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User reviews and opinions
|datingfdge||7:22am on Saturday, October 23rd, 2010|
|Awesome Looks great, battery lasts basically a full day, extremely easy to use, great features. Worked good... for a while When i bought my zen i knew i wanted to get a case for it, so i bought this one, the factory creative one. The best player for videos. This is the best video player that I have ever owned. I absolutely love it. The screen display is terrific.|
|tadan||12:49pm on Monday, October 11th, 2010|
|I got the Vision almost six years ago, and it only now is starting to break down. As a clumsy person. Large screen, decent battery life, lots of storage Not many after market accessories, no recent firmware updates.|
|Stargazer||4:44am on Friday, August 6th, 2010|
|Creative Zen Vision W 60 GB is an awesome digital media player. This device can be use to play movies. Nice unit. I use it primarily to back up photos, which it works a dream for, even if it is a bit slow.|
|weweft||10:07pm on Thursday, June 24th, 2010|
|Track details. dont buy ipod...buy creative however, despite its wide video format support. Compatibility, ZEN VISION W from Creative Sync Manager Sync Outlook tasks and contacts, such as databases, into a Personal Address Book Service.|
|cswor||5:28am on Friday, May 21st, 2010|
|Can be used with Media Player, the Creative Vision Explorer, or their included software. The built in radio lacks range. While maybe a bit pricey at ~$400, the Vision W is a great little player. It plays the standard music files (MP3, WMA, etc.) with album art support.|
|useuy||4:23am on Monday, April 19th, 2010|
|Hi, bought ZVW and it is going great. Although I urgently need accessories. Cases (leather and silicon), cradle dock, screen savers and remote. Superb for videos and movies, easy drag-and-drop style and massive screen for subtitles. Good for subtitles A bit slow when fast-forwarding files Hi, bought ZVW and it is going great. Although I urgently need accessories. Cases (leather and silicon), cradle dock, screen savers and remote.|
|anindyanuri||4:24am on Saturday, March 20th, 2010|
|soudn quality very solid graphic vey good user friendly no tv recording hope creative will make a firmware to make video recording It comes with a super sharp multi-angle widescreen,a intergrated speaker that speaks loudly,features packed! The package comes even with a charger. long battery life .. huge screen .. integrated speakers which is loud enough HEAVY ... buttons kinda small|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Pioneer Country Region
Spirit of Brownville, Brownville
The Pioneer Country Region includes Butler, Clay, Fillmore, Gage, Hamilton, Jefferson, Johnson, Nemaha, Nuckolls, Otoe, Pawnee, Polk, Richardson, Saline, Seward, Thayer, and York Counties. with the Platte River and continuing to provide paths to a new life. Nebraskas history is forever linked to this great migration of people. Highway signs that delineate the Oregon Trails route are in storage ready to be put up along the trail route across Nebraska. Interstate 80 is modern day Nebraskas most important transportation route, carrying millions of travelers through the state each year. It is the busiest east-west interstate in the nation, and serves as a major income source for businesses and towns located along its more than 400 mile trek through the state. Photo 8-1: Missouri River Country Bordered by the Platte River to the north, the Missouri River to the east, Kansas to the south, and Frontier Trails Region to the west, Nebraskas Pioneer Country is home to more than 160,000 residents, and three of the most important transportation corridors in the history of the statethe Missouri River, the Oregon Trail, and Interstate 80. These three corridors have influenced the history and culture of Nebraska, its citizens, and their way of life for decades. This history includes Lewis and Clarks first exploration of modern day Nebraska, their interaction with the native population, and documentation of the new types of plants and animals that they encountered during their travels along the Missouri River. The Oregon and Mormon Trails entered Nebraska through the Pioneer Country Region before connecting Without these three significant transportation corridors, Nebraskas history and way of life would have been much different than it is today. The role that these corridors play in the current and future tourism industry of the region is equally important. First, the 20032006 Lewis and Clark Commemoration will attract thousands of visitors to communities along the Missouri River and throughout the region. Second, the importance and significance of the Oregon Trail to the nations westward expansion will always be a large component of this regions tourism industry. Original wagon ruts, historical sites, and past and future trail re-enactors will always attract visitors to this region. Third, as long as Americans travel through the middle of the nation, they will use Interstate 80. Since this highway was constructed, tourist businesses, services, and attractions in communities along or near it have grown and
2004 Nebraska Tourism Industry Development Plan
profited substantially. The millions of travelers each year result in towns, such as York (pop. 8,801), having burgeoning economic centers that are separate from the traditional downtown business district, primarily at the intersection of Interstate 80 and another highway. The regions attractions, services, and tourist activities are significantly varied. It has a rich American Indian history, some of Nebraskas oldest towns, one of the states nine scenic byways, community and local theatres, cultural events, the U.S.s first homesteaders claim, and the worlds longest porch swing. From this region came some national celebrities, such as famous silent film star Harold Lloyd of Burchard, war correspondent Barney Oldfield of Tecumseh, and strobe light experimenter, Harold Edgerton of Aurora. Burchard, Tecumseh, and Aurora have museums dedicated to their lives and works. Most communities across the Pioneer Country Region boast quality public parks that offer a variety of activities, such as playgrounds, ball fields, and camping. A number of them also have community-fishing ponds, such as David City, Sutton, Superior, Fairbury, Nebraska City, Auburn, Humboldt, and Pawnee City. The ponds in Fairbury, David City, and Nebraska City are stocked with rainbow trout in the winter, which draws anglers from surrounding communities in Nebraska, Kansas, and Iowa. Originally, Otoe Indians inhabited this area, and there are still signs of the initial occupants among the rocks and backwoods of the regions river counties. In fact, Indian Cave State Park south of Nemaha (pop. 178) is named after a cave etched with petroglyphs (ancient Indian picture writings) that date back thousands of years. More modern history also is prevalent throughout the region. For example, Nebraska City, Peru, and Brownville were all surveyed between 1854 and 1857a full decade before statehood in 1867. Today, these river towns, along with Falls City farther south near the Kansas border, provide visitors with a variety of unique historical and recreational opportunities.
Photo 8-2: Indian Cave State Park, Nemaha Nebraska City (pop. 7,228) has a colorful past as a major river port. Even Lewis and Clark, on their travels up the Missouri River, remarked that this location would be an ideal site for a future city. They were not wrong in this citys importance. Before the arrival of the freight train, Nebraska City served as a major steamboat and freight wagon transfer station. Freight was transported by steamboat upriver from Fort Leavenworth, Kan. to Nebraska City. From there it was transferred to freight wagons and hauled overland via the Oxbow
Missouri River Country
Much of southeast Nebraskas identity begins along the banks of the Missouri River.
Trail to Fort Kearny, Nebr., (near present-day Kearney). In fact, many historians consider Nebraska City to have been one of the most important towns in the territory during the 1850s. Today Nebraska City is a thriving city with many quality historical and cultural attractions. It is perhaps best known for being the home of J. Sterling Morton, founder of Arbor Day. Arbor Lodge State Historical Park continues to be one of the top tourism draws in the state, attracting nearly 70,000 visitors in 2002. The Lied Conference Center is a full-service, multi-million dollar conference center set amidst acres of apple orchards. The Arbor Day Farm includes a series of walking trails that let visitors enjoy the farms orchards, croplands, and grasslands.1 Interpretive panels along the trails provide an understanding of the trees, their environment, and the natural and arboricultural processes at work on the farm. The addition of these facilities brings together the past, present, and future of American environmentalism and conservationism.2 In 2002, the Nebraska Travel and Tourism Division awarded the National Arbor Day Foundation a Tourism Development Initiative grant to develop the Tree House Trail at Arbor Day Farm. The trail and associated green house tour is handicap accessible, thereby increasing the number of visitors to Arbor Day Farm. 2002 attendance: 150,000. One of the citys newest attractions is the Missouri River Basin Lewis and Clark Interpretive Trails and Visitors Center. Scheduled to open in July 2004, in time for the National Bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 2003-2006, this facility will focus on the more than 400 scientific discoveries of flora and fauna documented by Lewis and Clark. A life-size replica of their keelboat; hands-on exploration activities; and interactive areas with small animals, birds, flowers, plants, and trees in their native settings await visitors to this 10,000-squarefoot facility. A trailhead connection to the Steamboat Trace Trail allows visitors to walk in the footsteps of Meriwether Lewis as he collected specimens.3 Located on one large parcel of land (approximately 20 acres), the entire journey is recreated from St. Louis, Mo. to Fort Clatsop, Ore. along a walking trail. The Mayhew Cabin, built in 1850, is the oldest known structure in Nebraska still in its original location. A line of the underground railroad that hid and moved slaves to freedom ran near Nebraska City. John Brown, a militant opponent of slavery, came through Nebraska City five times before he died for the cause. While not many slaves escaped to freedom using Nebraskas underground railroad, it stands as a symbol of pride for the community.4 Displays on the Civil War and slavery provide visitors with a better understanding of this era. The historical village that surrounds the cabin includes a log schoolhouse, tepee, antique steam engine, and other exhibits. Ten shops of this time period are located along a brick street, allowing visitors a peek into life as it was then. 2002 attendance: 5,250. Nebraska Citys Steinhart Park underwent a restoration project that included deepening the pond, stabilizing shorelines, landscaping, and
Tecumseh-St. Joseph Trail Pawnee City-Lincoln Trail Salt Creek Trail Brownville-Fort Kearny Trail Settlement Trail
Indian Cave State Park near Shubert (pop. 252) is named for the sandstone cavity that is the main geologic feature of the area. This 3,000-acre area, which straddles the NemahaRichardson county line, is one of Nebraskas finest state parks. Along with ample outdoor recreational opportunities, the park contains a significant amount of American Indian and pioneer history that is vital to the entire region. 2002 attendance: 120,692. The communities of Rulo (pop. 226) and Falls City (pop. 4,671) in Richardson County are well positioned to encourage visitors farther south near the Nebraska-Kansas-Missouri state lines. The Missouri River Bridge at Rulo was constructed in 1885, making it easier for todays travelers along Missouris Interstate 29 to visit this section of southeastern Nebraska. Ten miles west of Rulo, Falls City offers tourist support services, as well as many historic, cultural, shopping, and recreational opportunities. Immediately west of Richardson County is Pawnee County. Surveyed in 1855, Pawnee City (pop. 1,033) has retained much of its original downtown district. In fact, most of the downtown districts 56 buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Pawnee City offers a variety of visitor support services, including a bed and breakfast establishment, antique shops, arts and crafts, a
Nebraska City-Marysville Trail Nebraska City-Beatrice Trail
wonderful restaurant in a former residence, and a new vineyard. The Stonebridge Vineyard began growing grapes in Spring 2002. Plans are to plant 1,200 more vines in 2003 in addition to the 1,300 previously planted.6 Owners plan to build a winery on the property. The Pawnee City Historical Museum is one of the regions finest museums, and includes exhibits on two wellknown Pawnee County residentsHarold Lloyd and Irish McCalla. Other sites of note in Pawnee County include an operating ostrich farm south of Lewiston, the birthplace of silent film star Harold Lloyd in Burchard, the historic downtown district of Table Rock, and the Table Rock Opera House. downtown bank built in 1885 into a trails interpretive and visitor center. This center will display artifacts and information that interpret the region's history and the trails that crossed through here, such as the Oregon Trail and the Oketoe Cutoff. In addition to being an interpretive and visitor center, the facility also will house artifacts and materials that interpret local American Indian history, culture, and way of life. This facility will complement the proposed renovation of the Otoe Indian School in Barneston and provide valuable information and research on the culture, history, and language of the Otoe people. It also will serve as an important connection to the Homestead National Monument of America near Beatrice, and provide visitors with information on pioneer and American Indian history that permeates the region. Once completed, this project will provide Nebraska with a wonderful new attraction, be a source of pride, and attract outside tourist dollars to this rural town. Homestead National Monument of America, located west of the Gage County seat of Beatrice (pop. 12,496), is an attraction of national significance. One of only three national monuments in the state, Homestead National Monument of America is a tribute to Daniel and Agnes (Suiter) Freeman, who were among the first applicants to file under the Homestead Act of 1862. The Freeman exhibits, along with hiking trails through 100 acres of restored native tall grass prairie, offer visitors two of the most popular forms of Nebraska tourism: western historic experiences and ecological interests.
The Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail passed through present-day Gage, Jefferson, and Thayer Counties, roughly following the path of the Little Blue River. Thousands of immigrants, wagons, oxen, horses, and cattle passed through these counties during the mid-1800s to a new life in the western U.S. This enormous movement of humanity is referred to today as The Great Migration, and the spirit from which it was formed remains an integral chapter in the American experience and the history and settlement of Nebraska. The Oregon Trail entered southeast Nebraska near the town of Odell (pop. 345) in southern Gage County. Local officials understand the importance of the trails that passed through this region, and they want to capitalize on this history and its impacts on the region. Plans have been developed in Odell to convert a former
Beatrice Community PlayersThe group offers four regular season productions and additional special productions each year. Homestead Corridor TrailThis trail stretches 59 miles from Lincoln, through Beatrice, to Marietta, Kan. Plans are to someday connect to Missouris Katy Trail and St. Louis. Photo 8-4: Homestead National Monument of America, Beatrice Plans are underway to expand the national monument by constructing an on-site genealogical-research facility. See Industry Recommendations in this chapter for more information on this project. During the Corps of Discovery Bicentennial (2003-2006), Homestead National Monument will conduct a series of Lewis and Clark-related events. Some of the other attractions in Beatrice include: The Gage County Historical Society MuseumLocated in a Burlington Railroad Depot built in 1906, the museum includes displays on the history of Beatrice and Gage County. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Elijah Filley Stone BarnLocated along Highway 4, this barn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Historic Downtown BeatriceThe downtown district boasts a number of architecturally interesting buildings. Beatrice is a Main Street community. Near the Jefferson County seat of Fairbury (pop. 4,262) is the first major Nebraska attraction on the Oregon TrailRock Creek Station State Historical Park. This station for travelers along the Oregon Trail was established in 1857 and later used as a Pony Express Station during its brief 18-month run. However, it is best known as the site of Wild Bill Hickocks successful debut as a gunfighter against local pioneer D.C. McCanles. The Rock Creek Station area also boasts some of the states most visible Oregon Trail wagon ruts. About 30 miles north of the Rock Creek site sits one of Nebraskas most well known ethnic communities. Wilber, the county seat of Saline County, is recognized as the Czech capital of Nebraska and the United States. This picturesque small town attracts visitors yearround with its eastern European atmosphere, ethnic businesses, and historic 1895 hotel now a popular bed and breakfast establishment. The Wilber Czech Festival is one of the largest annual ethnic events in the state, attracting more than 40,000 visitors to this community of 1,700 residents each August. 2004 marks the 43rd year of the threeday festival.
The completion of Nebraskas segment of Interstate 80 in 1976 resulted in many new opportunities for the states tourism industry. Much like the Oregon Trail of the 1800s, Interstate 80 brings masses of people to Nebraska who may not otherwise have visited
richest agricultural land in the state. The eastern sections of these counties differ somewhat in that they primarily consist of rolling hills and a landscape that is similar to that in many parts of Europe. This is one of several reasons why farmers of Czechoslovakian and Bohemian decent first settled the area. Often referred to as the Czech Strip, or Bohemian Hills, these areas cultural influences still flourish in small communities of unique charm. The small, unincorporated town of Loma in Butler County gained national fame and recognition in 1994 when it was chosen as the site for the film, To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar. Osceola (pop. 921), the county seat of Polk County, is located within an easy drive of Grand Island (49 miles), Lincoln (76 miles), and Omaha (90 miles), and within reach of 50,000 people in a 30-miles radius.7 The town is surrounded by rolling hills, wide-open sky, and offers exceptional outdoor recreational opportunities. Twenty miles north of York along Highway 81 is the largest community in Polk CountyStromsburg (pop. 1,232)the Swedish Capital of Nebraska. A charming and successful Swedish bed and breakfast is located in town as well as several ethnic businesses and restaurants, a quaint city square, and local park. Stromsburg offers visitors an ethnic experience similar to that found in Wilber. Ideally located at the intersection of Interstate 80 and U.S. Highway 81, forty-four miles from Lincoln, York (pop. 8,081) has rapidly expanded into an important regional trade center. In fact, the junction of Interstate 80 and Highway 81 has developed into a separate economic center for York that offers a variety of tourist services. York is known for its wealth of historic homes, the Anna Bemis Palmer Museum, and Chances Ra popular local restaurant that attracts hundreds of motorcoach tours each year and diners from near and far. The Yorkshire Community Playhouse is a top quality community theatre and the main source of theatre productions for residents in the surrounding region. Hamilton and Clay Counties enjoy many historical and outdoor recreational opportunities. The Oregon Trail and Pony Express Route passed through the southwest corner of Clay County, and the Big Blue and Little Blue Rivers provide exceptional wildlife habitats and various hunting and fishing opportunities. In Clay County, there is an important facility for generating more interest in agricultural tourismthe Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, which is open to visitors. The center operates on 35,000 acres three miles west of Clay Center (pop. 861). The county also abounds with beautiful scenery, interesting local history, and small town charm. A nice county museum and community playhouse preserve Clay Countys history and culture for future residents. Additionally, Clay County contains six state wildlife management areas. Such a high concentration of accessible wildlife habitats, along with the countys close proximity to Interstate 80, make Clay County an ideal setting for hunting outfitters and related businesses. In Hamilton County, the city of Aurora (pop. 4,225) has two high quality museums that are real assets. The
Edgerton Explorit Center is a hands-on science center with technology exhibits, while the Plainsman Museum chronicles the areas history and settlement. 2002 attendance at the Edgerton Explorit Center was 15,795. The Pioneer Country Region provides many great opportunities for a variety of hunting, such as squirrel, cottontail rabbit, bobwhite quail, prairie chicken, pheasant, deer, and turkey. Burchard Lake Wildlife Management Area in Pawnee County offers observation blinds for viewing prairie chickens on their booming grounds(courtship rituals). Pawnee County also offers many acres that are included in the Conservation Reserve Program Management Access Program (CRP-MAP) for walk-in public access hunting. A 112-mile auto tour provides a great view of the many Rainwater Basin Wetlands located across the region. The tour was featured in the Nebraskaland Viewing Guide. The tour begins in York, Nebr., heads south to Strang, west to Clay Center, and back north to Aurora. If travelers take the route between February and March, migrating waterfowl are abundant. Likewise, if driven in April and May, many shorebirds and nesting waterfowl can be observed. One popular event is the Wing Ding in Clay Center. This annual event is held each March to celebrate the great spring migration spectacle.
Pioneer Country Region Tourism Organizations
Auburn Chamber of Commerce 1211 J Street Auburn, NE 68305 (402) 274-3521 www.ci.auburn.ne.us/ Aurora Area Chamber and Development 1604 L Street Aurora, NE 68818 (402) 694-6911 www.auroracofc.org Beatrice/Gage County CVB 226 S. 6th Street Beatrice, NE 68310 (402) 223-3175 www.beatricene.com/visitorsbureau Fillmore County Development Corp. 1032 G. Street Geneva, NE 68361-2007 (402) 759-4910 www.ci.geneva.ne.us/ Five Rivers RC&D 140 N. 4th Street Tecumseh, NE 68450 (402) 335-3347 Great Plains RC&D 402 N. 5th Street David City, NE 68632-1635 (402) 367-3074 Little Blue NRD 172 East 4th Street Nelson, NE 68916-0307 (402) 225-2311 Lower Big Blue NRD 200 N. 24th Street, Suite 3 Beatrice, NE 68310-3427 (402) 223-3125 Lower Big Blue NRD 200 N. 24th Street, Suite 3 Beatrice, NE 68310-3427 (402) 223-3125 Milligan/Fillmore Co. Visitors Committee PO Box 218 Milligan, NE 68406 (402) 629-4382 Nebraska City Chamber of Commerce 806 1st Avenue Nebraska City, NE 68410 (402) 873-3000 www.nebraskacity.com Nemaha NRD 448 N. 12th Street Tecumseh, NE 68450-0626 (402) 335-3316 Saline County Visitors Committee 103 N. East Ave Western, NE 68464 (402) 433-2431 Seward Area Chamber of Commerce 616 Bradford Avenue Seward, NE 68434 (402) 643-4189 www.sewardne.com Southeast Nebraska Tourism Council 226 South 6th Beatrice, NE 68310 (800) 842-4289 www.visitsoutheastnebraska.org
Upper Big Blue NRD 419 W. 6th Street, Suite 2 York, NE 68467-2900 (402) 362-5700
Photo 8-5: Steamboat Trace Trail
Table 8-1: 2002 Attendance Figures for Selected Pioneer Country Attraction Attraction Total Arbor Day Farm Nebraska City 150,000 Indian Cave State Park Shubert 120,962 Arbor Lodge State Historical Park Nebraska City 69,900 Homestead National Monument of America Beatrice 52,330 Beatrice Big Blue Water Park Beatrice 16,783 Edgerton Explorit Center Aurora 15,795 Big Indian Recreation Area Beatrice 12,000 Thayer County Speedway Deshler 12,000 Whiskey Run Creek Vineyard and Winery Brownville 10,000 Gage County Historical Museum Beatrice 5,721 Spirit of Brownville Riverboat Brownville 5,400 Fairbury Rock Island Depot Museum Fairbury 5,290 Mayhew Cabin Nebraska City 5,250 Meriwether Lewis Dredge and History Museum-Brownville 5,000 Wildwood Center Historic House Nebraska City 4,378 Fillmore County Museum Fairmont 2,500 Pawnee Earth Lodge Goehner 2,000 The Governor Furnas Arboretum Brownville 2,000 Brownville Historical Society Museum Brownville 1,961 Pawnee City Historical Society Museum Pawnee City 1,Carson House Brownville 1,700 Wilber Czech Museum Wilber 1,433 Prairie Peace Park Pleasant Dale 975 Seward County Historical Society Museum Goehner 900 Saline County Historical Society Dorchester 832 Riverview Marina State Recreation Area Nebraska City 820 Welsh Heritage Center Wymore 750 Historic Steele City Steele City 600 Fairbury City Museum Fairbury 562 Otoe County Museum of Memories Syracuse 500 Table Rock Historical Society Museum Table Rock 475 Bell-Jenne House and Richardson County Museum Falls City 300 Anna Bemis Palmer Museum York 256 Johnson County Historical Society Tecumseh 116 Rock Creek Station Historical Park and Recreation Area 37,205 Fairbury Butler County Museum David City 20 Total 548,567
the thousands of visitors who travel this highway each year. Roadside fruit and vegetable stands, farmers markets, art districts, historic downtowns, and intimate lodging and dining places entice travelers to spend time and money in local economies. Market other highways in the Pioneer Country Region as scenic and historic highways. Highway 136 is the only highway in the area to be officially designated as a Nebraska Scenic Byway. However, this designation does not mean that other roads in the region are less scenic or historic. Local officials along the regions other highways could partner to develop marketing campaigns and ideas to encourage travelers to search out alternate routes. These partnerships have already begun to form. For example, organizations that promote, market, and develop the tourism industries of Highways 6 and 14 are eager to encourage visitors to experience their local treasures. Support tourism development along Highways 281, 14, and 6. Local officials along Highway 281 are developing a variety of tourism activities and events. While Highway 281 is located outside the Pioneer Country Region boundaries, it is still close enough to the regions towns that local businesses, services, and attractions can benefit from increased tourism traffic and development along the highway. Local officials along Highways 14 and 6 have expressed interest in having the Nebraska Travel and Tourism Division conduct an assessment of the highways tourism potential. Enhance road access to Oregon Trail sites in the Hebron area. Develop a camping/RV and recreational facility near the intersection of Highways 81 and 136. Highway 136 is an officially designated Nebraska Scenic Byway, while Highway 81 is a major north-south transportation route. Thousands of visitors travel these highways each year, making this intersection at Hebron an ideal location for a new campground and RV park. Encourage informational signs for other historic trails throughout the region. Encourage local officials from different towns to cooperatively hire a firm to maintain highway historical markers. Once local officials purchase state highway historical markers, they are responsible for maintaining them. In order to reduce the cost to each town, local officials should consider partnering to hire a business to oversee routine maintenance of area historical markers. Improve signs that notify visitors of recreational opportunities on Natural Resource and Conservation lands. Develop a community-wide trolley system in Nebraska City. This transportation mode should be active during the summer travel season, and during local events and festivals, including
events and conventions at the Lied Conference Center. Establish partnerships between the Lied Conference Center and Nebraska City merchants. Local merchants could offer discount coupons for area shops and restaurants, package deals at local and regional golf courses, and free or reduced admission to attractions and events. These entities also could trade mailing lists for marketing purposes. Partnerships between these and other entities will help to create a demand that will encourage downtown merchants to remain open more hours in the evenings. Create a four-state regional group of counties in southeast Nebraska, southwest Iowa, northeast Kansas, and northwest Missouri. An objective of this regional group should be to market and develop the tourism industry in the four-state area, especially taking advantage of the traffic along Interstates 80 and 29. Counties in southwestern Nebraska, northeastern Colorado, and northwestern Kansas formed a similar group named CONEKA. This groups objective is to spur new economic growth to the area, including tourism development and marketing. This type of organization would develop the areas tourism industry and appeal through partnerships and good communication among the areas tourism groups and services. Encourage partnerships to develop the regions ag- tourism industry. A growing number of travelers are interested in farm and ranch vacation experiences. The public sector (chambers of commerce, county visitor committees and local governments) should partner with the private sector (farmers, ranchers, outfitters, guides) to develop the regions ag-tourism industry and capitalize on these visitors. Continue restoration efforts of historic Old Brownville. Brownville, located on the banks of the Missouri River, enjoys a good location for becoming one of Nebraskas most successful tourist towns. Recent efforts to develop Brownville into an official Booktown should assist local officials and residents in this goal. Preserve the old river town character of Nebraska City, Peru, Brownville, and Rulo. Encourage partnerships between the Pioneer Country Region and Douglas and Lancaster Counties. Members of the Southeast Nebraska Travel Council could contact tourism representatives from these two counties to support and work with the organization. Develop a regional transportation system among communities, attractions, and events across the region. Enhance facilities at the Mission Creek Indian campgrounds near Barneston.
Develop a historic walking tour of Nebraska City. Nebraska City sprang up around the location of a former fort built in 1846. Its downtown district is full of interesting and historical structures that deserve closer inspection. Develop resources along the Nebraska section of the Great Plains Nature Trail. This lengthy trail will eventually extend from Mexico to Canada through the Great Plains states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. It is hoped to be a catalyst to revitalize portions of the Great Plains region.10 Capitalize on travelers using the American Discovery Trail. The American Discovery Trail enters Nebraska near Julesburg, Colo. in the west and at Omaha in the east. The total trail stretches more than 6,800 miles through 15 states from California to Delaware. Small towns in the Pioneer Country Region located along the trail, such as Stromsburg, David City, and Shelby, need to develop a vision to capitalize on trail users. Develop a hiking and biking trail or canoe trail along the Big Nemaha River. Develop a link between the Nebraska City-Peru-Brownville Trail and the City of Auburn. Located only nine miles west of Brownville, a connection from the Steamboat Trace Trail to Auburn would allow more hikers and bikers access to this scenic trail along the Missouri River. Develop the riverfront in Beatrice as an attraction. Bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, and streams, are important tourism attractions. The Big Blue River flows through the eastern part of Beatrice. To date, local officials have developed the Big Blue River Trail that follows the river from Chautauqua Park to Riverside Park. Future plans include landscaping and cleaning up the riverbanks, and adding interpretive signs about the rivers history and ecology. The local Rotary organization is raising funds for a veterans memorial to be placed in Nichols Park. Connect Beatrices trails into a trail system. Future plans should include connecting Beatrices trail system to those of neighboring communities. Develop the fossil bed near Odell into a research center and attraction. Encourage more genealogical services in the area. The Homestead National Monument near Beatrice is a model for local officials that want to develop and catalogue the genealogical resources located in their towns.
Support development efforts for the Native American Mission School and Otoe Indians wintering ground in Barneston. Plans are to convert the Mission School into a historical and interpretive museum that chronicles the lives of the Otoe Indians who once lived in the area. Develop a trail along the Big Blue River. Convert a former bank building in Odell into a regional trails interpretive center. A number of historic trails crossed through this area, such as the Oregon Trail, the Pony Express route, the Mormon Trail, and the Oketo Cut off. This center also would serve as a genealogy center for Odell and the surrounding area. Establish an arts and crafts community in Fairbury. A successful prairie arts colony has been developing in the small southeastern Kansas town of Sedan (pop. 1,200), which attracted an estimated 80,000 visitors in 2002.11 Encourage more ethnic events and activities in the Pioneer Country Region. In addition to American Indians, many European settlers, such as Welsh, Czech, and German, called southeast Nebraska home. The annual Wilbur Czech Festival attracts thousands of visitors each August, while Wymore is rapidly making a name for itself as Nebraskas Welsh Capital. Plans are still underway to develop a Welsh Cultural Center in the community. Develop an information center and RV park/campground near Chester. The city purchased an 11-acre site of land near the intersection of Highways 81 and 8. This area would be a good location for an information center and RV park/campground. It enjoys a prime location one mile from the NebraskaKansas state line, along Highway 81one of Nebraskas most traveled north-south highways. An information center here would encourage travelers to visit other parts of the Pioneer Country Region and regions in Nebraska. Improve access and interpretation of the surveying monument along the Nebraska-Kansas state line. The monument that sits on the four corners of Thayer and Jefferson Counties in Nebraska and Republic and Washington Counties in Kansas is the beginning point for surveying all the land in Kansas and Nebraska, much of the land in Colorado and Wyoming, and a small part of South Dakota. The point is 108 miles west of the Missouri River at the intersection of the north/south Sixth Meridian and the east/west 40th parallel.12 Encourage adequate tourism services along Highway 81. Highway 81 is a vital link between Mexico and Canada and one of Nebraskas most heavily traveled highways. Adequate tourist services and amenities are important to ensure that communities along this road take full advantage of these travelers.
(The following recommendations, not presented in any order of priority, were made by local residents who attended a series of public meetings.)
Develop new types of tours and tour activities throughout the region.
See Statewide Issues
Encourage and develop the regions arts and cultural attractions.
See Statewide Issues.
Increase hunting activities and opportunities throughout the region.
Develop and encourage more RV parks and camping sites.
See Frontier Regions Industry Recommendation Develop more areas for RV and camping facilities.
Support the long-range plans of the Homestead National Monument of America.
The Homestead National Monument of America near Beatrice was established in 1936 to commemorate the lives and accomplishments of the pioneers, and changes to the land and people resulting from the Homestead Act of 1862.13 This act has been recognized as one of the most important laws in U.S. history. By granting 160 acres of free land to each claimant, it offered everyone the opportunity to live the American dream and helped push the nation westward. The National Park Service (NPS) has developed projects in the facilitys General Management Plan (GMP) that will significantly upgrade and improve this quality attraction. Following is an excerpt from the Homestead National Monument of Americas website defining the role of the GMP: A General Management Plan provides a vision for the future of a park and a practical framework for decision-making. It helps identify strategies, programs, actions, and support facilities necessary to manage visitation and best protect park resources in accordance with all applicable legislation and policy. It serves as a guidebook. A GMP does not provide specific facility designs, resolve all issues, or guarantee funding. Instead, it describes the general direction the National Park Service intends to follow in managing Homestead National Monument of America for the next ten to fifteen years.
The Monuments GMP recommends three development concepts that significantly change its physical layout and functionthe Homestead Heritage Center, the Education Center, and the Homestead Heritage Parkway. The Homestead Heritage Center will be a 28,000 square-foot state-of-the-art multilevel building that emphasizes energy efficiency and the incorporation of sustainable building materials.14 The design will reflect its location on a site that was once natural prairie at the time of the Homestead Act. Located on the eastern side of the Monument, the new center will house collections, interpretive exhibits, public research facilities, and administrative offices. The centers focal point will be the Palmer-Epard Cabin that will help visitors learn what life was like in and around a homesteaders cabin. Other exhibits will help bring to life historic figures connected to the homesteading experience, such as Willa Cather. A 100-seat theatre will be suitable for temporary exhibitions and other indoor activities, such as performing arts, lectures, and concerts. There also will be a separate room within the center for research and to act as a repository for the Monuments important historical records and other items and literature on homesteading. Once the new Homestead Heritage Center is constructed, the current visitor center/museum building will be remodeled to serve as the Education Center and maintenance facility, where students of all ages can learn more about the homestead movement. A new program called School of Traditional Homesteading Folk Arts will encourage visitors to learn about old homesteading folk arts. Distance learning technology will connect schools across Nebraska and the country to the Education Center. The current facilitys offices will be renovated to serve as classrooms and for use for visiting instructors. The space at the back of the current building will house maintenance operations. Finally, the Homestead Heritage Parkway is designed to form an interpretive link between the Monument and the surrounding rural area and communities. The Nebraska Department of Roads plans to reroute a portion of Highway 4, the current highway that leads to the Monument. An access road will be created for the Monument and local residents. Park officials propose to designate the parkway from the Freeman School west along the access road to where it rejoins Highway 4. Even though the Monuments plan calls for a parkway on this stretch, the NPS is not recommending a formal federal designation for this parkway. Instead, the NPS encourages voluntary partnerships of federal, state, and local governments and landowners along the proposed highway segment.15
Encourage more cross promotion and development partnerships.
The small population base of the Pioneer Country Region makes it necessary to forge development and marketing partnerships among communities, tourist attractions, and local officials, and for all tourism entities in the region to cross promote each other to retain visitors. The bottom line of tourism is to encourage visitors to come to an area to spend time and money. The more out-of-town money spent in a community or region, the greater the economic benefits to the local, regional, and state economies. The impact of these visitors is exponentially greater by working together. Unfortunately, cross promotion of attractions, tourist services, and communities is a concept that some people in the tourism industry forget. Part of the reason for this is that tourism is a competitive industry, even for entities within the same region. Local officials want to ensure that out-of-town visitors come to their towns or attractions. In effect, cross promotion means that communities, local officials, tourist services, and other tourist entities sell each other to visitors. For example, a hotel front desk clerk will try to locate another lodging property in town if his or her property is full. Another example is visitor information center staff telling visitors not only about attractions found within their town, but also across the region. Providing website links to other towns across the region from each towns website is another good example of cross promotion. A number of opportunities exist for local officials to work together on developing and marketing quality region-wide tourism attractions. For example, the Heritage Highway Byway Management Committee has been working to promote and develop the resources found in communities along the byway. This is a great example of communities working together. A regional byway brochure has been developed and the committee is working on developing tours around the byway and attracting bus tour groups. The Southeast Nebraska Travel Council (SENTC) membership includes 11 counties in southeast Nebraska. This regional tourism group works to market, promote, and develop the regions tourism industry. The committee meets monthly to:
Share new projects and ideas that representative counties are developing. Discuss new projects that tourism entities could implement to encourage more visitors. Develop an annual regional tourism guide. Provide an opportunity for tourist attractions and sites that have small budgets to reach a larger travel market by working with SENTC.
It is beneficial for local media to encourage local partnerships and connections. Local
officials need to actively encourage newspapers, television, and radio to cover new and existing tourist attractions, events, services, and projects that happen in the Pioneer Country Region. The media should be invited to all tourism functions and meetings around the region and should be sent news releases about all upcoming tourism related projects and programs. When the media is aware of what is happening tourism-wise throughout the region, they can have a significant impact on the general populations attitude about, and support for, new and existing tourism endeavors.
Photo 8-6: Lied Conference Center, Nebraska City
All attraction attendance figures are from the Nebraska Department of Economic Development. All community and county population data are from the U.S. Census Bureau. 1. Arbor Day Farm website, www.arbordayfarm.org. 2. Ibid. 3. Missouri River Basin Lewis and Clark Interpretive Trails and Visitors Center brochure. 4. Virtual Nebraska website, www.casde.unl.edu/history/counties/otoe/nebcity/nebcity.htm. 5. Whiskey Run Creek website, www.whiskeyruncreek.com. 6. Sharon Schilling, Stonebridge Vineyard, personal communication. 7. Osceola website, www.ci.osceola.ne.us/index.htm. 8.National Park Service website, Underground Railroad Network to Freedom, www.cr.nps.gov/ugrr/network.htm. 9. Ibid. 10. Missouri River Mitigation Project website, www.nwk.usace.army.mil/projects/mitigation. 11. Johnson, Rona. Tourism: Trail Blazing. Grand Forks Herald 8 July 2003. 12. Kinzer, Stephen. Sowing Art on the Kansas Prairie. New York Times 22 Jan. 2004. 13. Nordby, Barbara. Monument to Surveying. Lincoln Journal Star 12 Oct. 2003. 14. Homestead National Monument website, www.nps.gov. 14. Homestead National Monument, General Management Plan. 15. Ibid.
CHIROPRACTIC DIPLOMATIC CORPS
Equal access and availability of chiropractic for all.
Chiropractic Global Professional Strateg y
Global Professional Strategy for Chiropractic
Chiropractic GPS: Revealing the right coordinates for professional development.
Michel Y. Tetrault, DC 2000 - 2004 800-15355 24th Ave Suite 207 White Rock, BC V4A 2H9 Canada 17602 17th Street Suite 102 Tustin , CA 92780 USA firstname.lastname@example.org Phone 800-600-7032
T able of Contents
Planting, cultivating and improving the quality of the harvest. A work in progress
4. National Association
A discussion in favor of greater support for the structuring of a National Association in Pioneer countries and beyond - shifting into higher gear through better organizations.
1. Universal variables
a) Size of a country's Middle Class -A % of population by GDP/person stats b) Humanitarian treatment by governments toward their own citizens. i) Favorable ii) Improving iii) Lacking c) Socio-cultural aspects of integrating chiropractic with traditional healthcare structures. d) Language issues regarding the potential education of future chiropractors. i) English ii) Non-English iii) Miscellaneous
5. International Education
Globalizing the chiropractic education process and preserve our uniqueness: Philosophy Content Internship Standards Projecting Growth Building Resources
6. Country Support Groups
The growing number of bi-lingual and bicultural DCs can play a large part in the International expansion of chiropractic if they will learn how to organize and engage in meaningful activities that can in fact increase the prospects of establishing chiropractic in their country of heritage.
2. Measuring Growth
Rating the 4 criteria of professional growth: 1. Total # of DCs in permanent practice. 2. Level of legal recognition. 3. National Association Organization. 4. Total student enrollment in the country.
7. Humanitarian Missions
Practical guidelines to successful missions: a. Contacts & Locations b. Timing c. Public Relations d. Doctor Recruitment e. Prospective Students
3. Country Status
a) Established: DC ratio per population is 1: <10,000 Focus is on increasing the demand for care ( % utilization universal access) Advancing: Ratio is 1:>10,000 & <100,000 Focus is on professional development and public education. (create value) Pioneer: Ratio is 1:>100,000 Focus is on increasing the number of DCs, getting organized to start a school and pass an international level law. Unsuitable: No legal chiropractors and environment is unfavorable or too hostile.
8. Model Int'l Law
Identifying the ingredients for a model law a. Title Protection b. Definitions & Scope c. Primary Doctor d. Registration e. Regulatory Structure
9. Strategy & logistics
Attraction of reserves and resources: Time Money People Space Opportunities
C H I R O P R A C T I C
D I P L O M A T I C
C O R P S
Planting, cultivating and improving the quality of the harvest
In 1895 the world saw the beginning of a healthcare profession that based its existence on a simple principle: "Vertebral subluxations interfere with health." This original idea, or "original seed" as I prefer to call it, is the basic foundation of the chiropractic premise of health and disease. The century that followed saw this seed take roots and grow into an established profession that leads the drugless healthcare practitioners in North America. The actual practice of chiropractic in the USA has changed quite a bit over the years as the profession began to introduce adjunctive or complimentary procedures in fitness, nutrition and advanced diagnostic methods in radiology, orthopedics and neurology. In fact, one could say that there is a hybrid form of chiropractic that now exists in the USA in serving the needs of its communities. There are now chiropractors in 100 countries all over the world where most (76) have only one chiropractor for every hundred thousand to ten million people. Here, the profession is in its infancy and a hand full of doctors have the responsibility of developing the profession in their country. This publication is dedicated to these pioneers. The development of chiropractic is influenced by its cultural environment. What elements form the cultural soil found in each country? The country's history, economy, folklore, value systems and other characteristics of that population; existing healthcare providers, both traditional medicine and Western medicine; and most importantly, the humanitarian attitudes reflected in their laws. So one could say that some soils would be unsuitable to nurture the chiropractic seed while other soils could sustain the growth of the chiropractic seed. The higher the quality of the soil, the more chiropractic will thrive. Incidentally, it would be a grave error to attempt to transplant the types of hybrid seeds that exist today in the USA into countries with drastically different cultural or social values. The best way to honor and respect the true potential that can come from bringing chiropractic to all parts of the world is to guarantee that only the "original seed" is being planted, allowing the soil that nurtures to represent the elements of that society and protecting the essence of chiropractic for these patients. Lest we forget the lessons that history teaches us, we must learn what we can from the past and, since we are talking about a world full of diversity, respect and honor our differences. Something as simple as the subluxation correction based concept for wellness care is the most powerful truth we can share with the entire world. Until chiropractic is taught in every major language and a school in every country with over 2 million people there will always be the need for chiropractic pioneers. These DCs are the individual seeds while institutions that are established to teach chiropractic will survive better if planted as saplings and are cultivated with great care and support. These seeds and saplings will grow into a strong organism capable of producing a higher quality harvest over time.
F O U R
1. Size of the Middle Class 2. Humanitarian rights 3. Traditional healers 4. Education & Language
"Things are the way they are because of the way things are."
Size of a country's Middle Class
Practices that start in third world countries generally price themselves similar to other specialists in the area and primarily attract the middle class who can afford these fees. This explains in part why the number of DCs has remained small and no great effort is extended to attract more doctors to that city. Often a two-tiered fee schedule is offered in order to also provide care to the low income working class that find their way into the practice. During the past 50 years there has been a very slow increase in the number of permanent practices established in third world countries and only small to moderate increases in the growth of chiropractic in non-English speaking countries. Typically what happens is that a foreigner will become exposed to chiropractic due to travels to the USA for business purposes or just to visit family that has emigrated there. They decide to become a chiropractor and usually prefer to come to the USA to get their degree. Not everyone can afford to do this so the number of foreign students has also remained relatively small because of the $ barriers. Upon returning to their countries, after paying top dollar for their education, they set up practice. With the benefits of lower overhead and low staffing costs a DC can offer care at a rate considerably lower than the typical USA practice. Unfortunately, that fee is still too high to provide access to the average citizen of their country and the practice can only attract the wealthy and business owners, foreigners working there and other working people with above average salaries that comprise the growing middle class. How do we estimate how many DCs a particular population can support? This is done by taking the percentage of the population that comprise the middle and upper financial classes and multiplying that number by 12%, the current utilization percentage observed in established counties. Taking the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) representing the average annual income per individual from a country and comparing it to what exists in the USA we can extrapolate the percent of that population who can actually afford chiropractic care in today's economy. Another consideration, which can be attributed to greater percentages of middle class, is the higher tax base they produce in developed countries. These taxes help to fund many social health related benefits that increase access to chiropractic care; such as workers compensation benefits and other government funded health services that form a 'safety net' giving the financially disadvantaged greater access for medical and chiropractic care as well. Finally, it seems that the economic evolution of a country, where the majority falls into the middle class, is the proof-in-fact of many underlying accomplishments in human rights, workers' rights, higher education and political growth. These social standards reflect a society that, as a whole, is no longer struggling to meet basic or survival needs; now they have interests for a greater quality of life. This is where chiropractic excels in meeting the demand for wellness care that arises from a population that is more interested in longevity and a higher quality of life.
Humanitarian treatment by governments toward their own citizens
Favorable: A democratic society favors strong humanitarian policies by providing the best opportunity for people to influence their government into meeting their family and economic needs. Societies who have provisions for the well being of all their citizens offer better opportunities for chiropractic to thrive. Improving: Many developing countries and benevolent authoritarian governments have recognized the importance of implementing stronger human rights policies. This is reflected by the passing of laws that protect civil rights and the rights of its citizens to make private decisions about their personal lives, including their choice of healthcare. As these countries implement financial policies that comply with the "golden straightjacket" standards, their economic growth will begin to meet the tax base objectives of countries with the higher quality of life. This is a complex process that eventually intertwines all governmental ministries. In the absence of a legal infrastructure reflecting the changes towards social improvement there is rhetoric but little substance behind the claims of humanitarian rights. Lacking: It is not surprising to see the absence of chiropractors where the countries have a history of war, ethnic and civil unrest, gross humanitarian violations and absolute poverty. Post-colonial countries have the better infrastructures reflecting healthy humanitarian policies. Post-communist countries may take years before they can build a safe and economically thriving society. Ancient world empires such as China and Persia show promise for future opportunities that will favor chiropractic development. Africa and Asia have such large populations where chiropractic will remain unavailable until the end of this century. The fertile ground needed to cultivate and establish the chiropractic profession must be adequately fertilized by elements that maintain a peaceful and productive nation.
Socio-cultural aspects of integrating chiropractic with traditional healthcare structures
Traditional medicine is a term that describes the type and nature of healthcare that has evolved in most countries over a period of centuries and in the absence of Western medicine. In the USA, Canada and Australia, these traditional methods of healthcare were present in the aboriginal populations when the English first colonized them. History shows how the colonization process stripped these and other countries from access to the folk medicine and other natural methods of healing that were previously available from the local natives. In a sense, chiropractic grew out of the American demand for natural healing in an environment devoid of traditional medicine. However, this was not largely the case in most other countries and today there exists more than just remnants of these healing methods. What have the
C R I T E R I A
1. Doctors in Practice 2. Legal authority 3. Organization 4. Students
"Rating the levels of International growth in chiropractic."
RATING CHIROPRACTIC One hundred years ago chiropractic was in the pioneer stages of development in the United States. There was no legal recognition of this new profession and there were only a small number of graduates in practice. This history is currently repeating itself in dozens of countries throughout the world. What can be learned about the growing stages experienced in the USA? 1. Without schools the numbers remained small and schools usually preceded laws. 2. In each state, a critical mass of DCs was reached before enough momentum could produce a regulatory law in their State. 3. State Associations became more sophisticated over time to support a growing profession and the needs of the DC members. 4. Schools began to participate in research proportionately to their size and the curriculums evolved over time as well. Can we also learn what should NOT be repeated? 1. There was no uniformity in defining the legal scope of practice. 2. Some Associations & State Boards promoted a "protectionist" policy that tended to be discriminatory and restrict growth. 3. Research was a low priority of institutions and private practitioners. So what is the current state of affairs in the growth of chiropractic in the International arena? At the turn of the 21st century there are only three countries where the profession is fully established with legal protection and can practice the full measure of the training. These are: the USA, Canada and Australia. There are next some 20 or so countries with enough DCs to reach most population areas, but there is yet much to be done before the profession can claim to be fully established. The remaining 60 plus countries, where there is only one DC for greater than 100,000 people, we see the pioneering doctors struggling at creating a foundation for the profession. Regardless of the growth achieved, all countries with DCs are at some point along the developmental path for the profession. This grading system is offered to help countries keep score of their progress. It is hoped that a continuously progressive & introspective profession can accelerate the rate of growth by sharing experiences, solutions and organizational structures; including both the wins and the losses encountered along the pathway. Let us look at the four separate criteria used in the grading system. Firstly, it is important to develop a valuable assessment tool that remains simple yet can effectively and accurately identify each country's place on the road of development. A scale of zero to ten (0-10) is used with the USA and Canada having a rating of 10. Pioneer countries rate from 0.5 to 4.9, Advancing rate from 5.0 to 8.9 and Established rate at 9 and 10 on the scale of 10. The four categories are: 1. Total # of DCs in permanent practice. 2. Level of legal recognition by the government. 3. Organizational levels of the national Associations. 4. Total student enrollment in the country. R= 3.0 R= 2.0 R= 2.0 R= 3.0 Total=10.0
1. Number of Chiropractors Chiropractic is a healthcare service that is delivered by a trained and competent chiropractor to a given population of patients. Obviously, the more doctors there are in practice, the more the profession becomes established. The ratings are as follows: 3.0 One DC for every 10,000 people or less 2.0 One DC for every 10,000 to 50,000 people 1.0 One DC for every 50,000 to 100,000 people 0.5 One DC for greater than 100,000 people 2. Level Of Legal Recognition Chiropractors meet International standards of education that is reflected in the scope of practice that is actually permitted by law. Scope of practice varies from country to country and even State to State, reflecting the official capacity and professional recognition of chiropractic by the government. Official recognition of chiropractic, when present, also varies significantly from country to country. In Japan and Thailand, for example, the government has not granted legal status; instead, a "tolerance" posture is adopted as long as the services are not dangerous to the people. In other countries where "common laws" prevail, such as Ireland and Singapore, a DC can practice their profession or trade as long as all usual residence & business laws are followed. Still other countries have begun to register all non-MDs under newly enacted Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) legislation where chiropractic is often included merely by name or with a very limited scope definition. Finally, there are other countries where the legislative has passed a separate bill that grants the profession limited status under the law. Unfortunately, there is great diversity in these rulings and several stages of upgrading the law becomes necessary. The rating for a country's legal status is as follows: 2.0 Full scope and legal protection - primary doctor with scope as taught in schools 1.5 Legislated law with limited scope of practice - under MD referral, unable to x-ray or no access to labs 1.0 Included in C.A.M. or Common Law - no protection or recognition of DC title 0.5 Only permitted to practice under commercial laws - barred from x-ray or lab services 3. National Organization As the number of practicing DCs increases in a country there is a natural desire to organize. Creating a formal association can be viewed as the first official step in locally establishing the profession. What are the main reasons for having a National Association? 1. Establishing a formal presence in the country. 2. Supportive to the group as they deem necessary. 3. Represent the DCs in speaking to government when seeking legal recognition and registration guidelines. 4. Guide the steps for starting a local DC school. 5. Continued education and other membership benefits. 6. Public relations liaison for chiropractic in their country. 7. Advocate for greater patient access to government, labor and insurance. 8. International representation. Rating the effectiveness of the activities of the National Association reflects a degree of professional development and its ability to foster growth and stability. 2.0 Full benefits with multi-level representation. 1.5 Public Relations programs in full force. 1.0 Multiple committees in action. 0.5 Just started. Basic organization.
4. Total Student Enrollment As the world becomes interested in chiropractic there has been an increase in the number of foreign students at USA schools as well as an increase in the number of schools outside the USA. Once a country can grant its own people a DC degree it follows a rapid professional development. In fact, until chiropractic education is available locally, the services have to be an imported technology. This is a costlier situation and seriously slows the growth of the profession. In some ways, chiropractic cannot really be seriously considered an official profession or certainly become an integral part of the country's culture until it is taught there. In cases when the country is too small or traditions have it that other professions also have to be educated abroad, it would then follow suit for chiropractic as well. When you think about it, how can the government and its people rely on the profession in the future if it cannot replace its practitioners and observe the natural market place effects as it exerts its influences? Rating the value of local chiropractic training in the establishment of the profession is as follows: 3.0 above 700 students 2.0 from 300 to 700 students 1.0 from 100 to 299 students 0.5 up to 99 students Why use a rating system? As each country begins to take a serious look at firmly establishing the chiropractic profession locally there is a lack of guidelines for the leaders to turn to. Each country is left up to their own devices to find its way into cultivating a stronger profession. If you take a moment to think this through from a patient's point of view it becomes apparent that some populations are then victims of circumstances. Helping to study, analyze and produce thoughtful and useful guidelines that offer structural and practical suggestions is what advocates and consultants do. Hopefully this information will fall upon the minds and hearts of motivated individuals who can make a difference and act according to their conscience. 3 PIONEER DC Ratio: ADVANCING (3.0) (2.0) (1.0) (0.5) (2.0) (1.5) (1.0) (0.5) (2.0) (1.5) (1.0) (0.5) (3.0) (2.0) (1.0) (0.5) 10 ESTABLISHED
: : : :
<10,000 >10K & <50K >50K & <100K > 100,000
Full recognition Legislated w/limits C.A.M. inclusion Under commercial laws Advanced Organization Public Education Intermediate services Basic org. startup over 700 students 300 to 699 " 100 to 299 " up to 99 students
v. 2= _____
v. 3= _____
EXECUTIVE Leadership training Regular meetings Multi-year goals By-Law adoption Official representation ADMINISTRATIVE Budget and Dues Local corporate sponsors Operating designs S M L
MEMBERSHIP Tied to licensing Student inclusion Committees as needed School recruitment Student recruitment PUBLIC RELATIONS PR materials/ scope Sports event tie-ins Humanitarian Mission Co-op
BENEFITS Practice building Student recruitment Annual seminars Family support Chiropractic Assistants LEGISLATIVE Model Law Lobbying tips By-Laws sourcing
In addition there are resources available from the World Federation of Chiropractors (WFC), the International Chiropractic Association (ICA), the Federation of Licensing Boards (FCLB), the International Council on Chiropractic Education (ICCE), and a growing list of NGOs (nongovernment organizations) active with International programs such as Life International, the Chiropractic Diplomatic Corps and several Mission groups. Country associations that have attained some degree of legal protection have different needs than those Pioneer chiropractors that may still not have a formally working association. In part, it is the lack of an organized presence or working structure that hinders the ability to acquire legal recognition. At present there is no standard for these pioneer DCs to turn to. As members of the WFC, they have representation at the WHO (World Health Organization), some assistance if they actually take the time to request information on legal definitions, and then only good wishes to help them get their house in order. It is pretty well left up to the individuals to get their local act together. That may be fine if one or two of these DCs have leadership skills. Somehow, it seems practical to help by offering structural models that can facilitate the development of a National Association in the early years. History shows up that failure to establish a formal organization only opens the door to struggling growth and the usual polarization we see within the profession plus the additional cultural separation between the Native vs the Imported DCs. To these ends the following listing is offered with a variety of suggested ideas and objectives for each respective stage of professional growth to demonstrate the relative needs. PIONEER STAGE ISSUES: Getting the National Association organized, using standard By-Laws adapted to their laws. Recruiting 100% of the few DCs into membership - being totally inclusive. Holding regular monthly meetings and set up 5 or 6 committees as needs dictate. Initiating legal recognition efforts with local government. Begin sending a representative to International conferences to help build DC numbers. Set up a "Student Abroad Support" program to assure the new DC will return home. Coordinating with humanitarian mission groups to maximize benefits to all concerned. Initiate local university prospects then seek foreign school partnership. Develop policies on Public Relations efforts and actively work to see 2% of the population. Put together a bulletin or newsletter as the number of DCs grows.
profession's two main flagships might be the right blend to secure a uniform curriculum and provide the staff and expertise to formulate and implement a global institution model; or we may see the birth of a multi-national institution stepping in to fill this role. On the subject of the philosophical focus seen at Palmer and Life, particularly as we see all new schools being developed as a department of an established University, there is the requirement for a clear International Core Curriculum that addresses these University based programs' needs without compromising the outcome and quality of the DC graduate - subject of the following part of this series. A thoroughly structured Philosophy content can create the necessary "Chiropractic Culture" needed for the students who are educated in chiropractic within a university system. Again, another point that emphasizes the need for a cohesive and complete exportable program that would be gladly received by both the DCs in the countries attempting to see chiropractic taught there and the universities who are looking into the prospects of adding this new and exciting profession to their institution.
4. Curriculum Designs - Expanding the model. I
n the preceding articles, we discussed the growing need for an organized effort in planting chiropractic schools worldwide as well as the value of gathering information to better think things through. A current global snapshot was created to estimate the number of schools needed in each country that resulted with a total of 195 possible schools in 46 countries and taught in some 30 languages. There are presently 36 DC schools taught in 7 languages that are established out of a possible total of 82 in these 13 countries. In addition we see that 11 new countries are currently at some level of negotiation with a nearby university with the hopes of teaching chiropractic in their own country.
Projections suggest that during the first decades of the 21st Century there will be 1-2 new chiropractic schools starting every year and eventually 2-3 new schools annually thereafter until the foreseeable future. Will these schools graduate doctors that are equal to the current practicing DCs? What is being done to preserve the chiropractic heritage yet still allow for progressive developments that come out of technology, research and clinical experiences? Are there enough qualified teachers to fill the positions? Will there be a random implementation of independent schools or can we influence a harmonious strategic development of a global chiropractic education system? This article discusses seven key components: university based schools; prerequisites, core courses, preserving subculture in philosophy, Information Technology, faculty shortage and regional accreditation issues. n the early years, chiropractic was taught by mostly small private institutions. National peer review standards evolved and accrediting bodies were formed to place chiropractic equal to other "First Degree Professional" educational institutions. Since the late 1980's all new schools have been created within university systems and this trend is likely to continue. Curriculum designs have mostly followed some basic standards but only recently has there been an interest in creating International Standards. In an effort to further encourage International cooperation there are several design elements that invite rational self-critique before casting the curriculum molds to stone. We will discuss some of these elements. Private institutions have the luxury of setting their own programs and the cost of education has tripled in the last two decades. In an affluent country like the USA there will always be people who can afford to bear these costs. Economics becomes a critical factor in opening the chiropractic profession to other countries. This begins with the cost of educating DCs in these countries. At present only the children of the wealthier families can afford to go abroad for a chiropractic education. There is now the need to see new DC schools start all over the world to reach all the people. rerequisites in Canada and the USA have jumped from high school in the 50's to 70's and approaching a full BA or BS degree in the 2000's. Three to four additional years have been added in just the past few decades. How will prerequisites be determined in countries
lifetime chiropractic care so it must be heartbreaking for the participating doctors to leave a population without care once the mission is over. Short-term missions are just that. of short duration. What can be done to raise the outcome of missions to create more regular access to care? In answering these questions, several inspired DCs have attempted to create a network of some sort where a number of doctors could rotate into a permanent clinic location. They are finding this goal very difficult to accomplish and have to settle for scattered return trips with often, small groups, and admittedly, a hard task that is financially and emotionally depleting. Reaching across borders, oceans, great distances and cultural differences presents many challenges. It takes resources and reserves of money, people, time and opportunities. We will likely continue to see an increase in foreign missions. How can these dedicated DCs meet the demands of today's mission needs? Networking and sharing experiences and resources is a good place to start. Adopting an updated mission structure is the next step to take, one that addresses the deficiencies of older models and also takes partial responsibility to be a stakeholder in the establishment of the profession of chiropractic in the target countries. Today's researchers and businessmen and women have learned the value of "outcome based" designs for their work. If we really want to bring chiropractic to other countries it will require designing a mission structure that places patients' needs first, the professional needs second and personal needs third. Since we've already established that personal needs are being met, let's look at the other two areas: patients and the profession. Patients' needs are pretty simple: They want access to a doctor when they need one. A doctor who is affordable and who is willing to become a part of their community. It's really no different than what patients expect of their doctors where chiropractic is already established. The profession needs six things from short-term chiropractic missions: 1. Attract qualified doctors who may become permanent additions to the country's roster. Let the DCs know that they are welcome to come back and become a part of the pioneer effort in that country. 2. Attract prospective students to the profession from the attention and PR produced by the event. Schedule regular "special student sessions" at local universities or have people return after the day's clinic hours for a student talk. 3. Local DCs need to be included in the planning stages and their clinic advertised to the patients who are treated by the mission team. (So patients will have a place to continue care.) 4. Respect the authority of the local DCs and tap into their contacts but mostly use the "dignitary" status of the mission to further the cause of establishing the profession in a more formal or official capacity. 5. Only bring licensed doctors to treat people and be fully documented at all times. The only exception is when a DC school structures a clinic environment within the mission group and even then, only senior interns who qualify and actually receive school clinic credits. 6. Make the mission a series of highly publicized events in each location. High profile events reach more people and have the best results across the board. Humanitarian missions have left many of the existing practicing DCs with mixed feelings. If we are to extend the concept of outcome oriented activities, there could be special consideration made for the doctors who are pioneering chiropractic in the developing countries targeted by mission groups. Chiropractic is only regulated or officially recognized in about 30 countries. These are largely "northern countries" with an advanced post-industrialized economy. In the other 70 countries, where chiropractic is not legislated, there is nothing to stop anyone from misrepresenting themselves as chiropractors. This is why mission participants need to be documented. Understandably, pioneer DCs may not feel entirely comfortable with receiving too much attention since they actually live with the fear or the risk of sanctions by the local government should a chiropractic mission group create undesirable results. Always include the leadership of the existing DCs in any activities where chiropractic services are being delivered to the local population. They may have no interest in participating in the mission or it's planning; being tied up with their own practice and families. Or, just the opposite, they can be a valuable ally and a primary contact. Either way, they are entitled to be notified and invited well in advance.
I N G R E D I E N T S
1. Title Protection 2. Definitions & Scope 3. Primary Doctor 4. Standards & Guidelines 5. Registration 6. Regulatory Structure
ODEL INTERNATIONAL LAW OD
"Opening the dialogue for a consensus on a model chiropractic law."
Attempting to establish some version of a single model law for chiropractic has not only been difficult but, in truth, it is impossible. The variables from country to country virtually make the task impossible. However true that may have been to those who have attempted to create such a model law in the past, there still remains the need to develop "something useful" to guide those countries emerging into chiropractic. What questions can be asked towards establishing a framework for such an endeavor? "What are the key components required for a full scope of chiropractic?" "What have we learned from current and previous laws that can be carried forward?" "Can we identify the main sub-classifications of the different legal structures that are found in this world and develop variations that serve each particular situation without compromising the long-term outcomes that protect both the patients and the profession?" These questions indicate that it is possible, after adequately probing into the different legal systems for the commonalities therein, to identify a framework that can be used in the development of a comprehensive "building-block model" instead of trying to develop a "onemodel-fits-all" International model law. Using common sense as our guide, let's try our hand at answering some of the above questions. 1. "What are the key components required for a full scope of chiropractic?" To begin with, title protection is the highest objective while scope is best defined with as few words as possible; leaving the details to be included in the "regulation" work that does not require a return to the legislative body. However, some definitions would be helpful and appropriate in defining key words like chiropractic, subluxation, scope of practice, etc. Now that the WFC has officially adopted the ACC Paradigm, there can be more consistency in defining these terms. Determine the minimum level of requirements that can qualify a candidate for licensure followed by establishing an authority that can ideally administrate this process. Once the public safety and patient rights issues are handled, the profession itself has concerns regarding the intrusion of non-qualified persons claiming equal professional status, as well as protection of chiropractic's title and unique skills in spinal adjustments/ manipulations. The four components being considered at this juncture are: title protection, definitions, candidate requirements and licensing authority. Further discussion is needed to evaluate additional entries that may apply beyond these first four key components. 2. "What have we learned from current and previous laws that can be carried forward?" This area of study is actually the primary resource for any effort that outlines the terms and details used to build a comprehensive "building-block model" for International use. After all, why re-invent the wheel, so to speak? In conducting a mega-study of all the chiropractic laws in the world one could produce viable working lists of primary terminologies and substitute terminologies that can be integrated in formulating a law as they applied to the county-specific issues.
Thirdly, comes a practical question in planning a well-rounded strategy for developing a comprehensive "building-block model" for International use: 3. "Can we identify the main sub-classifications of the different legal structures that are found in this world and develop variations that serve each particular situation without compromising the long-term outcomes that protect both the patients and the profession?" There is very little precedent found in chiropractic laws that can reliably be applied to meet every country's legal requirements. It is more reliable for one to study the existing legal framework that has been used to construct regulatory laws for similarly educated at First Professional Degree levels of the allied healthcare professionals in the target county, such as Dentistry, Podiatry and Optometry. Although this may not apply in every instance, much can be learned about observing the nature of the legal framework used in these cases. It is also entirely possible that there exist several unifying qualifiers that can additionally sub-classify a country's legal format with other countries' legal structures. A longwinded way of saying, what worked in Australia can probably apply to England or what applied to Costa Rica may likewise be used in Peru.
It seems that the current consensus regarding a model law liens toward the notion that it is too complex of an issue to even try and formulate guidelines or even a working-in-progress model. Today the default mode is to simply leave it up to the local chiropractor to figure things out and to yell for help, if they choose to do so. The fact is, Dr. Y in country X is not likely to be the most qualified person to take on this important role. He or she has to overcome significant obstacles just to be there, keep their doors open, support their family all the while trying to educate a population that really does not know anything about chiropractic. What makes the rest of the profession think that these individuals have the leadership skills to get it right? This is not to infer that the local DC is an incompetent bloke. Even if he or she is eminently qualified, it is quite naive for the rest of the profession to impose such a cumbersome responsibility upon a few hard working and otherwise burdened individuals when there is a responsibility from the "powers that be," whomever that may be, to build the infrastructure that supports the task of establishing a completely functional law. All we have to do is look at the myriad of variations that already exist Internationally and how that will require substantial reworking. assuming that the damage can be repaired. Somehow there is one group of individuals that still remains excluded from the goal defining objectives of the International Chiropractic community. The greatest stakeholders of all are the patients! How do they fit into these discussions when there continues to be this "laissezfaire" attitude that prevails? How do we answer to the patients of countries with inadequate laws or no law at all when they are left to suffer and left with an uncertain future? Even though poor people don't always know how poor they really are, we don't just ignore their needs. Yes, billions of people on this planet have no idea of the benefits of chiropractic care. Do we simply say, so what? They don't know what they are missing anyway? It is good to remember to place their needs into the equation. A call-to-action does indeed seem in order to create a resource of core information, a reference source. But who do you call? Who de we turn to in requesting assistance in meeting this need? The World Federation of Chiropractors (WFC) has already rejected to undertake this duty. The International Chiropractic Association (ICA) and the World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA) have assembled their version of what a model law should be. Life International, the most active International group at the World Health Organization (WHO) also has created one version of a building-block model law. Lastly, the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards (FCLB) did take a serious look at this issue in the mid 1990's but decided that it was too ominous a task to take on with their limited resources.
R E S E R V E S
TRATEGY - LOGISTICS TR
1.Time 2. Money 3. People 4. Space 5. Opportunities
"Attracting resources for Chiropractic's growth."
There is a lot of time that is needed to acquire the necessary data that helps to refine the Global Strategy Formulas. Time also to visit countries, build relationships and strengthen the rapport between key individuals within the profession and others of influence in that country, that will increase the trust and the willingness to act on the recommendations that will move things forward. Time to implement fund raising programs. Time to consult for and to establish chiropractic colleges and recruit for prospective students, the future of the profession in each country. Time to recruit DCs into establishing foreign practices. Time to attend meetings with International NGOs and developing chiropractic organizations. Time to support the lobbying of governments for stronger chiropractic laws. Finally, time to maintain personal relationships with family, friends and our Creator. "Timing is everything."
Humanitarian organizations and for-profit organizations are needed to raise the money required to start new practices, consult for more college programs, fund humanitarian missions and pay for related travel expenses. Moneys are needed to bring research to smaller countries and to do global studies of select populations that demonstrate chiropractic's wellness premise. The public sector will need money to bring about college programs, to educate the population through public relations programs and develop suitable laws that protect both the patients and the profession that serves them; while the private sector will need money to increase the number of professional practices, the technical components that supply the profession, the costs associated with lobbying efforts and the marketing of their practices. Lest we forget, moneys are needed to provide for International scholarships for the financially disadvantaged as well as formal government student loans to fund chiropractic education in each country. "Money is the fuel for growth." Chiropractors are needed to establish practices in other countries, to volunteer for humanitarian missions and to serve a role in their National Associations. Teachers are needed to build the next generation of chiropractic educators that speak languages other than just English. Investors are needed to support both profit and non-profit entities engaged in the delivery and the expansion of chiropractic services. Leaders are needed to build the strong organizations and associations that form the infrastructure of the profession. Students are needed to fill the new schools and become impassioned with the power of chiropractic care when it is delivered to millions of more people with the resulting benefits to their communities. Researchers that come from within the ranks of chiropractic schools are needed to help build the case for chiropractic as well as serving to balance the
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