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Pioneer GR-333, size: 976 KB
Pioneer Ct 757 and Pioneer Gr 333
User reviews and opinions
|jmgervai||1:02pm on Thursday, September 9th, 2010|
|It comes with a super sharp multi-angle widescreen,a intergrated speaker that speaks loudly,features packed! The package comes even with a charger. long battery life .. huge screen .. integrated speakers which is loud enough HEAVY ... buttons kinda small|
|Artist_||12:28am on Friday, August 20th, 2010|
|Track details. dont buy ipod...buy creative however, despite its wide video format support. Compatibility, ZEN VISION W from Creative Sync Manager Sync Outlook tasks and contacts, such as databases, into a Personal Address Book Service.|
|edilmar||7:42pm on Monday, August 2nd, 2010|
|I have owned the Zen W for about a year now. I love it. It suits me perfect. The controls are far easier to use than the ipod. I just bought this Zen days ago. For supported file, it directly transfered to device from computer, but for unsupported file (which quite alot).|
|rrhoule||3:19am on Sunday, July 18th, 2010|
|Creative Zen Vision W 60 GB is an awesome digital media player. This device can be use to play movies. Nice unit. I use it primarily to back up photos, which it works a dream for, even if it is a bit slow.|
|malic||7:20pm on Saturday, July 17th, 2010|
|Superb for videos and movies, easy drag-and-drop style and massive screen for subtitles. Good for subtitles A bit slow when fast-forwarding files Hi, bought ZVW and it is going great. Although I urgently need accessories. Cases (leather and silicon), cradle dock, screen savers and remote. Superb for videos and movies, easy drag-and-drop style and massive screen for subtitles. Good for subtitles A bit slow when fast-forwarding files|
|LordIllidan||5:06pm on Tuesday, May 11th, 2010|
|Like it! I really like this Zen 60gig. My wife and I put a ton of songs and SNL videos on it. The best player for videos. This is the best video player that I have ever owned. I absolutely love it. The screen display is terrific.|
|mduooo||7:20pm on Monday, April 26th, 2010|
|I got the Vision almost six years ago, and it... Sturdy, good sound quality, excellent screen resolution Bulky, heavy. I got the Vision almost six years ago, and it only now is starting to break down. As a clumsy person.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Licenses... 53-56 Troubleshooting.. 57-60 To Reset this Player..60 Messages Relating to BD disc and DVD disc..60 Glossary... 61-62 Specifications...63
* The illustrations and on-screen displays in this operating instructions are for explanation purposes and may vary slightly from the actual operations.
The Icons Used in This Operating Instructions
BD VIDEO.. Indicates the functions that can be
performed for BD Video discs.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for BD-RE discs. BD-R.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for BD-R discs. DVD VIDEO. Indicates the functions that can be performed for DVD Video discs. DVD-RW.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for DVD-RW discs. DVD-R. Indicates the functions that can be performed for DVD-R discs. AVCHD.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for DVD discs in AVCHD format. AUDIO CD.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for Audio CDs. CD-RW.. Indicates the functions that can be performed for CD-RW discs. CD-R. Indicates the functions that can be performed for CD-R discs. USB. Indicates functions that can be used when playing USB memory devices.
HDMI, the HDMI Logo and High-Definition Multimedia Interface are trademarks or registered trademarks of HDMI Licensing, LLC in the United States and other countries.
trademarks of Sony Corporation.
Audio-visual material may consist of copyrighted works which must not be recorded without the authority of the owner of the copyright. Refer to relevant laws in your country. This product incorporates copyright protection technology that is protected by U.S. patents and other intellectual property rights. Use of this copyright protection technology must be authorized by Rovi Corporation, and is intended for home and other limited viewing uses only unless otherwise authorized by Rovi Corporation. Reverse engineering or disassembly is prohibited. Manufactured under license from Dolby Laboratories. Dolby and the double-D symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories. Manufactured under license under U.S. Patent #s: 5,451,942; 5,956,674; 5,974,380; 5,978,762; 6,226,616; 6,487,535; 7,392,195; 7,272,567; 7,333,929; 7,212,872 & other U.S. and worldwide patents issued & pending. DTS and the Symbol are registered trademarks, & DTS-HD, DTS-HD Master Audio | Essential and the DTS logos are trademarks of DTS, Inc. Product includes software. DTS, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray and Blu-ray Disc logo are trademarks of Blu-ray Disc Association. BD-LIVE logo is trademark of Blu-ray Disc Association. is a trademark of DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation.
Disc tray (page 27) HDMI indicator (page 25) OPEN/CLOSE (page 27) FL OFF indicator (page 24) USB port (pages 20 and 48) (BDP-LX53/BDP-330 only) 12 Front panel display (See below.) 13 (PLAY) (page 27) 11
Front Panel Display
1 Lights during playback. 3
Counter display Displays the title, chapter, track number, elapsed time, etc.
Lights when in the pause mode.
Main Unit (Rear)
5 RS-232C terminal (BDP-LX53 only) The terminal is not used. HDMI OUT terminal (page 16) LAN (10/100) terminal (page 20) COMPONENT VIDEO OUTPUT jacks (page 17) VIDEO OUTPUT jack (page 18) 6 7
DIGITAL OUT OPTICAL terminal (page 19) Cooling fan The cooling fan operates while the power to the Player is on. 8 AC IN terminal (page 21) 9 AUDIO OUTPUT jacks (page 19) 10 USB port (pages 20 and 48)
Remote Control Unit
31 STANDBY/ON (page 22) TV CONTROL buttons (page 23) AUDIO (page 38), SUBTITLE (page 38), ANGLE (page 38) Number buttons (page 40) CLEAR (page 40) SECONDARY VIDEO (page 29) REPEAT (pages 36 and 37), REPEAT OFF (pages 36 and 37) EXIT (page 41) DISPLAY (pages 27 and 37) TOP MENU/DISC NAVIGATOR (pages 28 and 30) Cursor buttons (), ENTER (pages 22 and 41) HOME MENU (pages 22 and 41) REV (page 36) PLAY (page 27) (page 36) PAUSE (page 36) OPEN/CLOSE (page 27) VIDEO OUTPUT RESET (page 42) FRONT LIGHT (page 24) ENTER (pages 22 and 41) KEY LOCK (See below.) PAGE +/ (page 30) FUNCTION (page 39) POPUP MENU/MENU (page 28) RETURN (page 41) FWD (page 36) (page 36) STOP (page 27) RED, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE (page 30) SKIP SEARCH (page 36) REPLAY (page 36)
You can set the keylock to prevent accidental operations. This function allows TVs compatible with control function with HDMI to also perform a Key Lock on the player. Press and hold KEY LOCK for more than 5 seconds. Each time you perform this operation, the function is activated or deactivated. If you try to operate the Player while the keylock function is set, HOLD lights on the front panel display to indicate that the keylock function is set.
To AC IN terminal
To AC outlet
Place the Player close to the AC outlet, and keep the power plug within reach. TO PREVENT RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT TOUCH THE UN-INSULATED PARTS OF ANY CABLES WHILE THE AC CORD IS CONNECTED. If you are not going to use this Player for a long period of time, be sure to remove the AC cord from the AC outlet.
Turning the Power On
Changing the on-screen display language 1 Press the HOME MENU to display the HOME
STANDBY/ON When the wallpaper is displayed, the HOME MENU can also be displayed by selecting the menu icon ( ) with then pressing ENTER.
Press to select On Screen Language, then press ENTER.
Operate using the buttons on either the remote control or main unit. POWER ON appears on the front panel display. When the power is turned on with no disc loaded, the Pioneer logo screen (wallpaper) is displayed. When the power is turned on with the disc loaded, a menu screen may be displayed automatically, depending on the disc. When STOP or EXIT is pressed, the discs menu screen turns off and the wallpaper is displayed.
Web Content Photos Music
On Screen Language
Press to select the language you want to display on the screen, then press ENTER.
Turning the power off
Press STANDBY/ON again.
Operate using the buttons on either the remote control or main unit. POWER OFF appears on the front panel display. If you press STANDBY/ON again immediately after entering standby, the Player may not turn on. If this happens, wait for 10 seconds or more and then turn on the STANDBY/ON again.
English Deutsch Franais Italiano Espaol Portugus
Nederlands Svenska Dansk Norsk Suomi Polski
esky Magyar Slovensky Slovenina
To select the DVD disc language, such as subtitle language, etc., see page 28.
Operating the TV with the Players Remote Control
When the manufacturer code for your brand of TV is set on the players remote control, the TV can be operated using the players remote control. CAUTION
For some models it may not be possible to operate the TV with the players remote control, even for TVs of brands listed on the manufacturer code list. The setting may be restored to the default after the batteries are replaced. If this happens, reset it.
This Player is compatible with BD-Video BONUSVIEW and BD-LIVE. When using BD-Video discs compatible with BONUSVIEW, you can enjoy such functions as secondary video (picture in picture) and secondary audio. With BD-Video discs supporting BD-LIVE, special video images and other data can be downloaded from the Internet. Data recorded on BD video and downloaded from BDLIVE is stored on the USB memory device (external memory). To enjoy these functions, connect a USB memory device (minimum 1 GB capacity (2 GB or more recommended)) supporting USB 2.0 High Speed (480 Mbit/s) to the USB port (page 20) on this player.
To recall data stored in the USB memory device, first insert the disc media that was being used at the time the data was downloaded (if a different disc is loaded, the data stored on the USB memory device cannot be played). If a USB memory device containing other data (previously recorded) is used, the video and audio may not play back properly. If the USB memory device is disconnected from this player during playback, playback of the disc will stop. Do not disconnect the USB memory device while playback is in progress. Some time may be required for the data to load (read/ write).
To remove the secondary video, press SECONDARY VIDEO again. NOTE
To listen to secondary audio, make sure that Secondary Audio is set to On. (See page 42.) The secondary audio and video for Picture In Picture may automatically play back and be removed depending on the content. Also, playable areas may be restricted.
It may not be possible to use the BONUSVIEW and BD-LIVE functions if there is insufficient space on the USB memory device. In this case, refer to USB Memory Management on page 48 for erasing the Virtual Package data and the BD-LIVE data in the USB memory device.
Operation of USB memory devices is not guaranteed. Playback of BD-LIVE function data differs depending on the disc used. For details, consult the user instructions supplied with the disc. To enjoy the BD-LIVE function, a network connection and settings are required (pages 20 and 45). For conditions and restrictions regarding Internet connections using the BD-LIVE function, see the section BD Internet Access (page 44). BD-LIVE is a function that provides for automatic connection to the Internet. Discs supporting the BD-LIVE function may send ID codes identifying this player and the disc to the contents provider via the Internet. The unit can be set to prevent automatic connection to the Internet. For instructions on this setting, see the section BD Internet Access (page 44). BDP-LX53/BDP-330 only: When USB memory devices are connected to both the USB ports on the players front and rear panels, the device that was connected first is used for the BONUSVIEW and BD-LIVE functions, while the device that was connected last is used for file playback and software updating.
On Title Repeat
Press REPEAT OFF or REPEAT to return to normal playback.
Partial Repeat Playback (Repeat Playback of a Specified Part)
AUDIO CD DVD-RW
Press REPEAT during playback. Press to select Scene Selection, then press ENTER.
Set Start Point displays.
Playback Title Playback Chapter Scene Selection Set Start Point
Press ENTER at the scene where you want to set the start point.
Set End Point displays.
Press ENTER at the scene where you want to set the end point.
You can press FWD to fast forward to the scene where you want to set the end point. When you reach the desired scene, simply press PLAY and then ENTER to set the end point. To cancel Repeat Playback, press REPEAT OFF or REPEAT.
If subtitles are provided in multiple languages, you can switch between them. Press SUBTITLE during playback.
The display indicates the subtitle number currently being played back, and the subtitles appear. Each time SUBTITLE is pressed, the subtitles change. is displayed if a disc has no subtitles. You can also select Off.
Switching the Audio Mode
The displayed content differs from disc to disc.
Settings for subtitles can be changed also in Function Control Screen (Page 39). Some discs allow changing of the subtitles channel via a menu. For details, see the manual for the disc. The display for subtitles automatically disappears after 5 seconds.
The audio track currently being played back will be displayed. When multiple audio tracks are recorded on the disc, the audio track switches each time AUDIO is pressed.
DVD-RW DVD-R BD-RE BD-R
Switching the Angle
If multiple angles are recorded, you can switch between them. 1 Press ANGLE during playback.
The display indicates the angle number currently being played back. Each time you press ANGLE, the angle switches. is displayed if a disc is recorded with only one angle.
The mode switches as shown below each time AUDIO is pressed. In the event bilingual (multiplex) broadcasts are recorded:
The display will show MAIN, SUB or MAIN SUB
When a recorded broadcast with stereo or monaural audio is played back:
Stereo is displayed. (Audio cannot be switched.)
When you play a program recorded in stereo or monaural, and if you are listening to the Bitstream sound via the digital output jack, you cannot select the audio channel. Set Audio Out to PCM (Page 43), or if you want to change the audio channel, listen via the analog output jacks. Settings for audio can be changed also in Function Control Screen (Page 39). Some discs allow changing of the audio channel via a menu. For details, see the manual for the disc. The display for audio automatically disappears after 5 seconds.
Chapter Number (Direct Chapter Skip)
Shows the chapter number being played back. You can skip to the start of the chapter. To skip to the start of a selected chapter, press the number buttons (0 to 9) to enter the chapter number when this option is highlighted.
Playback Elapsed Time (Direct Time Skip)
Shows the time elapsed from the beginning of the current disc title (or track). This lets you skip to a specific time. Press to select the Hour, Minute or Second, then press or the number buttons (0 to 9) to set the time. Press ENTER to start playback at the set time.
ENTER: Enters the input number. CLEAR: Clears the input number.
Shows the currently selected subtitle language. If subtitles are provided in other languages, you can switch to your preferred language.
Shows the currently selected angle number. If the video is recorded with multiple angles, you can switch the angle.
Shows the currently selected type of audio. You can select the desired type of audio.
The current Title (or Chapter) or partial segments can be repeatedly played back. Repeat Playback is also possible with REPEAT on the remote control.
These functions may not work with all discs.
The Menu enables various audio/visual settings and adjustments on the functions using the remote control unit. You need to call up the OSD to perform settings for this player. The following is the explanation for the basic operations of the Menu.
Example: Setting Front Panel Display/LED
Display the Menu screen
Press HOME MENU to display the HOME MENU screen. Press to select Settings, then press ENTER. When the wallpaper is displayed, the home menu can also be displayed by selecting the menu icon ( ) with then pressing ENTER.
Select a menu item
Press to select Front Panel Display/LED, then press ENTER.
Select the next item
Press to select the desired item, then press ENTER.
Exit the Menu screen
Press HOME MENU or EXIT to exit.
RETURN to return to the Press previous Menu page.
Basic Operation for Playback Setting
Example: Setting Parental Control under Playback Setting
Press HOME MENU to display the HOME MENU screen. Press to select Settings, then press ENTER. Press to select Playback Setting, then press ENTER. Press to select Parental Control, then press ENTER.
When you operate this Player for the first time, the PIN code setting screen will be displayed. See When setting the PIN code for the first time below.
When setting the PIN code for the first time To set the PIN code for the first time, press to select Yes to enter the PIN code setting menu, then press ENTER. Press the number buttons (0 to 9) to enter a 4-digit number for the PIN code, then the same 4-digit number for confirmation. Press ENTER to complete the PIN code setting procedure and move to the next setting screen. 6 Press to select the parental control level for DVD-VIDEO, BD-ROM, and then select the country code. Press ENTER after making each selection.
Press ENTER at the boxes in which characters are to be entered, and the input screen will appear.
Press BLUE (Complete) to fix the numbers which have been input.
Selected by pressing
Press to select the desired input mode. Press the number buttons (0 to 9) or to select a number/character, then press ENTER.
Repeat step 1 to 5 to finish inputting all the required characters.
Input character list
Numeric Edit Cancel 1234567890 Left Right Complete Del.Char. RETURN can be performed by
* The same operation as RED, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE and selecting each of the items and pressing ENTER. Del.Char. stands for deleting characters.
USB Memory Management
The following instructions explain how to delete data downloaded from BD-LIVE and recorded on the USB memory device.
Connect the USB memory device.
Connect the USB memory device to the USB port on the players front or rear panel. BDP-LX53/BDP-330 only: If USB memory devices are connected to both the USB ports on the players front and rear panels, the data is only deleted on the USB memory device that was connected first.
Press HOME MENU to display the HOME MENU screen. Press to select Settings, then press ENTER. Press to select USB Memory Management, then press ENTER.
No USB Memory appears when no USB memory is inserted.
Before using the USB memory device
Do not remove the USB memory device or unplug the AC cord while the operations for USB Memory Management or Software Update are being performed. Do not use a USB extension cable to connect a USB memory device to one of the players USB ports. Using a USB extension cable may prevent the player from performing correctly.
Press , select Erase or Format, then press ENTER.
Erase: Deletes only BD-VIDEO data contents. Format: Deletes all contents. To delete only an update file after updating the software, do so on your computer.
Erase BD-VIDEO data on USB memory. Erase all contents on USB memory including protected contents.
Operation of USB memory devices is not guaranteed. The player supports USB memory devices formatted in FAT32/16. When formatting a USB memory device on your computer, do so with the settings below. File system: FAT32 Allocation unit size: Default allocation size
Data which has been saved to the players internal memory (game score, etc.) will also be deleted.
Press , select Yes, and press ENTER.
The deleting screen is displayed. Once deleting is completed, the screen below appears.
The software can be updated in one of the ways described below. Updating automatically using the network Updating manually using the network Updating manually using a USB memory device The settings below must be made in advance to update the software using the network. Product information on this player is provided on the Pioneer website. Check this website for update and service information on your Blu-ray disc player.
IN Europe: http://www.pioneer.eu/ IN U.K.: http://www.pioneer.eu/ http://www.pioneer.co.uk/ IN Russia: http://www.pioneer.eu/ http://www.pioneer-rus.ru/ IN Hong Kong: http://www.pioneerhongkong.com.hk/ IN Singapore: http://www.pioneer.com.sg/firmwaredownload
Updating automatically using the network
When the players power is turned on, the player automatically connects to the network and updates the software when new software is available.
Setting 1 Press HOME MENU to display the HOME 4 5
MENU. Press to select Settings, then press ENTER. Press to select Software Update, then press ENTER. Press to select Auto Update Setting, then press ENTER. Press to select Yes, then press ENTER.
The player automatically connects to the network each time the power is turned on.
Check that the LAN cable, USB Wireless LAN Adaptor or USB memory device is properly connected (page 20). Properly set the Communication Setup (page 45). Depending on the network connection conditions and other factors, some time may be required to download the update file.
Updating 1 Press STANDBY/ONto turn the power on.
The player automatically connects to the network. Accessing flashes on the screen. When new software is detected, the players current software version and the new software version are displayed. The automatic connection to the network is not performed if a disc is already loaded in the player. If the software has already been updated to the latest version, nothing is displayed on the screen.
BDP-LX53/BDP-330 only: Be sure to connect the USB memory device to the USB port on the players front panel. If USB memory devices are connected to both the USB ports on the players front and rear panels, disconnect the USB memory device on the front panel and connect it again.
Press HOME MENU to display the HOME MENU. Press to select Settings, then press ENTER. Press to select Software Update, then press ENTER. Press to select Manual Update, then press ENTER. Press to select USB Memory, then press ENTER.
If no PIN code is set, proceed to step 8.
Input the 4-digit PIN code.
Use the number buttons (0 to 9).
Enter 4-digit PIN code
Press ENTER to check the data on the USB memory device.
Insert USB memory device containing the software update file.
Press ENTER to update the software.
The screen becomes dark for several seconds. Wait until the update screen appears. Do not unplug the power cord.
The picture will temporarily go dark until the software update display appears. Wait several minutes and do not unplug the AC cord.
The screen message is displayed while the USB memory device is being checked. The players software version and the version of the update file stored on the USB memory device are displayed. To update the players software, select Start then press ENTER.
* Do not unplug AC cord.
Software update file is detected in the USB memory device. Start update? Current Ver. : Update Ver. : **1234567 **2345678
Check on the screen that updating has been completed properly.
If updating fails, check the file on the USB memory device, then start over from step 1.
An error message is displayed if the USB memory device could not properly recognized or if no update file was found on the USB memory device. Check the file on the USB memory device, then reconnect the USB memory device properly. Software update file is not detected in the USB memory device. Confirm that you have transferred the file to the USB memory device and retry software update. Confirm that you have inserted the USB memory device into the correct device.
This software is based in part on zlib see http://www. zlib.net for information.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
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ANOTHER LOOK AT THE PIONEER ANOMALY
ERHARD SCHOLZ 1
Abstract. The unexpected frequency shift observed by the Pioneer team, usually described as an anomalous acceleration, is discussed from the perspective of two alternative assumptions on the origin of cosmological redshift (Hubble eect). One is the standard assumption of an expanding space, the other is the assumption of an energy loss of photons without expanding space sections (downscaling photons). We nd that the Pioneer frequency shift is an anomaly from the point of view of the expanding space hypothesis only. If one assumes a downscaling photon hypothesis for the Hubble eect, the anomaly dissolves and can be identied with a direct manifestation of the Hubble law inside the solar system.
1. Introduction Many attempts have been made to understand the so-called anomalous acceleration aP of the Pioneer spacecrafts 10 and 11 from a cosmological point of view, (Rosales/Sanchez 1999, Rosales 2004, Masreliez 2005, Nottale 2006, Carrera/Giulini 2006, Fahr/Siewert 2006a, Fahr/Siewert 2006b) and others. Dierent obstacles obliterated these attempts. An explanation of aP as a dynamical eect of the general relativistic modication of low velocity orbits by cosmological terms in Robertson-Walker models is ruled out, because the cosmological corrections are proportional to H0 v, with v 10 kms1 the spacecraft velocity. They are a factor v , i.e. 4 orders of c magnitude, too low (Scholz 2005, equs. (20), (63)). M. Lachi`ze-Rey arrives e at even smaller values in his recent approximation (Lachi`ze-Rey 2007). e Cosmological corrections of distance measurements, or a phase shift of the photons (Berry phase) have been proposed by (Rosales/Sanchez 1999, Rosales 2004). These may lead to eects which look like a (ctitious) acceleration. But according to (Carrera/Giulini 2006) the derivation is erroneous and the eect is even smaller, carrying a factor on the order of magnitude ( v )3. Other approaches are shortly discussed in the basic study (Anderson c e. a. 2002, section XI C). None of these has led to conclusive results, but the motivation for a search in this direction persists. Since the beginning of the study of the Pioneer anomaly a surprising numerical coincidence between the Hubble constant H0 and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration ap divided by c, the velocity of light has been observed.
firstname.lastname@example.org University Wuppertal, Department C, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and Interdisciplinary Center for Science and Technology Studies Date: 22. 03. 2007.
The best t for aP to the experimental data prior to a bias estimate is (1) aP exp = (7.84 1.33) 108 cm s2
(Anderson e. a. 2002, equ. (23)), here supplemented by the estimation of the error intervals of (table 2, ibid.). This leads to (2) |aP exp | c1 (2.6 0.44) 1018 s1 ,
which compares well with the value for the Hubble constant (3) H0 (2.3 0.23) 1018 s1
usually given in the form Hkm s1 M pc1 10%. Even the usually quoted bias corrected value aP = (8.74 1.33) 108 cm s2 , with |aP | c1 (2.92 0.44) 1018 s1 , leads to overlapping 1 intervals. But the agreement seems to hold only for the absolute value; its sign poses a question of its own. The anomalous acceleration is directed towards the sun and is opposite to the spacecrafts velocity. If one takes orientation into account, one gets aP < 0, while obviously H0 > 0. In the following note we show that a eld theoretic cause of cosmological redshift could easily explain the Pioneer frequency shift. At rst glance this may seem to be a pointless enterprise. Special (ad-hoc) versions of the hypothesis of a eld theoretic reduction of photon energy during their course through space-time have been discussed in the 20th century under the nickname tired light. They have received strong criticism and seem to be empirically refuted. At present, most physicists consider also the general hypothesis with great suspicion (understandably) or even devalidated (wrongly). One has to note, that an analysis of Robertson-Walker manifolds in the framework of integrable Weyl geometry and scale covariant gravity leads to alternative metrical gauges to the Riemannian one and to interesting cosmological models, also from the empirical point of view (Scholz 2004, Scholz 2007). We therefore have reasons to explore hypothetically the consequences of a downscaling photon hypothesis for the evaluation of the Pioneer data. In contrast to the older tired light approaches, this downscaling is expressed by a non-vanishing scale connection of Weyl geometry (in the gauge distinguished by observational instruments and procedures); it is thus part of the geometrical structure itself. Physically it signies a (hypothetical) higher order gravitational eect on photons, and cannot be interpreted as a scattering phenomenon superimposed on the inertial structure of null geodesics, which forces photons to deviate from the latter. If this structural approach (formal from the physical point of view) leads to a better understanding of physics in dierent phenomenal ranges, the question of how the Weyl geometric downscaling can be understood physically (in the end, quantum eld theoretically) has to be posed anew. Already now, we may like to have another look at the older tired light mechanisms from the point of view, whether they may agree with Weyl geometric scale transfer, or whether they dont. It is not the object of the following paper to analyze this question. Short remarks on this question can be found in section 5 below.
Here we show that the anomalous frequency shift of the Pioneer experiment behaves quantitatively as if it had the same origin as cosmological redshift, correct sign included, if one only broadens the theoretical perspective as indicated. For this special question we only need very elementary mathematics, as we deal with cosmologically tiny regions which can be treated in the linearized (innitesimal) regime. The following analysis of the frequency shift data can therefore be read without further knowledge of scale covariant gravity or Weyl geometry. The next section presents a condensed view of the data and their evaluation. Section 3 and 4 discuss how the Pioneer frequency shift is easily understood, if one assumes the hypothesis of downscaling photon energy. It should be kept in mind that IWG provides a broader geometrical background to the analysis of the localized question dealt with here. Section 5 compares the result we have found with the problems to understand the Pioneer eect in the framework of expanding space cosmologies, and section 6 draws a short conclusion. In order to adapt our language to the possiblity that Hubbles observation may have an expression already on the solar system level, we here prefer the more general terminology of Hubble eect in place of the terminology of cosmological redshift with its narrower connotation. 2. Pioneer data The Pioneer probes 10 and 11 were navigated on the basis of Doppler measurements which used integration times between 60 and 1000 s. No ranging data were taken; position information was inferred from diurnal variation of the Doppler shift resulting from earth rotation. These variations allowed to determine the celestial coordinates (declination and right ascension) for each of the probes in certain intervals of the ight time. The spatial coordinates of the spacecraft could be determined by using best t PPN orbit determination methods. Although the team concedes that the radio Doppler observable was not the optimal method for the purpose of a 3-dimensional orbit reconstruction (Turyshev e. a. 2005, 3) (separate signal run time ranging data would have been preferable), the radiometric tracking data suced to indicate unanimously a model anomaly.1 For Pioneer 10 the data used in the present main evaluation (another one is in preparation) consisted of Doppler data points. They were taken between 3 January 1987 and 22 July 1998, while the space probe moved in an interval between 40 AU and 70.5 AU heliocentric distance. Pioneer 11 evaluation used Doppler data points (between 5 January 1987 and 1 October 1990, 22.37 AU to 31.7 AU ). In the literature on the Pioneer eect the terminology Doppler data is often understood literally. Here we use it purely conventionally for the total frequency shift of a two way tracking signal from the ground station to the probe and back, with = in the sign convention of the Pioneer team (Anderson e.
1Two dierent well established and often tested evaluation programs were used, the
orbit determination program, ODP, of Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL, and another one, CHASMP, of the AerospaceCorporation (Anderson e. a. 2002, 8f.). Both led to the same result.
a. 2002, footnote 38). In addition, the Pioneer mission recorded telemetric data on the state of the spacecraft and for results of scientic measurements. These are not of of much relevance for our analysis. The main evaluation period for Pioneer 10 was partitioned into three intervals, I: 3 Jan 1987 to 17 July 1990, II: 17 July 1990 to 12 July 1992, III: 12. July 1992 to 22 July 1998. Orbit data and the unexpected frequency shift (respectively acceleration aP ) were tted separately for each interval. As no ranging data had been taken, the model velocity vmod calculated by the orbit determination programs contains the integrated knowledge about the space probes kinematics in each of the time intervals. In this sense, we may consider vmod as kind of higher order observational data (higher order, because it was not directly measured but relied on a sophisticated evaluation of the raw data). The measured total absolute and relative frequency shifts are . (4) := and z := If one takes the Doppler origin of literally, the probes apparent velocity v seems to be given by v = =z. c The Pioneer anomaly consists in a systematic dierence between this apparent velocity v and vmod (5) v := v vmod > 0. v turned out to be proportional to the distance d of the spaceprobe, respectively the one way signal running time t between it and the ground station (6) v C 2t.
This suggested an interpretation of the constant as an acceleration aP with |aP | := C of equ. (6), where the factor 2 expresses the two way tracking procedure. It turned out that vmod < v. If positive orientation is dened by the ight direction, the assumed acceleration assumes a negative sign, (7) aP := C.
Once it rose above the numerical dirt eects induced by measurement errors aP turned out to be approximately constant over the whole period of 12 years of data collection, across the dierent time intervals and even for the dierent space probes (Pioneer 10 and 11). Thus it seems a very natural point to look for a common external origin of the eect, among them cosmological as one of the possibilities. One has to keep in mind that the experimental observable of the anomaly was an unmodelled frequency shift (which the Pioneer team calls Doppler), rather than an acceleration. According to the research program of the overall mission, the observed phenomenon was translated into terms of an apparent acceleration (Anderson e. a. 2002, 39). Moreover, the team added a warning against any rash attempt for a cosmological explanation. The observed anomalous frequency seems to be a slight blueshift on top of a larger red
shift (Anderson e. a. 2002, 17), i.e., of irritating sign for a straight forward cosmological correction.
Figure 1. Pioneer anomaly |aP | in 1013 kms2 , (Anderson e.a. 2002, g. 7) 3. A slight generalization for the description of cosmological redshift At the time cosmologial redshift was detected (in the late 1920s and the 1930s) it was well known that it may have dierent explanations by expanding space sections of cosmological spacetime or by an energy loss of photons due to higher order gravitational eects (later called tired light hypothesis). At certain stages of the development of a science it seems advisable to reconsider hypotheses from a new perspective, which have been neglected during a phase of in track research. In our case, both explanations have a common mathematical description if one uses integrable Weyl geometry extended by Diracs scale covariant dierentiation (Dirac 1973). Integrable Weyl geometry gives a framework in which both hypotheses can be modelled and transformed into another by a change of scale gauge. The expanding space hypothesis corresponds to the (generally used) EinsteinRiemann gauge, the downscaling photon hypothesis to another one which has been called warp gauge in (Scholz 2007). In the latter the whole warping of the space bres (the apparent expansion) appears scaled away (from the classical, semi-Riemannian viewpoint). We are here dealing with cosmological eects on a (cosmologically) very small scale level, which can be treated in the linearized regime. This is characterized by a cosmological frequency shift zH of photons travelling over a time t, = 1 + zH. (8) zH = H 0 t ,
We need not go into any detail of the equivalent descriptions in Weyl geometry for our analysis. Here we only have to allow for the logical possibility that equ. (8), the Hubble law, may hold without an underlying space expansion, as a possible alternative to the generally accepted expanding space hypothesis. We have seen that for the analysis of the Pioneer anomaly neither dynamical eects of the cosmological modication to the equations of motion, nor corrections to the metrical evaluation of the empirical data for distance and time measurement need to be taken into account. Both eects are at least 4 orders of magnitude lower (section 1). Thus our task is simply to analyze which consequences are to be expected, if one takes the Hubble shift zH of equ. (8) into account for determining the velocities of low speed trajectories, and to compare it with the result which one expects in an expanding space approach. 4. downscaling photon hypothesis If we assume that cosmological redshift is a vacuum or eld theoretic eect (without space expansion), it should be present on all scales, although not always observable because of limited measurement precision. In this case, the observed absolute frequency shift of a two way tracking signal like above has a relative value z= composed of a pure Doppler term (9) and a Hubble term (10) zH = 2H0 t. zD = 2 v c
Here v denotes the velocity of the spacecraft with respect to the observer system, c the velocity of light, and t is the one way running time of the tracking signal (factor 2 because of measuring a two way signal). Notice that under our hypothesis zH is not linked to a space kinematical velocity component. Up to higher (second) order quantities the whole frequency shift is (11) z = zD + z H.
If in the data evaluation the total shift z is considered as Doppler, the velocity of the spacecraft is systematically overestimated. High precision orbit data will therefore indicate an observed trajectory which falls back against what one expects from v (equ. (5)). This looks like an unmodelled fall of the spacecraft towards the ground station(s). If the measurement precision is high enough, like in the case of Pioneer 10 and 11, and the dynamical model is reliable, one has vmod (12) zmod := zD c
(inside the marges of measurement errors). Thus it is clear that an unmodelled redshift correction z arises (13) z := z zmod zH. As z has to be subtracted to bridge the gap between the observed redshift z and the model redshift zmod , an anomalous blueward frequency correction has to be applied. In (Anderson e. a. 2002, equ. (15)) the Pioneer team has expressed the frequency shift by an unexpected acceleration aP = |aP | < 0 (compare our equ. (7)) obs mod 2 = |aP |t. c Because 1 obs mod 1 = = zmod zobs + o(z) , 1 + zobs 1 + zmod this comes down, up to higher order terms in z (i.e., far inside the bounds of the observational error), to (14) The coincidence |aP | aP = H0 c c is immediate. It looses any surprise, if it is considered from the point of view of the downscaling photon hypothesis. In this framework the Pioneer frequency shift is nothing but the Hubble eect.2 It is easy to understand, why the anomalous acceleration started to be observable only at the distance of about 10 AU. The frequency stability of the hydrogen maser in the Pioneer crafts was at the order of magnitude 1015 for the integration times in question (Anderson e. a. 2002, 7). In order that z = 2H0 t enters the next order of magnitude, the signal running time t has to be such that (15) 2H0 t 1014 t s. That corresponds to d = ct 10 AU , shortly beyond the Saturn orbit. At smaller distances the Hubble eect vanishes below the threshold of observability given by the maser stability. The experimental precision data apexp quoted in our introduction (equ. (2)), taken together with (3), underpin equation (15) observationally: (2.6 0.44) 1018 s1 (2.3 0.23) 1018 s1 Let us repeat why, under the hypothesis of a downscaling photon origin of the Hubble eect, no sign problem arises for the Pioneer frequency shift. It is true that the Hubble eect zH shifts toward the red and adds to the pure Doppler shift zD. But the (tted) correction term z has to be subtracted
2Readers who know J. Masreliez theory of scale expanding cosmos (SEC) may notice that Weyl geometry allows to give a mathematical foundation to the SEC approach. Masreliez tired light explanation has nothing to do, however, with the analysis given here. He argues (dubiously) with two dierent time scales and derives a Pioneer like eect of wrong sign (Masreliez 2005, equ. 6.3).
aP t |aP | t = 2. c c
from the observed total redshift z, if one wants to isolate the pure Doppler shift from the corpus of the empirical data : zD = z zH Only then we arrive at velocity data which are consistent with the model calculations. Thus the correction terms appears as a blue shift on top of a red shift. 5. Comparison with expanding space hypothesis and discussion Let us resume. Assuming the downscaling photon hypothesis, the Pioneer shift becomes an obvious and natural consequence of the Hubble eect by extremely simple calculations. Basically, a simple proportionality is all one needs to consider. Of course, one has also to distinguish + and. The physically additive eect zH has to be subtracted from the total signal for the correction. More subtle mathematics comes into the play only for a deeper understanding of the framework geometry (Weyl geometry) and eld theory (scale covariant gravity). From a physical point of view, the result is more interesting. If our assumption (eld theoretic origin of cosmological redshift) is right, the Pioneer eect turns out to be a new experimental manifestation of the Hubble law, well known at a dierent distance scale level. The expanding space hypothesis leads to no satisfying cosmological explanation of the frequency shift. If the downscaling photon assumption hits the point, it can even be proved that a model anomaly arises necessarily in the expanding space interpretation. The comparison of both perspectives is strongly facilitated by relating them to the frame of a slightly generalized background theory of relativistic cosmology. From the point of view of Weyl-Dirac geometry the warp function f (t) of Robertson- Walker cosmologies may be understood as a gauge factor arising from integrating a scale (length) connection. The latter is expressed by a dierential one-form,
i dxi ,
and models the cosmological redshift partially or completely, depending on the physical assumptions for the origin of the Hubble eect. In our case, the downscaling photon assumption is modelled by the classical relativistic (or PPN) equation of the orbit dynamic, on which an additional Weylian length (scale) connection with (16) 0 = H 0 , = 0 for = 1, 2, 3
is superimposed. That gives negligible dynamical modications, while the scale connection describes an energy loss for photons (17) E = H0 t
over a running time t (energy is of scale weight 1). E is identical with the loss one would nd in a Robertson-Walker geometry arising from integrating the scale connection ((Scholz 2005). The Weylian scale connection
= H0 dt describes how metrical data at one point are transferred to another one (here along null geodesics). Weyl geometry therefore predicts an apparent clock drift by a factor H0 t in the linearized regime (Anderson e. a. 2002, equ. (16)). It is a result of the transfer process only and does not indicate a dierent rate of clock ticking in any meaningful sense. This observation leads back to the question, whether the scale connection explanation of the Pioneer eect (17) contradicts established empirical knowledge which invalidates the older variants of tired light assumptions of the 20th century, from F. Zwicky (1929) to J.-P. Vigier (1990). Surely Weyl geometric downscaling of photon energy shares a common motif with them. But the specic mechanisms which have been considered as possible causes for the energy loss, like Zwickys gravitational drag of light, assumed adhoc in a rst, so to speak heroic, attempt (Zwicky 1929), specic kinds of photon-photon interaction (Freundlich 1954, Pecker e.a. 1972), or a non-zero rest-mass of the photon (Vigier 1990), presupposed a naive, or even an unspecied relativistic background geometry. They were not part of the gravitational structure itself. Thus most (all?) of the arguments for an empirical invalidation of tired light theories by astronomical observations, are irrelevant for the Weyl geometric downscaling hypothesis, or even support the latter. Most clearly, the observation of time stretch for supernovae light curves (Goldhaber e.a. 2001), ts beautifully to a Weyl geometric description of signal transfer. In integrable Weyl geometry, any time interval information transmitted by photon signals acquires the inverse factor (1 + z)1 of the corresponding redshift z as scale transfer (energy E and time T are of complementary gauge weights ins Weyl geometry, [[E]] = 1, [[T ]] = 1). Other devalidations of the older tired light theories argue against naive or even guessed formula for the distance in the underlying geometry, e.g., (Lubin/Sandage 2001, 20). The Tolman brightness characteristic in Weyl universes (the most simple models of the Weyl geometric approach) behaves like in a comparable expanding space model (and diers from the present standard model only very little up to z 1.2 (Scholz 2007, 26)). In the integrable Weyl geometry version of general relativity the explanations of cosmological redshift by expanding space sections or by a eld theoretic reduction of photon energy become mathematically interchangeable by a transformation of the scale gauge. This poses the new physical question, which of the gauges corresponds to material measurements. Cosmological observations indicating which of the two gauges expresses physical (material) measurements are dicult to evaluate and are still inconclusive. The Pioneer eect, on the other hand, has the qualities of a picture-book experimentum crucis which allows to decide empirically between the two hypotheses. Pioneer type observations are able to supply two data sets, frequency shift and distance data. In an optimal experiment there would be independently measured data on signal running time, here they are reconstructed by orbit model calculations. A comparable duplication of empirical information seems to be impossible for cosmological observations proper. Of course, the Pioneer mission was not designed for that purpose. The realization that there was an unexpected frequency shift was the outcome of careful and painstaking work of more than a decade data preparation and
exploratory data analysis of an irritating eect. That it has the qualities of both types of experimental enterprises, should make it interesting for philosophers and historians of science, besides the more direct disciplinary repercussions we may expect in physics and cosmology. Of course, we need to have a broader and more precisely checked experimental basis, before we can be sure to replace the expanding space hypothesis by a downscaling photon explanation of the Hubble eect. Follow up experiments of the Pioneer type could decide clearly between a Hubble eect explanation and other explanatory schemes discussed in the literature. Although the design of future Pioneer like experiments concentrates on the direction and quantity of a true acceleration (Nieto/Turyshev 2004, Nieto e. a. 2005, Izzo/Rathke 2005), the planned missions will also be able to discriminate sharply between the two gauge perspectives and the corresponding physical hypotheses. It is planned that two (or even three) data sets are raised independently, most important in our context ranging data t( ) and frequency shift z( ) ( orbit parameter expressed in ephemeris time and t the signal running time as above). Then the time derivative of ranging distances v := cdt and the apparent velocity v = cz derived from the total d frequency shift z can be used for a direct comparison of experimental data. From our point of view, we expect agreement between v and vmod derived from orbit modelling like in the Pioneer experiment, and vv = H0 t. Inc creasing precision may even give new empirical information on the Hubble constant. 6. Conclusion In our view, the Pioneer eect should not be understood as a real acceleration. It essentially consists of a frequency gap, z, between a measured total redshift z and the one, zmod , derived from orbit calculations. z turned out to be proportional to the running time t of the signal (18) z = const t. For the research context of the Pioneer group it was more than natural to P express the discrepancy by an acceleration like term, const = |ac |. But as it was known since the rst anomalous observations that const H0 , a strictly empiricist interpretation of the Pioneer frequency gap as just another expression for the Hubble law in dierent experimental disguise would be a natural next step. Considering the fact that the redshift derived from orbit data, zmod , contains the whole knowledge about a pure Doppler shift, as far as the latter can be inferred from orbit observation, one might consider these as higher order empirical data. Disregarding any possible cognitive tension with the expanding space hypothesis and, if necessary, in open opposition to the latter, the data may be taken as an empirical indication for the validity of the Hubble law, equ. (8), inside the solar system. That this has not been done already years ago, adds another case to a striking observation of Felix Hausdor, Formalism is the true empiricism. (Hausdor RuZ), [because it helps to go beyond the limits of culturally inherited conceptual limits, E.S.]. Originally this remark was formulated
in the context of non-Euclidean geometry, but it is of wider import. It seems that a formalist analysis of cosmological geometry by integrable Weyl geometry had to precede the realization that the Pioneer eect may be read as a direct solar system expression of the Hubble eect, and probably has to. In any case, the real surprise of the Pioneer measurements seems to be the demonstration that the Hubble eect may already be observable in high precision experiments in the outer solar system. In this regard we expect that the Pioneer experiment has considerable further consequences for our theoretical understanding of the foundations of cosmology and, indirectly, perhaps also for gravitational physics.
References Anderson, John; Laing, Philip; Lau, Eunice; Liu Anthony; Nieto, Michael; Turyshev Slava. 2002. Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11. Physical Review D 65:082004(050). [arXiv:gr-qc/0104064]. Carrera, M.; Giulini, Domenico. 2006. On the inuence of the global cosmological expansion on the local dynamics of the solar system. [arXiv:gr-qc/0602098]. Dirac, Paul A.M. 1973. Long range forces and broken symmetries. Proceedings Royal Society London A 333:403418. Fahr, Hans-Jrg; Siewert, Mark. 2006a. Does Pioneer measure local spacetime expano sion? [arXiv:gr-qc/0610034]. Fahr, Hans-Jrg; Siewert, Mark. 2006b. Propagation of photons and massive objects in o a time-dependent local spacetime metric. Preprint University Bonn, submitted to New Astronomy. Finlay-Freundlich, Erwin. 1954. Red-shifts in the spectra of celestial bodies. Proceedings Physical Society, Section A 67:192193. Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D. E. ; Kim, A.; Aldering, G. ; Astier, P. ; Conley,A. e.a. (Supernova Cosmology Project ). 2001 Timescale stretch parameterization of type Ia supernova B-band light curves. Preprint [arXiv:astro-ph/0104382]. Hausdor, Felix. RuZ. Raum und Zeit: Transformationsprinzip. Nachlass Universittsbibliothek Bonn, Fasz. 1079. To appear in F. Hausdor Gesammelte Werke, a vol VI (ed. M. Epple), Berlin etc: Springer 2008. Izzo, Dario, Rathke, Andreas. 2005. Options for a non-dedicated test of the Pioneer anomaly. [arXiv:astro-ph/0504634]. Lachi`ze-Rey, Marc. 2007. Cosmology in the solar system: The Pioneer eect is not e cosmological. [arXiv:gr-qc/0701021]. To appear in Classical and Quantum Gravity. Lubin, Lori M.; Sandage, Allan. 2001. The Tolman surface brightness test for the reality of expansion.IV. A measurement of the Tolman signal and the luminosity evolution of early-type galaxies. [arXiv:astro-ph/0106566]. Masreliez, John. 2005. Scale expanding cosmos theory I an introduction. Apeiron 11:99133. Nieto, Michael; Turyshev, Slava. 2004. Finding the origin of the Pioneer anomaly. Classical and Quantum Gravity 21:40054024. Nieto, Michael; Turyshev, Slava; Anderson, John. 2005. The Pioneer anomaly: The data, its meaning, and a future test. [arXiv:gr-qc/0411077]. Nottale, Laurent. 2006. The Pioneer anomalous acceleration: a measurement of the cosmological constant at the scale of the solar system. [arXiv:gr-qc/0307042]. Pecker, J.-C.; Robert, A.-P.; Vigier, Jean-Pierre. 1972. Sur une interprtation possie ble du dplacement vers le rouge des raies spectrales dans le spectre des objets ase tronomiques. Comptes Rendus Academie des Sciences 274B: 765768. Rosales, Jos L. 2004. The Pioneers anomalous Doppler drift as a Berry phase. e [arXiv:gr-qc:0401014]. Rosales, J.L.; Snchez-Gomez, J.L. 1999. The Pioneer eect as a manifestation of the a cosmic expansion in the solar system. [arXiv:gr-qc:9810085].
Scholz, Erhard. 2004. An extended frame for cosmology by integrable Weyl geometry. Preprint [arXiv:astro-phys/0409635]. Scholz, Erhard. 2005. On the geometry of cosmological model building. Preprint [arXiv:gr-qc/05111139]. Scholz, Erhard. 2007. Scale covariant gravity and equilibirum cosmologies. Preprint [arXiv:gr-qc/0703102]. Turyshev, Slava; Nieto, Michael; Anderson, John. 2005. A route to understanding the Pioneer anomaly. Preprint [arXiv:gr-qc/0503021]. Vigier, Jean-Pierre. 1990. Evidence for non-zero mass photons associated with a vacuuminduced dissipative red-shift mechanism. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 18 (Feb.): 6472. Zwicky, Fritz. 1929. On the possibilities of a gravitational drag of light. Physical Review 33: 1623f.
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