Roland Jupiter-8 Service Maunal
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Roland Jupiter-8 Service Maunal, size: 11.4 MB
Roland Jupiter-8 Service Maunal
2005 Morgan Aero 8 J00341 in West Palm Beach, FL 33409 SOLD
User reviews and opinions
|channmw||9:33pm on Thursday, November 4th, 2010|
|Hmm, gotta give it to Apple again for making a light weight, good looking machine. Same as the I-pod, a first. Again, same as the i-pod.|
|fbrzvnrnd||9:49am on Monday, October 25th, 2010|
|I received my MBA 2 days ago and once again Apple has made an impressive statement in the form of presentation.|
|basillefe||12:40am on Saturday, October 16th, 2010|
|I have been an MS user for like 20 years. Vista: they should really be ashamed of themselves! Again, I am blown away by another apple product. This is one of the coolest laptops to hold in your hand.|
|rwe55612||2:23am on Saturday, September 25th, 2010|
|MacBook Air ultraportable may not like too many people hope, but the entry in the category of pocket-sized notebook. First let me Descripción the function of the computer Características Principales Tipo de Sistema: Ordenador portátil Dispositivos Incorporados: Alt...|
|AlbinoMuntjac||2:13pm on Thursday, August 19th, 2010|
|Though it is far more expensive than the “netbooks” that are competing with it in the lightweight, totally capable computer category.|
|jlipoczki||12:52pm on Wednesday, May 5th, 2010|
|Again, I am blown away by another apple product. This is one of the coolest laptops to hold in your hand.|
|Qiang Song||6:14am on Sunday, April 25th, 2010|
|Great Mac but wish the battery will last longer. The macbook air is light, beautiful, and it functions like a regular macbook. Moving on up on the MacBook Air I have decided an advisory review is a good idea since upgrading from the original MacBook Air to the second generatio... Great computer but faulty hinge I loved my MBA when I recieved it as a gift in July 2008. I was so pleased with it - great graphics.|
|MatthiasM||3:57pm on Thursday, April 15th, 2010|
|THE MAC BOOK AIR model I am reviewing is the MB003LLA 1.6 Ghz with an 64GB HDD, 2 GB of RAM and a standard Lithium Ion Battery (as ordered). Welcome to the aluminum generation For those new to the Apple notebook line. See listing See listing|
|Homer||5:57am on Monday, April 5th, 2010|
|It has an excellent weight, it is really amazing travel with one of those laptops You need to have extra care about it|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
The step sequencer
In this chapter we will see how to create a simple melodic sequence. Click on the MODULATIONS tab, and then click on the SEQUENCER tab to bring up the interface.
Click on the SEQUENCER button
Connect the frequency of VCO1 to the first modulation output and click the Q button to activate the quantize factor by half-tones for the frequency values.
Set Sequencer Output 1
Connect the frequency of VCF to the second modulation output and set the amount knob to let it blend in to your liking.
Set Sequencer Output 2
Enabling Retrig button triggers envelopes at each steps of the sequence
To start the sequencer, set the start/stop mode to Free running and click on Play
Set the value of each step by clicking and dragging the 16 bars up or down to create your melody.
Set the value of each step
Set the speed of the sequencer with the Rate knob.
If it is synchronized with an external sequencer like Cubase or Logic Audio for example, use the Quantization (Q) parameter, situated next to the sync button in the same section. Choose one of the tempo divisions to set the speed to your likings.
To add additional punch to the sequence, place accentuations on certain notes (Accent - envelopes Attack and Decay are effective on the cutoff frequency of the VCF): Click on the Accent button and apply it to the steps you want to accentuate. Set the intensity of this modulation with the Level knob. Set the attack time A and decay time D of the envelope to your convenience
The accent settings
There is also the option to add alternative quantization (SWING) to the sequence. This quantization can be useful for the composition of a piece of house music, for example.
4.5.2 Create progressive modulations with the GALAXY unit Galaxy allows creating very complex modulations thanks to the interaction of 3 LFOs. The first two LFOs allow inter-modulation with a different parameter on the X and Y axes. They are represented on the graphical interface of the unit. A third LFO allows modifying the alpha angle between the 2 X and Y axes.
The GALAXY module
Click on the MODULATIONS tab then on the GALAXY tab to show the interface.
Click on the GALAXY tab
Choose a parameter (for example, the HP VCF Cutoff) for the X axis, then adjust the speed parameter of the LFO to your liking.
Choose a destination for the modulation of the X axis.
Choose a parameter for the Y axis (for example the LP VCF Cutoff) then adjust the speed parameter of the LFO to your liking.
Adjust the speed of the LFO of the Y axis
See how to apply a modulation to automate the movements of the axis. This will shift the position in a cyclical way. You will obtain unusual and very progressive modulations thanks to this unit. You also can modify this angle manually thanks to the ANGLE knob. Choose the triangle waveform then adjust the speed parameter of the LFO to your liking.
Choose the triangle waveform for the (alpha) angle
4.5.3 Control parameters with the Keyboard unit The Keyboard unit enables you to control parameters via velocity and aftertouch.
Click on the MODULATIONS tab then on the tab called KEYBOARD to show the interface.
Click on the KEYBOARD tab
Select the parameter to be controlled by the velocity and then set the amount knob to your liking.
Choice of the modulation destination, setting its amount
Customize how velocity modifies the selected parameters thanks to a curve. The X axis represents the amount of velocity while the Y axis represents the amount sent to the parameters. This curve can be controlled thanks to 3 points.
Customize the velocity curve
You can do the same for the aftertouch.
Customize the aftertouch curve
4.6 THE EFFECTS
The EFFECTS interface of the Jupiter-8V offers unique signal processing possibilities, allowing you to insert effects in the synthesis chain, between the VCO and the VCF and between the VCF and the VCA. These combinations allow you to create a wide variety of new sounds. Additionally, you will be able to connect two effects Patches that are situated at the audio output of the synthesizer.
The interface of the effects
To familiarize yourself with this function, click on the EFFECTS button situated with the other tabs. Using the preset filters, choose the Project JMB / Type Bass / Preset JMB_Bass01.
In order to enrich the sound, the effect Distortion has been inserted between the VCO and VCF (Filter). Change this effect to No Effect and back to Distortion to observe the differences of sound.
Choose the effect of Distortion in the effects menu.
The interface of the distortion effect is now on screen. Adjust the distortion amount with to the Drive knob and see the changes in the sounds as well as in the curve. Change modulation source and amount. Adjust the mix of Dry/Wet signals.
The Distortion effect
Place a second effect between the VCF and the VCA. Take the Param EQ. Certain parameters of this effect will be modulated by the LFO in order to create an effect similar to phasing. The Param EQ is composed of 4 filters: Band 1 is a low shelving filter, Band 2 and 3 are middle peaking filters and Band 4 is a high shelving filter. They can be activated or deactivate by clicking on the Band 1/2/3/4 buttons. Adjust the volume of the frequency of band 3 with the knob G (GAIN) or simply modify the point in the gain curve
Click on the preset tab
This page shows two distinct sections: The left portion allows selection of presets by category (PATCH / PROGRAM Lower or Upper). The right portion allows searching with the help of two filter criteria.
Four buttons situated above the choice fields, allow you to create, save, save as or delete a preset.
The Preset page
Once the filters criteria are set, you can select Patch presets in the resulting list on the right of the page. Click on PATCH, then select criterion (for instance, Project: JMB, Type: Pad) and finally choose a preset in the list.
Selection of a preset from the same bank
To select a preset PROGRAM click on the UPPER or LOWER button. The name and the filter criteria of the preset are shown in the field above the button. A list of selection filters appears. After selection of the filter categories of interest, simply select the preset by clicking on the preset name.
Click on the button upper
Selection of the filter criteria
The choice of filters is the same as with PATCH presets. In the unfolding menu, the choice No filter is particularly useful to quickly pass through presets of the same type. If a preset is modified, this symbol * will appear next to the name of the preset.
The key mode must be in Dual or Split in order to get access to the Lower Prog part.
6.2.3 Creating a new preset To create a new preset (PATCH or PROGRAM), click on the button, the name: New_Patch or New_Prog will appear. Then you can work on the parameters of the sound, to save the sound under the same preset name while clicking on the save button. You can also change the name of the new preset by clicking on the name.
The new preset will always be a patch of the type WHOLE by default. To change the preset mode, click on one of the two other types you would like to choose.
6.2.4 Save a user preset To save your current settings of the preset, click on the Save button toolbar. on the
6.2.5 Save a user preset using the Save as option To save your current settings of the preset under another name, click on the save as button on the toolbar. A dialog window will appear. It will let you set the name of the preset PATCH and set the search filter type of the preset PROJECT. Click on OK to save. At this point, the preset PROGRAM will not be modified, even if you changed the synthesis parameters. To save a preset PROGRAM, check Save As. You can fill in the name of the project and the name of the patch to define the search criteria. You can also click cancel to exit this menu without saving.
A vertical slider
6.3.2 Buttons There are several types of buttons on the Jupiter-8V. Some activate or deactivate a parameter (activation of the arpeggiator, for example). A red led on the button indicates that the parameter is active.
A selection button
6.3.3 Switches There are several types of switches on the Jupiter-8V. Certain ones activate/deactivate a parameter. For example, one is used to turn ON or OFF modulation towards oscillator synchronization. To change its state, simply click the switch.
6.3.4 Pitch Bend wheel The Pitch bend controls the frequency/pitch of the synthesizer oscillators. Simply click on the wheel while playing a note on the master keyboard or from a sequencer, then move
the mouse horizontally to modify the pitch. The wheel comes back to its initial position at the release of the mouse.
The Pitch Bend Wheel
6.3.5 Modulation button The modulation button applies the modulation created by the LFO, according to the modulation rate set by the LFO. The manipulation of this button is very simple: Click on it to apply the modulation then click again to stop it. To adjust the rate of modulation, set the linear potentiometer called LFO mod situated on the left side of the pitch bend. Using this you can control the rate of modulation towards the oscillators pitches (VCO) to obtain an effect of vibrato, or towards the filter (VCF) to obtain a wah wah effect.
The modulation button
6.3.6 Virtual keyboard The keyboard lets you listen to the synthesizer sounds without the need for an external master MIDI keyboard, and without programming a melody in the sequencer. Just click on a virtual key to hear the corresponding sound. There is no MIDI output for the keyboard.
6.3.7 LCD Screen The LCD screen on the extension panel of the Jupiter-8 allows selection of presets, editing of the sequencer, as well as the Galaxy interface, the keyboard settings and the effects. To open the extension panel, click on the Open button situated on the tool bar. To choose which function to edit, click on one of the buttons situated on left top corner of the screen. ( PRESET for example). The SEQUENCER/GALAXY/KEYBOARD screen has two tabs that let you edit the sequencer and the galaxy module.
6.3.8 MIDI Control Most of the knobs, sliders and switches on the Jupiter-8V can be manipulated with external MIDI controllers. Before anything else, make sure that the MIDI device is correctly connected to the computer, and that the sequencer or the standalone Jupiter8V application is correctly configured to receive MIDI events coming from the device. Every instance of the Jupiter-8V receives MIDI events transmitted on a given channel. This reception channel is defined in a global manner for the synthesizer, either through the sequencer, or in the standalone Jupiter-8V application. The Jupiter-8V can receive up to 120 different MIDI controls. It is possible to choose a control for each knob. For this, click on the knob while holding down the Control key. A configuration window appears and will allow you to choose a MIDI control number. You can also click on the Learn button and move one of your physical MIDI controllers. In this case, the control number will be detected and configured automatically. To deactivate the MIDI control of a knob, simply uncheck the Active option in the MIDI control window.
MIDI configuration window of a knob
6.3.9 The preference screen On this screen, you are able to: See the version of the software Read the credits Activate or deactivate the pop-up windows animations
To open this window, click on the About button situated on the bottom right of the Jupiter-8V interface.
6.4 THE SOUND MAP
The sound map is an innovative preset explorer which offers an easy and revolutionary way to locate and choose a preset on a map area, thus simplifying preset management and making it much quicker to find an appropriate sound. The sound map also offers a brand new interface for creating new sounds thanks to morphing feature works between four presets. The Sound Map offers three views: The MAP main interface: the sound map classifies the presets thanks to statistical methods in order to organize the sounds on a map from their own audio characteristics. The LIST presets list: this page offers a more classical interface to classify the presets using lists and filters to find the desired sound. The COMPASS morphing interface: this page allows creating new sounds in real time thanks to a morphing result with up to 4 presets.
Lets have a deeper look in the Sound Map different views: o o To open the main Sound Map interface, click on the SOUND MAP button in the toolbar. located
To open the preset list page, click on the LIST button, on the top right of the sound map interface.
Open the List interface
To open the preset morphing page, click on the COMPASS button.
Open the Morphing interface
To return back to the main sound map interface, click on the MAP button
Return back on the map interface
6.4.1 The MAP main interface The Sound Map main interface shows a map where all the presets of the Jupiter-8V2 are spread out, organized by their different types of sound and their own audio characteristics.
The Map interface
The types of presets are represented by different geometrical symbols and colors for an easy way to locate them: Bass sounds Brass sounds EFX sounds FM sounds Guitar sounds Keyboard sounds Lead sounds Pad sounds Percussive sounds Sequence sounds Strings sounds Others sounds
To select and to listen a preset, directly click on one of the icons, anywhere you want on the map area. The icon is now highlighted in red. If you hold a few seconds on the selected preset, a popup appears and indicates the name of the preset.
Select a preset
You can create new presets thanks to an exclusive real time morphing feature: o Click between several presets and drag the mouse. Four red arrows drawing a cross appear linking the group of four presets. The sound of the Jupiter-8V2 will modified with regards to the distance between the mouse pointer and the selected presets. Get closer to a preset to make the synth sound like this preset does.
Morphing between a group of presets
You can now drag your mouse between those presets. The green arrow shows you the starting point of your motion. When you release the left mouse button, you can play the resulted sound and, if you wish, you can save it on a Jupiter-8V2 user bank.
In this way it is very easy to quickly get some new and exciting sounds without programming anything on the synthesizer interface.
The Sound Map overview
On the top right of the Sound Map main interface, you can see an overview of this map. You can use the map overview for navigating into the map and to zoom in or out inside of the map area.
The map overview interface
To navigate into the map, click inside of the red square and drag it on the map area to view other sections of the Sound map. To zoom in the view on the sound map, click on the Zoom slider, under the overview window, and drag it towards the right to increase the size of the map. To zoom out the view on the sound map, click on the Zoom slider, and drag it towards the left to decrease the size of the map.
The zoom slider
You can also use the ZOOM + or ZOOM - buttons, under the slider, to increase or decrease the map size step by step (by a factor of 1).
Clicking on the FIT ZOOM button
allows resizing the map to its global size.
220.127.116.11 The instrument type filter window On the right of the map main interface, an instrument type filter window allows you to choose which type of preset you want to see (or to hide) on the map. By default, all types of presets are selected.
The instrument type filter
To select an individual or a group of instrument types:
First click on the All button , on the bottom of the type filter window: this will hide all the instrument types from the sound map. Then, select the type(s) you want to see by clicking on the corresponding square box(es). A check appears on the selected box(es) and the type(s) of preset appears on the map interface.
Show pad presets
This is a good way to simplify and refine the preset search. If you click again on the All button, all types of presets will be displayed on the map.
18.104.22.168 Preset snapshot memories You can select up to four presets, anywhere on the map interface, and save them on up to four snapshot memories. You will be able to use those four presets on the COMPASS view to create new sounds by morphing feature (see below for more details on this feature). Of course, you can save any kind of preset on these four snapshot memories.
Knob to set the frequency rate of modulation between the frequencies of VCO 2 towards the frequencies of VCO 1
22.214.171.124 VCO 2 RANGE LOW FREQ Switch the frequency range for VCO 2 (RANGE), choose between four octaves 16', 8', 4', 2' Switch for the FREQ /NORMAL (low frequencies / audible frequencies), of VCO 2, of which the oscillation frequency is lower, and enables you to use it as an LFO to modulate the frequency of the VCO1.
FINE TUNE SHAPE
Knob to fine tune pitch with the range of plus or minus one half tone. Switch for the four waveforms: Sine Saw Tooth Variable Pulse White noise
The white noise waveform brings an interesting complement to the sonic possibilities. It is very useful to create breath effects (flute tones for example) or special effects like the sound of wind for example.
The synchronization between oscillators allows you to create very complex waveforms and overtones. When oscillator 2 is synchronized with oscillator 1, oscillator 2 will restart a new period every time the first oscillator completes its period, even if oscillator2 has not fully completed its current cycle (this signifies that it is not tuned to the same tonality!)
Here are some of the representations of the different waveforms used by the oscillators of the Jupiter-8V:
7.1.2 The mixer (VCO1 / VCO2) The mixer allows regulating the volume of the mix between oscillators 1 and 2. VCO 1 VCO 2 VCO 1/2 Knob to set the volume for Oscillator1 (LEFT) Knob to set the volume for oscillator 2 (RIGHT) Knob to set the volume for both oscillators (CENTERED)
7.1.3 The filter (VCF) The Jupiter-8V has a filter that is an emulation of the original Jupiter 8 filter. It is made up of two independent filter units:
126.96.36.199 A non-resonant 6 dB/octave high-pass filter The high-pass filter eliminates the frequencies while letting high frequencies go through. The sound will become thinner. It is very useful to remove bass frequencies of a pad sound for example.
The non-resonant high pass filter
Knob to set of the cut off frequency of the filter
Non-resonant high-pass filter
188.8.131.52 A resonant 12 or 24 dB/Octave low-pass filter The low-pass filter is characteristic of the Jupiter-8Vs sound. It eliminates the frequencies situated above the frequency setting (the cut off frequency). The resonance amplifies the frequencies near the cutoff frequency. Turn this knob toward the right, and the filter will become more selective. At extreme settings, the sound will eventually begin to whistle as the filter begins to self-oscillate. Note that the filtering will be less strong with the filter type set on 12 dB instead of 24 dB.
For hosts that allow linear control of knobs and sliders, right-click the mouse or [Command]+lick on Mac for additional precision. This is useful when trying to regulate the level of the cut off frequency precisely, for example. When in circular control mode, simply click on the knob and drag the mouse pointer out into a broader arc for a more precise setting.
Switch to set the polarity for envelope1: If the switch is on the top, the envelope polarity is positive (this is the more common way to use an envelope). If the switch is on the bottom, the polarity is negative. The envelopes time settings are reversed: the shorter times will be heard when the faders are on their higher positions. This type of polarity is very nice to create some inverted effects. Take a look on the preset Original JP-8 Preset / EFX /JP8_66_Fact to hear an example of this special effect.
7.1.6 The LFO Using the LFO as a modulation source is very common. It can be used to create a vibrato effect (when the LFO modulates the frequency of an oscillator) or a wah-wah effect (when it modulates the cutoff frequency of the filter). RATE DELAY TIME WAVEFORM Knob to set the speed of the LFO Knob to set the delay time before the LFO becomes active Switch the LFOs waveform: Sine Saw tooth Square Random
7.1.7 The VCO modulator The VCO modulator section allows adding modulations to both of the oscillators frequencies (for vibrato or automatic pitch bending effects) and on the pulse width of their waveforms. Frequency modulation LFO ENV1 VCO 1 VCO 2 PWM Slider to set the level of modulation from LFO on the VCO frequencies. Slider to set the level of modulation from Envelope 1 on the VCO frequencies. Selector to choose either oscillator 1, oscillator 2 or both oscillators as destinations for LFO / ENV modulation. Slider to set the level of modulation on the VCOs pulse width.
LFO M ENV1
Selector to choose either a manual setting (via the fader), LFO or envelope 1 as a source for the pulse width modulation.
The VCO modulator section
7.1.8 The LFO MODULATION, PORTAMENTO and BEND section The LFO MOD section shows the parameters that can be modulated by the LFO. There is a white button to activate the LFO. When it is pressed, the modulation is activated. When it is raised, the modulation stops. LFO MOD RISE LFO MOD Knob to set the triggering time of the LFO. Chooses the destinations that can be modulated by the LFO: VCO level VCF level BEND ON / OFF switch ( VCO ) ON / OFF switch ( VCF )
Slider to set the level of modulation from the LFO to the VCO Slider to set the level of modulation from LFO to the VCF Selectors of the destinations that can be modulated by the PITCH BEND ON / OFF switch ( VCO 1) ON / OFF switch ( VCO 2) ON / OFF switch ( VCF )
Connections of the voice effects
The effects are accessible when you click on the EFFECTS tab, situated on the LCD screen, on the right part of the Jupiter-8V. They will be activated or deactivated when you click on the EFFECT button, situated on the toolbar.
7.4.1 Chorus /Flanger This monophonic Chorus/Flanger module adds a comb filtering aspect to the sound. RATE DEPTH FEEDBACK AMOUNT DRY/WET OUTPUT Knob to set the frequency of the chorus Knob to set the depth of the modulation Knob to set the feedback of the modulation. (to achieve more of a flanged effect) Knob to set the depth of the modulation Knob to set the balance between the original signal and the output of the effect Knob to set the output volume of the chorus
The MOD display allows accessing the modulation connections of each of the parameters of the chorus as well as the choice of the sources of modulation:
KEY FOLLOW VELOCITY AFTERTOUCH ENVELOPE 1 ENVELOPE 2 GALAXY Y GALAXY X LFO SEQUENCER
The BYPASS button deactivates the Chorus / Flanger effect.
7.4.2 Distortion The distortion unit brings a soft or strong saturation to the sound, on the output of the VCO or VCF. Three modes of distortion are available: Soft Hard DRY/WET DRIVE SYMMETRY OUTPUT Soft distortion comparable to setting an analog amplifier to the maximum volume. Extreme distortion ideal for destructive lead sounds! Knob to set the balance between the original signal and the output of the effect. Sets the distortion amount. Set the symmetry of the out-going signal. Knob to set the output volume of the distortion.
The LCD screen allows to graphically show the distortion curve. The MOD display allows accessing the modulation connections for each of the parameters of the distortion as well as the choice of the sources of modulation: KEY FOLLOW VELOCITY AFTERTOUCH
ENVELOPE 1 ENVELOPE 2 GALAXY Y GALAXY X LFO SEQUENCER
The BYPASS button deactivates the distortion effect.
This equalizer unit adjusts the harmonic content of the sound with four bands of frequency control. Bands 1 and 4 (low and high) are semi-parametric; bands 2 and 3 (mid) are fully parametric. Each of the parameters of the equalizer can be modulated by sources of modulation. This allows you to create effects that sweep frequencies, resulting in a complex phasing or filtering effect. BAND 1 (bass frequencies) FREQUENCY (F) GAIN (G) Knob to set the band of the bass frequencies Knob to set the gain of the bass frequency band
7.5.3 Reverb The reverb effect creates a very dense series of decaying echoes in the sound, simulating the sound's performance within a three-dimensional space. FEEDBACK DAMPING DRY/WET OUTPUT Knob to set feedback time for the reverb Knob to set the rate at which high frequencies that are rolled off as the reverb decays Knob to set the balance between the original signal and the output of the effect Knob to set the output volume of the reverb
A visual interface shows the characteristics of the REVERB for convenient editing. The BYPASS button allows deactivating the REVERB effect.
The Reverb effect
7.5.4 Dual Phaser The Phaser unit provides a classic phasing sound similar to analog effects used in the 70's. SWEEP GENERATOR 1/2 Selection of the waveforms for the modulations of phasers 1 and 2: Sin Square Saw Triangle Knob to set the rate for Phaser 1 /2 Knob to set the depth of the modulation for Phaser 1/2 Knob to set feedback time for Phaser 1/2 Knob to set the balance between the original signal and the output of the effect Knob to set the output volume of the DUAL PHASER Button allows activating the synchronization of the two modulation frequencies. Button allows inverting the phase of the modulation frequencies Button allows deactivating the DUAL PHASER effect.
RATE 1/2 DEPTH 1/2 FEEDBACK 1/2 DRY/WET OUTPUT SWEEP SYNC INVERT BYPASS
8 THE BASICS OF SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS
Subtractive synthesis appeared at the end of the 1960s, giving birth to the first analog synthesizers: Moog, ARP, EMS, Oberheim, Roland (SH, Juno or Jupiter series), Yamaha (CS series) and Korg (MS and PS series). Of all forms of audio synthesis, subtractive is one of the oldest, and to this day, the most frequently employed by sound designers and musicians alike. This is due to the simplicity with which complex sounds can be created, over the more difficult types of synthesis, many of which employ elements of subtractive synthesis as well, such as low-pass filtering. As a basic overview to subtractive synthesis, one may consider any sound created, either in real life or on the synthesizer of your choice, as consisting of a number of sine waves, or harmonics grouped together. In subtractive synthesis, we start with a harmonically rich sound such as a saw wave, and through filtering, we remove the sine waves (or harmonics) that we do not want. This as you can imagine is much more complex than turning a filter control knob! The Jupiter-8V you own shows some very good examples of the subtractive synthesis possibilities.
8.1 THE MAIN ELEMENTS
8.1.1 The Oscillator or VCO The oscillator or VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) is the starting module (with the noise module which is often classed among the oscillators) for the creation of a sound on an analog system. It will generate the initial sound signal. We can think of the oscillator like a violin string that once stroked or plucked, vibrates to create its sound.
Oscillator Section on the Jupiter 8
The main oscillator settings are: The pitch determined by the oscillation frequency. You can set the frequency of the oscillator with 3 controllers: The RANGE parameter allows setting the tuning of the oscillator by octave. Usually, on four octaves 16', 8', 4', 2'. (The unities are indicated in feet, referring to the sizes of the pipes of church organs). The Jupiter-8 also has a LOW range to set the oscillator2 to low frequencies.
The tuning parameter (COARSE or FREQUENCY) allows you to tune the oscillator by semi-tones on a range of 5 octaves. The fine tuning parameter (FINE) finely tunes the oscillator upwards or downwards by a semi-tone. This parameter gives a bit more life to your sound when you use several oscillators simultaneously, due to difference in frequencies between the oscillators.
The waveform determines the harmonic richness of the audio signal. On the Jupiter-8V, four waveforms are available: The saw tooth wave presents the richest audio signal of the available waveforms (it contains all of the harmonics at decreasing volume levels in high frequencies). Its sound is ideal for brass sounds, percussive bass sounds or rich pad sounds.
The Sawtooth waveform and its harmonic spectrum
The square wave possesses a more hollow sound than the saw tooth (it only contains odd harmonics) but none the less, its rich sound (notably in low frequencies) can be used for sub-bass sounds that will come out well in the mix (the square oscillator is often set an octave below that of the saw tooth), wood sounds (clarinet, if the square signal is a little filtered), etc.
The PWM (top) and the Square (bottom) waveforms and their respective harmonic spectrums
The PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is a setting that allows you to modify the waveform cycle (or wave length). This can be done manually with the help of a knob PW or by modulation (with an envelope or LFO). Pulse width variation creates a spectrum modification that cannot be duplicated with subtractive filtering.
The filter settings of the Jupiter-8V
8.1.4 The amplifier or VCA The amplifier (Voltage Controlled Amplifier) receives the audio signal coming from the filter (or directly from the oscillator if it is not being filtered) to be adjusted before the volume is sent to the speakers.
In conclusion, here is a diagram that should help you to understand the composition of a basic sound:
8.2 OTHER MODULES
8.2.1 The keyboard To start and stop the sound at a specific pitch, we most often use a keyboard that is connected to the ADSR through a gate and separately to the frequency control of the oscillators. This will play the sound as soon as a key is pressed and end it when released, as well as tune the oscillator to the selected key.
Secondarily, the keyboard's pitch is also used to modulate other sources, such as filter cutoff.
If you do not use a MIDI keyboard, you can also play on the virtual keyboard of the Jupiter-8V, but your MIDI sequencer will not record those actions, it is for auditioning presets and programming only.
8.2.2 The envelope generator or ADSR If we stop here, the sound that you will obtain will be uniform, without life and without an end!! The oscillator delivers a sound signal (the audio output of a waveform) of a fixed pitch in a continuous manner. In the diagram above, the only way to control this sound is to lower the filter cut-off frequency so that it becomes more and more damp until it finally disappears; or simpler yet, lower the volume of the amplifier. The envelope generator, connected to the VCA, is used to sculpt the volume of the sound when we press a key on the keyboard and ends after the note is released. The most common modules developed use 4 settings that we can vary: The Attack is the time that the sound will take to reach its maximum volume once we have pressed a key on the keyboard. The Decay is the time that the sound will take to diminish after the attack portion is complete. The Sustain is the maximum volume level that the sound will reach after the decay is complete. The Release is the time that the sound will take to diminish once the key has been released.
The ADSR Envelope
The envelope generator of the Jupiter-8V
8.2.3 The low frequency oscillator The LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator or LFO on the Jupiter-8V) possesses more or less the same characteristics of the classic oscillator but it only produces frequencies lower than 20 Hz. In other words, you wont hear the pitch of its sound. It will create a cyclic modulation on the setting to which it is connected. For example: If the sine waveform of an LFO modulates the volume of an amplifier, the sound will increase in volume then disappear in a varying manner following the speed (the frequency) of this LFO. This will produce a tremolo effect. A sine waveform on an LFO modulating the frequency of an oscillator would produce a vibrato effect. With an LFO sine wave modulating the cut-off frequency of a lightly resonant lowpass filter, you will obtain a wah wah effect.
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