Nikon 35-105MM F3 5-4 5zoom-nikkor
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Nikon 35-105MM F3.5-4.5zoom-nikkor - Brochure Digital Camera, size: 3.0 MB
Nikon 35-105MM F3 5-4 5zoom-nikkor
User reviews and opinions
|gis_user||11:46pm on Saturday, October 30th, 2010|
|Great lens for the price. It will do everything that you need it to do. Crisp photos and great color.|
|Mrestbuy||7:21pm on Tuesday, October 5th, 2010|
|Take extra precautions when using and storing this lens. Cold weather will cause the lens mount to snap. A slight bump will cause the mount to snap.|
|Phil K||6:24am on Tuesday, October 5th, 2010|
|Take extra precautions when using and storing... Great lens for all around use. Crisp and clear. Easy to focus and manipulate Lens mount is cheap. Take extra precautions when using and storing this lens. Cold weather will cause the lens mount to snap. A slight bump will cause the mount to snap. I sure am surprised that I am the first perso... Price, Sharpness, Range, Weight, Vibration Reduction Build, Lack of distance scale.|
|SteveGlynn||8:06pm on Monday, October 4th, 2010|
|Great lens for low budget. Good for all around. Durable","Fast / accurate auto-focus Light switch missing","Somewhat noisy|
|kilobitti||10:02am on Friday, July 23rd, 2010|
|Definitly better than its reputation on expert sites!! I got this lens with my D90 kit. I am also a fan of Ken Rockwell.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Chapter 1: Digital SLR Photography Now and in the Future This chapter focuses on the rapid convergence of conventional photography and digital photography, in terms of features, capabilities, techniques, and price considerations, and examines the changes that will be made now that digital SLRs have become affordable. It outlines the skills SLR-slinging photographers already have that are directly transferable to digital SLR photography and shows how those skills actually become enhanced given the special features of digital cameras.
Chapter 2: Digital SLR Technology Made Easy This chapter provides an inside look at how digital cameras work now, and some information on how they will work in the very near future when breakthroughs like the Foveon sensor, Four-Thirds designs, 8-megapixel-plus cameras, and other innovations become more widely used. Chapter 3: Mastering Your dSLRs Controls Although every camera uses different buttons and menus to control key features, nearly every digital SLR image-grabber includes some variation on the basic array of controls. This chapter provides an overview of the controls a digital photographer must master, and includes descriptions of how these controls differ between digital cameras and film cameras. Chapter 4: dSLR Quirks and Strengths This chapter shows how to take advantage of the strengths of the digital SLR and deal with the quirks. Youll learn how to use scene modes and protect your sensor from dust bunnies. Chapter 5: Working RAW The average amateur photographer with a digital camera just points and clicks, without a thought about which file format, from among those offered by a particular camera, is the best. More serious photographers will want to know why optional formats are offered, and how to choose the right one for a particular shooting session. Chapter 6: Working with Lenses Digital SLRs present pixel photographers with a new option: choice of lens. This chapter deals with selecting the most versatile complement of lenses for various categories of photography and how to use those lenses to pull in distant objects, apply selective focus, shoot close-ups, and create special effects with zooms and other tricks. Chapter 7: Close-Up Photography Learn how to use your Digital SLRs macro capabilities to capture views of exotic or mundane objects, up-close and personal. Chapter 8: Capturing Action Whether its your kids Little League or soccer teams, or the company picnic or bowling tournament, youll need these tips on grabbing fast-moving subjects. Youll learn how to stop action, choose your spots, and use flash. Chapter 9: Composition and dSLRs Digital SLRs offer the most control over composition because they show exactly what will be imaged in the digital file. Or do they? This chapter explains why what you see may not be what you get, along with basic information on composition and how to apply compositional rules to portraiture, publicity, architecture, and landscape photography. Chapter 10: Mastering dSLR Special Features Digital SLRs have loads of special features, most of which will be new to photographers migrating from film photography or point-and-shoot digital cameras. This chapter explains features like image stabilization, infrared photography, time-lapse photography, and how to use them. Appendix: Illustrated Glossary
cameras more than 20 years ago, in the form of electronic metering, electronic shutters, programmed exposure modes, and automatic focus. The first digital SLRs were created by grafting a digital sensor into the back of a film SLR and then tacking on some electronics to process and store the images. Even today, when digital SLRs are using fewer off-the-shelf film camera components, there are many models so similar to the film camera counterparts from the same vendor that if you were handed one at random, youd probably have to check it out for a few seconds to decide if it were the film or electronic version. The most comforting thing about digital SLR technology is that, for the most part, these cameras were designed by engineers who understand photography. Many of the point-and-shoot digital cameras I have used appear to have been designed by a techie who was creating cell phones or PDAs last week, and then moved over to digital cameras this week. They operate like computers rather than cameras, have features that nobody in their right mind actually needs, and often are completely unusable for the kinds of photography they are intended for. For example, I recently tested a pocket-sized digicam that had no optical viewfinder at all. It was necessary to frame every picture using the back-panel LCD, which, unfortunately, completely washed out when used outdoors at any time of the day when the sun was out. Another camera had a sensational burst mode that could snap off six frames in about 1.5 seconds. Casual sports photographers would love that, except this particular model provided no way to set the shutter speed high enough to stop action, nor was there even a Sports shooting mode. Ack! In contrast, digital SLRs are designed by people who understand your needs. Most of them have been designing film cameras for many years, and know from the feedback they receive what photographers want. So, learning dSLR technology will be rewarding for you because youll come to understand exactly how to use features that have been designed to help you be a better and more creative photographer. This chapter explains that technology and will help you in two ways. When youre shopping for your next digital SLR, youll have a better knowledge of the kinds of technology you should be looking for in your camera. If you already own a dSLR, after reading this chapter youll know how to put those features to work. Youll find that this chapter is not one of those inside a digital camera exposs with cute diagrams, like the one shown in Figure 2.1, that show light entering a lens, evading capture by the diaphragm, bouncing off the reflex mirror up to your eye, and/or wending its way to the
Figure 2.5 The electrons from each row of pixels are swept, in turn, down to the transfer register, where they are converted into a voltage and routed to the digital cameras circuitry.
Unfortunately, because the CCD imager is so dumb, the external circuitry outside the chip has to be that much smarter, containing oscillators, clock drivers, and timing components to make sure that retrieving an image from the chip happens in an orderly manner. All this pixel crunching requires processing time and power and is theoretically much slower. Worse, this processing involves every photosite on the chip for every picture you take, even if you arent using the full area of the sensor for a particular photo.
CMOS in Depth
CMOS sensors and their grids of photodiodes operate something like CCD imagers in the sense that each photosite can be compared to a bucket that fills with photons that are directed onto the photosensitive area by a microlens. However, a CMOS sensor photosite contains lots
of circuitry not found in a CCD photosite, so there is less room for the photosensitive area. In some CMOS sensors, the sensitive area may be about 50 percent of the total area of each photosite, as you can see in Figure 2.6. The same thresholds and bucket-filling analogies apply to how CMOS captures photons. However, unlike CCD chips, the electrons are converted to digital form right within the individual photosites. Circuitry converts the photons to electrons (as in a CCD imager) but then transforms the charge into an amplified voltage value. CMOS sensors can include a kind of pixel-resetting circuitry to, more or less, bleed off excessive photons before they can overflow to the adjacent pixels. So, CMOS chips are much, much less prone to blooming effects. The whole process is more efficient, because all the signal processing can be handled in parallel and with less energy consumption. Sweeping the image off the chip by rows and columns isnt necessary. Every photosite on a CMOS imager can be accessed directly. The circuitry found in a CMOS imager is basically similar to that in standard chips such as RAM, so CMOS sensors can be produced using the same equipment and production lines, in contrast to CCD chips which require special fabrication methods. So, CMOS sensors can be relatively inexpensive compared to CCD on a pixel-by-pixel basis. On the other hand, the smaller photosensitive area of these chips makes it more difficult to produce high-quality images, and the resulting sensors are less sensitive to light, too.
The next stop in our optical grand tour is the focus screen, also called a viewing screen or, in times past, the ground glass, which is, theoretically, at the exact distance in the optical path as the focal plane of the sensor. Thus, an image that appears to be correctly focused on the viewfinder screen should be in sharp focus when the picture is taken. Obviously, the screen must be positioned with great accuracy, which is made easier by the fact that in most digital SLRs (at least the non-pro variety), the focus screen is permanently fixed in the camera. Some high-end models, like the Canon EOS 1Ds, Mark II, offer nine or ten different replaceable focus screens optimized for special applications. These can include screens with matte, split-image rangefinder-type focusing, microprism, cross-hairs, or other types. Specialized screens can provide an extra-bright image for viewing under dim lighting condi-
tions with a central spot area for focusing, grids and cross-hairs for aligning images, and other features. While in the past focus screens were usually precision-made chunks of ground glass, today youre likely to find a laser-etched plastic screen in your digital camera. And where such screens were formerly used simply to provide a way for the photographer to view an image and manually focus, today these screens may be used by your cameras exposure system to measure light from a large matrix of points, play a major part in autofocusing the image, or even to measure and set white balance (although at least one camera measures white balance from a sensor area on top of the camera in incident fashion, independent of the light coming through the lens). (Incident light is the light falling on a subject, as opposed to reflected from the subject.) Compared to EVF cameras, which use an LCD as a through-the-lens viewfinder and can easily fill up the screen with all kinds of information, the data displayed on a dSLRs focus screen may be rather sparse, as you can see in Figure 4.3. Generally, youll see little more than the focus-area indicator markings, plus an indicator that shows what area is being measured for spot or center-weighted exposure calculations. These areas may be illuminated to show that theyre active.
Figure 4.3 SLR focus screens are relatively uncluttered, with most of the information arrayed at the bottom or sides of the frame.
Additional data, which can include the shutter speed, f-stop, exposure mode, exposure number, focus confirmation light, and flash needed indicator, will appear below the focus screen itself, usually as LED or LCD indicators.
Chapter 5 Working RAW
To complicate things, in late 2004, Adobe Systems introduced its new DNG (Digital Negative) specification, which purports to translate RAW files from any camera type to a common RAW format compatible with any camera or software. Of course, the specification allows adding what Adobe calls private metadata to DNG files, enabling differentiation, which is another word for non-standard/noncompatible. If DNG is adopted, most of the data from your cameras RAW images might be convertible to the new standard, but theres no guarantee that all of it will be. Because Photoshop can already handle the most common types of RAW files we we work with, most dSLR owners are likely to be underwhelmed by this initiation for the foreseeable future.
Image Size, File Size, and File Compression
One of the original reasons digital cameras offered more than one file format in the first place is to limit the size of the file stored on your memory card. Early dSLRs used tethered hard disk drives slung over a shoulder, enabling the photographer to store 200 megabytes worth of 1.3 megapixel images. PC Card memory that fit the slots still found in notebook computers (but generally used for WiFi plug-ins today) worked for a while, until SanDisk invented the CompactFlash card in 1994. Still, all these memory options were limited in size, so more efficient file formats had to be used. If a digital camera had unlimited memory capacity and file transfers from the camera to your computer were instantaneous, all images would probably be stored in RAW or TIFF format. TIFF might even have gained the nod for convenience and ease of use, and because not all applications can interpret the unprocessed information in RAW files. Both RAW and TIFF provide no noticeable loss in quality. JPEG was invented as a more compact file format that can store most of the information in a digital image, but in a much smaller size. JPEG predates most digital SLRs, and was initially used to squeeze down files for transmission over slow dialup connections. Even if you were using an early dSLR with 1.3 megapixel files for news photography, you didnt want to send them back to the office over a modem at 1200 bps. Alas, JPEG provides smaller files by compressing the information in a way that loses some information. JPEG remains a viable alternative because it offers several different quality levels. At the highest quality level you might not be able to tell the difference between the original TIFF file and the JPEG version, even though the TIFF occupies, say, 14MB on your memory card, while the high-quality JPEG takes up only 4MB of space. Youve squeezed the image 3.5X without losing much visual information at all. If you dont mind losing some quality, you can use more aggressive compression with JPEG to store 14 times as many images in the same space as one TIFF file. RAW exists because sometimes we want to have access to all the information captured by the camera, before the cameras internal logic has processed it and converted the image to a standard file format. RAW doesnt save as much space as JPEG (although RAW files can be a lot smaller than TIFF files). What it does do is preserve all the information captured by your camera. Think of your cameras RAW format as a photographic negative, ready to be converted by your camera or, at your option, by your RAW-compatible image-editing/processing software. You can adjust the image size, file size, and image quality of your digital camera images. The guidebooks and manuals dont always make it clear that these adjustments are three entirely different things. However, image size affects file size and image quality, and image quality affects
Figure 5.1 Rather than describe every pixel, you need only to list how many of each pixel appears consecutively.
When describing numbers rather than golf balls, the savings are even more dramatic. A lossless compression scheme, like that used to squeeze a TIFF file, could record a value that would designate how many times a particular set of bits (rather than golf balls) is repeated, so, instead of storing all 64 bits, a code would be used that meant 14 zeroes, followed by 3 ones, followed by 16 zeros, followed by 6 ones and so forth. That information would allow reconstructing the string of bits used in the example. Techie types call this kind of abbreviation run length limited because it records the lengths of the runs of the same number consecutively. It gets better. As the compression algorithm worked, it would notice that certain strings of numbers began to repeat. Instead of enumerating only the number of runs of ones and zeros, the code would indicate where to find a string of numbers identical to the one that needed to be recorded next. The second time the line of numbers above turned up, a short code representing where that line is stored in the file would be substituted. In effect, the encoder/decoder would say, go to location x,y in the table Ive put together, and use the number you find there. Obviously, the coordinates in a table can be expressed using a very small number, which allows squeezing the size of the file more and more as the size of the cross-referenced strings of numbers grows. For the mathematically inclined (Im not one of those), Figure 5.2 shows a simplified look-up table.
Figure 5.2 Cross-references to number strings in a table can save space.
To represent a string such as 111101011110001111111111110001001000100100010010001000, youd need only to list the addresses in the table of those numbers. Were not done yet. The larger the file becomes, the fewer actual numbers the compression scheme has to record. More and more of the code consists of pointers to strings of numbers. This method, called Huffman encoding, builds a frequency table of the number strings in a file, and assigns the shortest codes to the strings of numbers that occur most often. Even though all the redundant numbers are eliminated from the file, the decompression algorithm can use the information to reconstruct the original file precisely. Today, more-advanced algorithms, such as the Lempel-Ziv Welch (LZW) algorithm used to compress TIFF files, are very efficient. LZW was originally developed by Israeli researchers Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv in 1977 and 1978. The Lempel-Ziv algorithm was further developed by a Unisys researcher named Terry Welch, who in 1984 published and patented a compression technique that is now called Lempel-Ziv Welch (most often with no second hyphen, although even Unisys isnt consistent in its use) or, simply, LZW.
The latest features include individual noise reduction controls for each image, automatic levels adjustment, a quick develop option that allows speedy conversion from RAW to TIFF or JPEG formats, dual-image side-by-side views for comparison purposes, and helpful grids and guides that can be superimposed over an image. Photographers concerned about copyright protection will appreciate the ability to add watermarks to the output images.
One of my personal favorites among third-party RAW converters is Bibble Pro (shown in Figure 5.17), which just came out with a new version as I was writing this book. It supports one of the broadest ranges of RAW file formats available, including NEF files from Nikon D1,D1x/h, D2H, D100;.CRW files from the Canon C30/D60/10D/300D;.CR2 files from the Canon 1D MKII;.ORF files from the Olympus E10/E20/E1/C5050/C5060;.DCR files from the Kodak 720x/760/14n;.RAF files from the Fuji S2Pro;.PEF files from Pentax ISTD;.MRW files from the Minolta Maxxum; and.TIF from Canon 1D/1DS. The utility supports lots of different platforms, too. Its available for Windows, Mac OS X, and, believe it or not, Linux. Bibble works fast because it offers instantaneous previews and real-time feedback as changes are made. Thats important when you have to convert many images in a short time (event photographers will know what I am talking about!) Bibbles batch-processing capabilities also let you convert large numbers of files using settings you specify without further intervention. Its customizable interface lets you organize and edit images quickly, and then output them in a variety of formats, including 16-bit TIFF and PNG. You can even create a Web gallery from within Bibble. I often find myself disliking the generic filenames applied to digital images by cameras, so I really like Bibbles ability to rename batches of files using new names that you specify.
Figure 5.17 Bibble Pro supports a broad range of RAW file formats.
Bibble is fully color managed, which means it can support all the popular color spaces (Adobe sRGB, and so forth) and use custom profiles generated by third-party color-management software. There are two editions of Bibble, a Pro version and a Lite version. Because the Pro version is reasonably priced at $129, I dont really see the need to save $60 with the Lite edition, which lacks the top-lines options for tethered shooting, embedding IPTC-compatible captions in images, and cannot also be used as a Photoshop plug-in (if you prefer not to work with the application in its standalone mode).
BreezeBrowser, shown in Figure 5.18, has long been the RAW converter of choice for Canon dSLR owners who run Windows and who were dissatisfied with Canons lame File Viewer Utility. It works quickly, and has lots of options for converting CRW files to other formats. You can choose to show highlights that will be blown out in your finished photo as flashing areas (so they can be more easily identified and corrected), use histograms to correct tones, add color profiles, auto rotate images, and adjust all those raw image parameters, such as white balance, color space, saturation, contrast, sharpening, color tone, EV compensation, and other settings. You can also control noise reduction (choosing from low, normal, or high reduction), evaluate your changes in the live preview, and then save the file as a compressed JPEG, or as either an 8-bit or 16-bit TIFF file. BreezeBrowser can also create HTML Web galleries directly from your selection of images.
Films sensors consist of tiny light-sensitive grains embedded in several different layers. These grains respond about the same whether the light strikes them head on or from a slight or extreme angle. The angle makes a difference, but not enough to degrade the image. As you learned in Chapter 2, sensors consist of little pixel-catching wells in a single layer. Light that approaches the wells from too steep an angle can strike the side of the well, missing the photosensitive portion, or stray over to adjacent photosites. This is potentially not good, and can produce light fall-off in areas of the image where the incoming angles are steepest, as well as moir patterns with wide-angle lenses. Fortunately, the camera vendors have taken steps to minimize these problems. The phenomenon is more acute with lenses with shorter back-focal distances, such as wide-angles. Because the rear element of the lens is so close to the sensor, the light must necessarily converge as a much sharper angle. Lens designs that increase the back-focal distance (more on this later) alleviate the problem. With normal and telephoto lenses that have a much deeper back-focal distance anyway, the problem is further reduced. Another solution is to add a microlens atop each photosite to straighten out the optical path, reducing these severe angles. Figure 6.4 (which originally appeared in Chapter 2; Im not going to ask you to flip back) shows how such a microlens operates. Newer cameras employ such a system, so you can use lenses designed for either film or digital use without worry. Olympuss clever Four-Thirds design is perhaps the best approach. Although the overall concept was developed in conjunction with Fuji and Kodak, Olympus is the first vendor to bring the Four-Thirds approach to a digital SLR. The companys dSLRs and their lenses were designed from scratch for use with digital sensors that measure 22.5mm diagonally. So, the camera was designed with a longer back-focal distance to mate with lenses that had a matching back-focal distance. Even the Olympus wide-angle optics focus the light at an angle that is more friendly to the digital sensors needs.
If youve ever looked at film, you noticed that the emulsion sidethe side that is exposed to lighthas a relatively matte surface, due to the nature of the top antiabrasion coating and the underlying dyes. Take a glance at your sensor, and youll see a much shinier surface. Its entirely possible for light to reflect off the sensor, strike the back of the lens, and end up bouncing back to the sensor to produce ghost images, flare, or other distortions. While lens coatings can control this bounce-back to a certain extent, digital camera lenses are more prone to the effect than lenses used on film cameras.
Some wacky combinations
I discovered that the deliberate and contemplative nature of macrophotography has an interesting advantage. Once youve freed yourself from fretting over the lack of autofocus and/or autoexposure with your macro setup, youll find you can attach a wider variety of lenses to your camera than you might have thought. For example:
Nikon lenses on Canon dSLRs. There are adapters that allow fitting Nikon lenses to Canon SLR
cameras for use in manual mode. If youll be working manually for macrophotography anyway, such adapters are more practical.
Old-school compatibility. Pentax dSLRs that accept older Pentax lenses may also be able to use
original extension tubes and lenses in manual mode. The same is true for lenses and accessories produced for Nikon and other camera lines. Even though older Nikon lenses ordinarily must be converted for use on modern Nikon dSLRs, youll find that if a non-automatic extension tube can be mounted safely on your Nikon, you can then attach just about any older lens to that extension tube without fear of damaging your camera body.
Lens flip-flops. Reversing rings, like the one shown in Figure 7.11, are available that let you
attach your lens to your camera in reverse fashion, with the lens mount facing away from the camera. This configuration can let you focus closer and may produce sharper results. If youre working in manual mode, this setup is no more inconvenient than the normal mode.
Figure 7.11 A reversing ring lets you mount a lens backwards, which sometimes lets you focus more closely and can improve image quality.
A bellows is an accordion-like attachment that moves along a sliding rail to vary the distance between lens and camera continuously over a particular range. Where extension tubes each provide a fixed amount of magnification, bellows let you produce different magnifications, as much as 20:1 or more. I favor an older bellows attachment, used with a correspondingly ancient macro lens. It has a tilt and shift mechanism on the front column, which allows you to vary the angle between the lens and the back of the camera (where the sensor is). This shifting procedure can help you squeeze out a little more depth-of-field by tilting the sharpness plane in the same direction your subject matter tilts away from the camera.
A bellows attachment, like the one shown in Figure 7.12, frequently has a rotating mechanism that allows you to shift the camera from horizontal to vertical orientation. Some bellows have two rails: one for adjusting the distance of the lens from the camera, and a second that allows moving the whole shebangbellows, camera, and allcloser or farther away from the subject. That allows it to function as a focusing rail. Once youve moved the lens out far enough to achieve the magnification you want, you can then lock the camera/bellows distance and slide the whole components back and forth to achieve sharpest focus. Be careful when attaching bellows or extension tubes to your camera to avoid damaging your lens mount or camera body. Even if a bellows is nominally compatible, you may have to attach an extension tube to the camera body first to allow the mechanism to clear projecting parts of the camera. Of course, bellows, extension tubes, and similar attachments can be expensive, so you wont want to make the investment unless you do a lot of close-up photography. Another downside is that the farther you move the lens from the sensor, the more exposure required. You can easily lose 2 or 3 f-stops (or much more) when you start adding extension.
Figure 8.9 Selective focus is a good way to emphasize the subjects in the foreground.
Selecting an ISO Speed
By now youre aware that the lower the ISO setting on your digital camera, the less noise youll get, and usually the better the quality. But low ISO settings and action photography dont mix well. If youre trying to freeze action, youll want to use the highest shutter speed possible, while retaining a small enough f-stop to ensure that everything you want to be in focus will be in focus. When available light isnt especially available, the solution may be to increase your dSLRs ISO setting, as was done for the shot of the amusement park ride in Figure 8.10. Fortunately, ISO speeds are another area in which digital SLRs often excel. Because of their larger sensors, a dSLR can usually function agreeably at higher ISO settings without introducing too much noise (see Chapter 2 for a longer discussion of this relationship). Many digital SLRs produce good results at ISO 800, and may still offer acceptable images at ISO 1600 or above. Youll get betterlooking pictures than point-andshoot cameras at ISO 400 or ISO 800, or, possibly, even better than film cameras using ISO 800 or faster emulsions. Your digital camera may automatically set an appropriate ISO for you, bumping the value up and down even while youre shooting to provide the best compromise between sensitivity and image quality. Or, you can set ISO manually. The easiest way to settle on an ISO rating is to measure (or estimate) the amount of illumination in the venue where youll be working, and figure some typical exposures (even though your cameras autoexposure mechanism will be doing the actual calculation for you once youre shooting). Outdoors, the ancient Sunny 16 rule works just fine. In bright sunlight, the reciprocal of an ISO rating will usually equal the shutter speed called for at an f-stop of f16. The numbers are rounded to the nearest traditional shutter speed to make the calculation easier. So, at f16, you can use a shutter speed of 1/100th1/125th second at ISO 100; 1/2001/250th second with an ISO rating of 200; 1/4001/500th second at ISO 400; and perhaps up to 1/1000th second at ISO 800. Select the ISO setting that gives you the shutter speed you want to work with. If the day is slightly cloudy (or really cloudy), estimate the exposure as one-half or one-quarter of what youd get with Sunny 16.
Figure 8.10 You dont have to stop shooting action when the sun sets: just boost your ISO setting.
Indoors, the situation is dimmer, but youll find that most venues are illuminated brightly enough to allow an exposure of f4 at 1/125th second at ISO 800. For a faster shutter speed, youll need either a higher ISO setting or a brighter venue. In modern facilities, you probably will have more light to work with, but its always safe to use a worst-case scenario for your preevent estimates. Dont forget to set your white balance correctly for your indoor location. If one of your cameras manual choices doesnt produce optimal results, consider running through your systems custom white balance routine to create an especially tailored balance for your venue.
Electronic Flashor Not?
One of the chief benefits of high-speed films in the film era, and higher ISO ratings in the digital age, is the ability to use higher, action-freezing shutter speeds without resorting to supplemental illumination such as electronic flash. Flash-less action photography has led to more realistic, more exciting images without much loss in quality. Still, there is a place for electronic flash in the action arena, and there are ways to get around the drawbacks of using strobe for sports and other fast-moving subjects. In years past, Ive watched pros string radio-controlled electronic flash units into every nook and cranny at NCAA basketball games just to provide ample illumination for high-speed photography without the deadly direct flash look. Today, sophisticated electronic flash units with through-the-lens metering and multiple flash heads are available to dSLR photographers with relatively modest budgets. Should you consider flash, or not? Electronic flash has some significant advantages. The brief duration of the flash can freeze fast action even more effectively than your dSLRs fleetest shutter speed, as you can see in Figure 8.11. High-powered flash can illuminate action venues that are too dim for photography by available light, even using your cameras highest ISO setting. Indeed, youll usually get much better results at ISO 400 and f8 with flash than you will at ISO 3200 and f2.8 without.
Figure 8.11 Electronic flash can freeze the fastest action.
Freezing a drop of water
Catching a drop of water in mid-air is easier than you think. The illustration was made using a few drips of water squeezed out of a turkey baster into a wine glass. I placed an off-camera electronic flash to the right of the shot and pressed the shutter release just after squeezing some water out of the baster. The ultra-brief duration of the electronic flash froze the bouncing water drops in mid-air, and a little colored gel over the flash head added some color. No special triggering mechanism was used: thanks to the economy of digital photography, all I had to do was take a dozen or so shots until I lucked into one that looked interesting.
As I noted, point-and-shoot digital cameras dont have this problem. Everything is more or less in focus from a few feet out to infinity, so depth-of-field isnt a factor unless youre taking closeup pictures. In addition, the optical viewfinders of a point-and-shoot camera dont show depthof-field at all, and while the digital LCD of such cameras may indicate what portions of the image are in focus, theyre usually too small to see the exact planes of focus clearly.
Chapter 9 Composition and dSLRs
Figure 9.1 At the actual taking aperture, the birds behind this mother goose are relatively sharp and obtrusive.
Figure 9.2 But through the viewfinder they looked blurry and out of focus. Using the depth-of-field preview would have helped.
Digital SLRs, with their longer lenses, introduce all the depth-of-field considerations described previously. How do you determine whether or not the areas you want to be in focus are in focus, and the parts of the image that you want to be blurry are, in fact, blurry? Experienced photographers allow their past shooting results to guide them somewhat; they know, roughly, what is going to be sharp and what is going to be out of focus. However, experienced photographers are also likely to use their dSLRs depth-of-field preview button to get an idea of what depth-of-field is going to be ahead of time. Or, they make take a quick glance at the colorcoded depth-of-field scale printed on the barrels of many older lenses. What? Youve never used this control? If youre new to dSLR photography, you might have to look in your manual to find the depth-of-field preview button. Its usually located somewhere near the lens mount. When you hold this button down, the lens stops down to the current taking aperture and provides you with a more-or-less accurate view of your effective depth-offield. The accuracy of this view can be affected by the type of focusing screen used in your camera, how well you can see the image (which will be darker and less easy to view when the lens aperture is partially closed), and whether or not youve adjusted the diopter setting of your eyepiece to provide a sharp, clear view of the focus screen.
Despite my final caveat, image stabilization can be used effectively for sports photography, particularly if youre careful to catch peak moments. Figures 10.10 and 10.11 show two different shots of a base runner diving back to first base, both taken with 400mm long lenses at about 1/500th second. In both pictures, subject motion isnt really a problem. The sliding base runner has already skidded to a halt, and the first basewoman has caught the ball and prepares to make the tag (too late), in Figure 10.10, or is waiting for the ball to arrive (in Figure 10.11). The 1/500th second shutter speed was sufficient to stop the action in either case.
Figure 10.10 No vibration reduction and a long lens lead to visible camera shake, even at 1/500th second.
Figure 10.11 The same shutter speed works fine with image stabilization at work.
However, camera shake proved to be the undoing in the first example, but image stabilization saved the day in the second photo.
How It Works
There are several ways of achieving image stabilization. Some electronic video cameras use an electronic form of IS by capturing an image thats slightly larger than the final frame and shifting the pixels in the proper direction to counter the motion of the camera; then saving the displaced pixels as the final image for that frame, repeating the process many times each second. This works, but is not the ideal method. Optical image stabilization is better. Gyros in photographic equipment sense the slight movements of the camera and lens, and use prisms or adjustments in several floating lens elements to compensate. The glass can be shifted along the optical axis to cancel undesired lens movement and vibration. Minolta pioneered a system built into the camera, rather than the lens, in which the sensor is moved in response to camera motion. The advantage of this method is that you dont have to purchase a special lens that incorporates IS; Minoltas anti-shake technology is in the camera and therefore works with (almost) every lens you use. (Minoltas system isnt compatible with every lens it produces.) If you like working with lots of different lenses and dont want to purchase an array of IS-enabled optics, this approach has its advantages. I mentioned earlier that image stabilization can become confused by intentional panning of the camera, and produce inferior results. Some lenses, including several models from Canon, incorporate two IS modes, including a special one for panned images.
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....8 Nikkor....9 Nikon ...10 ...10 I Nikkor - AI (pre - AI) 1959 - 1976 ..13 Nikkor 1000 mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount..16 Nikkor-O 21 mmf/4... 20 Nikkor 28 mm f/3.5... 22 Nikkor 35 mm f/2.8... 23 Nikkor 50 mm f/2.... 24 Nikkor 58 mm f/1.4... 25 Nikkor 105 mm f/2.5... 26 Nikkor 105 mmf/4 Preset...27 Nikkor 135 mm f/3.5... 28 Nikkor 35-85 mm f/2.8... 29 Nikkor 85-250 mm f/4-4.5...30 Nikkor 55 mm f/3.5 Micro Preset...32 Nikkor 8 mm f/8 Fisheye....33 Nikkor 35 mm f/3.5 PC...34 Nikkor 50 mm f/1.4...35 Nikkor 55 mm f/3.5 Micro Compensating...36 Nikkor 200 mm f/4...37 Nikkor 43-86 mm f/3.5... 38 Nikkor 200 - 600 mm f/9.5-10.5...39 Nikkor 200 mm f/5.6 Medical..40 Nikkor 500 mm f/5 Mirror..41 Nikkor 55 mm f/3.5 Micro...42 Nikkor 85 mm f/1.8....43 Nikkor 300 mm f/4.5... 44 Nikkor 600 mm f/5.6, 800mm f/8, 1200mm f/11..45 Nikkor 35 mm f/2...47 Nikkor 55 mm f/1.2....48 Nikkor 135 mm f/2.8...49 Nikkor 50-300 mm f/4.5...50 Nikkor 1000 mm f/11 Mirror...51 Nikkor 7.5mm f/5.6 Fisheye...52 Nikkor 24 mm f/2.8....53 Nikkor 6 mm f/2.8 Fisheye...54 Nikkor 10 mmf/5.6 OP Fisheye...55 Nikkor 20 mm f/3.5...56 Nikkor 45 mm f/2.8 GN...57 Nikkor 105 mmf/4 Bellows...58 Nikkor 500 mm f/8 Mirror...59 Nikkor 2000 mm f/11 Mirror..60 "" 3
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. . 60x90/16. 12,25. 22.03. 0 4. 1000 . 1359 . : 141009,. ,. ,. 17/2. (095) 586-34-00. E-mail: email@example.com
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Nikkor 8 mm f/2.8Fisheye...61 Nikkor 35 mm f/1.4...62 Nikkor 180 mm f/2.8...63 Nikkor 80-200 mm f/4.5..64 Nikkor 28 mm f/2....65 Nikkor 6 mm f/5.6 Fisheye...66 Nikkor 15 mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide..68 Nikkor 16 mm f/3.5 Fisheye..69 Nikkor 400 mm f/5.6....70 Nikkor 18 mm f/4....71 Nikkor 20 mm f/4....72 Nikkor 28 mm f/2.8...73 Nikkor 28 mm f/4 PC...74 Nikkor 35 mm f/2.8 PC...75 Nikkor 105 mm f/4 Micro...76 Nikkor 28-45 mm f/4.5...77 Nikkor 180 - 600 mm f/8 ED..78 Nikkor 360-1200 mm f/11 ED...79 Nikkor 300 mm f/2.8 ED..80 Nikkor 300 mm f/4.5 ED, 400 mm f/5.6 ED, 600 mm f/5.6 ED, 800 mm f/8 ED u 1200 mm f/11 ED...81 Nikkor 13 mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide...82 Nikkor 135 mm f/2...83 Nikon TC-1...84 Nikon TC-2...85 II Nikkor Ai AI'd. 1977-1982 ..86 Nikkor 6mm f/2.8 Fisheye..88 Nikkor 8mm f/2.8 Fisheye...89 Nikkor 15mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide...90 Nikkor 18mm f/4...91 Nikkor 20mm f/4...92 Nikkor 24mm f/2.8....93 Nikkor 28mm f/2...94 Nikkor 28mm f/2.8...95 Nikkor 28mm f/3.5...96 Nikkor 35mm f/1.4...97 Nikkor 35mm f/2...98 Nikkor 35mm f/2.8...99 Nikkor 50mm f/1.4....100 Nikkor 50mm f/2....101 Nikkor 55mm f/3.5 Micro...103 Nikkor 105mm f/2.5...104 Nikkor 105mm f/4 Micro...105 Nikkor 135mm f/2...106 Nikkor 135mm f/2.8...107 Nikkor 135mm f/3.5.... 108 Nikkor 180mm f/2.8..."''
Nikkor 200 mm f/4....110 Nikkor 300 mm f/4.5...111 Nikkor 400 mm f/5.6 ED....112 Nikkor 28 - 45 mm f/4.5... 113 Nikkor 43 - 86 mm f/3.5...114 Nikkor 80 - 200 mm f/4.5....115 Nikkor 50 - 300 mm f/4.5....116 Nikkor 180 - 600mm f/8 ED.... 117 Nikkor 360 - 1200 mm f/11 ED...118 Nikkor 85 mm f/2.....119 Nikkor 400 mm f/3.5 EDIF...120 Nikkor 1000mm f/11.... 121 Nikkor 200 - 600mm f/9.5 ED...122 Nikon TC-200... 123 Nikon TG-300...124 Nikkor 24 mm f/2....125 Nikkor 50 mm f/1.8....126 Nikkor 58 mm f/1.2 Noct....127 Nikkor 300 mm f/2.8 EDIF...128 Nikkor 600 mm f/5.6 EDIF...129 Nikkor 35 - 70 mm f/3.5...130 Nikkor 50-300 mm f/4.5 ED...131 Nikkor 16 mm f/3.5....132 Nikkor 20 mm f/3.5....133 Nikkor 50 mm f/1.2....134 Nikkor 300 mm f/4.5 EDIF....135 Nikkor 600 mm f/4 EDIF....136 Nikkor 800 mm f/8 EDIF...137 Nikon TC-14.....138 - Nikkor Series E...139 Nikkor 35 mm f/2.5 Series E... 140 Nikkor 50 mm f/1.8 Series E...141 Nikkor 100 mm f/2.8 Series E... 142 Nikkor 15 mm f/3.5 Ultra-Wide....143 Nikkor 200 mm f/2 EDIF...144 Nikkor 25-50 mm f/4....145 Nikkor 28 mm f/2.8 Series E...146 Nikkor 75-150 mm f/3.5Series E...147 Nikkor 28 mm f/3.5 PC....148 Nikkor 120 mm f/4 IF Medical...149 Nikkor 200 mm f/4 Micro IF....150 Nikkor 135 mm f/2.8 E.... 151 III : Nikkor AIs 1982-1986 ...152 Nikkor 16mm f/2.8 Fisheye... 156 Nikkor 18mm f/3.5.... 157 Nikkor 55mm f/2.8 Micro...158 Nikkor 85mm f/1.4.... 159 "" 5
Nikkor 105 mm f/1.8.... 160 Nikkor l80 mm f/2.8ED... 161 Nikkor 400 mm f/5.6 EDIF... 162 Nikkor 1200 mm f/11 EDIF... 163 Nikkor 80-200 mm f/4.... 164 Nikkor 36-72 mm f/3.5 Series E... 165 Nikkor 70-210 mmf/4 Series E... 166 Nikkor 50 mm f/1.8N.... 167 Nikkor 80 mm f/2.8AF... 168 Nikkor 200 mm f/3.5 EDIFAF... 169 Nikkor 80 - 200 mm f/2.8 ED... 170 Nikkor 105 mm f/2.8 Micro... 171 Nikkor 300 mm f/2 EDIF... 172 Nikkor 28-50 mm f/3.5.... 173 Nikkor 35 - 105 mm f/3.5-4.5.... 174 Nikkor 50 - 135 mm f/3.5... 175 Nikkor 100 - 300 mm f/5.6... 176 Nikkor 200-400 mmf/4 ED... 177 Nikkor 500 mm f/8N Mirror.... 178 Nikon TC-14A... 179 Nikkor 20 mm f/2.8.... 180 Nikkor 35-70 mm J/3.3-4.5... 181 Nikkor 35-135 mm f/3.5-4.5... 182 Nikkor 400 mm f/2.8 EDIF... 183 Nikkor 800 mm f/5.6 EDIF... 184 Nikkor 28-85 mm f/3.5-4.5... 185 Nikkor 35-200 mm f/3.5-4.5...186
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, Nikkor : , 1500 . . , , . , . . , , , , 10 ""
. , 2-. , . , . ( ) . , , , . , , . , ( ). , , . , , 4 - 5 %. , . , . , , 1 %. . . Nikkor , . "" - , Nikkoro-, , "" . , , . - . 1970. . NIC (Nikon Integrated Coating). Nikkor, NIC, , . " " , NIC SMC ( Pentax). , SMC Pentax 1974. , SIC (Super Integrated Coating) NIC. ""
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I Nikkor - AI (pre - AI) 1959 -1976.
Nikkor non - AI . , non-AI (AI- Automaic Indexing), Aid, AI, AIs, , . , , Nikon F TTL, , . . , . non-AI -1 ? non-AI () . " ". , , . , , . non-AI . Nikkormat FTN. , , non-AI, , : Nikkormat FTN; EL; FT2; ELW, Photomic FTN Nikon F Photomic DP-1; S (DP 2); SB (DP-3) Nikon F2. , , non-AI, 18 , Nikkor. . , , , . , , . , , , . : non-AI pre-Al I, , . . non-automatic Indexing Coupling ( ), " ". , I, , pre-AL -I Ais, I , . 14 ""
135mm f/4 Short Mount, 180mm f/2.5 Short Mount, 250mm f/4 Short Mount 350mm f/4.5 Short Mount 500mm f/5 Short Mount, 1000mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount H , , , , - . Nikon F , , . Nippon Kogaku,. SLR-. , BR-1 N-F. Nikkor 135mm f/4 Short Mount BR-1, - N-F. , , Short Mount, 1955 -1958: 135mm f/4 Short Mount, 180mm f/2.5 Short Mount, 250mm f/4 Short Mount 350mm f/4.5 Short Mount 500mm f/5 Short Mount, 1000mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount "Short Mount", , . . . Pre-set (). , , . ,. ,
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1000mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount 1959., Nikon, , . , "" . ( 1965 , , , ) .
SLR- F1 . ? : - ; - non-AI, , " " -
" " . ; - , 15 , , , . - , ( 1964.), - (, ). (. 1-2) Mirotar f-5.6, Contarex. " " . , , - -AI, , . - , ; ADR (Aperture Direct Readout) - - , , . - , . , "" , Nikkor-. , ( !) , . Nikon F/F2. , : "Reflex - Nikkor f=1000mm 1:6.3" 18,144. 1000mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount, Nikon F, 60. F 631000, , 631056.
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Nikkor- TICK Mark ( ): 3.5cm f/2.8, 5cm f/2, 10.5cm f/2.5, 13.5cm f/3.5. "TICK Mark" - , . , . , TICK Mark - , Nikon. TICK Mark , : - , . , TICK Mark (, ). . Bokeh ( ). , , . , , . R, . , , , TICK Mark, 2- : 2.1/4 35/3.5 PC.
Unus Bini Tres Quattuor
P H S O
Pente Hex Septem Octo
Novem Decern 1-2
: 1. - , : Micro, Fisheye, ., . 2. , , Nikkor- UD 20mmf/3.5, . 3. "Nikkor" , : Nikkor - S-C Auto 1:1.4 f= 50. : 7- . 1974. , , . , - . , , . 18 "". "" 19
, - , , ), : ( ). , 21mm f/4 28mm f/3.5 35mm f/2.8 50mm f/2 58mm f/1.4 105mm f/2.5 105mm f/4 , Preset 135mm f/3.5 35-85mm f/2.8 85-250mm f/4-4.5 . . 1959., Nikkor-O 21mm f/4 , , - 35 SLR-. Canonflex 35mm! , , Biogon 21 mm/4.5 Contarex, . Nikkor-O 21mm f/4, Nikkor 50mmf/2 , 5cmf/2. , . , /: 6/6 : 22. : 0.3 Nikkor-O 21mm f/4 (Mirror Lock-Up Lens with tab). : 52 Nikon F 1959. . : HN-2 F, " " , TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y - 25,4; TC-14B: N - f/4 TC-16A: N f/16; - ; - 52 ; - 81 ; - 135. , , . . , , , , . F F2. (Nikkor-0 21mmf/4 Nikon F. 20 "" "" 21
28mm f/3.5 2.8 cm , 35mm f/2.8, , 28 mm f/3.5. . 3.5cm.
- 50; - f/3.5 f/16; - non-AI; - 52 ; - 64; - 220.
- 50; - f/2.8 f/16; - -I; - 52 ; - 62; - 198.
. , , , . 28mm f/3.5, /: 6/6 , . : 22 /: 5/5. : 0.3 : 22 : 52. : 0.3 : HN-2 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-201: Y TC-14A: Y TC-301: N TC-14B: N TC-14A: Y TC-16A: N TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
58mm f/1.4 - , , 50mm f/2 SLR, Nikon. .
- 38 ; - om f/2 f/16; - -I; - 52 ; - 39; - 204.
- 64 ; - f/1.4 f/16; - -I; - 52 ; - 34; - 363.
5.8cm. - , . - , Second Hand. /: 7/6 . f-2, : 16. f-5.6, . : 0.6 . , , f-8. : 52 : HN-7 , , , , TC-201: Y . TC-301: N /: 6/4 TC-14A: Y : 16 TC-14B: N. : 0.6 TC-16A: N : 52 : HN-5 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
105mm f/2.5. , . . , .
105mm f/4 Pre-set , F , .
- 76 ; - f/2.5 f/22; - non-AI; - 52 ; - 19"; - 369.
- 95 ; - om f/4 f/22; - ; - 52 ; - 19"; - 255.
, ( AI, AIs). , , ( ), . Nikon . /: 5/3 : 22. : 1.2 : 52 : HS-4 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, TTL , , Short Mount. Nikon F, . 105mm f/4 Pre-set . /: 5/3 : 32. : N/A : 52 : HN-8 TC-201: N/A TC-301: N/A TC-14A: N/A TC-14B: N/A TC-16A: N/A
35-85mm f/2.8. .
- 89 ; - f/3.5 f/22; - -I; - 52 ; - 15; - 369.
. 105mm f/2.5, , . f-32, . - 135 , 105. /: 4/3 : 32. : 1.5 : 52 : HS-4 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
, , . 1959. 1961 (?). 82 . , . , , .
85-250mm f/4-4.5. , oc , -. , , 2. 1959.
. , . 2.3., , , .
- 508 ; - om f/4 f/16; - non-AI; - 95 ; - 24 8' - 1984.
, , , Zoomar 36-82mm f/2.8 Exakta, . Voigtlander 1959. , 2000. 85 , Nikkor 8.5 - 25 cm f/4-4.5 250mm f/4-4.5 16000 -. /: 16/9. : 16. - (. : 4.0 , : 80 .) : - . , TC-201: N TC-301: Y , TC-14A: N . Nikon , TC-14B: Y - TC-16A: N f/4-4.5. , , ( ). . 1959 , 595$ , . , . , , . , . 1961. , Nikkor 85-250mm f/4-4.5. . 30 "" "" 31
55mmf/3.5 Micro Preset
8m f/8 Fisheye 35mm f/3.5 PC 50mm f/1.4 55mm f/3.5 Micro Compensating 200mm f/4 43-86mm f/3.- 600mm f/9.5-10.5 200mm f/5.6 Medical 500mm f/5 Mirror 8mm f/8 Fisheye - ; . 180 - om f/3.4 f/22 . " " , - - 52 ; , - 43; - 326. -
. , , . 1961. - , 1962. 8mm f/8 Fisheye - 55mm f/3.5 Micro Pre-set. . , . , 1:1 20.7. . . Nikkor. /: 5/4 . : 32 , "" , . : 0.24 . , " " : 52 , : HN-3 ( ). , , TC-201: Y , 160 ,. 20 TC-301: N. , TC-14A: Y . TC-14B: N 8mm f/8 Fisheye f-8 f-22. TC-16A: N , , , . L1A, Y48, Y52, 057, R60, 0 . Skylight L1A.
200mm f/5.6 Medical. TL 500mm f/5 Mirror. , , Nikon SLR. , c .
- 197 ; - f/5.6 f/45; - ; - 38 ; - 10 - 669.
- 330 ; - f/5 ; - ; - 122 ; - 39 ; - 4 - 1,673.
, , , , . , (4 4,5.). , 1 39. 3:, . 11, . , . , , . , 200mm f/5.6 Medical, LA-1 (, ), LD-1 (). . 1972. , , 1972 1984. , Nikkor 120mm f/4 Medical, .
, . 39 . UV - L39, : Y52, 056, R60, ND ( ). L39 ND. - , , , ND . 500mm f/5 Mirror , , "" 15,2 , . /: 5/4 : 5. : 15 : 39 : IN TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
1964 55mm f/3.5 Micro, 85mm f/1.8, 300mm f/4.5, 600mm f/5.6, 800m f/8, 1200mm f/11 55mm f/3.5 Micro 55mm f/3.5 Micro Compensating, . 55mm f/3.5 Micro " ", , , , . , . - . 1:2. 2 Ring, , 1:1. 55mm f/3.5 Micro, , , . , 1:1. . , . , . /: 5/4 : 32. : 0.24 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
85 f/1.8. , , . , , - , .
- 102 ; - f/1.8 f/22; - -I; - 38 ; - 23 - 425.
, , . , 1977. , , AI AIs. /: 6/4 : 22. : 1.0 : 52 : HN-7 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
300mm f/4.5 300 Nikkor.
- 20.3 - om f-4.5 f-22; - -I, - 72, - 6, - 992.
, , . , , , . , . . . 1977., AI. /: 6/5 : 22. : 4.0 : 72 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
600mm f/5-6, 800mm f/8, 1200mm f/11. -. . , CU-1, . , CU-1 : 600 , 800, 1200. CU-1 f-4.5 f-22. f/64, 800 1200. . , , (. 1-3), . CU1, , . , . , , . , . CU-1 , AU-1. CU-1, 52. , . 1966., - 400mm f/4.5. , , , . 1975. 600mm f/5.6, 800mm f/8 1200mm f/11 ED (Extra-low Dispersion - ). , , . . , 1978., EDIF (ED, Internal Focusing - ), ED . Second Hand ED , , -ED .
, GU-1 (AU-1)
, c C U - 1 (AU-1)
1965. 35mm f/2, 55mm f/1.2 135mm f/2.- 300mm f/4.5 1000mm f/11 Mirror 35mm f/2 , Nikon, . . - 64 ; - om f/2 f/16; - non-AI; - 52 ; - 62 - 284. . . " ",. /: 8/6 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
55mm f/1.2. Nikkor- SLR. - .
135mm f/2.8 . :
- 64 ; - f/1.2 f/16 - non-AI; - 52 ; - 36 - 420.
- 108 ; - f/2.8 f/22; - -I; - 52 ; - 15 - 621.
, . . . 0.6. , , "" . . . Second Hand. /: 7/5 : 16. : 0.6 : 52 : HR-2 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
135mm f/2.8 , f-4, . . : 1977. , , 135mm f/2.8, , . - . 135mm f/2.8 , . /: 5/4 : 32. : 1.3 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
50-300 f/4.5 15 . . 6- -, , ,
1000mm f/11 Mirror Nikon, SLR. (. 500mm f/5). 1000mm f/6.3 Mirror Short Mount.
- 318 ; - f/4.5 f/22 - AI; - 95 ; - 25 4'
- 248 ; - f/11; - - 108 ; - 2.3; - 1,9.
, , , , . , , 300 ( ED !). 300, . 2- , - , - ( - ). . 2,6 , , . , 360 . , . . , , .
, 500mm f/5, . 7.9. , . 1000mm f/11 Mirror , . , Nikkor 8 mm f/8 Fisheye, , L39, Y48, 056 R60. , 1974., . 39 . , ( , 1976., , . , : -. , 39. , ! , : 4- , 056, ( ) 2 (82), B2 (82 ) L37C (UV).
1967. 7.5mmf/5.6 Fisheye, 24mm f/2.8
24mm f/2.8 .
7.5mm f/5.6 Fisheye. 8mm f/8 Fisheye. . . . 7.5mm f/5.6 Fisheye , 8mm f/8 Fisheye , 180 Nikkor 8mm f/8 . /: 9/6 : 22. : - : -: N/A TC-201: N TC-301: N TC-14A: N TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
- 70 ; - f/2.8 f/16; - non-AI; - 52; - 84; - 289.
, CRC (Close Range Correction) ( ). - . . . . CRC, . , , . . , . , f-8. 24mm f/2.8 . , . . - .
10mm f/5.6 OP Fisheye (Orthographic Projection). , . Fisheye, 20mm f/3.5, 45mm f/2.8 GN, 105mm f/4 Bellows, 500mm f/8 Mirror, 2000mm . f/11 Mirror , . 6mm f/2.8 Fisheye 1 ( ) 0 ( ). 1969. , : 6mm f/2.8 Fisheye, 10mm f/5.6 OP - 171 MM; - 220; - omf-2.8 f-22; - non-AI; - 235 - 5,2. - 108 ; - 180; - f/5.6 f/22; - ; - 400.
1969., . 220" , , . " " , . 6mm f/2.8 Fisheye (L1A, Y48, Y52, 056, R60, ). , . , " " SLR , . ce 6mm f/2.8 . /: 12/9 : 22. : 0.75 : IN : N/A TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, DF-1 , -160 10mm f/5.6 OP Fisheye , 7.5mm f/5.6 Fisheye 8mm f/8 Fisheye He , , . /: 9/6 : 22. : FIX : IN : N/A TC-201: N TC-301: N TC-14A: N TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
20mm f/3.5 , , . :
45 f/2.8 GN GN - ). :
- 70 ; - f/3.5 f/22; - -I; - 72 ; - 83; - 391.
- 20 ; - f/2.8 f/32; - -I; - 52 ; - 42; - 142.
, 20mm f/3.5 , ,. TTL . , 21mm f/4, ( ), , , . , 20mm f/3.5 , ( ). , . 20mm f/3.5 "Retrofocus" "Retrofocus" , 20mm f/3.5 .
45mm f/2.8 GN , . F/F2. , TTL - . ( , 180 ) . . , . , . , (f32). . 1977. AI , AI'd .
/: 11/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HK-6 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
/: 4/3 : 32. : 0.8 : 52 : HN-4 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
105mm f/4 Bellows. . , Short Mount 105. , -4 -5, .
500 f/8 Mirror . 500mm f/5 (330x122 , 1,673.), :
, 35mm f/1.4 24mm f/2.8, 28mm f/2 CRC , . 28mm f/2 , NIC. , . 305 , , , , , ,. . . 28mm f/2 , , AI. /: 9/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
6mm f/5.6 Fisheye. , 7.5mm, 8mm, 10mm OP, , , , 160.
, , Nikon Integrated Coating - 43 ; (NI)- , - om f/5.6 f/22 - , NIC. - - , , , . 89 ; . - 220; , , , 4-5%, - 431. , - - . , , . ,. , . 6mm f/5.6 Fisheye . . 1/4 , , 60 , . , , - Fisheye, . , , Second Hand. /: 9/6. : 22 . . : -, , : - . : N/A 0,2-0,5%, . TC-201: Y TC-301: N , , TC-14A: Y . TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y , : 15m f/5.6 Ultra -Wide, 16mm f/3.5 Fisheye, 400mm f/5.6
15mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide - , . L1A, Y48, 056, R60. - , .
16mm f/3.5 Fisheye. Fisheyc. 170, ( , ), 24x36 ,., .
- 69 ; - om f/5.6 f/22 - -I; - 110; - 561.
- 64 ; - f/3.5 f/22; - -AI; - 170; - 329.
15mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide , ( , , ). , - . . , - ( 110!). 15mm f/5.6 Ultra -Wide top-, 100% , . , , . /: 15/12 : 22. : 0.3 : IN : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
L1A, Y48, 056, R60. 16mm f/3.5 Fisheye . , , . - . , , , . , , , , " ". , . . , . /: 8/5 : 22. : 0.3 : IN : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
400mm f/5.6. , .
1974. : 18mm f/4, 20mm f/4, 28mm f/2.8, 28mm f/4 PC, 35mm f/2.8 PC, 105mm f/4 Micro, 28-45mm f/4.5,180-600mm f/8 ED, 360 -1200mm f/11 ED 18mm f/4- - -
- 267 ; - f/5.6 f/32 - -I; - 72 ; - 5; - 1,4.
. - 58 ; - om f/4 f/22; - -I; - 86 ; - 100; - 315.
, 360. , . 400mm f/5.6 ED. - . , , ED, , , " ". /: 5/3 : 32. : 5.0 : 72 : IN TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
Fisheye . , , , Fisheye , , - . 18mm f/4, , . HN-15. , . CRC , 300. /: 13/9 : 22. : 0.3 : 82 : HN-5 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
20mm f/4 . 20mm f/3.5.
28mm f/2.8. 28mm f/2 28mm f/3.5. .
- 48 ; - f/4 f/22; - non-AI; - 52 ; - 94; - 210.
- 53 ; - f/2.8 f/22; - non-AI; - 52 ; - 74; - 241.
. , , . /: 10/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-14 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
300. CRC , AIs - . 28mm f/2.8 - , , . /: 7/7 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-2 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
28mm f/4 PC. (Perspective Control - ). , , 11.
35mm f/2.8 PC , .
- 69 ; - om f/4 f/22 - : - 72 ; - 74; - 400.
- 64 ; - f/2.8 f/32; - ; - 52 ; - 62; - 278.
, . , "" . . , , . . , 1, 1". 10 , 10", 28mm f/4 PC 84, , 24mm. 11 . , 8. , . , , , , . , . , , . , .
, 74. , , .
/: 8/7 : 32. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
105mm f/4 Micro. - , 55mm f/3.5 Micro 105mm f/4 Bellows. 229 , 1:2. 105mm f/4 Micro - .
28-45mm f/4.5 - Nikon. , , , .
- 104 ; - f/4 f/32 - non-AI; - 52 ; - 23; - 499.
- 91 ; - f/4.5 f/22; - -I; - 72 ; - 74 50; - 439.
. ( 1:2), 170. , 55mm f/3.5 Micro (76 ). , . PN-1 (d = 52.5), 1:1. , .
- , , . . /: 11/7 : 22. : 0.6 : 72 : HN-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
180-600mm f/8 ED. -, . .
360-1200mm f/11 ED. - - -
- 404 ; - f/8 f/32 - -I; - 95 ; - 13 4" - 3,5.
- 704 ; - om f/11 f/32; - -AI; - 122 ; - 6,- 7,1.
. 180 - 600mm f/8 ED ED (Extra-low-Dispersion). - ED . , , , , . ED- . ED , " ", , , . ED , . , 180mm f/2.8 (1970.) 400mm f/5.6 (1973.), ED-, . ED, 180 - 600mm f/8 ED , , . 180mm 1200mm ED . -. ED- Nikkor .
2000mm f/11 (17,3.) , , , , . 1984. 7800 $. . 6,1. /: 20/12 : 32. : 6.0 : 122 : HN-17 TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
1975 300mm f/2.8 ED, 300mm f/4.5ED, 400mm f/5.6 ED, 600mm f/5.6 ED, 800mm f/8 ED, 1200m f/11 ED 300mm f/2.8 ED. , 1975.
300mm f/4.5 ED - 300mm f/4.5. - ED, 57. . , . . 300mm f/4.5 ED . Second Hand, /, -ED -.
- 251 ; 400m f/5.6 ED - , 400mm f/5.6, - f/2.8 f/32 . - - ED . - 122 ; 600mm f/5.6 ED, 800mm f/8 ED 1200mm f/11 ED - 8,1 ; ED. - 2,6. - CU-1 AU-1. , ,. , . . , , 300mm f/2.8 EdB 600mm f/5.6 91 , 800mm f/8 . , 590. 1200mm f/11 635. . . - . . - . , , . ED - , 300mm f/2.8 ED - Nikkor- Second Hand. /: 8/6 : 22. : 4.0 : 122 : IN TC-201: N 6/4.N IN N Y Y Y TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y 400 5/TC-16A: Y Y N IN N Y N 5.0 72
, ? ( II) 8mm f/2.8 Fisheye
. ,. 15mm f/5.6 Ultra-Wide
- 139 ; - f/2.8 f/22 - AI; - 123 ; - 180; - 1100.
- 69 ; - om f/5.6 f/22; - AI; - 110; - 561.
. . . , 8/3,5 , Nikon Ai. /: 10/8 : 22. : 0.3 : IN : N/A TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
. , , . /: 15/12 : 22. : 0.3 : IN : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 18mm f/4
- 58 ; - om f/4 f/22 - AI; - 82 ; - 100; - 315.
- 48 ; - om f/4 f/22; - AI; - 52 ; - 94; - 210.
. , 15/2,8 20, . 15 , 20. /: 13/9 : 22. : 0.3 : 82 : HS-4 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
. , "". /: 10/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-14 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 24mm f/2.8
- 70 ; - f/2.8 f/22 - AI; - 52 ; - 84; - 289.
- 69; - om f/2 f/22; - AI; - 52 ; - 74 ; - 346.
. , . /: 9/7 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
. , 28/2,8. /: 9/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, ? ( II) 28mmf/2.8
. ,. 28mm f/3.5
- 53 ; - f/2.8 f/22 - AI; - 52 ; - 74; - 241.
- 50; - f/3.5 f/16; - AI; - 52 ; - 64; - 220.
( ), . /: 7/7 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-2 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, . " ". Second-a. . /: 6/6 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-2 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 35mm f/1.4
- 70 ; - f/1.4 f/16 - AI; - 52 ; - 62; - 414.
- 64 ; - om f/2 f/22; - AI; - 52 ; - 62 - 284.
. , , . Ai-S , - . . /: 9/7 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, 35- , , . /: 5/3 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, ? ( II) 35mm f/2.8
. ,. 50mm f/1.4
- 54,5 ; - f/2.8 f/22 - AI; - 52 ; - 62; - 240.
- 50,5 ; - f/1.4 f/16; - AI; - 52 ; - 46; - 250.
, , . ,. 35/2. : K /: 6/6 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, , . Second-Hand Ai-S, . : K /: 7/5 : 16. : 0.45 : 52 : HN-5 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
. ,. 55mm f/3.5 Micro
- 38 ; - om f/2 f/16 - AI; - 52 ; - 39"; - 204.
- 64,5 ; - f/3.5 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 43; - 240.
. ( $ 60-80) , , . /: 6/4 : 16. : 0.6 : 52 : HS-6 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, 50. /: 5/4 : 32. : 0.24 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 105mm f/2.5
. ,. 105mm f/4 Micro
- 77,5 ; - f/2.5 f/22 - AI; - 52 ; - 23; - 435.
- 104 ; - om f/4 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 23-20; - 500.
, , Nikkor-. /: 5/3 : 22. : 1.0 : 52 : HS-8 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
. , . , Second-Hand Ai-S-. /: 5/3 : 32. : 0.47 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: Y TC-14A: Y TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 135mm f/2
. ,. 135mm f/2.8
- 104 ; - om f/2 f/22; - AI; - 72 ; - 18; - 859.
- 91,5 ; - f/2.8 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 18 - 430.
"". , , , . , Ai-S-. /: 6/4 : 22. : 1.3 : 72 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
. , . /: 4/4 : 22. : 1.5 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, ? ( II) 135mm f/3.5
. ,. 180mm f/2.8
- 89,5 ; - f/3.5 f/32' - AI; - 52 ; - 18; - 400.
- 141 ; - f/2.8 f/32; - AI; - 72 ; - 13; - 880.
, - "". /: 4/4 : 32. : 1.3 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, (!). /: 5/4 : 32. : 1.8 : 72 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, ? ( II) 200mm f/4
. ,. 300mm f/4.5
- 126 ; - om f/4 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 12" - 530.
- 203 ; - om f/4 f/22; - AI; - 72 ; - 8-10 - 1100.
, , . /: 5/5 : 32. : 2.0 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, "". . /: 6/5 : 22. : 4.0 : 72 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 400mm f/5.6 ED
. ,. 28-45mm f/4.5
- 267 ; - om f/5.6 f/32' - AI; - 72 ; - 5; - 1,4.
- 91 ; - f/4.5 f/22; - AI; - 72 ; - - 439.
/: 5/3 : 32. : 5.0 : 72 : IN TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
, Ai-S- 28-50/3,5 . , . /: 11/7 : 22. : 0.6 : 72 : HK-1 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
, ? ( II) 43-86mm f/3.5
. ,. 80-200mm f/4.5
- 81 ; - f/3.5 f/22 - AI; - 52 ; - - 450.
- 162 ; - om f/4.5 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 30 12; - 830.
. , , . /: 11/8 : 22. : 1.2 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
"". . , 80-200 -. . /: 12/9 : 32. : 1.2 : 52 : HN-7 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
- 125 ; - f/3.5 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 31 17; - 520.
, "" - . , . "", . /: 5/5 : 22. : 0.3 : 52 : HR-6 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
" ", 1:5. /: 12/9 : 32. : 1.0 : 52 : HN-21 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
1981. 28mm f/3.5 PC, 120mm f/4 Medical, 200mm f/4 Micro IF, 135mm f/2.8 28mm f/3.5 PC 28mm f/4 PC.
120mm f/4 IF Medical - , , . .
- 69 ; - f/3.5 f/22 - - 72 ; - 74; - 380.
- 150 ; - f/4 f/32; - AI; - 49 ; - 20; - 890.
, . . - . /: 9/8 : 22. : 0.3 : 72 : HN-9 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
120mm f/4 Medical . , : LD-2, LA-1. 1:11 1:1, 1:1,25 2:1. , . 120mm f/4 Medical IF, , . , TTL ( ). , Nikkor 45mm f/2.8 GN. .
200mm f/4 Micro IF . IF, 1:2 ( 0,71.) 1:1 -301 -201.
135mm f/2.8 -. , , .
- 180 ; - f/4 f/32 - AI; - 52 ; - 12 - 802.
- 89 ; - f/2.8 f/32; - AI; - 52 ; - 18"; - 420.
, 360. 710 , , . 200mm f/4 Micro IF -14, , 0 m m f/5.6 /: 9/6 : 22. : 0.71 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: Y TC-14A: Y TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
. /: 4/4 : 32. : 1.5 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, , ? ( II)
III : Nikkor AIs. 1982 -1986.
1982. Nikon , AI AIs. AIs (Automatic Indexing-Shutter) ( ). , -Nikon FA. Nikon . , - -. , S ( ) ( ). Ais: . 1. AI. 2. - , . , AI,. . . 4. , ( AIs). , -. - 5 3-. AI'd, ( Nikkor , Nikkor AI AIs ). (. ) , (, , FA F4.) , AI AIs (.4 ). , . : FA, F-301(N2000), F-501(N2020) F4. "" 153
, () . : , 24mm f/2.8 AI 180, AIs (. , - ), - 90. , , "" , AIs. , ? 200mm f/4 Micro 400mm f/5.6 EDIF "". , , , . , . , AI, 1982 , : , AIs. 16 mm f/2.8 Fisheye; 18 mm f/3.5; 55 mm f/2.8 Micro; 85 mm f/1.4; 105 mm f/1.8; , 1982., , 180 mm f/2.8 ED; 400 mm f/5.6 EDIF; 1200 mm f/11 EDIF; 80 - 200 mm f/4; 36-72 mm f/3.5E; 70-210 mm f/4E; AIs. -AIs, AIs. , AIs. . ( ) ADR (Aperture Direct Readout - ) . , ADR - , - - AIs. Nikon Series , , , AIs. (, -), AIs: 6 mm f/2.8Fisheye, 8 mm f/2.8 Fisheye, 13 mm f/5.6, 15 mm f/3.5, 20 mm f/3.5, 24 mm f/2, 24 mm f/2.8, 28 mm f/2, 28 mm f/2.8, 28 mm f/3.5, 35 mm f/1.4, 35 mm f/2, 35 mm f/2.8, 50 mm f/1.2, 50 mmf/1.4, 50 mm f/1.8, 58 mmf/1.2 Noct, 85 mm f/2, 105 mm f/4 Micro, 135 mm f/2, 135 mm f/3.5, 200 mm f/2 EDIF, 200 mm f/4 Micro IF, 300 mm f/2.8 EDIF, 300 mm f/4.5, 300 mm f/4.5 EDIF, 400 mm f/3.5 EDIF, 600 mm f/4 EDIF, 800 mm f/8 EDIF, 25-50 mm f/4, 50-300 mm f/4.5 ED, 180-600 mm f/8 ED AIs, , . , , , , 154 "" ""
S , (: , ).
16mm f/2.8 Fisheye. 16mm f/3.5 Fisheye .
18mm f/3.5 , 18mm f/4 .
- 66; - f/2.8 f/22 - AIs; - 180; - 330.
- 72.5 ; - f/3.5 f/22; - AIs; - 72 ; - 100; - 350.
, . . $600 ,. . /: 8/5 : 22. : 0.30 : 39 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
CRC ( ), 24.9. . /: 11/10 : 22. : 0.25 : 72 : HK-9 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: N
55mm f/2.8 Micro. . , . , .
85mm f/1.4 - -. , .
- 70 ; - f/2.8 f/32 - AIs; - 52 ; - 43"; - 289.
- 72.5; - om f/1.4 f/16; - AIs; - 72 ; - 28 - 621.
55mm f/2.8 Micro 250. , 1:2. -13, 1:1. /: 6/5 : 32. : 0.25 : 52 : HN-3 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
, , . , , , . . 0,85. 85mm f/1.4 - , CRC. , - . /: 7/5 : 16. : 0.85 : 72 : HN-20 TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
105mm f/1.8 - , 85mm f/1.4
180mm f/2.8 ED - 180mm f/2.8 ED -. 180mm f/2.8 ED - , 180mm f/2.8.
- 88.5 ; - f/1.8 f/22 - AIs; - 62 ; - 23; - 581.
- 138 ; - AIs; - 72 ; - 13-40; - 800.
105mm f/1.8 , CRC. , . , . , , Second Hand , . /: 5/5 : 22. : 1.0 : 52 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
180mm f/2.8 , . /: 5/5 : 32. : 1.8 : 72 : IN TC-201: Y TC-301: N TC-14A: Y TC-14B: N TC-16A: Y
400mm f/5.6 EDIF - , , 0 m m f/5.6 ED
1200mm f/11 EDIF , .
- 262 ; - f/5.6 f/3 2; - AIs; - 72 ; - 6; - 1,2.
- 577 ; - om f/11 f/32; - AIs; - 122 ; - 39 ; - 2; - 3,7.
, . - ED. , , , , . , 400mm f/5.6 EDIF - . , , . /: 7/6 : 32. : 4.0 : 72 : IN TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
- ED. ( 127.) (70.) . 360. . /: 9/8 : 32. : 14.0 : 39 : IN TC-201: N TC-301: Y TC-14A: N TC-14B: Y TC-16A: N
80-200mm f/4 , . 80 - 0 m m f/4.5, .
SA-GX200L GX-625 TK 69 UE-46C6500UW KDC-C467FM AR230-2005 TC-WR535 PW50-2002 MS9058E DX-440 Mcintosh MC30 DSC-W330 Blender Aura MDX4600 1050 D ST-100 C747 V11 Mouse Tenkaichi 2 Sans FIL DWD4310 System FAR-2827W SD-254 GPS 90 100 200 Video Upwords 2006 3075 Isdn 1622FX-PRO DCR-TRV340E TL-WN350GD SX4882 Dreamweaver Celestron C8-S ESP 5000 D-JIX 150 S350DL Labyrinthe WI 101 PJ510 DAV-DX250 HP 48GX CTA-1505R S80408KG DC300 Dvdr3300H-02 40CDI GC LA46S81BX 2 5 Review Armani V4 5 CMP6085X Series 18 Teac P-11 MC1761E-M Trac-2003 WD-1223FB HD-5400S Kodak CD82 SP-500 FAX-JX510P DDV9500 Headphones SCC 1501 1510XI AX6bcpro Finepix A340 Cartrek 600 XV-Z15000 CQ-C5400W ETX-90AT Manicure SET GA-8I865gme-775-RH DE6344 D-SJ301 2968 PC Motorola 3300 MZ-60 Wavecom WMO2 TGL 640 50PF9630A TK-862G GV-A500 OFX 8400 CDX-GT929U CLD-990 PS142KB Setter 580EX II 50DSZ644 MW 7848 DX900 495309 ES1mkii Satellite 2430 Dangerous ICF-C705 CVP-65 L62610
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