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f. Player(s) Raised in Handicap During the Season. If the handicap of a player or players in a team has been raised during the season then: (i) A high goal team will be allowed to play above the tournament limit by that number of goals but any other team will only be allowed to play one goal over the limit. (ii) A team will not be allowed to play over the handicap limit with a player raised mid season unless the player concerned has already played with that team or been listed as a member of a team on the entry form for a tournament either at the time his handicap became effective or within seven days of the date when his new handicap became effective. (iii) The same rules as in (i) and (ii) above shall apply as to the limits for individual players. See Annex D. (iv) Any substitution of the player must bring the team handicap to within the limits of the tournament. See Rule 2f. (v) The goal or goals awarded on handicap shall be recorded on the scoreboard at the outset. g. Withdrawal or Disqualication. A team that has entered a tournament may not withdraw once the schedule has been published without the permission of the Tournament Committee which should only be given in exceptional circumstances. A team that pulls out immediately before or during a match without such consent will invoke a charge of misconduct. A Tournament Committee has the right to disqualify a team at any time. (See Annex C para 4 for detail on adjustment of scores). h. Team Shirts. Shirts will be in team colours with the number of the player no less than 9 inches high and in contrasting colour on the back. Team shirts must be numbered 1, 2 , 3 and 4 and not duplicated. Roman numerals are permitted. Team shirts must not be of black and white stripes so as to be similar to those worn by Umpires. If, in the opinion of the umpires or Tournament Committee, the colours of two competing teams are so alike as to lead to confusion, the team lower in the draw or second named in a league competition shall be instructed to play in another colour. Teams must have available a second set of shirts of contrasting colour. j. Ponies Played by Another Team. In high and medium goal tournaments, a pony played by one team cannot be played by any other team in the same tournament. This rules also applies to intermediate tournaments except that dispensation may be granted by the Tournament Committee. (See Annex D Para 2 for denition of tournament levels.) k. Umpire Ponies. Teams are required to provide one pony for umpiring but two for 18 goal and above. Green or unt ponies must not be offered. See also Rule 4f and m. l. Handicap Calculation. In all matches played under handicap conditions the handicap of each player in each team will be totalled. The lower total will then be subtracted from the higher and the resulting difference will be multiplied by the number of chukkas to be played in the match and divided by 6. This will give the number of goals to be given to the team with the lower total handicap. All fractions will count as half-a-goal. See Annex B Paragraph 6c. m. Team Captain. (i) Appointment. A captain will be appointed by each team. The umpires should identify the captain before the start of any match. (ii) No Appeal. The team captain or the team manager may not appeal against the appointment of any particular umpire, referee or other ofcial nor against the time or venue of a game. (iii) Clarication of a Decision. The team captain has the right to ask the umpires for clarication of a decision. Once the umpires have, in their opinion, answered the query, the captain may not continue to question the decision in any way.

h. Double Substitution. If a player is injured so that he cannot continue to play and, even though a qualied substitute may be available, a team may choose to make a double substitution. The injured player may be replaced by a player of a lesser handicap and another player on the team may be replaced to bring the team back to its original level (but see 2f Player Raised in Handicap). Both substitutes must be qualied and therefore must not have played or be due to play in the tournament. j. Substituted Player May Replace Substitute. A substituted player may replace his substitute at the start of but not during any chukka in the match. Should the substitute have been of a higher handicap so that the score was altered it shall not be changed again. k. Playing a Three Man Team. If a player is late or unable to play as a match is about to start, then a team may play with three players but the team aggregate handicap must remain within the tournament limits. The team will start with the aggregate handicap of the three players. If the fourth player or his substitute subsequently joins in, which he may do only at the start of but not during a chukka in the match, the handicap of the team will be recalculated to include the handicap of the joining player if one goal or above and the score board altered accordingly in favour of the opposing team. If the joining players handicap is 0 goal or below then no alteration will be made to the score. l. Team Reduced to Three Men. A team may be reduced to three men under Rule 29b (ii) (no qualied eligible substitute for injured player) or Penalty 10 (player sent off) in which case it may play with an aggregate handicap below or above the limits of the tournament. But, in the event of a subsequent substitution, the handicap of the injured or sent off player must continue to be included in the calculation when judging the eligibility of the substitute. m. Effect on the Substitute. A player who has substituted for another in an emergency under Rule 2d should not be disqualied from continuing with his original team, or from joining another team if he is not already in one. He may also continue to play in the team in which he has played as a substitute if the original player is still not available and his own team is no longer in the tournament. n. Substitution in High Prole Matches. See Annex D paragraph 3. o. Ponies. It is the responsibility of the team to mount the substitute. 3. PLAYERS EQUIPMENT AND TURNOUT Players are expected to be well turned out so that the reputation of the sport is enhanced. Any equipment that has sharp projections which might cause injury to another player or pony is forbidden. Umpires have a responsibility to ensure that spurs and whips are in accordance with the rules. A report form should be completed for any breach so that there is a record in case of repetition at another club. (See Rule 6c(v) and 28a.) a. Headgear. When riding on a polo grounds (which includes the surrounds) everyone must wear protective headgear with the chinstrap or harness correctly fastened. (See Note 1.) b. Spurs. Spurs, including any rowel must be blunt, with the shank of no more than 1.25 inches (3 cm) pointing downwards and to the rear. Any spur likely to wound a horse is forbidden. c. Breeches, Boots and Knee Pads. For matches white breeches or jeans and brown boots with knee pads are to be worn. d. Whips. Whips must not be more than 48 inches long including any tag. Broken whips are not allowed. e. Goggles. Goggles are recommended.

Note 1: It is recommended that players take note that the British Horse Society recommends "that hats which comply with PAS 015, BS EN 1384, EN 1384 (providing it has a CE mark), ASTM F1163 or Snell E2001, with either the Kitemark or SEI offer the best protection".
PONIES, TACK AND PONY WELFARE 4. PONIES, TACK AND PONY WELFARE a. General. The overall responsibility for care and welfare of a pony rests at all times with the owner. The Stewards, Tournament Committee and match ofcials have a duty to enforce the Rules and may call in veterinary advice, (see also Regulation 4.3a(ii)). Additional matters on the welfare of ponies, particularly on serious injury and the administration of drugs, are covered in Annex B of the Regulations. See also HPA booklet Polo Pony Welfare Guidelines. b. Veterinary Cover and Use. (i) Clubs must have an arrangement for cover with a local veterinary practice. For all polo matches a veterinary surgeon who is a current member of the RCVS should either be present or on immediate call and a club ofcial should be in attendance at all games in case a welfare problem arises. (ii) The law states that any person who treats a horse must be a veterinary surgeon registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Ponies should therefore only be treated by such a veterinary surgeon. c. Welfare Ofcer. Every club must appoint a Welfare Ofcer to be responsible for all aspects of pony welfare particularly in the pony lines. The umpires have the main responsibility for pony welfare on the eld of play. (See Annex B para 5) d. Vaccinations and Pony Passports. All ponies must have a current vaccination against inuenza and also, by law, a passport. The latter may be obtained through the HPA. e. Contagious or Infectious Diseases. Any pony owner, stable manager or polo club which has a suspected case of a contagious disease such as ringworm or an infectious disease such as strangles or equine herpes must inform the HPA immediately with details of the action being taken. No infected pony or others in contact will be brought to a polo ground until clearance is given by a veterinary surgeon who is a current member of the RCVS. f. Turnout and Prohibited Tack. Ponies are expected to be well turned out and poor or badly tted tack which is causing physical damage to the pony is not allowed (see note for best playing or turned out pony). Each pony must be protected by bandages or boots on all four legs and it must have its tail put up. Ponies for umpiring should be equipped for polo except their tails need not be put up. The following are not allowed to be used during any game: (i) A noseband, headpiece or headcollar which incorporates wire or any sharp material. (ii) A hackamore or bitless bridle (may be used in practice chukkas at the discretion of the club). (iii) Blinkers or any form of noseband or other equipment which obstructs the vision of the pony. (iv) The mouthpiece of any bit, whether single or double, of not less than 0.25 inch (6.50 mm) in diameter at its narrowest point. (v) A tongue tie g. Condition. A pony may not be played if: (i) Lame. (ii) Showing signs of distress. (iii) Blind in one eye. (iv) Not under proper control or showing vice. (v) It has had any form of tracheotomy (tubing). (vi) Showing blood from the mouth, anks or any other part. (See also Rule 6c and 30a.) h. Shoes and Shoeing. The Farriers' Registration Act, which has been law since 1975, states that any person who shoes a horse, including their own, must be a farrier registered with

the Farriers Registration Council. Ponies should therefore only be shod by such a farrier. Frost nails, road studs, screws and fancy spikes or any protruding nails or sharp edges on a shoe are not allowed except as below: (i) Rimmed shoes may be worn but the rim must be on the inside of the shoe only. (ii) A calkin or stud must be of less than 0.5" (13 mm) cubed and be tted on the last inch (25mm) of the outside heel of the hind shoe. A non-slip plug or road plug may be tted. A plug is sunken into the shoe by a farrier and is not to be confused with any form of stud. (iii) If a shoe has a calkin or xed stud it must be balanced by a raised and feathered inside heel tapered for a minimum of 1.5 " (40 mm). (iv) A removable stud, which is the type strongly recommended, should be removed before the pony leaves the grounds. (v) A pony may be shod with a maximum of two road nails or non-slip nails per shoe in order that it may be exercised safely on the roads. Such nails must not be on the widest part of the shoe. (vi) A pony may be played without all four shoes or without hind shoes. Should this lead to the pony not being under proper control so as to be a danger to itself or others then it should be ordered off by the umpires. j. Injections. A pony may not be injected at polo grounds as dened in Rule 11a except by a veterinary surgeon who is a current member of the RCVS. If a local anaesthetic is used to repair a wound, the pony is not allowed to play unless passed t to do so by a veterinary surgeon who is a current member of the RCVS. k. Water and Muzzles. Clubs must ensure that fresh or running water is readily available at all pony and horsebox lines. Water should not be withheld for an extended period and should be offered to ponies after they have played. Muzzles should only be used for short periods to prevent a pony from feeding. They should not be adapted in any way to reduce the ability to breathe or drink. l. Number of Chukkas. In the normal duration of a match, a pony must not be played for more than two full non consecutive chukkas, or the equivalent time; a pony which has played in more than half a chukka may not be played again for at least ten minutes. A pony must not be played in more than three full chukkas or the equivalent time in any one day. Should a match go to extra time then a pony that has played two chukkas may be played for as much time as the extra chukka lasts providing it has had a break of at least ten minutes. m. Ponies Used for Umpiring. A pony that has played in a match at 8 goal level or below may be used as an umpire pony if it has had a break of at least one chukka or vice a versa. Above 8 goal, any pony that has played in a match should not subsequently be used as an umpire pony or vice versa. n. Drugs. The administration to a pony of any drug or substance that is not a normal constituent of horse feed and is listed as banned in Annex B to the Regulations is prohibited. o. Horse Ambulance. Either a trailer with motor vehicle attached or a low loading lorry each with ramp equipped with a winch and screens must be available near to the ground at all times during play. Clubs should practise the procedure from time to time. As well as a winch and screens the horse ambulance should carry ropes, a drag mat, a spare headcollar, a tarpaulin, a bucket of sand and a knife for slitting saddlery. Note. Best Playing or Turned Out Pony. Clubs are encouraged to award a prize for the best playing or best turned out pony. They must however ensure that the pony is in a t state to collect its prize - i.e. that it is not distressed, looks well and does not have spur or whip marks, a cut mouth, sore back or any other signs of ill treatment. If a pony has received an accidental injury, such as a tread, then it should not be excluded from collecting its prize, provided that the injury has been properly treated. If a veterinary surgeon is present he should be asked to inspect the pony prior to the presentation.

at each goal. Each shall give testimony to the umpire at the latter's request as to the goals scored or other points of the game near the goal, but the umpire shall make the nal decisions. Goal Scored. When a goal is scored (see Rule 20), the goal judge should wave his ag vigorously above his head to signify that a goal has been scored. Ball Crosses Back Line. When the ball crosses the back line wide of the goal, the goal judge should signal by holding up a ball above his head, and if the umpire has not blown the whistle to award a Penalty 6, he should then quickly place a ball on level ground one foot within the eld of play where it crossed the line except that it must be more than 4 yards from the goal posts or sideboards. Instructions. Goal judges must be properly briefed, in particular : (i) To wear distinctive clothing such as white coats and protective riding or cricket hard hats, but not cycle helmets. (ii) To remain behind a white line, which must be drawn 20 yards behind each goal, until the ball is out and the ponies have slowed down. (iii) To keep all impedimenta, e.g. chairs, ball boxes, spare goal posts, at least 30 yards behind goal posts. Other items such as bicycles should be placed well away from the ground so that they are not a danger to players or loose horses. Back to Back Goals. Goal judges should not be used when there is play on two grounds with back to back goals.
9. TIMEKEEPER/SCORER (See also Annex B) A Timekeeper/Scorer (referred to hereafter as "the Timekeeper") shall be employed in all matches with an Assistant Scorer who shall man the scoreboard. The Timekeeper shall be conversant with Rules 14 - 31 which govern his responsibility. During the match he should ll out a scorecard and when completed hand it in to the Polo Manager as the true record of the score. 10. MEDICAL COVER Clubs must ensure that at all matches listed in the Blue Book as "Fixtures Played Under HPA Ofcial Tournament Conditions", there will be present 2 people with First Aid qualications. Clubs should inform their local ambulance service in advance that the match is taking place and ensure that the correct telephone number is readily available. A First Aid qualication means having attended and completed a British Red Cross "Basic First Aid Course (Module 7)" or a St. John Ambulance "Emergency Aid for Appointed Persons Course" or an equivalent qualication, and completed such post-training refresher courses as are required to maintain a current attendance certicate. Should the umpire require medical assistance for an injured player, he should signal by waving his stick above his head. GROUNDS, BALL AND ACCESS DURING PLAY 11. THE GROUND(S) AND FIELD OF PLAY (See Annex A) a. Ground(s). The polo ground(s) is taken to be the enclosed area which includes the eld(s) of play, the clubhouse or similar facility, the pony lines, horsebox park and any practice areas. b. Field of Play. The eld of play is taken to be the prepared surface of the playing area and safety zone. c. Playing Area. The full size playing area shall be 300 yards (275 metres) in length (goal posts to goal posts) by 200 yards (183 metres) in width if unboarded; and by 160 yards (145metres) if boarded. The minimum length shall be 250 yards (230 metres).

the ground, each team being on its own side of the half-way line. After calling for ends, the umpires should ask the team captains if they agree with the score posted on the scoreboard (see Rule 1j for handicap calculation). The ball is then thrown in in accordance with Rule 21. c. No Redress. After the ball has been thrown in there can be no redress as to the score posted at the start of play even if the umpires have failed to ask team captains if they agreed. 15. DURATION OF PLAY a. Match. A match may be played over 4, 5 or 6 chukkas as stated in the Tournament Conditions. Chukkas shall last at most 2 minutes playing time. / b. State of Play. At any time there are three states of play: (i) Ball in Play. Play will be continous except for specied intervals or when an umpire blows his whistle for whatever reason. During this time, on occasion, play is deemed to be neutral when neither side has the advantage. It will not be stopped to allow a player to change a pony unless it is injured. (See Rule 30). (ii) Ball Out of Play - Clock not Stopped. The ball is out of play when it is hit over the sidelines or boards, the backline by an attacker, or if a goal has been scored. The clock is not stopped. (iii) Break in Play - Ball Dead - Clock Stopped. A break in play with the ball dead occurs when an umpire blows his whistle, or at the rst sound of the second bell, or the rst in the last chukka (unless the match is tied and a result is required). The clock is stopped immediately. The ball remains dead until the umpire calls "play" and it is hit, hit at or thrown in. c. Unnished Match. Once a match has started it shall be played to a nish unless stopped by the umpires for some unavoidable cause, such as darkness or the weather, in which case it shall be resumed at the point at which it has stopped (score, chukka and position of the ball) at the earliest convenient time, to be decided upon by the Tournament Committee (see also Annex E, Rules for League Matches, Paragraph 7). d. Chukka. Chukkas are normally 7 1/2 minutes playing time with the exception of the last which will end on the bell after 7 minutes unless teams are tied and the Tournament Conditions require a result (see also Rules 16 and 17). e. Intervals. In all matches there shall be a half-time interval of 5 minutes. For 5 chukka matches, this should be taken after the third chukka. All other intervals shall be of 3 minutes except 5 minutes shall be allowed if extra time is to be played or goals widened. A longer interval may be taken after any chukka in order to allow a cut up ground to be trodden in. A bell or hooter should be rung at the end of these intervals as a signal to the teams that the umpires are about to restart play. f. Unnecessary Delay. No player or team may cause unnecessary delay before or during play. (See also Rules 18a, 24 e, f, and 39d.) 16. END OF TIME a. End of Normal Chukka. In a normal chukka, ie not the last, the rst bell will be sounded as a warning after 7 minutes of play. If the ball is 'out of play' when the bell is sounded then the umpire will blow his whistle to end the chukka. If the ball is 'in play' however, play will continue until the umpire blows his whistle, it goes 'out of play' or hits the boards or at the rst sound of the second bell to signify that a further 30 seconds has elapsed. Any penalty awarded after the rst bell will be taken at the start of the next chukka. b. End of Last Chukka. The last chukka will end on the sound of the rst bell unless the

Tournament Conditions require a result and the teams are tied. In this event play will continue until either a goal has been scored or awarded or on the rst sound of the second bell. In the latter event extra time will be played. (See Rule 17.) c. Penalty at End of Last Chukka (Five Second Rule). If a penalty has been awarded within the last 5 seconds of the last chukka, the Timekeeper must allow a further 5 seconds of play from the time the ball is hit or hit at. e.g. if there were 3 seconds left, the time keeper will allow 5 seconds from the time that the penalty is taken; thus 2 seconds will have been added to the game. The bell will be rung if a goal is scored or when 5 seconds have elapsed unless another penalty is awarded in which case the process is repeated. If the whistle is blown and no penalty is awarded, then play shall continue for the time remaining before the whistle was blown. d. Foul on The Bell. If the bell rings for the end of the chukka or match just after a foul has been committed but before the umpire has had time to blow his whistle and the foul is conrmed, the penalty will be taken as above. EXTRA TIME TO BE PLAYED Interval. There will be an interval of ve minutes. Sudden Death. The team that scores or is awarded the rst goal wins the match. First Chukka. The rst chukka of extra time may be started with either: (i) Normal goals at the spot from where the previous chukka ended; ends are not changed; or (ii) Widened goals if the Tournament Conditions so state or team Captains agree in order to save ponies and time. The rst chukka with widened goals will be started with a throw in from the centre, ends having been changed (but see Rule 18c). Teams change ends for any subsequent chukka of extra time. d. Second Chukka. Goals will be widened for the second chukka of extra time. CHANGING ENDS, WRONG LINE UP, SCORING GOALS AND WINNING 18. CHANGING ENDS a. After Goal Scored. Except in the case of a Penalty One, ends shall be changed after every goal is scored. One umpire should canter as if from the back line. When he reaches the centre the ball shall be thrown in to restart play. Should a team cause unnecessary delay, the whistle should be blown and a Penalty 5b should be awarded against them. b. No Score at Half-Time. Ends shall also be changed if a goal has not been scored by half-time, and play shall be re-started by a throw in, hit in or penalty hit as appropriate at a corresponding position in the other half of the ground c. Score Level: Widened Goals. If the score is levelled at the very end of a match and the bell is rung before the ball has been thrown in, and the next chukka is due to begin with widened goals (Rule 17), then ends shall be changed once only. 19. WRONG LINE UP AND OFFSIDE a. Wrong Line Up By Teams. If the umpires inadvertently allow the teams to line up the wrong way at any time play will continue. However, if at the end of the chukka no goal has been scored, ends shall be changed and the game restarted with a throw in or hit from a corresponding position in the other half of the ground. b. Offside Player. A player is offside if he enters play on the side of the opposing team at a throw in, hit in or penalty, ie behind the ball (see Rule 39f). He may not make a play until he is behind a player of his own team. Should he do so a Penalty 5a is to be awarded. 17. a. b. c.

Penalty 10(b) A player sent off for the rest of the match, in addition to any other penalty. (See also Regulation 4.3a(i)) The umpires must agree that a player should be sent off. If not in agreement, the referee must be asked to decide. The side to which the sent off player belonged shall continue with three players only and any player sent off must return to the pony lines. Umpires should make it clear to the player(s) penalised and to the captains of the teams which penalty has been given. Note: In all cases in which a Penalty 10a or b is awarded a Report Form must be completed by the umpires. (ii) 41. YELLOW FLAG This rule shall apply to all matches that are umpired by HPA appointed umpires. a. A Yellow Flag should be awarded for a serious or second personal foul or for a dangerous or deliberate foul and will always be awarded in conjunction with a penalty. It will therefore be in addition to any eld or technical penalty awarded and shall be awarded like any other foul. Consequently, unless the other umpire disagrees, his agreement shall be assumed and there shall be no appeal against any Yellow Flag awarded. (i) A player who is awarded three technical penalties during one match (Rule 38) will be given an automatic Yellow Flag. (ii) A player who is shown two Yellow Flags during one match will be automatically stood down for his next tournament match. (iii) A player awarded three Yellow Flags in one match will be sent off for the rest of the match and stood down for his next tournament match. (iv) A player who accumulates three Yellow Flags will be automatically stood down for his next tournament match. b. The next tournament match shall mean the next match of equivalent level or higher which the player concerned is scheduled to play when the last yellow ag was awarded or, if no such match has been scheduled, that for which the player concerned is next entered. c. Yellow ags will not be discounted if a player is nominated to play as a replacement or substitute in a tournament match for which he was not originally entered. d. Following a player being stood down, two Yellow Flags only are discounted. e. A report form must be completed and retained by the HPA for all Yellow Flags awarded. Any Yellow Flags awarded in a season will not be carried forward to the next season.

games to umpire due to the complexity of the Rules, the speed at which it is played and the need to make immediate decisions based on an assessment of speed, angle and distance. The good umpire must therefore know the rules, concentrate on the play throughout and be consistent, clear and decisive in his judgements. In this way he will earn the respect of the players and make his task much easier. He should treat the players with fairness and under standing being ready to defuse any potentially explosive situation; he should be a dictator without being dictatorial. The umpires should do all that they can to make a game flow and minimise delays but at the same time punish offences and maintain firm control. It is not in the gift of the team captains to agree time out except if agreed for friendly matches or if one or other team is on borrowed ponies. Should the umpires decide that a match should be stopped, normally due to inclement weather making playing conditions unsafe, they should consult with the two team captains. If the game is to be stopped then the responsibility for restarting, rescheduling or scoring the match as if completed (See Annex E paragraph 7) rests with the Tournament Committee. (See also Rule 5d and Annex C para 8.) b. Selection. There will normally be two umpires but the Tournament Committee may stipulate that there be only one umpire. They should select the umpires for a match with care. For preference, those who have an interest in the outcome of the match and those who have a relative playing should not be asked to umpire. The Committees should use discretion when selecting umpires avoiding as far as possible those who have a record of dissent from certain teams. There are never enough experienced umpires to go round so a pairing with one less experienced is to be encouraged, not least to give the latter a chance to learn. A team captain may inform the Committee that his team is not happy with a certain umpire before the tournament but once the umpire has been appointed he may not appeal in any way against the appointment.The referee and umpires will be equipped with radios for all Victor Ludorum matches umpired by the Professional Groups. c. Line of the Ball (LOB) and Right of Way (ROW). It is very important that the Umpires understand the meaning of the Right of Way which is set out in detail in Rule 32 b. The umpires must watch the play very closely to pick up the Line of the Ball every time the ball is hit and from this they must judge which player or players have the Right of Way. In general terms the player following down the line with the ball on his offside has precedence over all others. A player riding in the direction that the ball is travelling at an angle to its line has the ROW over a player meeting at an angle but two players with one meeting and one following on the exact line have equal rights. A player who strikes the ball and then deviates from its line surrenders his right to the ROW. Two players making a play on each other, whether following or meeting, have the ROW over a single player coming from either direction (Two Against One Rule). A player playing the ball on his nearside has no claim to the ROW but may continue to play the ball as long as he does not endanger a player who can legitimately make a play. Should a player check on the ROW an opponent may enter and take up the ROW providing it was safe for him to do so. Should he do so safely then the player who gave up the ROW cannot accelerate to ride into his opponent from behind. Equally an opponent may not ride into an opponent with the ROW in such a way as to cause him to hook up to avoid a nasty ride off. d. Crossing, Turning the Ball, Blocking and Tapping. Umpires must take particular note of Rule 33a. which deals with crossing: the fundamental rule of play. Whether a player crosses the ROW of another player in such a way as to foul is a judgement call by the umpires and will depend on their assessment of danger based on speed and distance. In open play the call is often easy enough but is more difficult when a player turns with the ball with an opponent following in close order behind. The player following has to commit to the play and cannot be judged to have committed if he checks or turns in anticipation of a backhand. The umpires

(vi) If a player is disabled by a foul, every effort should be made to find a qualified substitute. On occasion this may not be possible in which case the umpires, in consultation with the referee and the captain of the team fouled, may decide to remove a player from the side that fouled (see Rule 29b(ii)). (vii) If a player requests that play be stopped for whatever reason but usually for a lame or distressed pony and the umpires are satisfied that that the request is genuine then all players may change. Should they not be satisfied then only that player and members of the other team may change but play will be started as soon as the player who made the request has left the ground. (See Rule 30c). Note that play will not be stopped for lost or broken tack which in the opinion of the umpires does not constitute a danger. (Rule 26b). Appealing. Rule 1b(v) states that a player may not appeal in any manner. This is probably the most frequently broken rule in the book and one in which umpires must use a certain amount of discretion. If a player sees an opponent about to commit a foul which may endanger him or his pony, his instinctive action is to raise his stick, and sometimes his voice as a warning; that is to say he is more interested in self preservation than hitting the ball and inter alia as a signal to the umpires that he thinks a foul is about to be committed. The umpires must be aware that appealing with a stick or verbally is a foul and thus under normal circumstances must be penalised. Any form of frantic waving of the stick in the air (helicoptering) must always be a foul as it constitutes a danger to other players and their ponies. The Captain of each team has the right during the game to ask the umpires for clarification of a decision but this does not include the right to challenge the umpires on that or any other decision they may make. Sometimes the umpires can pre-empt a potentially explosive situation by calmly explaining why the foul was given. They should not under any circumstances, either during or after a game, enter into discussion with the captains or any other player as to their conduct during the game. Report Forms. The umpires are required to fill in a Report Form (Rule 6) for any irregularities or incidents of misconduct and submit the form to the Tournament Committee immediately after the game. The Tournament Committee will take such action as they consider necessary and forward the form to the Chief Umpire or HPA Welfare Officer as appropriate. The umpires are required to fill in a report form for Penalty 10a and b, for a yellow flag, dangerous play, for excessive misuse of stick, a pony is seen to be blind in one eye or showing vice, illegal equipment or for a team not trying. Pony Welfare. Umpires are responsible for the welfare of the ponies during play in particular they must check the length and serviceability of whips, length and sharpness of spurs. A pony showing signs of distress or with blood in its mouth or on its flanks must be sent off. A player may not whip his pony other than in exceptional circumstances, eg if his pony kicks another, when the ball is dead. In play, a player should be penalised if he strikes his pony more than twice but should he apply such force so that the crack can be heard around the ground then that too should be penalised (See Rule 37b.) See para 5 for the duties of the Club Welfare Officer. Throw-in. (See Rule 21). (i) General. Umpire A, who is to throw in the ball, must ensure that the teams are lined up on a T or equivalent with the nearest players at least five yards from him and with a distinct gap separating the two teams who must remain stationary. There shall be no contact between players on opposing sides before the ball is thrown in. Umpire B will be about forty yards away at the back of the throw-in ready to move parallel and level with the play. The ball should be thrown-in hard and under hand so that it remains low to prevent players hitting wildly in the line-out. All rough and dangerous play should

6. THE TIMEKEEPER AND SCORER a. General. Rule 9 states: A Timekeeper/Scorer, referred to hereafter as the Timekeeper, shall be employed in all matches with an Assistant Scorer who shall man the scoreboard. In many cases, the Timekeeper and Scorer will be the same person. b. Timekeeper. The Timekeeper should be conversant with Rules 14 to 31 which govern his responsibilities. (i) Clocks. The Timekeeper must be provided with a proper polo stop-clock, which can be stopped and started at will. This clock will govern the time, the clock on the scoreboard is for guidance only. He will also require an ordinary stopwatch as a back up and to time the extra 5 seconds of play (see below). (ii) Five Minute Bell. The timekeeper will ring the bell five minutes before the advertised time for the start of the match to alert the teams and officials. If the players are not responding, he may be requested to ring the bell again to help get the match underway. He should not start the clock until play actually starts. (iii) Stopping the Clock. The time during which a penalty is being awarded or an accident being dealt with does not count in the 7 minutes playing time. The fact that the time is not to be counted (i.e. the clock is to be stopped) is indicated by the umpire blowing one firm blast on his whistle. (iv) Starting the Clock. The clock should be restarted once the umpire has said Play and the ball is hit or hit at. On occasion the umpires will blow for a foul as a goal is scored. Should the goal be awarded they will instruct the goal judge to wave his flag and at this moment the clock should be restarted. However should the umpire blow his whistle for a second time this will indicate that a penalty has been awarded in which case the clock should not be restarted until the penalty is taken. In the case of a Penalty One being awarded the clock is restarted when the ball leaves the umpires hand for the throw in. Note that the clock is not stopped when a goal is scored (except as above) or the ball goes over the back line for a hit in. (v) Ringing the Bell. It is the Timekeepers duty to ring the bell when 7 minutes of playing time has elapsed, and again 30 seconds later if play has not already stopped. Great care must be taken that the first stroke of the bell coincides exactly with the termination of the 7 and 712 minutes as the ball may go through the goal just before the first stroke of the bell in which case the goal should be allowed or just after in which case the goal should be disallowed. The Timekeepers responsibility in this matter is therefore of great importance. (vi) Intervals. Between each chukka there is an interval of 3 minutes. In all matches there is a half-time interval of 5 minutes. In a 5 chukka match, the interval is taken after the 3rd chukka. Should play begin before the 3 minutes are up, it is unnecessary to ring the bell but the clock should be started at the moment that play begins. If the play has not begun at the end of each interval, then the Timekeeper shall ring the bell, but he must not start the clock until play actually begins. In the event of a tie requiring that an extra chukka be played, the interval shall be 5 minutes. In this case it is the umpires duty to see that the game is not started again until the 5 minutes interval has been taken. (vii) Additional 5 Seconds. Rule 16c is extremely important to the Timekeeper, as he is the only official who can carry out this rule. c. Scorer (i) Before Match. The Polo Manager should provide a score sheet completed as far as possible. From this sheet the handicap received by a team will be put on the board by the Assistant Scorer (see below for table of Goals Awarded on Handicap). The Scorer


(See also Annex C)

1. GENERAL. a. This Annex lays down the rules for calculating the Order of Merit within and across leagues and groups and related issues. It should be read in conjunction with Annex C, Paragraph 6, which gives guidelines for running tournaments under the league and group systems. b. Points System. In each league or group a points system will operate for matches as follows: Played for a Win:Win = 2 Lose = 0 Played for a Draw: Win = 2 Draw = 1 Lose = 0 c. Definitions. The following definitions will apply throughout the Annex: (i) Goals Scored. This is the sum of the goals scored by and accredited to a team. (ii) Goals Scored Against. This is the sum of the goals scored by and accredited to the opponents of a team. (iii) Goal Difference. This is the sum of the Goals Scored by a team minus the Goals Scored Against. It may result in a minus total. (iv) League. A number of teams listed together which in the normal course play each other. Thus in a league of four each team plays three matches. (v) Group. A group is divided into two subgroups, each subgroup having an equal number of teams. Each team plays a match against the teams in the other subgroup; thus with two subgroups of three teams each team will play three matches.
2. ORDER OF MERIT WITHIN A LEAGUE AND A GROUP IN WHICH ALL TEAMS HAVING PLAYED EACH OTHER. In a tournament that involves leagues in which all the teams within each league have played each other a record of the results should be drawn up as in the Examples. a. Points. The order of merit is established initially by taking the number of points scored by each team in its league (Example A). b. Two Teams Tied on Points. (i) If two teams are tied on points, then the team that won the match between them goes above the other (Example B). (ii) If the result of the match between the two tied teams was a draw, the first placed team will be that with the best goal difference counting all the matches played by the two teams in their league. (iii) If the teams are tied on goal difference, the first placed team will be the one with the most goals scored, again counting all the matches played by the two teams in their league.
Three Teams Tied on Points. If three teams are tied on points, recalculate the points scored counting only the matches played between the tied teams thus: (i) If this results in two teams still being tied on points, the team that won the match between them goes above the other. (ii) If three teams are still tied on points, the order of merit is established from the goal difference credited to each team. Thus the team with the best goal difference goes first, the second best goes second and the third goes third. If this results in two of the teams still being tied on goal difference, the team that won the match between them goes above the other. (iii) If three teams are still tied then goals scored shall determine the order of merit. If this results in two of the teams being tied on goals scored, the team that won the match between them goes above the other (Example E). Four or More Teams Tied. In the event that four or more teams are tied on points, then proceed as for three teams tied (Paragraph 2c). ORDER OF MERIT WITHIN GROUPS AND LEAGUES IN WHICH ALL THE TEAMS HAVE NOT PLAYED EACH OTHER. In a tournament which involves groups or leagues in which all the teams have not played each other, a record of the results should be drawn up as in the Examples. The order of merit is drawn up using points first, then goal difference and then goals scored noting that: The result of all matches within the group or league will be taken. Thus for example with two sub groups, each of two teams playing across each other, the result of all four matches will be taken together (Examples C, D and F). If two teams have tied on points and have played each other the order of merit between them will not depend on which team won that match but on goal difference, and then if still tied on goals scored (Examples F and G). However, if two teams are still tied on goals scored and they have played each other for a result then the team that won the match between them shall go above the other team in the order of merit.

Rule 35d

A player may not ride off an opponent who is already being ridden off by another member of the team (sandwiching). However, it is not a foul for a player to hook legitimately an opponent's stick while the opponent is being ridden-off by a team mate of the player hooking.

Rule 35f

A player may not ride his pony from behind into the forehand or backhand stroke of an opponent.
Fig xxi. Red 2 can not ride from behind into the forehand or backhand stroke of Blue 4.
Fig xx. Blue 1, who has the ROW, is already being ridden off by Red 3. If Red 4 rides off Blue 1, it is a sandwich. However, Red 4 can hook Blue 1 when he is making a shot. If Red 3 pushes Blue 1 across the line to make contact with Red 4 it is also a foul against Red.

Rule 35g

A player may not use his pony to spoil a stroke by riding over the ball and into an opponent who has already started the downward swing of a full forehand or backhand stroke.

Rule 36a

For a player to make a legitimate hook, the following conditions must apply: (i) He must be on the same side of his opponent's pony as the ball (Fig xxiii), or in a direct line behind (xxiv and xxv), and his stick must be neither over or under the body or across the legs of an opponent's pony.
Fig xxii. Red 2 can not ride over the top of the ball if Blue 4 has already started the downward swing of a full forehand or backhand stroke.
(ii) All of his opponent's stick must be below the level of his opponents shoulder. (iii) His opponent must be in the act of striking the ball.
Fig xxiii. Red 2 may only hook if Blue 4 is making a stroke and all of Blue 4s stick is below the level of his shoulder.
Fig xxiv. Red 2 may hook Blue 4 if Blue 4 is making a stroke and Red 2 is directly behind.
Fig xxv. Should Red 2 not be directly behind, then he will foul


Rule No Rule No Rule No Pony: Disqualied Ordered off 4g 30a 7, Annex B 6 32b, 11f, Annex A 13b 9 1h 22 3b, 37b 36b 4h 2, Annex D 26b 30b 4f 1 1h 38 21, 40h 17 15, 5 4f 7, Annex B 7g Annex D 1k, 4m 15f, 24e, 24f, 39d 4d 4b

Accident to Player

Accident to Pony Advantage Rule Angles, equal Appealing Attacker Hits Behind Ambulance Requirement: Matches Ponies

26a 33f 1b 4o

Calculation Raised Substitution Headgear: General Loss of Helicoptering Hooking 1l 1f 2 3a 28b 36b(vi) 36a 15e, 17a 32a 14b 19 15a 16c 5d 5d,15c,AnnexE 20d 10 36b 4k 1o 5-40j 30 4d 38-41 Annex C 15b(i) 15 26-31 21-29 2a, 2k 29c 29a 3 40j 4n 4f 4k 4l 4h 1k, 4m 4h(vi) 4d 4k 4, 30a


Report Forms Right of Way Rough or Abusive Play



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