0 Finepix 6800 D-NE510 Server DMW-FL220E CX-DP880N HTS-590 Ftxss23GTF Finepix A170 Yamaha RY10 DSC-W360 Makita 6413 40PFL7605H Cronometro 700 TX-P50c10Y JP155 RM2291 DV-PF6E AVR-3802 KAC-959 Aspire 9810 Logicom G303 Aopen AK73 3351 CA
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