32 MB MultiMediaCard, SD Memory Card, SDHC Memory Card, F/2.8-3.7
An 10.1-megapixel high resolution CCD has now joined the FZ series of 12x zoom lenses with MEGA O.I.S. (Optical Image Stabilizer). The Extra Optical Zoom function further increases zooming power to 21.4x while suppressing image degradation. Blur compensation performance has evolved even further. Now you can capture clear, sharp photos in almost any shooting situations. LUMIX's popular MEGA O.I.S. suppresses the blurring caused by hand-shake, and Intelligent ISO Control minimizes blurring cau... Read more [ Report abuse or wrong photo | Share your Panasonic DMC-FZ50 photo ]
Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ50 Digital Camera, size: 5.5 MB
Panasonic Lumix DMC FZ50 video tour
User reviews and opinions
|martonic||4:36am on Tuesday, October 26th, 2010|
|Bought mine for about $600 3 years ago! Nikon w/zoom cheaper, better DMC-FZ50 10.1 MP, optical stabilizer right? I love this camera! I was actually kinda scared when settling for this camera because not many people liked it much... Better than Canon Rebel XS or XSi Quick Review. This is for the intro photographer to RAW and Manual Settings. Why?|
|sallgood||7:37pm on Wednesday, October 6th, 2010|
|I bought the camera for the purpose of photographing wildlife during an excursion to Africa last (2007) summer. The results were outstanding.|
|william18||10:33pm on Thursday, July 8th, 2010|
|I bought the camera for the purpose of photog... Easy to manipulate zoom lens, very good results even at 12x, stabilization works very well.|
|jueqel||6:35am on Monday, May 24th, 2010|
|I love this camera because it gave me much more than I paid for a it. Excellent zoom power (12x optical) with high megapixel (10. I love everything about it other than the inability to adjust the ISO (without the introduction of ugly digital noise).|
|shields||12:31pm on Monday, April 19th, 2010|
|Those whom claim the optics are not really Leica are in need of a serious eye examination. This Panasonic Lumix is my sixth. Excellent lens and great 12x zoom from 35mm to 420. Manual controls. Looks and feels like a SLR camera.|
|zephyrus00jp||2:13pm on Tuesday, April 13th, 2010|
|I love everything about it other than the inability to adjust the ISO (without the introduction of ugly digital noise). I love everything about it other than the inability to adjust the ISO (without the introduction of ugly digital noise).|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Before connecting, operating or adjusting this product, please read the instructions completely.
For USA assistance, please call: 1-800-272-7033 or send e-mail to : email@example.com For Canadian assistance, please call: 1-800-561-5505 or visit us at www.panasonic.ca
Dear Customer, We would like to take this opportunity to thank you for purchasing this Panasonic Digital Camera. Please read these Operating Instructions carefully and keep them handy for future reference.
Information for Your Safety
WARNING TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR SHOCK HAZARD AND ANNOYING INTERFERENCE, USE ONLY THE RECOMMENDED ACCESSORIES AND DO NOT EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE THE COVER (OR BACK); THERE ARE NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. Carefully observe copyright laws. Recording of pre-recorded tapes or discs or other published or broadcast material for purposes other than your own private use may infringe copyright laws. Even for the purpose of private use, recording of certain material may be restricted.
Please note that the actual controls and components, menu items, etc. of your Digital Camera may look somewhat different from those shown in the illustrations in these Operating Instructions. SDHC Logo is a trademark. Leica is a registered trademark of Leica Microsystems IR GmbH. Elmarit is a registered trademark of Leica Camera AG. Other names, company names, and product names printed in these instructions are trademarks or registered trademarks of the companies concerned. THE SOCKET OUTLET SHALL BE INSTALLED NEAR THE EQUIPMENT AND SHALL BE EASILY ACCESSIBLE.
Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended by the manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries according to the manufacturers instructions.
A lithium ion/polymer battery that is recyclable powers the product you have purchased. Please call 1-800-8-BATTERY for information on how to recycle this battery.
FCC Note: (U.S. only) This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help. FCC Caution: To assure continued compliance, follow the attached installation instructions and use only shielded interface cables with ferrite core when connecting to computer or peripheral devices. Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the users authority to operate this equipment.
Trade Name: Panasonic Model No.: DMC-FZ50 Responsible party: Panasonic Corporation of North America One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094 Support Contact: Panasonic Consumer Electronics Company 1-800-272-7033 This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003
About the LCD Monitor/Viewfinder. 43 Changing the information displayed.. 43 Taking Pictures using the Built-in Flash.. 47 Taking Pictures with the Self-timer. 51 Compensating the Exposure. 52 Taking Pictures using Auto Bracket. 53
Using the [REC] Mode Menu. 82 [W.BALANCE] Adjusting the hue for a more natural picture.. 83
[WB ADJUST.] Finely adjusting the white balance.. 85 [SENSITIVITY] Setting the light sensitivity. 85 [ASPECT RATIO] Setting the aspect ratio of pictures. 87 [PICT.SIZE]/[QUALITY] Setting a picture size and quality that matches your use of the pictures.. 87 [AUDIO REC.] Recording still pictures with audio. 89 [METERING MODE] Deciding the method to measure brightness... 89 [AF MODE] Setting the focus method. 90 [CONT.AF] Continuously focusing on a subject.. 91 [AF ASSIST LAMP] Focusing in low light conditions becomes easier.. 91 [FOCUS/AE LOCK] Fixing the focus and exposure. 92 [DIREC. EX. COMP.] For rapid exposure compensation.. 93 [COL.EFFECT] Setting color effects for the recorded pictures. 94 [PICT.ADJ.] Adjusting the picture quality for the recorded pictures.. 94 [FLIP ANIM.] Connecting images to create a motion picture file. 95 [CONVERSION] Using an optional lens.. 97 [EXT.FLASH] Using an optional flash. 99 [EX.FLASH BURST] Taking pictures in burst mode while firing the flash. 101 [CLOCK SET] Set the date, time and display. 101 Using the [PLAY] mode menu. 102 [SLIDE SHOW] Playing back pictures in order for a fixed duration. 102 [FAVORITE] Setting your favorite pictures.. 103
[ROTATE DISP.]/[ROTATE] To display the picture rotated. 104 [DPOF PRINT] Setting the picture to print and the number of prints. 105 [PROTECT] Preventing accidental erasure of pictures.. 107 [AUDIO DUB.] Adding audio after taking pictures.. 108 [RESIZE] Making the picture smaller. 108 [TRIMMING] Enlarging a picture and trimming it.. 109 [ASPECT CONV.] Changing the aspect ratio of a 16:9 picture.. 110 [FORMAT] Initializing the card. 111
Connecting to other equipment
Connecting to a PC. 112 Printing the Pictures..115 Playing Back Pictures on a TV Screen.. 118
Using the MC Protector/ND Filter.119 Using the Remote Shutter.. 120 Cautions for Use.. 121 Message Display..122 Troubleshooting.124 Number of recordable pictures and available recording time.. 129 Specifications..132 Digital Camera Accessory System. 135 Digital Camera Accessory Order Form (For USA Customers). 136 Request for Service Notice (For USA Only)..137 Limited Warranty (For USA Only).138 Customer Services Directory (For USA Only)..140 Index...141 Spanish Quick Use Guide/ Gua rpida en espaol.143
Taking pictures at a high angle
If the LCD monitor turns on when it is closed with the screen facing inwards, the camera automatically switches to the Viewfinder. If the LCD monitor is opened when the Viewfinder is turned on, the camera automatically switches to the LCD monitor. Only rotate the LCD monitor after opening it wide enough, and be careful not to use excessive force as it may be damaged. When holding the edge of the LCD monitor, there may be some distortion, however this is not a malfunction. Moreover, this has no effect on the taken pictures or playback. When not using the LCD monitor it is recommended that you close it with the screen facing inwards to prevent dirt and scratches.
Taking pictures at a low angle
You may not be able to open, close or rotate the LCD monitor smoothly when using a tripod. In these cases, detach the camera from the tripod and then open, close or rotate the LCD monitor. About the Viewfinder The Viewfinder is convenient when you want to take pictures of a moving subject or outdoors. Refer to page 44 for information about diopter adjustment. When using the Viewfinder, close the LCD monitor. When the LCD monitor is open, the Viewfinder cannot be used.
Setting Date/Time (Clock Set)
Initial setting The clock is not set so the following screen appears when you turn the camera on.
Refer to [WORLD TIME] (P73) for information about setting the local time at the travel destination area.
3 Press [MENU/SET] several times to close the menu.
Turn the camera off after finishing setting the clock. Then turn it on and check that the clock setting is correct. Changing the clock setting 1 Press [MENU/SET]. 2 Press to select [CLOCK SET] (P101 ) 3 Press and then perform steps 2 and 3 to set the clock.
PLEASE SET THE CLOCK CLOCK SET
: [MENU/SET] button : Cursor buttons
You can also set the clock in the [SETUP] menu. (P27)
1 Press [MENU/SET]. 2 Press date and time.
00 : 00 JAN. 11. 2006 M/D/Y
to select the
: Time at the home area : Time at the travel destination (P73) / : Select the desired item. / : Set the display order for the date and time. Press [ ] to cancel the clock setting without storing the date and time.
The power indicator (green) lights. When it blinks, the remaining battery power is low. Insert a fully charged battery.
2 Aim the AF area to the point you want to focus on and then press the shutter button halfway.
: Press the shutter button halfway to focus. : Program shift The focus indication lights and then the aperture value and the shutter speed are displayed.
Blinks (green) On (green) Turns white to Turns white to red or no AF green area Beeps 4 times Beeps 2 times
3 Take a picture.
: Press the shutter button fully to take the picture.
We recommend checking that the clock is set properly before taking pictures. (P26) When you press the shutter button, the screen may become bright or dark for a moment. This function allows easy adjustment of focus and the recorded picture will not be affected. When a time is set for power save (P29), the camera automatically turns off if you do not operate it within the set time. To operate the camera again, press the shutter button halfway or turn the camera off and on.
To avoid picture noise, we recommend decreasing the ISO sensitivity, and/or setting [NOISE REDUCTION] in [PICT.ADJ.] to [HIGH] or setting every item except [NOISE REDUCTION] to [LOW]. (P94). (ISO sensitivity is set to [AUTO] when the camera is shipped. Therefore, when taking pictures indoors etc. the ISO sensitivity increases.) Program shift In program AE mode, you can change the preset aperture value and shutter speed without changing the exposure. This is called program shift. You can make the background more blurred by decreasing the aperture value or record a moving subject more dynamically by slowing the shutter speed when taking a picture in program AE mode. If the direct exposure compensation function (P93) is activated, the way in which the dial is operated changes. The explanation shows the direct exposure compensation function deactivated as an example. Press the shutter button halfway and then rotate the rear dial to activate the Program shift while the aperture value and the shutter speed are displayed on the screen (for about 10 seconds).
In dark places, the AF assist lamp (P91) may turn on to focus on the subject. Even when the focus indication appears and the subject is focused, it is canceled if you release the shutter button. Press the shutter button halfway again. Please do not rotate the zoom ring during auto focus. Preventing jitter (camera shake) Be careful of jittering when pressing the shutter button. If jitter could occur because of slow shutter speed, the jitter alert appears.
aperture value and the shutter speed turn red. (They do not turn red when the flash is activated.) The brightness of the screen may differ from the brightness of the recorded pictures especially when recording in low light conditions. When most of the subjects on the screen are bright (e.g. a blue sky on a clear day, a snowy field etc.), the recorded pictures may become dark. In this case, compensate the exposure value on the camera. (P52) Concerning the [FOCUS/AE LOCK] button In situations where the subject is outside the AF area or the subject contrast is too strong to compensate the exposure, for instance, this button makes it possible to take pictures using the focus and exposure that you fixed ahead of time.
When the jitter alert appears, we recommend using a tripod. Also, be careful how you hold the camera (P34). Using the self-timer (P51) or the shutter remote control (DMW-RSL1; optional) (P120) prevents jittering caused by pressing the shutter button when you are using a tripod. Shutter speed will be slower particularly in the following cases. Keep the camera still from the moment the shutter button is pressed until the picture appears on the screen. We recommend using a tripod. Slow sync./Red-eye reduction (P47) [NIGHT PORTRAIT] (P66) [NIGHT SCENERY] (P66) [PARTY] (P67) [CANDLE LIGHT] (P68) [FIREWORKS] (P68) [STARRY SKY] (P68) When you set to a slow shutter speed (P57, 58) Exposure If you press the shutter button halfway when the exposure is not adequate, the
FOCUS/ AE LOCK
: FOCUS/AE lock indication Refer to P92 for information about [FOCUS/AE LOCK].
Taking Pictures in Auto Mode
This mode allows beginners to take pictures easily. The settings for those functions which are easy to make mistakes with are fixed at the time of purchase allowing pictures to be taken with fewer mistakes. Auto Mode Settings In auto mode the following items are fixed at the time of purchase to prevent mistakes being made when using the camera. [W.BALANCE] [SENSITIVITY] [AUDIO REC.] [AF MODE] [CONT.AF] [PICT.ADJ.] [FLIP ANIM.] [EXT.FLASH] [AUTO] [ [OFF] ] ] [ ] P83 P85 P89 P89 P90 P91 P91 P94
The Backlight Compensation Backlight refers to when light comes from the back of a subject. In this case, the subject, such as a person, will become dark. If you press , the compensating backlight appears and the ON indication backlight compensation function is activated. This function compensates the backlight by brightening the whole of the picture.
To open the flash Slide the [ OPEN] lever. To close the flash Press the flash until it clicks. Be sure to close the flash when not in use. The flash setting is fixed to Forced OFF [ ] while the flash is closed. Switching to the appropriate flash setting Set the flash to match the recording.
1 Press 2 Press /
[ ]. to select a mode.
FLASH AUTO AUTO/RED-EYE FORCED FLASH ON SLOW SYNC./RED-EYE SELECT SET
You can also press [ ] to select. For information about flash settings that can be selected, refer to Available flash settings by recording mode. (P48)
3 Press [MENU/SET].
You can also press the shutter button halfway to finish. The menu screen disappears after about 5 seconds. At this time, the selected item is automatically set.
Available flash settings by recording mode The available flash settings depend on the recording mode. ( : Available, : Not available)
The available flash range to take pictures The available flash range to take pictures depends on the ISO sensitivity selected. ISO sensitivity [AUTO] Available flash range Wide 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 7.4 m (24.28 feet) Tele 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 5.6 m (18.37 feet) [ ] Wide 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 7.4 m (24.28 feet) Tele 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 5.6 m (18.37 feet) [ISO100] Wide 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 3.7 m (12.14 feet) Tele 30 cm (0.98 feet) to 2.8 m (9.19 feet) [ISO200] Wide 40 cm (1.31 feet) to 5.2 m (17.06 feet) Tele
40 cm (1.31 feet) to 3.9 m (12.80 feet) [ISO400] Wide 60 cm (1.97 feet) to 7.4 m (24.28 feet)
The flash setting may change if the recording mode is changed. Set the flash setting again if necessary. 2 The setting is not available when the back light compensation function is activated.
Tele 60 cm (1.97 feet) to 5.6 m (18.37 feet)
Wide 80 cm (2.62 feet) to 7.4 m (24.28 feet) Tele 60 cm (1.97 feet) to 5.6 m (18.37 feet)
Shutter speed for each flash setting Flash setting : AUTO : AUTO/ Red-eye reduction : Forced ON : Forced ON/ Red-eye reduction : Slow sync./ Red-eye reduction : Forced OFF Shutter speed (Sec.) 1/30 to 1/2000 1/30 to 1/2000 1/30 to 1/2000
Wide 1.15 m (3.77 feet) to 7.4 m (24.28 feet) Tele 90 cm (2.95 feet) to 5.6 m (18.37 feet)
1 to 1/to 1/2000 (In program AE mode)
The available flash range is an approximation. Refer to P85 for the ISO sensitivity. Refer to P34 for the focus range. If ISO sensitivity is set to [AUTO] or [ ] when using the flash, it will be automatically increased to a maximum of [ISO400]. To avoid picture noises, we recommend reducing the ISO sensitivity, setting [NOISE REDUCTION] in [PICT.ADJ.] to [HIGH] or setting the items except [NOISE REDUCTION] to [LOW] to take pictures. (P94) In motion picture mode [ ] and [SCENERY] (P65), [NIGHT SCENERY] (P66), [FIREWORKS] (P68), [STARRY SKY] (P68) or [HIGH SENS.] (P70) in scene mode, the flash setting is fixed to Forced OFF [ ] even if the flash is opened.
1 Rotate the front or rear dial to the left or right to set the aperture value or the shutter speed.
Set the aperture value. Set the shutter speed.
2 Press the shutter button halfway.
The manual exposure assistance appears for about 10 seconds to indicate the exposure.
Aperture Value and Shutter Speed
Aperture-priority AE Available Aperture Value (Per 1/3 EV) F8.0 to F11.0 F7.1 F5.0 F3.6 F6.3 F4.5 F3.2 F5.6 F4.0 F2.8 Shutter Speed (Sec) 8 to 1/to 1/to 1/to 1/1000
Manual exposure Available Aperture Value (Per 1/3 EV) F2.8 to F3.6 F4.0 to F5.0 F5.6 to F7.1 F8.0 to F11.0 Available Shutter Speed (Sec) (Per 1/3 EV) 60 to 1/to 1/to 1/to 1/2000
Shutter-priority AE Available Shutter Speed (Sec) (Per 1/3 EV) 3.1.3 1/1.3 1/2 1/3.2 1/5 1/8 1/13 1/20 1/30 1/50 1/80 1/125 1/200 1/320 1/500 1/4 2.5 1.1/1.6 1/2.5 1/4 1/6 1/10 1/15 1/25 1/40 1/60 1/100 1/160 1/250 1/400 1/640 1/1000 F4.0 to F11.0 F5.6 to F11.0 F8.0 to F11.0 F2.8 to F11.0 Aperture Value
The aperture values given in the table above are values when the zoom ring is rotated to Wide. Depending on the zoom magnification, some of the shutter speeds and aperture values cannot be selected.
1/1300 1/1600 1/2000
Taking Pictures with Manual Focus
Use this function when you want to fix the focus or when the distance between the lens and the subject is determined and you do not want to activate auto focus.
MF ASSIST When you rotate the focus ring while setting [MF ASSIST] to [MF1] or [MF2], the MF assistance is activated and the screen is enlarged. It allows you to focus on the subject more easily.
1 Slide the focus switch to [MF].
SETUP CLOCK SET WORLD TIME CUST.SET MEM. MONITOR
2 Rotate the focus ring on the subject.
GUIDE LINE SELECT EXIT
3 Press / to select [MF ASSIST] and then press.
: MF assistance The MF assistance appears on the center of the screen. When you stop rotating the focus ring, the MF assistance disappears about 2 seconds after. You can also set [MF ASSIST] to [OFF] on the [SETUP] menu.
4 Press / to select [MF1] or [MF2] and then press [MENU/SET].
OFF 5MIN. MF1 MF1 MF2
[MF1]: The center of the screen is enlarged. You can adjust the focus while determining the composition of the whole of the screen. [MF2]: The whole of the screen is enlarged. This is convenient when adjusting the focus in Wide. [OFF]: The screen is not enlarged.
You can also close the menu by pressing the shutter button halfway. Technique for Manual focus
Prefocus This is a technique for focusing in advance on the point the pictures will be taken when it is difficult to focus on the subject with auto focus due to its quick motion. [e.g. [PANNING] (P66) in scene mode] This function is suitable when the distance between the camera and the subject is certain. Focus lock You can fix the focus if you press [FOCUS/AE LOCK] after focusing at the position where you want to record the subject. This is useful since the subject will not go out of focus even if you rotate the focus ring.
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) This mode allows you to take pictures of a subject and a landscape with near real-life brightness by using the flash and slowing down the shutter speed.
Set the focus switch to [AF].
Technique for Night scenery mode Since the shutter speed becomes slower (up to about 8 sec.) use a tripod. We also recommend using the self-timer (P51) for taking pictures. The focus range is 5 m (16.4 feet) to. The shutter may remain closed (max. about 8 sec.) after taking the picture because of signal processing. This is not a malfunction. Noise may become visible when you take pictures in dark places. The flash setting is fixed to Forced OFF [ ]. The setting on the AF assist lamp and continuous AF are disabled.
Technique for Night portrait mode Use the flash. Since the shutter speed becomes slower, we recommend using a tripod and the self-timer (P51) for taking pictures. Keep the subject still for about 1 second after taking the picture. We recommend taking pictures with zoom set to Wide (1 ) and a distance of about 1.5 m (4.92 feet) from the subject. The focus range is 1.2 m (3.94 feet) to 5 m (16.4 feet). (Refer to P48 for the available flash range to take pictures.) Be sure to close the flash when not in use. The shutter may remain closed (max. about 1 sec.) after taking the picture because of signal processing. This is not a malfunction. Noise may become visible when you take pictures in dark places. When using the flash, Slow sync./Red-eye reduction [ ] is selected and the flash is activated every time. The continuous AF setting is disabled.
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) When you move the camera to follow a subject moving in one direction such as a runner or car, the background becomes a blur and the subject stays focused. This effect is called panning. This mode allows you to obtain this effect easier.
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) This mode allows you to record the nightscape vividly by reducing the shutter speed.
Technique for Panning mode To obtain good pictures in panning mode, move the camera in a horizontal plane as you take the pictures.
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) This mode allows you to take pictures of food with a natural hue without being affected by the ambient light in restaurants etc.
Move the camera smoothly while following the subject in the viewfinder. Press the shutter button while you are moving the camera. Move the camera continuously. We recommend the following: Using the Viewfinder. (P43) Selecting a subject with quick motion. Using prefocus. (P61) Use this mode with burst mode. (P55) (You can then select the best pictures from all the pictures taken.) The shutter speed in panning mode becomes slower to achieve the panning effect. As a result, jitter can easily occur. The panning function does not work well in the following situations. During very bright days in summer. We recommend using an ND filter (DMW-LND55; optional). (P119) When the shutter speed is faster than 1/100th of a second. When you move the camera too slowly because the subject is moving slowly. (The background will not become a blur.) When the camera does not keep up with the subject satisfactorily You cannot set the stabilizer function mode to [MODE2]. When you set it to [MODE1], only vertical jitters can be compensated in panning mode. The settings on the AF assist lamp and the continuous AF are disabled.
The focus range is 5 cm (0.16 feet) (Wide)/2 m (6.56 feet) (Tele) to.
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) Select this mode when you want to take pictures at a wedding reception, indoor party etc. By using the flash and slowing down the shutter speed, both people and the background can be recorded with a brightness close to real life.
Technique for Party mode Open the flash. (P47) Since the shutter speed becomes slower, we recommend using a tripod and the self-timer (P51) for taking pictures. We recommend taking pictures with zoom set to Wide (1 ) and a distance of about 1.5 m (4.92 feet) from the subject. The flash setting can be set to Slow sync./ Red-eye reduction [ ] or Forced ON/ Red-eye reduction [ ].
Press [ ] to display the [SCENE MODE] menu and select a scene mode. (P64) This mode allows you to take pictures with a candle-lit atmosphere.
5 Select [FRAME RATE] and then press.
The file number appears after creating a flip animation. Press [MENU/SET] three times to close the menu after creating the flip animation. Deleting all still images used to create flip animation When selecting [DELETE STILL PICTURES] in [FLIP ANIM.] menu, a confirmation screen appears. Select [YES] with and then press [MENU/SET]. You cannot use the direction detection function, burst mode, auto bracket and [AUDIO REC.]. The images in each frame do not appear in normal review. (P39) If you execute [CREATE MOTION PICTURE], flip animation is made from all pictures recorded for flip animation. Delete unnecessary pictures. Audio cannot be recorded. You cannot record audio using the audio dubbing. (P108) Playback may not be possible on other equipment. You may also hear noise during playback on other equipment which does not have a mute function.
6 Press to select [5fps] or [10fps] and then press [MENU/SET].
[10fps] 10 frames/sec. (The motion pictures become smoother.)
Using an optional lens
3 Turn the camera on, press to select [CONVERSION] and then press.
REC PICT.ADJ. FLIP ANIM. CONVERSION EXT.FLASH EX.FLASH BURST SELECT EXIT
Press [ ] to display the [REC] mode menu and select the item to set. (P82) The tele conversion lens (DMW-LT55; optional) allows you to record even more close-up pictures (1.7 ). The wide conversion lens (DMW-LW55; optional) allows you to record even wider angle pictures (0.7 ). The close-up lens (DMW-LC55; optional) allows you to take close-up pictures of a small subject.
4 Press to set to [ ], [ ] or [ C ] and then press [MENU/SET].
1 Remove the lens cap. 2 attach the conversion lens or the close-up lens.
Conversion lens cannot be used together with the ND filter (DMW-LND55) and the MC protector (DMW-LMC55). Always detach the ND filter or MC protector before attaching the conversion lens. Rotate the lens slowly and carefully.
[OFF]: When you do not attach the conversion lens. [ ]: When you attach the wide conversion lens. [ ]: When you attach the tele conversion lens. [ C ]: When you attach the close-up lens Press the shutter button halfway or press [MENU/SET] to close the menu after finishing the setting.
5 Rotate the zoom ring to Tele or Wide.
Recordable range when using a conversion lens When attaching the tele conversion lens
PLAY PROTECT AUDIO DUB. RESIZE TRIMMING ASPECT CONV. SELECT SET
SINGLE MULTI OFF CANCEL ON
The following functions cannot be used with protected pictures. [ROTATE] [AUDIO DUB.]
Adding audio after taking pictures Press [ ] to display the [PLAY] mode menu and select the item to set. (P102) You can add the audio after taking a picture.
Audio dubbing may not work properly on pictures recorded by other equipment. While dubbing, if the focus ring or zoom ring are turned, the sound of rubbing with the lens barrel may be recorded.
1 Press to select the picture to start audio and then press recording.
Making the picture smaller Press [ ] to display the [PLAY] mode menu and select the item to set. (P102) This function is useful if you want to reduce the file size of a picture to attach it to an e-mail or upload it to a website.
The message [OVERWRITE AUDIO DATA?] screen appears when audio has already been recorded. Press to select [YES] and then press [MENU/ SET] to start audio recording. (The original audio is overwritten.) Audio dubbing cannot be used with the following pictures. Motion pictures Protected pictures Pictures recorded after setting the quality to [RAW]
to stop recording.
The audio recording stops automatically if is not pressed after about 10 seconds.
The following pictures cannot be resized. Pictures recorded in [ ] (2.5M EZ) (When the aspect ratio setting is [ ].) Pictures recorded in [ ] (2M EZ) (When the aspect ratio setting is [ ].) Pictures recorded after setting the quality to [RAW] Motion pictures Pictures with audio Flip animation
2 Press to select the size and then press.
Enlarging a picture and trimming it Press [ ] to display the [PLAY] mode menu and select the item to set. (P102) You can enlarge and then clip the important part of the recorded picture.
Sizes smaller than the recorded picture are displayed. [ ]/[ ]/[ ]/[ ]/[ ]/[ ] (When the aspect ratio setting is [ ].) [ ]/[ ]/[ ] (When the aspect ratio setting is [ ].) [ ]/[ ] (When the aspect ratio setting is [ ].) The message [DELETE ORIGINAL PICTURE?] appears.
3 Press to select [YES] or [NO] and then press [MENU/SET].
RESIZE DELETE ORIGINAL PICTURE?
The following pictures cannot be trimmed. Pictures recorded after setting the quality to [RAW] Motion pictures Pictures with audio Flip animation
2 Rotate the front dial to enlarge or decrease the picture.
Dispose of unusable battery. The batteries has a limited life. Do not throw batteries into fire because it may cause an explosion. The unusable batteries should be discarded in accordance with battery recycling laws. Call the RBRC hotline on 1-800-822-8837 for information. Do not allow battery terminals to come into contact with metal objects (such as necklaces, hairpins etc.). This can cause short circuiting or heat generation and you may be badly burned if you touch a battery. Charger If you use the battery charger near a radio, the radio reception may be disturbed. Keep the charger 1 m (3.28 feet) or more away from radios. The charger may generate whirring sounds when it is being used. This is not a malfunction. After using the charger, be sure to disconnect it from the electrical outlet. (A very small amount of current is consumed if it is left connected.) Keep the terminals of the charger and battery clean.
Confirmation messages or error messages will be displayed on the screen in some cases. The major messages are described below as examples. [THIS MEMORY CARD IS PROTECTED] The Write-Protect switch on the SD Memory Card or the SDHC Memory Card is slid to the [LOCK] side. Slide it to the other side to unlock it. (P20, 107, 111)
[NO VALID PICTURE TO PLAY] Record a picture or insert a card with a recorded picture and then play it. [THIS PICTURE IS PROTECTED] Delete or overwrite the picture after canceling the protect setting. (P107) [THIS PICTURE CANNOT BE DELETED]/ [SOME PICTURES CANNOT BE DELETED] Pictures not based on the DCF standard cannot be deleted. If you want to delete some pictures, format the card after saving necessary data on a PC etc. (P111) [NO ADDITIONAL DELETE SELECTIONS CAN BE MADE] You have exceeded the number of pictures that can be set at once with [MULTI DELETE]. Delete the selected pictures and then select [MULTI DELETE] again to delete any remaining pictures. More than 999 favorites have been set. [CANNOT BE SET ON THIS PICTURE]/ [CANNOT BE SET ON SOME PICTURES] If the pictures are not based on the DCF standard, the DPOF print cannot be set. [MEMORY CARD ERROR FORMAT THIS CARD?] The card format cannot be recognized by the camera. Format the card again with the camera after saving necessary data on a PC etc. (P111) [PLEASE TURN CAMERA OFF AND THEN ON AGAIN] This message appears when you exert pressure on the lens with your hand etc. or the camera is not operating properly. Turn the camera off and on. If the message persists, contact the dealer or your nearest servicenter. [MEMORY CARD ERROR PLEASE CHECK THE CARD] An error has occurred accessing the card. Insert the card again.
In the case of the human eye, if the lines are not in exact alignment with the cone receptors on the retina, interaction between the eye and the brain will result in the eye moving so as to bring them into alignment. Consequently the theoretical limit of resolution for a healthy human eye will be one line per receptor. Unlike the human eye, digital cameras dont have the ability to track such an image so as to bring the lines into exact alignment with the rows of pixels. Consequently the edges of the lines of the image may overlap the adjacent pixels to some extent and so result in these pixels detecting shades of grey which depend on the degree of overlap as illustrated below.
Graphical simulation The following images illustrate graphically the responses of a detector with a pixel width L when grids of various widths W have their positions changed in steps of 0.25 L relative to the positions of the pixels in the sensor.
Figure 1 Line width W = 0.5 Pixel length The above image shows that for a grid with a line width of 0.5 L none of the grid lines will be detected.
Figure 2 Line width W = 0.75 Pixel length The above image shows that for a grid with a line width of 0.75 L only every second line will be detected.
Figure 3 Line width W = 1.0 Pixel length The above image shows that for a grid with a line width of 1.0 L detection of the lines depends on the degree of overlap. As a result the grid lines may or may not be detected and if detected both their intensity and position will vary with the degree of overlap.
Figure 4 Line width W = 1.25 Pixel length In the above image for a grid with a line width of 1.25 L, the black lines are detected alternately as either black or dark grey and separated by either a single white space or by two spaces of different shades of grey. The number of grid lines detected can be regarded correct only if the light grey and or mid grey pixels are regarded as spaces. However in either case the position, width and intensity of the lines detected depends on the degree of overlap and the pattern is a poor representation of the original grid.
Figure 5 Line width W = 1.5 Pixel length The above image shows that for a grid with a line width of 1.5 L, the number of grid lines detected is correct. However the position, width and intensity of the lines detected depends on the degree of overlap and none of the patterns is a true representation of the original grid.
Fujifilm Resolution Test Chart and Test Grids shot at 12X Zoom from a distance of 6.35 Metres with the FZ20
Crop taken from part of the Test Grids shown in the above shot taken with the FZ20
When I examined these images in detail I was surprised to see coloured bands along the edges of the black lines. As shown below, these can be even more clearly seen in the magnified crop taken from the image.
Crop taken from a magnified crop for the above image of the Test Grids The notes on the construction of sensors in the Learn section of the DPReview website indicate that sensors based on the Bayer matrix, use a pattern of one red, one blue and two green filters arranged in a square. The colour and intensity values assigned to each individual pixel are obtained by combining the intensity and colour of the output for that pixel with those from several of the pixels surrounding it. See http://www.dpreview.com/
Arrangement of the three primary colours in a Bayer matrix and the possible relative positions of the red, green and blue pixels The top part of the above figure illustrates for part of a sensor the relative positions of the red, green and blue filters of the Bayer matrix. The lower part of the figure shows for red, green and blue filters the colours of the filters for the eight pixels which surround it. Note that in the case of the green filter, there are two alternatives for the positions of the red and blue filters.
In principle, if the colour of the light falling on a pixel matches the colour of its filter the situation is fairly straightforward. However if the colour of the filter is such that it blocks some or all of the incoming light, for example any combination of blue and green light falling on a pixel with a red filter, the situation is much more complicated. In general entirely arbitrary amounts of red, green and blue light will fall on any individual pixel which may have a red, green or blue filter. The demozaicing software used to determine the colour and intensity values to be assigned to that pixel must derive the required information from the light received by that pixel through its red, green or blue filter and from the light falling on the pixels which surround it through their respective filters. That information led me to suspect that the colour fringes at the edges of the grid lines could be due to the combined effect of the pixels being partially overlapped by the image and to the way in which the colour and intensity data assigned to each individual pixel is obtained and to conclude that as a result the resolution of digital cameras whose sensors are based on the Bayer Matrix is likely to vary significantly with colour. In view of that, I decided to try to make a test chart which would allow me to investigate the limit of resolution of my cameras and the extent to which it varied with colour.
5. FZ50 Resolution Tests Resolution Test Charts As described in Test Chart Design I experimented with several alternatives before settling for the design of the final colour test chart. The design is based on the same principle as the visual acuity charts used by optometrists for testing the human eye. However to allow assessment of the effect of colour it is constructed from both black and coloured letters. The chart was constructed in stages from individual rows of Es of different sizes which had been created using Photoshop Elements at a resolution of 400 pixels per cm. Each row consists of the letter E printed in red, green, blue, black, magenta, cyan and yellow. In the final version illustrated below, a line thickness 0.25 mm was chosen for the smallest of these letters as being the most convenient value which was greater than the 0.2 mm minimum at which my printer could reliably print lines and spaces of sufficiently equal width. The thickness of the lines in each successive row of Es was increased by 0.025 mm, i.e.10% of the thickness of the lines in the first row.
Resolution Test Chart Coloured Es - Line thickness 1.0 to 3.5 pixels The 0.25 mm thickness of the lines was chosen also as a convenient value with which to match the projected height of a single pixel when the distance from the test chart to the camera had been adjusted so that, for a chosen focal length, the 100 mm scale line on the chart had a length of 400 pixels in the image. In a manner similar to that discussed under Graphical simulation in Image Quality and Resolution, the test chart below was designed to confirm the effect on the resolution of the edges of the lines of the image partially overlapping adjacent pixels. Photoshop Elements was used to construct the chart in stages from rows of Es of different sizes which were created separately. The first row consisting of three groups of 11 Es was created by displacing each successive letter E in the group upwards by 0.1 of a pixel, i.e. by one tenth of the line thickness of the smallest E, so that the last letter in each group of 11 was 10 pixels higher than the first.
Resolution Test Chart - Stepped Es - Line thickness 1.0 to 3.5 pixels To maintain the same gradient in all the subsequent rows, the number of pixels by which last E in each group of 11 was raised was increased by 1, i.e. 11 pixels for the 1.1 pixel row, 12 pixels for the 1.2 pixel row and so on. Unfortunately without increasing the already very high resolution of the chart by a further factor of 10, that could only be achieved by raising several of the letters in each group of 11 by an extra increment. As a result the proportion of the line thickness by which each letter is raised varies slightly from the ideal of 0.1 of the line thickness in all but the 1.0 and 2.0 pixel rows To represent the projected size of the 3648 x 2736 pixel sensor of the FZ50, for a 0.25 mm projected pixel height, a 912 mm x 684 mm rectangle was drawn a board which had been painted matt white. Copies of the test chart were attached at the centre, four corners and centres of the edges of the rectangle.
Resolution test board
Resolution test arrangement showing relative positions camera and test chart The above image shows the arrangement used for taking the test shots. The test chart was clamped to a vertical surface at a convenient height and adjusted for level. For each focal length tested the FZ50 was attached to a tripod and its position and attitude adjusted so that the camera was level, the optical axis of the lens was perpendicular to the test chart, level with and pointing at its centre. Its distance from the chart was also adjusted carefully until the length of the 100 mm scale in the image was 400 pixels, within a few percent. After turning off the OIS, setting the white balance manually and adjusting the exposure, I used a remote shutter release to take shots at -0.33EV, 0.0 EV and +0.33 EV, for each half stop interval from maximum to minimum aperture. Resolution Assessment After transferring all the images for a chosen focal length to my PC, I took a 300 x 550 pixel crop from the centre of each image and transferred these to folders for subsequent assessment. The limit of resolution for each colour was assessed by examining the crops from each set of images shot at the three different EV values and looking down each column of letters in turn to select the minimum line thickness at which the three horizontal strokes of the E of each colour could still be recognised. This is illustrated below in a typical set of 300 x 550 pixel crops and in the magnified sections cropped from these to show a typical set of assessed resolution limits in which the values selected are underlined in red. As will be seen from these images assessing the resolution for each requires a subjective judgement which in some cases can be rather difficult. The following images are from shots of the test chart which were taken from a distance of 3.50 metres with a focal length of 135mm at F/4.
300 x 550 pixel crops from shots which were taken from a distance of 3.50 metres with a focal length of 135mm at F/4
Magnified sections of the crops from the 135 mm F/4 shots marked in red to illustrate a typical set of assessed resolution limits
Part of the stepped Es test chart compared with the corresponding part of an FZ50 image the test chart The image above is a crop from a PC screen capture in which Photoshop Elements was used to allow comparison of an image of the black and white test chart of stepped Es with the corresponding part of the PSE image which was used to print the test chart. The area selected includes the rows of Es with a line thickness corresponding to 1.2 to 1.7 pixels in the image. As can be seen from the crop of the image on the right, none of the Es in the 1.2 or 1.3 pixel rows are recognisable. Only some of the letters in the 1.4 pixel row can be recognised as Es. While all of the letters in the 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7 pixels rows can be recognised as Es, their clarity varies with their positions along the length of the row. That result appears to confirm that the limit of resolution is significantly affected by the effect of the edges of an image overlapping adjacent pixels. It also provides a plausible explanation for the amount of scatter in the assessments of the limit of resolution in the coloured images. Analysis of the test data An Excel spreadsheet was used to set up tables in which to enter the relevant data, including the image numbers, for each set of images. The resolution value for each of the colours, as assessed from the individual crops for each aperture at each focal length, was entered in these tables, an example of which is shown below.
Table of resolutions in pixels per line
As illustrated in the table below by dividing 2736, the number of pixels in the height of an FZ50 image, by the line thickness assessed as the limit of resolution, the resulting data was converted to an equivalent resolution in LPH and used to prepare plots of resolution vs. aperture.
Table of resolutions in lines per picture height, LPH By combining the results from the various data sets it was possible to plot the results in several different ways. These include the variation with colour and aperture for each of the three focal lengths individually and for all three focal lengths, a side by side comparison of the variation of resolution with aperture for black and each of the six colours. These plots are shown in FZ50 Resolution Test Results.
6. FZ50 Resolution Test Results The effect of colour To illustrate the effect of colour for each of the individual focal lengths 35, 135 and 420 mm, the following plots show for black and each of the six colours, red, green, blue, magenta, cyan and yellow, the variation of resolution with aperture.
As will be seen from all three of the above plots, there is a significant variation of resolution with colour which is similar for all three of the focal lengths chosen for these tests.
It is also clear that for all colours the resolution decreases in a similar way with increasing F Number. That is probably due to the effect of diffraction which increases as the aperture is reduced. However while the resolution at maximum aperture is slightly lower than when stopped down by half a stop, there is no evidence of a significant optimum aperture, sweet spot, in any of the plots. Though the difference is not great, it is clear that the resolution is highest for the red and black Es, with magenta and blue slightly lower, followed by green then by yellow and cyan which show the poorest resolution. Part of that variation may however be due to differences in the relative intensities of the individual colours on the printed chart, which would of course depend on the accuracy with which my Canon printer printed the colours. Comparisons for black and six colours The following plots show for black and the six colours, the variation of resolution with aperture for focal lengths of 35, 135 and 420 mm. In these plots, for all three focal lengths, the shape of the variation with aperture is fairly similar for all colours. However there are significant differences in the maximum resolution for each colour. Due to the effect of the edges of the images of the Es overlapping adjacent pixels assessing the limit of resolution for digital images is a sometimes a difficult subjective judgement. Consequently there are some fairly obvious irregularities in these plots. In addition the values derived from all of these tests will be directly affected by the degree to which the edges of the lines used to construct the individual letters overlap the adjacent pixels. Taking some account of these I concluded that, as a reasonable approximation the black and red and magenta plots show the highest resolution at a maximum of about 1950 LPH, followed by blue and green at around 1800 LPH then by yellow at 1500 to 1700 LPH and cyan at 1400 to 1600
7. Discussion and Conclusions Black and white images The maximum vertical resolution value of 1950 LPH which I assessed for the black Es in the images from my FZ50 tests is fairly close the absolute vertical resolution value of 1800 LPH given by Simon Joinson in his review of the FZ50 on the DPReview website. http://www.dpreview.com/ When, several months after Id completed my tests with my resolution test chart of coloured Es and assessed the images I was given a copy of an ISO12233 resolution test chart in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, I decided to try to reproduce the results of the FZ50 resolution test published by DPReview. By importing the ISO12233 PDF file into Photoshop Elements I was able to select the vertical resolution test pattern and print a copy at a suitable size. I then shot several images of the chart from the distance required to give the correct scale. The following image shows a screen capture from PSE of the vertical resolution test pattern cropped from one of these test shots. To show the detail more clearly and make the image fit the display of a PC it has been divided into two sections.
As will be seen from the above image, due to the effect of the edges of the image overlapping adjacent pixels, the lines and spaces become progressively less distinct as the line thickness reduces. This effect can be seen more clearly in the following image in which the upper part is a copy of the high resolution end of the ISO 12233 vertical resolution test pattern with its scale reduced to match that of the FZ50 image. The position of the 1800 LPH limit of resolution published by DPReview has been marked in red in both.
High resolution end of ISO 12233 resolution test chart and enlarged crop from equivalent FZ50 image with1800 LPH resolution position marked in red Under Resolution in the Learn section of DPReview, the limit of resolution is defined as the point up to which the black and white lines can be distinguished from one another. On that basis, from the above image of the ISO12233 test chart I would assess the limit of resolution of my FZ50 to be at least 1850 LPH. Due to the nature of the image that is however a very subjective judgement. Also as discussed in relation to the DPReview resolution tests of the FZ20, as the width of the lines and spaces is progressively reduced, the effect of the edges of the image partially overlapping adjacent pixels causes the width of both the lines and spaces in the image to alternate between one and two pixels with the result that as it approaches the limit of resolution the image becomes an increasingly less accurate representation of the test pattern in which the lines and spaces are of equal width over their full length. That effect can be clearly seen by starting at the right hand end of the above image and observing the appearance of the individual lines as you follow them towards the left. By so doing you will see that the appearance of the lines and spaces varies considerably along their length. At some positions you will notice that some of the lines are in the form of a single row of black or very dark grey pixels separated by spaces which consist of two pixels of different shades of grey while others at the same position consist of two pixels which can be equally dark or of one dark and one lighter giving the illusion of a three dimensional 'Vee'. As these two pixel width lines are mostly separated by spaces consisting of a single row of pixels they clearly do not accurately represent the original image in which the widths of the lines and spaces are equal. That observation leads to the obvious question of how the irregular edges of lines and spaces which vary by one or two pixels affect the visual appearance of more typical photographic images. As discussed in relation to the Olympus C3030Z resolution tests, the difference in the appearances of the grid lines in the digital and film images of the Fujifilm chart led me to conclude that the quality of the detail in a digital image would be lower than would result from a film image with an equivalent traditional LPM resolution and would result in a loss of definition in fine details such as a cats whiskers or the eyelashes in a portrait. In the enlarged section of the image of the ISO 12233 resolution test chart, in addition to the appearance of tapered lines being affected by their edges overlapping adjacent pixels, there
As a result of removing and replacing the camera, differences could result from the camera having been moved up or down or sideways by a fraction of a pixel or by tilting it by an angle of less than the height of a pixel over the width of the sensor. It is even possible that due to the tolerances in the focussing system, resetting the focus between two successive exposures without moving the camera could result in slightly different versions of the resolution test pattern when examined at pixel level. Close examination at high magnification of the DPReview resolution test images for the cameras listed in the above table revealed that they all looked very similar to the image from my FZ50 shot of the ISO12233 based test chart in that they all exhibited the effect of the edges of the lines overlapping adjacent pixels which is characteristic of digital images. In the above table the data for the various cameras listed was copied from the reviews published by DPReview http://www.dpreview.com/. Also as previously stated, in addition to the appearance of the tapered lines being affected by their edges overlapping adjacent pixels, when viewed at high magnification there is also evidence of small patches of various colours at several positions in the enlarged section of the image of the ISO 12233 resolution test chart. Although the colours and their intensities varies from model to model, examination at high magnification of the DPReview resolution test images for all the cameras listed above revealed small feint patches of colour. Coloured images In FZ50 Resolution Test Results, the variation of the resolution of the FZ50 with colour was discussed in detail in relation to the Excel plots derived from the test results Based on the ability to resolve the three horizontal lines of a letter E of various colours, the results of the tests described in this document indicate that for the FZ50 the maximum vertical resolution for the black, red and magenta letters is around 1950 LPH, with values of around 1800 LPH for the blue and green letters, 1500 to 1700 LPH for the yellow and 1400 to 1600 LPH for the cyan letters. From these values it is clear that the resolution of the FZ50 does vary significantly with colour, confirming the suspicions which arose from the results of my FZ20 tests. The results also indicate that the resolution is slightly lower with the lens at maximum aperture than when it closed down by half a stop. Probably due to the effects of diffraction, they also show a fairly steady reduction in resolution as the lens is progressively stopped down. However there is no evidence of an optimum aperture or sweet spot for any of the focal length used in these tests. As discussed in Test chart design, the most probable causes of the variation of resolution with colour include the arrangement of the red, green and blue components in the Bayer matrix and the way in which the colour and intensity data assigned to each individual pixel is obtained from that pixel and the pixels which surround it. Due to the differing effects of diffraction at different wavelengths the effect for each colour will vary to some extent with aperture. In addition as the aperture is decreased the resulting colour dependent increase in the diameter of the Airy disc due to diffraction may result in edges in the details of an image overlapping an increased number of pixels thus reducing the resolution of the various colours further and possibly to a different extent. Part of the variation observed in the resolution tests described in this document may however be due to differences in the relative intensities of the individual colours on the printed chart, which would of course depend on the accuracy with which my Canon printer printed the colours. 31
Vignetting Test Results Images Vignetting comparison at 420 mm focal length
Vignetting comparison at 300 mm focal length
Vignetting comparison at 200 mm focal length
Vignetting comparison at 135 mm focal length
Vignetting Test Results Plots The Silkypix image editing software provided with the FZ50 displays the values of the red, green and blue components for the pixel at the co-ordinates of the cursor on the image. Using Excel, it was possible to create a table in which to enter a set of co-ordinate positions and the corresponding red, green and blue components. The red, green and blue values for each diagonal step of 100 pixels (60 vertical and 80 horizontal) from the top left hand corner of the image were transferred to the Excel table for each image. From these the combined brightness was calculated for each diagonal step. To compensate to some extent for the very irregular nature of the pixel to pixel variation in brightness, these results were normalised using the average of the brightness values for the eight positions closest to the centre of the image. The following images show the normalised brightness distribution in steps of 100 pixels from the top left hand corner along the diagonal to just beyond the centre of the FZ50s 3648 x 2736 pixel image.
Vignetting Comparison - No TC, Original TC, Shortened TC
Vignetting Comparison Focal lengths - 420mm to 246 mm
Vignetting Comparison Focal lengths - 420mm to 135 mm EZ Zoom The features of the FZ50 include the often misunderstood Extra Optical Zoom, EZ Zoom, which is very popular with wild life photographers. With this feature, only the data from a selected area at the centre of the sensor, commonly 5MP, is displayed in the viewfinder and recorded in the SD card. As this reduced area of the image is magnified to fill the EVF or LCD, it gives the illusion that the focal length has been increased. Many users find that the use of EZ Zoom gives the benefit of seeing the detail in their chosen subject more clearly. It is possible that it may also allow more accurate metering and focussing. However as the actual focal length of the lens is not increased, the resolution of the image is not increased. Thus, apart from any potential differences due to more accurate focussing and/or metering, exactly the same result would be obtained by cropping of a full size image during post processing. Even when the FZ50 is used at its maximum focal length, shortening a Nikon TC-E15ED TC results in a significant reduction in vignetting, as was illustrated in the preceding images and plots. It is also clear from these that the reduction in vignetting is significantly greater as the focal length is reduced from 35 mm equivalent focal length 420 mm by zooming out. However because of its popularity with wild life photographers I decided to assess the potential benefits of using a shortened TC-E15ED in conjunction with an EZ setting of 5MP as the focal length is reduced. The following images, which were shot using the popular 5 MP EZ Zoom setting illustrate the benefit of shortening the TC-E15ED in significantly reducing the amount vignetting when zooming out.
In both of the following sets of images, those shot with the TC at its original length are in the top row and those shot with the shortened version are in the bottom row. Vignetting comparison - original length and shortened - 420, 304 and 200 mm
Vignetting comparison - original length and shortened - 137, 91 and 71 mm
9. Resolution Tests with Nikon Teleconverters To assess the resolution of my FZ50 at maximum zoom with my Nikon TC-E15ED and Nikon TC-E17ED teleconverters I carried out a series of tests with the final version of the test chart. These tests were conducted as previously described in FZ50 Resolution Tests for the tests at 35 mm, 135 mm and 420 mm. Resolution at 420 mm with and without TCs After Id shortened my TC-E15ED to reduce vignetting I took a series of shots of the test chart to assess the resolution of the FZ50 at 420 mm with the TC attached. Several months later, I bought a used Nikon TC-E17ED and took a similar set of test shots to allow me to compare the resolution of the FZ50 with the TC-E17ED with the previous results for the FZ50 on its own and with the TC-E15ED attached. For consistency all of these shots were taken as previously described for the tests with my FZ50 at focal lengths of 35, 135 and 420 mm with no TC. To match the previous scale factor of 0.25 mm/pixel the FZ50 was set to maximum zoom and the distance from the test chart adjusted until the image of the 100 mm scale line occupied 400 pixels. Note that the required distances of 14.43 metres for the TC-E15ED and 16.72 metres for the TC-E17ED are slightly less than the 15.14 and 17.15 metres based on 10.09 metres multiplied by their magnifications 1.5X and 1.7X which apply only when focussed at infinity. As the scale factors for all of these shots were matched within a few percent, in spite of the images being taken at different distances from the test chart, the resolution of those taken with the TC-E15ED at 14.43 metres and with the TC-E17ED at 16.72 metres should in the absence of any losses due to the TCs be identical to the resolution of the equivalent shots taken from 10.09 metres without a TC. After setting the white balance manually and turning off the OIS I used a remote shutter release to take shots at 0.66 EV above the assessed exposure and at +/- 0.33EV. The resulting images were assessed and analysed as discussed previously and the data derived from them transferred to tables and plotted using Excel. The results obtained are shown in the following images, in which the resolutions for black and each of the six colours are plotted against aperture.
Resolution vs. Aperture FZ50 at 420mm without a TC - Range 10.09 Metres 38
Resolution vs. Aperture FZ50 at 420mm with TC-E15ED - Range 14.39 Metres
Resolution vs. Aperture FZ50 at 420mm with TC-E17ED - Range 16.72 Metres Comparisons for black and six colours The following plots show for the FZ50 at a focal length of 420 mm without a TC, with the TCE15ED and the TC-E17ED the resolution versus aperture for black and for each of the six colours. Although derived from images which were taken from different distances from the test chart, as these images have the same 0.25 mm/pixel scale factor, the resulting plots allow accurate comparison of the differences in resolution for each of the individual colours for the FZ50 on its own and with each of the two TCs. They also allow the differences for each of the colours to be more easily seen.
10. Resolution with single and stacked teleconverters Test method Due to the high magnification and minimum focus range of the stacked combination of the TC-E15ED and TC-E17ED and the limited space available it wasnt possible the use of the 0.25 mm/pixel scale used for all the previous tests.
To allow the resolution for each lens teleconverter combination to be compared a series of shots were taken from the longest possible fixed distance of 25.6 metres. The above view of the test chart was taken from the same position with the focal length of the FZ50 set to 35 mm. Apart from the constant distance of 25.6 metres from the test chart the test procedure followed was as described previously for the tests without a teleconverter. As previously, after setting the white balance and exposure, +/- 0.33 EV shots were taken at half stop intervals for each lens/TC combination. Resolution test results - images The following images are centre crops from F/4 shots for each lens/TC combination.
420 mm at F/4 from 25.6M with no TC
420 mm at F/4 from 25.6M with TC-E15ED
420 mm at F/4 from 25.6M with TC-E17ED
420 mm at F/4 from 25.6M with TC-E15ED and TC-E17ED Resolution at 420 mm with and without TCs As with the previous tests the assessed data was used to plot the resolution for black and the six colours. As all of the shots were taken from the same distance the scale factor was different for each lens combination. The number of pixels in the image of the100 mm scale line and the 400 pixel value used previously were used to scale the results. Based on the 1.5X and 1.7X magnifications of the TCs and the 10.09 metre range with no TC the range for the stacked TCs should be 25.73 metres. However for the stacked TCs at 25.6 metre range the length of the image of the 100 mm scale line was only 343 pixels instead of 400 requiring a scale correction of 1.17, 400/343. For the shots taken without a teleconverter, the resolution from the distance of 25.6 metres was so low that it was possible to distinguish only the 3.5 pixel Es printed in red, black and magenta with all of the other colours being indistinguishable. With the exception of the shots taken without the teleconverter, for which the Es were too small to allow them to be assessed, the results derived from these tests for black and each of the six colours are shown in the following images.
TC-E17ED Based on ratio of the 16.72 and 10.09 metre distances from the test chart the level of detail which can be resolved with the TC-E17ED would be expected to be higher by a factor of 1.66 than that for the FZ50 from the same position without the TC. As will be seen from the plots for all colours for the FZ50 at 420 mm with and without the TCE17ED, there is very little difference in the resolution for black, red, blue and magenta except that for magenta the resolution is slightly lower for apertures larger than F/5.6. For green the resolution is slightly reduced over the full range of apertures. Although the resolution is slightly lower for cyan it hasnt been reduced further by the TCE17ED. For apertures larger than F/8 there is a slight reduction for yellow which increases with increasing aperture. From these results it can be seen that with the TC-E17ED attached the level of detail which can be resolved at a focal length of 420 mm will be about 1.66 times greater than from the same distance without the TC. Consequently it can be concluded that for the same resolution the TC-E17ED has increased the reach of the FZ50 by a factor 1.66. Plots for black and individual colours The colour dependent differences in the resolution can be compared more easily by examining the plots for black and individual colours. As will be seen from the plots for the black Es, for apertures greater than F/8 the resolution of the FZ50 with the TC-E17ED attached is only slightly lower than that of the FZ50 without a TC and for apertures of F/8 and smaller it is identical. For the FZ50 with the TC-E15ED the resolution is slightly lower than for the TC-E17ED over the full range of apertures. In the plots for the six colours although for both the TC-E15ED and the TC-E17ED there is some variation for red, blue, magenta and cyan. The most noticeable effect is for the TCE15ED for which there is a significant reduction in the resolution for green and an even greater reduction for yellow which increases significantly with aperture. Stacked TCs For the FZ50 with stacked TCs due to the limited distance available and to the high magnification and minimum focus range of the stacked combination of the TC-E15ED and TC-E17ED it wasnt possible the use of the 0.25 mm/pixel scale used for all the previous tests. To allow a fair comparison with the other FZ50 lens and TC combinations a correction factor based on the size in pixels of the image of the 100 mm scale line on the test chart was used to scale the data for the plots. In the images taken with stacked TCs the length of the 100 mm scale line is only 343 pixels, 86% of 400. To increase its length to 400 pixels would require the camera to be closer to the test chart. As that was impossible due to the 25.6 metre minimum focus distance the measured values were multiplied by 1.17, 400/343, to compensate for the reduced image size and provide the corrected resolution values shown in the plots for the Stacked TCs. As will be seen by comparing the plots of resolution versus aperture for black and six colours, for black, red, blue and magenta the resolution versus aperture plots for the FZ50 with the stacked TCs are very similar to and only slightly lower than the corresponding values for the FZ50 at 420 mm with no TC at a range of 10.09 metres.
For cyan the results are again similar though at a lower level for both. However for green and even more so for yellow the resolution with the stacked TCs is significantly lower. As similar results were obtained for the FZ50 with the TC-E15ED on its own this result was not unexpected. The differences in resolution for black and each of the six colours can be more clearly seen from the separate plots for each of these individual colours. Because of the need to scale the results for the stacked TCs due to the problem with the minimum focus distance it is more difficult to assess the extra reach provided by the stacked TCs. However apart from the reductions in resolution for green and yellow the test results suggest that the resolution of the FZ50 with stacked TCs from 25.6 metres is only slightly lower than would be obtained at maximum zoom with no TC from a distance of 10.09 metres. A similar comparison for the FZ50 with just the TC-E15ED or the TC-E17ED shows that apart from the reductions in resolution for green and yellow in any combination which includes the TC-E15ED the use of either or both of these Nikon TCs provides a significant reach advantage over the FZ50 at its maximum zoom of 420 mm. In addition with the shortened version of the TC-E15ED there is very little vignetting at maximum zoom and the zoom level can be reduced considerably before it becomes significant.
An 10.1-megapixel high resolution CCD has now joined the FZ series of 12x zoom lenses with MEGA O.I.S. (Optical Image Stabilizer). The Extra Optical Zoom function further increases zooming power to 21.4x while suppressing image degradation. Blur compensation performance has evolved even further. Now you can capture clear, sharp photos in almost any shooting situations. LUMIX's popular MEGA O.I.S. suppresses the blurring caused by hand-shake, and Intelligent ISO Control minimizes blurring caused by subject movement when photographing children, animals, or other moving subjects. So you get less blurring and more beauty. Venus Engine III, the newly improved image processing LSI, inherits the conventional Venus Engine II's quick response and high-quality image output, yet dramatically reduces noise levels. This makes it possible to shoot at ISO 1600 with full resolution. In addition to advanced manual control with zoom ring and focus ring, the DMC-FZ50 is equipped with a new Function button that serves as a shortcut to quickly set frequently used settings. This helps you take photos exactly as you envision them. Also, thanks to the Custom Setting function, your frequent setting patterns can be memorized. The Free-angle LCD is now adjustable to 180 degrees both vertically and horizontally. This assists smooth shooting even in high and low-angle shooting positions. The mode dial makes it easy to retrieve the desired mode settings. A variety of Scene Mode settings optimize Scenery, Panning, and other photo techniques, giving you a choice of sixteen modes in all. The DMC-FZ50 can record beautiful WVGA (848 x 480-pixel) motion pictures and zooming while shooting. You will also discover many other ways to explore the fun and creativity of photography.
|Product Type||Digital camera - prosumer|
|Optical Sensor Type||CCD|
|Total Pixels||10,400,000 pixels|
|Effective Sensor Resolution||10,100,000 pixels|
|Optical Sensor Size||1/1.8"|
|Light Sensitivity||ISO 100, ISO 800, ISO 400, ISO 200, ISO 1600, ISO 3200, ISO auto|
|Digital Zoom||4 x|
|Shooting Modes||Frame movie mode|
|Shooting Programs||Portrait mode, party/indoor, night portrait, scenery, food, fireworks, night scene, panning, sports mode, candle, snow, high sensitivity, starry sky, soft skin, baby1, baby2|
|Special Effects||Cool, Warm, Black & White, Sepia|
|Max Shutter Speed||1/2000 sec|
|Min Shutter Speed||60 sec|
|Exposure Metering||Multi-segment, center-weighted, spot|
|Exposure Modes||Program, automatic, manual, aperture-priority, shutter-priority|
|Exposure Compensation||±2 EV range, in 1/3 EV steps|
|Auto Exposure Bracketing||3 steps in 1/3 EV step|
|White Balance||Custom, automatic, presets|
|White Balance Presets||Cloudy, flash, daylight, halogen, shade|
|Digital Video Format||QuickTime|
|Still Image Format||JPEG, RAW|
|Continuous Shooting Speed||2 frames per second, 1 frame per second|
|Video Capture||QuickTime - 848 x 480 - 30 fps QuickTime - 848 x 480 - 10 fps QuickTime - 640 x 480 - 30 fps QuickTime - 640 x 480 - 10 fps QuickTime - 320 x 240 - 30 fps QuickTime - 320 x 240 - 10 fps|
|Memory / Storage|
|Flash Memory||32 MB flash - SD Memory Card|
|Supported Flash Memory||MultiMediaCard, SD Memory Card, SDHC Memory Card|
|Image Storage||RAW 3648 x 2736 JPEG 3648 x 2736 JPEG 3264 x 2448 JPEG 2560 x 1920 JPEG 2048 x 1536 JPEG 1600 x 1200 JPEG 3600 x 2400 JPEG 3248 x 2160 JPEG 2560 x 1712 JPEG 2048 x 1360 JPEG 3584 x 2016 JPEG 3072 x 1728 JPEG 1920 x 1080|
|Camera Flash||Pop-up flash|
|Flash Modes||Fill-in mode, slow synchro, auto mode, flash OFF mode, red-eye reduction|
|Red Eye Reduction||Yes|
|Effective Flash Range||1 ft - 23 ft|
|Features||AF illuminator, flash +/- compensation|
|Type||Zoom lens - 7.4 mm - 88.8 mm - f/2.8-3.7|
|Focal Length||7.4 mm - 88.8 mm|
|Focal Length Equivalent to 35mm Camera||35 - 420mm|
|Focus Adjustment||Automatic, manual|
|Auto Focus Points (Zones)||9|
|Min Focus Range||11.8 in|
|Macro Focus Range||2 in|
|Optical Zoom||12 x|
|Lens Construction||10 group(s) / 14 element(s)|
|Features||ED glass, aspherical lens|
|Self Timer Delay||10 sec, 2 sec|
|Flash Terminal||Hot shoe|
|Additional Features||Audio recording, built-in speaker, digital noise reduction, DPOF support, sharpness control, digital image rotation, PictBridge support, histogram display, cropping an image, resizing an image, saturation control, 16:9 widescreen mode, contrast control|
|Viewfinder Color Support||Color|
|Viewfinder Diagonal Size||0.44"|
|Viewfinder Resolution||235,000 pixels|
|Type||LCD display - TFT active matrix - 2" - color|
|Display Form Factor||Rotating|
|Display Format||207,000 pixels|
|Type||Microphone - built-in|
|Connector Type||1 x USB 1 x composite video/audio output 1 x DC power input|
|Expansion Slot(s)||1 x SD Memory Card|
|Software||Drivers & Utilities, Adobe Acrobat Reader, Apple QuickTime, ArcSoft Camera Suite, LUMIX Simple Viewer|
|Included Accessories||Lens hood, lens cap, lens adapter, strap|
|Cables Included||USB cable A/V cable|
|Power Device||Battery charger - external|
|Supported Battery Details||1 x Li-ion rechargeable battery - 710 mAh ( included )|
|Min Operating Temperature||32 °F|
|Max Operating Temperature||104 °F|
|Universal Product Identifiers|
Processor GV-D200 Pentax X90 NV-U92TW Theater Vitality SPA922 PMA-1510AE Accessories MBS-100 SA-PM31 MX66-009 Lens WR450F-2005 Phase26USB HDC-SD60 SPF-71ES UE-40C7705 RL33eams FSM7352S Factor PC DSC-W370 R GS-3012F Storm Model 9 KDL-26S3000 SFP470X Kxtg6411SP Scph-77004 Battery KV-EF29m90 Platform Aspire 7720 WD-C12110D GT122 HS25YJZ TX-26LX50F Impressa E25 Espio 738G Camera NV-FJ630 32LG30D SU-A700mk3 TX-29AS10P Calculator 5 1 Autopilot 68206C IC-U400 - RED Paramount SB-WA800 VGN-FS415E Turbo BS 1400 TE109 PST 650 XBM-438 R-209HK Desktop Fostex DP-8 Mc24-12 Price CDP-XA5ES Junior SA-770 Digital Camera WC275 FX-8500G SP-D300B WG311 Wi200 Motor 2HG Review ECM-MS957 MRV-T707 FA1026hdro Sbchc065 ET-100 C IC-756proiii Firmware CX701N 420EX C-3040 Zoom Sbchc8440 Laserjet 3020 AM100 PX150E TME-M740BT WD 106 Portrait Wndr3700 MP721C 167MT FL 8380 LG V180 I CAT Suzuki SX4 Voip3211G FR-8062 AV-R610 HTS4600 12 GA-P43t-es3G TL34HD Autobot YZ85-2006 2 0 DCR-TRV6E
manuel d'instructions, Guide de l'utilisateur | Manual de instrucciones, Instrucciones de uso | Bedienungsanleitung, Bedienungsanleitung | Manual de Instruções, guia do usuário | инструкция | návod na použitie, Užívateľská príručka, návod k použití | bruksanvisningen | instrukcja, podręcznik użytkownika | kullanım kılavuzu, Kullanım | kézikönyv, használati útmutató | manuale di istruzioni, istruzioni d'uso | handleiding, gebruikershandleiding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101