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Olympus X-A Digital Camera, size: 263 KB
Loading film in to an Olympus XA
User reviews and opinions
|voidsurfer||2:07pm on Tuesday, October 12th, 2010|
|Learning Curve is Straightening Out I purchased the Olympus Digital SLR to replace my point-and-shoot so I could get better quality photographs of my ...|
|hlndr||4:56am on Tuesday, August 31st, 2010|
|Great value system with a decent level of preformance straight ot of the box For some the sensor size and the 3 sensor auto focus. Great value system with a decent level of preformance straight ot of the box For some the sensor size and the 3 sensor auto focus.|
|Manuel_B||9:12am on Thursday, July 22nd, 2010|
|Stop reading reviews and buy this camera. Co... Crisp photos, fits very weill in the hand. Two lens kit is amazing! Great value system with a decent level of preformance straight ot of the box For some the sensor size and the 3 sensor auto focus.|
|DrFunfrock||1:35am on Tuesday, June 22nd, 2010|
|The feature set is very similar to the E-420, but for the extra dough you do get some significant capabilities. I have upgraded to the OLYMPUS Evolt 510 w the 2 lens, kit and i have NOT LOOKED BACK !!|
|marku||10:18pm on Tuesday, June 1st, 2010|
|Anti-Shake system. Also built-in camera Olympus E system, all the core features, including "100% Dedicated Digital Design". Olympus E - 510 though listed time is not long, but very strong competition, many users will be listed with long BinDe K10D and SONY A100.|
|mackayrigava||11:02am on Wednesday, May 12th, 2010|
|Which recently listed on the Olympus E510 (Photos evaluate sample) is used in the production of tens of millions of Matsushita LiveMOS pixel image sen...|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
DESCRIPTION OF CONTROLS
Self-Timer/Battery Check Beeper Rangefinder Window Exposure Counter Shutter Release Rewind Knob/ Camera Back Release Film Winder Dust Barrier Flash Guide Pin Hole Non-Slip Finger Grip Rewind Crank (Side View)
Self-Timer/ Battery Check Lamp Strap Eyelet Viewfinder
Flash Retaining Socket
Aperture Lever Distance Scale Window CdS Light Sensor
ASA Film Speed Lever Focusing Lever
Film Rewind Shaft
Film Chamber Charge Lamp
ASA Film Speed Window
Film Take-Up Spool
Auto Flash Sensor Flashtube Flash Diffuser Window Flash Clamping Screw Battery Chamber
Film Pressure Plate
Rewind Release Button
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Olympus XA is an aperture priority auto-exposure rangefinder camera setting new standards for function and feel, appearance and performance. Please read the following pages carefully and your new camera will provide maximum performance and satisfaction.
DESCRIPTION OF CONTROLS. Page 12 PREPARATION Installing the Batteries. 4 Loading the Film. 56 SIMPLE STEPS FOR TAKING PICTURES Setting the Aperture. 7 Focusing. 8 Releasing the Shutter. 9 Unloading the Film. 10 Self-Timer. 10 Automatic Flash Photography. 1112 PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Aperture and Depth of Field. 1314 Shutter-Speed Priority Photography. 15-16 Backlighting Compensation. 17 Daylight Synchronization. 18 HELPFUL HINTS. 19 CARE AND STORAGE. 20
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS. 2122
Installing the Batteries
If the beeper doesn't signal, the batteries are inserted incorrectly or are exhausted. The batteries will last about one year and must be replaced with two 1.5V silver oxide batteries (SR 44, EPX-76 or equivalent). Do not press the shutter release during battery check operation, or the battery will run down quickly, leaving the shutter opened. Return the lever to the normal position.
1. Insert the batteries correctly. SR 44
(EPX-76, MS-76 or
2. Check the batteries.
Set the control lever to "CHECK". The beeper emits a tone and the check lamp glows brightly.
Loading the Film
1. Open the camera back and insert the film cartridge. (Dust Barrier is in closed position.) 5
Never load the film in direct sunlight.
2. Attach the film end to the take-up spool.
The film end must not stick out of the slot excessively.
3. Start winding the film and close the camera back.
Film perforations must engage with sprocket teeth and the film
must be drawn flat.
4. Open the Dust Barrier.
If the Dust Barrier is not fully
5. Wind and expose two blank shots until the exposure counter shows "1".
The lens should be aimed toward a bright light when shooting.
6. Set the ASA film speed.
opened, the released.
SIMPLE STEPS FOR TAKING PICTURES
Setting the Aperture
Aperture guideline (ASA 100)
(To make full use of aperture control, see pages 13 & 14.)
If the shutter speed needle enters the striped, overexposure warning zone, push the aperture lever downward so that the needle points to "500" (1/ 500 sec) or under. If the needle points to
1. Open the Dust Barrier and set the aperture lever ( mark) to the F-number required. 7
2. Confirm the shutter speed in the viewfinder, aiming at the subject.
(The arrows indicate parallax correction marks.)
"30" (1/30 sec) or under,
be careful not to shake the
3. Looking through the viewfinder, compose and focus.
Out of focus
Turn the focusing lever until the double image in the central rectangle fuses into one. Focusing can also be done with the knurled mount (e.g. when a tripod is in use).
If the subject distance is 0.85 ~ 1 meter (2.8 ~ 3.3 feet), frame the subject in the area under the
2 parallax correction marks. 8
Releasing the Shutter
Take care not to block the lens, flash diffuser window or auto flash sensor.
4. Hold the camera steady and
lightly press the shutter release.
The release requires a minimum of finger pressure, reducing chance of image blur due to camera shake.
Unloading the Film
Set the control lever to "SELF TIMER" and release the shutter.
The beeper emits a tone and the check lamp glows intermittently. The shutter will release after a delay of about 12 sec. The lever also serves as a camera support. To stop the timer midway, return the lever to its normal position.
5. When the film ends, rewind and remove it.
Close the Dust Barrier, depress the rewind release button and rewind the film. When the crank turns freely, open the camera back and remove the film in the shade.
Automatic Flash Photography (Only the Electronic Flash A11 can be used.)
1. Set the ASA film speed.
If the ASA speed of the film to be used is close to "100" or "400", use the nearest setting. (ASA or 125 "100").
2. Connect the flash unit to the camera.
1.5V AA battery Insert the guide pin into the guide pin hole and turn the clamping
After connecting, do not twist
ft.) at ASA 100, 5m (16.4 ft.) at ASA 400.
The charge lamp pops up and the
A11 turns on automatically.
3. Set the aperture lever to"Flash". 4. When the charge lamp glows, you are ready to fire.
Do not move the lever once it
has been set for auto flash, or in-
The flash setting has been designed to require a stronger pressure
than the aperture setting.
correct flash exposure may result.
5. At the end of flash photography, fully depress the charge lamp to turn the flash unit off.
Aperture and Depth of Field
Depth of field is the area of acceptable sharpness in front of and behind the subject in focus. The larger the F-number used (from F2.8
to F22), the deeper the depth of field. On the contrary, the smaller the F-number (from F22 to F2.8), the shallower this zone of acceptable sharpness.
The table on the opposite page
shows that when the camera-tosubject distance is 1m, the depth
Making use of "out of focus" background or foreground effects
of field at F4 ranges from 0.91m
Depth of field table
(in meters) Circle of least confusion 1/30 mm.
Depth of field table (in feet) Circle of least confusion 1/760 in.
(Camera-to-subject distances with camera's distance scale.)
are indicated on the
Shutter-Speed Priority Photography
When photographing fast moving
subjects, the impression of movement can be emphasized by intentionally allowing the image to be blurred using a stow shutter speed. On the contrary, the movement can be "frozen" using a fast shutter speed.
To emphasize motion
To stop movement
An aperture-priority auto-exposure camera, the XA lets you select the aperture freely, then automatically sets the right shutter speed for correct exposure. The shutter scale is visible in the viewfinder, so you can pick exactly the speed and aperture you like.
Move the aperture lever until the needle points to the shutter speed required.
If the shutter speed needle enters the striped zone, push the aperture lever downward so that the needle points to "500" or under.
If the needle points to "30" or under, hold the camera steady or support with a tripod; or use a faster shutter speed by pushing the lever upward; or use autoflash. 16
Back Lighting Compensation
When shooting against the light
Turn the lever to "BACK LIGHT
+1.5" and release the shutter.
(bright sky, beach, snow, or facing You can get the same effect by a window), the face tends to apreducing the ASA film speed setpear dark on the image. In this ting. case, use the control lever to properly expose the most important area.
In situations like these, compensate for the back lighting by using
the control lever.
mended for daylight fill-in. Set the A11 film speed lever to
"FULL" and the aperture lever to
the F-number (after having set to 18 the flash symbol) obtained from the guide number formula.
Dust Barrier Opening the Dust Barrier fully switches the power ON, and all camera functions are ready to shoot. Closing the Dust Barrier switches the power OFF, and all camera functions are locked.
Electronic feather-touch shutter release The release (pressure conductive polymer) responds to very light pressure. Pressing with a stroke as you normally do with other cameras is not needed. Treat the camera with care! Do not exert stronger pressure on moving
parts than needed (Dust Barrier, levers,
Foolproof electronic circuit
With the Dust Barrier closed and camera func-
tions locked, the foolproof electronic circuit nonetheless allows the camera back to be opened for film loading, unlocking all relat19 ed functions.
knobs). When attaching a tripod, care should be taken not to tighten the screw excessively and not to rotate the camera on the screw. Filters cannot be used with the XA.
CARE AND STORAGE
At the completion of photography, completely close the Dust Barrier to prevent battery drain and dust.
Do not drop or hit the camera. Cameras that have been submerged in water are generally irreparable.
Do not touch the lens, viewfinder and rangefinder window. If touched, wipe the surface
Store the camera in a dry, well-ventilated place. Never store the camera where temperatures exceed 50C (122F) or below -20C (-4
F). When you use the camera in temperatures
under -10C (14F), it may sometimes fail to operate properly. To avoid this, warm the camera before use. Have all repairs performed by an authorized OLYMPUS Service Center. You may send it directly or through the store where your
lightly with a clean, soft cotton cloth. Fingerprints, if not wiped off immediately, will eventually be unremovable.
Never leave the camera near radios, TV sets,
camera was purchased.
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS (OLYMPUS XA)
Camera type: 35mm rangefinder electronic lens-shutter camera.
Film format: 35mm standard cassette (24 x 36mm). Lens: F. Zuiko 35mm F2.8, 6 elements in 5 groups. Shutter: Electronic between-lens shutter.
Self-timer: Electronic self-timer with 12 second delay.
Blinking LED and electronic beeper (Piezoelectric Ceramic Vibrator) during self-timer operation.
Viewfinder: Bright frame finder, 0.55x.
Shutter speed readout and over-exposure warning
Flash A11 attaches to (or detaches from) the cam-
zone visible in finder. Focusing: Double-image coupled rangefinder, 0.85m (2.8 ft.) ~ infinity.
era in seconds. Setting camera's aperture lever to flash symbol switches the A11 on, and sets the XA for autoflash.
Exposure control: Aperture-priority automatic exposure. Automatic shutter speed range 10 sec. to 1/500 sec. Backlighting compensation + 1.5EV.
Lens/finder cover: Sliding Dust Barrier. When opened,
power is switched on and shutter release unlocks. When closed, power is switched off and shutter release locks.
Film speed range: ASA 25 ~ 800. Aperture range: F2.8 ~ F22.
Film advance: Rear winding thumbwheel.
Power source: Two 1.5V silver oxide batteries
SR 44 (Eveready EPX-76 or equivalent).
Exposure counter: Progressive type with automatic
reset. 21 Film rewind: Crank type with rewind release button.
Dimensions: 102 (W) x 64.5 (H) x 40 (D) mm (4" x
2.54" x 1.6"). Weight: 225 grams or 7.9 oz. (less batteries).
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS (ELECTRONIC FLASH A11)
Unit type: Automatic electronic flash unit exclusively for use with Olympus X A and XA2. Connection to camera: Fitted onto left-hand edge of
XA ( X A 2 ).
Guide number: 10 (ASA 100, meters) or 33 (ASA
Power switch: The flash unit is activated by setting
camera's lever to flash symbol, popping up the charge lamp and initiating electrical charge. The flash unit turns off when the charge lamp is pressed down.
Applicable ASA film speeds: ASA 100 and 400.
Flash modes: Normal auto (XA, X A 2 ) and manual mode ( X A only) with switch lever.
F stop for auto flash: F4
Angle of coverage: Picture area of 35mm focal-length
lens. ( X A and XA2 utilize 35mm Zuiko lens.)
Power source: One 1.5V AA 'penlight' battery (including Ni-Cd battery).
Dimensions: 60 ( H ) x 36 ( W ) * x 33 (D) mm (2.4" x 1.4" x 1.3"). * Measured from interface. Weight: 65 grams or 2.3 oz. (less battery).
Number of flashes: Approx. 150 with AA 'penlight'
Recycling time: Approx. 7 sec with AA alkaline battery.
Max. working distance: 2.5m (8.2 ft.) at ASA 100,
5m (16.4 ft.) at ASA 400. 22
OLYMPUS OPTICAL CO., LTD
San-Ei Building, 22-2, Nishi Shinjuku 1-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Tel. 03-3340-2211
OLYMPUS CAMERA CORPORATION
Crossways Park, Woodbury, New York, 11797, U.S.A. Tel. 516-364-3000
OLYMPUS OPTICAL CO. (EUROPA) GMBH
Postfach 104908, Wendenstrasse 14-16, 20097 Hamburg, Germany. Tel. 040-237730
OLYMPUS OPTICAL CO. (U.K.) LTD.
2-8 Honduras Street, London EC1Y OTX, United Kingdom. Tel. 0171-253-2772
Printed in Japan IELEE22 038237MS
ProSeal Instructions for All Olympus XA style Cameras
Please read these instructions completely before you start. Knowledge will increase your confidence, and like most jobs, this is better done right the first time. Ive tried to keep things as easy and logical as possible while still providing a great amount of detail for you. Sealing your camera is one of the best ways to restore it to like-new performance, and these are excellent cameras. You have been given this set of instructions for any of several reasons. You should have already read and understood the general directions which accompany my light seal kits. You may need: (1) a safe surface to work oncardboard, fiberboard, newspaper or anything else handyit is important to protect the surface beneath you. (2) Solvent. Naphtha (cigarette lighter fluid) or denatured alcohol are my two favorites. (3) 2 or 3 paper towels. (4) some toothpicks or your bamboo toola wooden cuticle stick is also handy. (5) a safety razor blade, hobby knife, or small scissors and a metal straightedge. (6) a small screwdriver (7) a pair of tweezers. Now, let's discuss the differences between the different XA styles. Please understand it is not uncommon to find variations of light seal design or application within the same style. The images below represent what Ive observed as the most commonly occurring light seal architecture within each XA model style or group: ~~XA Model~~
~~XA1 and XA2 Models~~
~~XA3 and XA4 Models~~
As you can see above, the differences in the XA, XA1 and XA2 are relatively minor. Your XA2 may or may not have seal material in the bottom film door slot (but you can add this if you wish). The XA may have seal material running along the top side of the film door all the way to the end of the door, or it may be like the XA1 and XA2 and this seal may stop around the film pressure plate. If you want to duplicate the full door seal design used in the XA for the XA1 or XA2, please feel free to do so. The design of the XA3 and XA4 cameras was completely different. There is a hinge end seal on the camera body, but not on the film door. Both upper and lower body slots are sealed, and there is no seal on the cameras film doorexcept for the latch end. Please note the latch end seal is the same for all XA styles. ~~What Kind Of Seal Material Should I Use?~~ The Olympus XA cameras were designed with very close and precise tolerances. It is important to respect those tolerances when choosing a seal material. You may use 1mm self-adhesive fabric, 1mm self-adhesive foam, but please do not exceed a thickness of 1mm with any style of material in the XA, XA1 or XA2. In the XA3 and XA4, the hinge end seal should be 1.5mm thick. If this is unclear to you, please contact me (Jon_Goodman@yahoo.com) with your questions before you go any further. See the end of the instructions for an interesting demonstration ~~A Special Message for XA, XA1 and XA2 Owners~~ At this point, I want you to consider removing your film pressure plate. If you have the XA3 or XA4, please IGNORE THIS SECTION. But for you others, here is how to remove it: With a thumb on the bottom edge of the pressure plate and another thumb on the film canister tab, press upward gently until the plate clip frees itself from its retaining button. You will feel a little click. Now, lift up slightly and slide the rear tab off its retaining button. Notice the hourglass shape in the metal. The retaining tab can only slide in one direction (toward the wide end), because the other passage is too narrow. Small indentations (dimples) in the metal hold the plate suspended above the film doors surface. THE XA3 and XA4 pressure plate should not be removed.
To the left, a visual example of how I remove the pressure plate in the first series XA models. Gentle pressure until you feel a click. It will replace in the opposite fashion.
Now, if you have model XA, XA1 or XA2 and you want to go one step further and remove the film door entirely, heres how I do that: First, look at the bottom plate of your camera (1) remove battery cover and batteries and set aside (2) move lever to self timer and remove all 5 phillips head screws. 3 are long and 2 are short. You can see where they go. (3) carefully lift up on the bottom plate using your fingernail to pull it up near the lever. It may be resistant, but if youre patient, it will come off.
Remove the carrying strap, revealing the stainless steel rod (arrow number 1). Using the edge of a small knife, catch the rod and slide it downward. You should see the metal rod start to slide out of the bottom hinge (arrow number 2). When you can catch this rod with a small pair of pliers, slide it out. Your door will now come off easily, and to replace, you will simply reverse this process. (you may also remove the door of the XA3 and XA4, but unless you need to repaint the door, I seldom find this necessary) Okay, now lets clean your camera. Take your small screwdriver or an old dropper bottle and use it to carefully drop naphtha (lighter fluid) or denatured alcohol on the areas that have seal material attached. Please remember your cameras body is plasticsome solvents will damage plastic, so never use solvents like acetone, MEK, toluol, fingernail polish, etc. I normally drop enough solvent on the old seal to saturate it. Let this sit about 2 minutes and then begin scraping it off. You may use a toothpick with the end broken off, your bamboo tool, or a wooden cuticle stick. Work carefully and try not to scratch the painted surface. In some cases you may find the adhesive doesnt turn loose easily. It may take the paint off with it (see picture below). If this occurs, you may touch it up with semi-gloss black paint and a small paint brush, or you may re-paint the inner door with the paint I mention in notes. The main thing is to be patient and give the solvent time to dissolve and loosen the old adhesive. IMPORTANT NOTE: Observe the precautions on the solvent. Work in a well-ventilated area and avoid too
much skin contact or contact with eyes, and dont drink it. After you clean the old seal from the film door, youll need to also clean the old foam off at the latch end seal. This is done the same way. I run a toothpick or bamboo skewer through this channel, and sometimes I will use tweezers to lift old material away, too. Left, Im cleaning the old goop off of this XA2 door, and as you can see, the paint is coming off with the old seal material. I will re-touch this before I re-seal it. There will be notes about this at the end of the instructions.
Once youve completely removed the hinge end seal, latch end seal and door seals, take a piece of paper towel with naphtha on it and clean the film door edge and the body at the hinge seal area. Usually there will be old black seal residue here, and you dont want to leave that to foul your new seal material. You may need to wipe this two or three times until you get all the old junk removed completely. Now were going to clean out the rail slots on the camera body and replace those seals. Heres how: Wet a bit of paper towel with solvent and push it into the slot with the narrow end of your bamboo tool. Avoid the film frame reset lever. Then push this wet towel through the slot until all the old seal has been removed. Repeat the procedure for the slot on the other side of the frame counter and the bottom slot if needed.
Press a 2mm Seal Strip into the slot using the thin end of your tool. Start at the end of the slot. Dont let the seal material twist as you install it, and follow around the corner. Install with the slick side facing outward. Dont worry that there is no adhesive. With this seal you dont need it. When you reach the frame reset lever, use a razor blade, small knife or tiny scissors to
trim the strip so it stops at the reset lever. Repeat this procedure for the part of the slot starting at the film frame reset and extending to the hinge end. If needed or desired, repeat this procedure for the bottom rail slot. Now, with a blunted toothpick trace the seals length, pressing it gently down into its slot to seat it. Now, for those with XA, XA1 or XA2, lets replace the film door seal. Remove the backing paper, lick the adhesive and start at the edge of the door on the hinge end sideflush with the lip of the edge (see picture). Run each straight down the door, keeping the edge of the seal butted straight to the edge of the door flange and be sure to evenly follow the doors contour (rounded) part. Press into place when you have them positioned properly and after they are dryuse your bamboo tool-wide end to seat them. (picture below shows how these should look) Please note the hinge end seal sits between the edge pieces you just installed and not on top of those edge strips. Here is a view of how it should look, and you will notice I have used the 1mm fabric seal for this XA2:
>>>NOTE: Please see the end of the instructions for explanation of the XA door.<<< For those with the XA3 or XA4, simply replace the hinge end seal (with 1.5mm thick open-celled foam), carefully positioning it so that it does not extend into the rail slot or over the raised area corresponding to the handstrap connection. It is important that this little raised area on the camera body not be covered with seal material. On the first 3 models, you will see the cutout in the seal material is exaggerated around the slot (you can see this in the photo above right). On the last two models, the seal material is cutout so that it fits around this area on the camera body. You will understand this when you look at it. For the latch end piece, you may use 2mm foam. Cut a piece 2mm x 47mm. Remove the backing paper and lick it very well. Saturate it, in fact. Slide it down the door into the slot, with the adhesive side facing the upturned edge of the film door. I knowthis doesnt seem right. But Ive found it will work better. Line the foam up with the piece of the latch plate where the arrow points and let it dry.
Once the latch end piece is totally dry (30 minutes or so), press it against the film door to seal it. For those of you with first series XA models (XA, XA1 or XA2), you may now replace your pressure plate. First I slide the left hand slot beneath its retaining button and next I carefully position the opening over the other retaining button and push gently downward from the top until I hear or feel it click into place. ~~About the XA film door and the top seal piece:~~ The top strip isnt a difficult problem at all. Simply cut two pieces. There is a ledge at the point of the bend. Please look at how I do this:
Two 1mm fabric pieces set into place show how to install this piece in the easiest fashion.
Now youre finished and you can re-assemble your camera by reversing the steps above. You may use the dimensions below to cut your seal pieces. ~~NOTES~~ (1) If you want to re-paint your film door, a good spray paint is: Krylon #1613 Semi Flat Black. (you may also use this to re-paint the inside of the door with the pressure plate and all seal material removed). If your film door needs sanding, 400 or 800 grit wet/dry sandpaper should be just fine. Be sure to wash the film door in warm soapy water well and/or wipe it down with Naphtha before you sand it. The oils from your hands and fingers collect on the film door. Sanding the door before removing the oils only forces them into the old paint more deeply, making it more difficult to remove them later. Oils will cause fisheyes in the paint. (2) Dimensions for seal pieces: First series door strips: bottom strip112mm x 2.5mm. Top strip70mm x2.5mm (unless your cameras strip goes all the way to the endthen it is apx 112mm, cut at the break as shown above). First Series hinge end seal42mm x 8.5mm with a cutout of 8mm x 3mm spaced 12mm from the left side/22mm from the right side. Second series hinge end seal46mm x 6mm with a cutout of 8mm x 3mm spaced 15mm from the left side/23mm from the right side. Latch end seal (all models) 2mm x 47mm. Material to use: First Series door & hinge seal: 1mm fabric seal or 1mm foam. Second series hinge end seal: 1.5mm open-celled foam. (3) Lick the adhesive? Yes! Whether using foam or fabric, this will temporarily de-activate the adhesive. Then you can position the seal just where you want it to be. When it is dry, stick it down for good.
~~Lets measure the hinge end to body gap~~ XA, XA1 and XA2 models shown in this demonstration
How do we know what the actual thickness of the gap is in a camera? How do we measure that accurately so well know just which seal material will work best for us? Heres a method Ive used for several years. You can do this, also. You dont have to use a dial gauge. You can usually tell the thickness by visual examination. First frame aboveI place a bit of common clay into a tiny fold of waxed paper. Middle frame aboveI close the film door and latch it. The waxed paper keeps the clay from sticking and falls out when the door is opened, preserving the measurement exactly. Third frame aboveI carefully use a dial gauge to measure the clay. As you can see, it is.028 inch. We know that 1mm =.0394 inch. Therefore, 1mm thick foam will give you a compression ratio of almost exactly 25%, which is ideal. The 1mm thick fabric seal I sell is actually a few thousands of an inch less than.0394, and it will provide a compression ratio of slightly over 20%, which is ideal for a fabric seal. Whichever you choose will work fine. Take your time.use the good stuff.do it right. Jon Goodman --- 2006
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