Internal - SATA - 20 GB - Samsung
Part Number: HM020GI
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User reviews and opinions
|pauloas||12:54am on Tuesday, October 26th, 2010|
|This machine is so good! So fast and excellent for using Internet/iTunes. Also plays films better than my dual core vista PC!!! Amazing the best thing I have bought. I was unsure at first but this little beauty has blown me away. No problems what so ever.|
|lamcl||8:53am on Monday, August 2nd, 2010|
|If you need a long-battery-life system now, this is a great choice. If you can wait a few months. Upgraded to 2gb memory chip with no problems! Great little device! Loaded Ubuntu 9.10 Netbook Remix with ease!|
|XRumer302||2:28am on Saturday, July 10th, 2010|
|The important part here is Samsung customer s... it fits well in a purse, its fairly fast, nice keyboard, good screen,I bought a wireless mouse. One of the best netbooks available out there ... Fast, good layout, compact, screen easily readable in bright day light.|
|barbara||7:54am on Wednesday, May 5th, 2010|
|After doing much research on netbooks, I purchased the Samsung NC-10 from Costco online, set it up, and have been very pleased so far. I will amend. Some on amazon have noted the screen to be scratched. Returned my beloved Aspire One to Amazon for several of the well documented problems it is know for.|
|PJJMARCO||4:53pm on Tuesday, April 20th, 2010|
|Samsung NC10 totally worths it! This is one of the best purchases I have ever made. I have always loved technology and comfort. Excellent!!! Simple excellent! Good performance, good batery, good size and 3 usb...|
|mike kingston||6:22pm on Tuesday, March 16th, 2010|
|Good. This is a good netbook. Important to me was battery life which seems to be approx. 5-6 hours on mine. It is a stylish and neat "bit of kit". Excellent netbook Just bought one of these for my son for 6th form as his laptop died recently and thought this would be more portable but still give ...|
|Oceana||5:42am on Sunday, March 14th, 2010|
|This product meets all basic computing needs,and then some.. Adequate Storage, Comfortable Keyboard, Compact, Fast, Good Battery Life. I USE THIS NETBOOK TO BROWSE THE WEB, CHECK ON GRADES AND SCHOOLWORK AND FOR DOWNLOADING MUSIC.|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
M020G Model: H M 0 H II H HM060II HM080JI
HARD DISK DRIVE service
Hard Disk Drive
1. Specification summary 2. Block Diagram of HDD 3. Connector & Jumper Pin Assignments 4. How to check if HDD is working 5. Exploded View 6. Maintenance Cylinder Configuration 7. How to use HUTIL Program 8. How to progress Burn-In Test 9. Caution
Attachment 1. The basic information
Attachment 2. HDD related terms Attachment 3. Q&A
SAMSUNG HARD DISK DRIVE
1. Specification Summary
Voltage Requirement Interface
DC +12V/10%, DC +5V/5% Serial ATA 1.5Gbps HM020GI - 20.0GB (1CH)
HM040HI - 40.0GB (2CH) HM060II - 60.0GB (3CH) HM080JI - 80.0GB (4CH) HM020GI - 1 Disk / 1 Head
Disk / Head
HM040HI - 1 Disk / 2 Head HM060HI - 2 Disk / 3 Head HM060HI - 2 Disk / 4 Head S.M.A.R.T Compliant
Buffer size 8 Mbytes MTBF(POH) 550,000 hours
Seek Time (RD/WT typical) RPM Temperature(Operating) Humidity(Operating) Temperature(Non-operating) Humidity(Non-operating) Linear Shock (Operating) Linear Shock (Non-operating)
Track to Track : 0.8 / 1.0 ms Average Full Stroke : 8.9 / 10 ms : 18 / 19 ms 5400 0.5 % RPM 0 ~ 60C 5 ~ 90 % - 40 ~ + 70C 5 ~ 95 % 300 G @2.0ms 600 G (2ms linear shock) Non-condensing Linear Shock
2. Block Diagram of HDD
PREAMP & WRITE DRIVER
READ/WRITE CHANNEL IC
CUSTOMIZED IC including SPINDLE MOTOR & ACTUATOR COMBO DRIVER AT CONTROLLER, EMBEDDED SERVO CONTROLLER, DSP PROCESSOR, ADC & DAC
A T A B U S
Dual-DSP 88I6525 Internal Flash Ron 1.5Mbit
HDA (HEAD DISK ASSEMBLY) - HEAD - DISK - VCM (Voice Coil Motor) - SPM (Spindle Motor)
PCBA (PCB ASSEMBLY) - PCBA
SPINDLE MOTOR & ACTUATOR COMBO DRIVER FET
Channel IC & HDC 88i6525
3. Connector / Jumper Pin Assignment
Serial Connector Interface Signals
Data Signal Connection S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Ground Rx+ RxGround Tx+ TxGround Key and Spacing separate signal and power segment. Ground
Differential Signal Pair Differential Signal Pair Ground Differential Signal Pair Differential Signal Pair Ground
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15
V33 V33 V33 Ground Ground Ground V5 V5 V5 Ground Device Activity/Stagger Spin-up control Ground V12 V12 V12
3.3V 3.3V 3.3V Ground Ground Ground 5V 5V 5V Ground This pin was reserved in SATA 1.0a Ground 12V 12V 12V
BIOS Setup Parameter
HM020GI HM040HI HM060II HM080JI
38,869 77,622 116,374 155,127
X X X X
20 GB 40 GB 60 GB 80 GB
39,179,952 78,242,976 117,304,992 156,368,016
4. Exploded View
<< Major components of HDD >>
HDD is formed by major components as follows: Base, Cover, ARM(E-Block), Latch, Crash Stop, Pivot Bearing, Breather Filter, Window Clock, Window Push Pin, Jump Pin, Spindle Motor, Actuator, Magnetic Head, Magnetic Disk, PCBA 1 Base Base could be a basic frames for HDD assembly. Spindle motor, ARM, VCM, cover and PCBA are assembled on it, and other components are sub-assembled on those configuration. ARM and Spindle motor assembled to Head and Disk each in advance,then those are assembled on Base. If base could be effected by external and internal vibration (spindle motor & actuator's fake vibration), relative displacement occurred between head and disk so to reduce this effect to PES(Position Error Signal) and data signal, shape design concerned mode shaping should be needed. 2 Cover Cover protect HDD components from the exterior impact and play role of sealing to cut off particle and moisture which could be a fatal factor to head and disk. Cover is also designed in consideration of noise and vibration effect. 3 ARM (E-block) ARM is assembled HGA and VCM coil back and forth and it is connected to pivot axis pivot bearing. When VCM coil generate torque due to electromagnetic force of VCM, ARM swing around pivot and play a role of carriage so as head may access to information side of disk.
put power on and no matter what HDD read or write data,spindle motor always revolve. Besides accurate reading from the media point of view is possible when maintain the constant speed within 0.1%,rotation error. The control circuit of spindle motor receive the index data from the spindle motor or media at every spin and check whether constant speed persists or not then revise the speed. Spindle motor is applied to DC brushless motor. 12 Actuator Hard disk has 2 disks so it has 4 written sides, and each side needs each written replay device, 8 heads needed. This 4 heads can't work independently. Each head is connected with one carriage and set as running altogether. For example, one head move at tenth track and then the rest come to move at the same track. Retrieval(information searching) is a moving the head to track properly. The faster searching speed, the better for a quick access. It is profitable to use voice coil motor for a fast searching speed. Making narrow the width and interval of track is for HDD capacity improvement so we can build more tracks on written side so searching movements in head become subtle. Therefore servo control the decision of HDD location. Magnetic disk is put standard signal for location marking from the manufacturing step. Head read this to find the relative difference then run motor mediate the head's location. 13 Magnetic Head Magnetic field is formed around the conduct on passing electric current to conductor and the direction and size of magnetic field are decided by those of an electric current. Magnetic head build a minute gap in core (formed by ring) and pass an electric current then strong magnetic leakage are occurred around gap thus magnetic particles of media vary the direction according to the that of current: this is called recording. On the contrary, a process induce magnetic signal to electric signal is called reading(decipherment). 14. Magnetic Disk Recording carrier become a permanent magnet according to applying magnetic material to the surface and change the magnetization direction of a electromagnet and it is possible to store information during long term. 15. PCBA PCBA is a circuit element concerning about HDD running and constructed in engine IC,COMBO IC,read/write IC,ROM ,and sort of chip etc. - Engine IC: contained RAM&Interface IC and exchange information to computer. - COMBO IC: Controlling spindle motor & VCM running when HDD power on. - Read/Write IC: read/write of HDD - ROM: Checking HDD basic function and management basic spec. 16. Ramp 2.5 inch drives usually adopt Load /Unload ramp system to prevent head slap for disk basically. Head is putted safely on the ramp which is located off disk-outer diameter at non-operating It makes head avoid to slap disk during the external shock. and play a major role to move to disk smoothly at loading and move smoothly and safely to itself to park head at power-off.
6. Maintenance Cylinder Configuration
File Name FSI FSI2 FIT FIT2 MLIST SV_TBL CONFIG2 CONFIG SERIALNO BI_SCRPT BI_RESLT BI_CRTRA FNL_TEST CHN_TBL GEO_TBL VLIST_H VLIST SLIST_H SLIST TLIST RLIST TMPRTURE SET_MAX SECURITY SV_TBL2 CHN_TB2 OVERLAY BI_TIME ER_CNT SV_ERCNT SCN_GRAY PAR_MON WK_HEAD TPI_WRW MR_TUNE DLIST TST_GEO SMRT SMRT_LOG SMRT_WTS SMRT_HLG BIAS_SHK END-FIT
Cyl 11 11
Sector 15 526
Size 512 370
Descriptions File System Information record Backup copy of FSI File Information Table Backup copy of FIT Maintenance Cylinder Defect List Servo Table System Configuration Data System Configuration Data Serial Number Burn-In Script Burn-In Result Burn-In Criteria Final Test Channel Table Drive Geometry Table Servo Defect List header Servo Defect List Slip Sector List Header Slip sector list Track Defect List Reassign List Temperature Measurement Data Set max LBA number Security data Servo table backup Channel table backup Overlay firmware code Burn-In test time Burn-in error count Burn-in servo error count Scan gray data Burn-in channel parameter monitor Weak head data Burnin TPI measurement data MR head tune data Primary defect list Geometry table for test/select TPI/BPI Smart data Smart log Smart write test Smart host log Bias shock data End of Record
M_LIST SVOTBL CONFIG2 CONFIG SERNUM BISCRT BIRSLT CRITER FNLTST CHTBL0 GEOTBL VLSTHD V_LIST SLSTHD S_LIST T_LIST R_LIST TMPREC SETMAX SECUTY SVBKUP CHTBL1 OVRLAY BITIME ERRCNT SVECNT SCNGRY PARMON WKHEAD TPIWRW MRTUNE D_LIST TSTGEO SMRTBL SMRTLG SMRTWT SMTHLG BIASHK
Explanation of terms for HDD repairing
When HDD power on, LED is in on and motor NOT READY (NR) start to drive. At this time head make vibration and start to drive then stop the vibration and led is off at the same time. DISK DEFECT ID MD OD MAINTENANC E CYLINDER DEFECT(MC) SPIN MOTOR NOISE(SM) ERASED TIME Symptoms for damage at disk side Defect is occurred at the inner part of disk Defect is occurred at the middle part of disk Defect is occurred at the out part of disk Part of basic information like defect etc. in HDD
Motor doesn't drive. Led is still on/off mode when power on : PCB failure Led is still in on mode and doesn't make any vibration. ID,MD,OD failure is occurred in leo test process rate 0 ~ 33% OD 34~ 66% MD 67~100% ID Maintenance cylinder defect
Motor rotate disk and if it is impacted ,make a When power on, some irregular noise is big noise due to damage. how many times does it cost to progress read test in leo actually Read and defect free are progressed automatically. Transfer defect on disk into buffer cylinder on available for read/ This is SUFFECTED in drive occurred at general motor.
NORMAL TIME Prescribed read test time by product company. AUTO TEST ALT+A Key OD,MD,ID is occurred when defect free error and exceed the capacity to progress defect free. F6 Key F2 Key F4 Key F7 Key HUTIL test PES fail Product which CD,MD,ID defect is occurred in BURN IN TEST Repeat read,write for with many hours and progress defect free finally for the product confidence. To check defect of HDD, svc tool, HUTIL TEST read,write,head,pes are manufactured other variable test. to test Check menu with F10 Key. Refer to HUTIL manual for usage defect and this is available for defect free and HUTIL test is downloaded(head test)by ALT-I and if it is passed ,only power on needed.Repeat led once is pass, fail when fail happen once more.
DEFECT FREE disk. Defect isn't write READ TEST WRITE TEST DELETE SYSTEM PES
Read wether damage on the disk side or not Write the regular data on disk side. Erase all the previous Data entirely at leo test pass product. HEAD is located at cylinder of disk correctly and is tested write ,read is available.
7. How to use HUTIL Program
1) Before you start HUTIL support from Voyager11P to PALO series.(HUTIL 1.12 version) (HUTIL has been upgrading constantly whenever new model comes out.) - Preparation before use Diskette or HDD containing HUTIL.EXE should be boot-up to MS-DOS mode,that is, should be contained IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS,COMMAND.COM (IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS: hidden file). And also HUTIL.CFG is required. 2) Explanation of each menu [TEST] SHORT TEST Menu for random read test, no defect free test. LONG TEST Read test from the first cylinder to the last in order, no defect free test. READ ALL Display error list when error is occurred after reading whole cylinder. Message will be appeared if the test time delay is over 20 seconds compared with other normal HDD. In this case, HDD may have problem. (Progress sequential read test from cyl. #0 - Refer to attachment below.) READ FROM TO Read from the designated cylinder and head to the designated cylinder. Press ESC to stop in the middle. WRITE ALL Write 00h on all cylinder except maintenance cylinder. All data will be removed. (Even partition table, boot sector & FAT) WRITE FROM TO Write from the designate cylinder and head to the designated cylinder. DEFECT FREE Progress after Read Drive command. Defect free operation for the defects in the error list. LONG TEST & DF Current auto test.Check defect and defect free during read test examine defect free again. to the last cylinder. No Defect Free.
BURN IN Download burn-In script to HDD. ERASE & SCAN Write full surface with 00 pattern and scan full surface. OD SCRATCH TEST Check OD for OS area has physical problem. AV SCAN TEST scan full surface every 256 Sectors and check elapsed time. [INFORMATION] NEW DEFECT LIST View the error list in memory. NEW DEFECT MAP Show defect on drive in graphic mode. These defects are invisible because of done then these are added after defect free done B/I & Read test or Auto test separately. GROWN DEFECT MAP Show the defects in graphic mode during HUTIL program. Moving along cursor with up/down arrow key, these keys are indicated the location of defects in the right list on disk. This location is agreed with the real location because skew was concerned in that already. The color of an arrow is agreed with those of head in which defect occurred. This function is applying to Voyager10,11,11P currently and this function can't show the defects during process. [TOOL] SET MAX ADDRESS Control Drive's Max Address a) PROCESS Change Max Address to designated size. b) TARGET LBA Set Max Address size with LBA. c) TARGET SIZE Set Max Address size with MB d) MODE [NON-VOLATILE, VOLATILE] Decide Changed Max Address is permanent or volatile e) RECOVER NATIVE SIZE Recover to original size f) DISPLAY CURRENT STATUS Show Current Size and Original size
DCO SET MAX ADDRESS Control Max Address with DCO Command. a) PROCESS Change Max Address to designated size. b) TARGET LBA Set Max Address size with LBA. c) TARGET SIZE Set Max Address size with MB d) RECOVER NATIVE SIZE Recover to original size e) DISPLAY CURRENT STATUS Show Current Size and Original size C. ERASE HDD Erase all data in Drive. Write with 00 pattern a) PROCESS Execute Erase Drive b) TARGET LBA Set Erase size with LBA c) TARGET SIZE Set Erase size with MB. d) ERASE MBR Erase M.B.R. (LBA 0). e) LOW LEVEL FORMAT Erase full surface faster with VU Command. D. SET MAX UDMA MODE Control UDMA limit a) PROCESS Change designated speed b) UDMA MODE [UDMA 33, UDMA 66, UDMA 100, UDMA 133, SATA 150] Support mode depends on drive model. c) DISPLAY CURRENT MODE Show Current max UDMA mode If setmax is already set on drive, we can't use this function. E. AUTOMATIC ACOUSTIC MANAGEMENT Change AAM mode a) PROCESS Change designated speed b) AAM MODE [DISABLE, FAST, MIDDLE, QUIET] Support mode depends on drive model c) DISPLAY CURRENT MODE Show Current AAM mode
3 times per region. ( Judge failure by reading not the whole cylinder but servo sector only because it is apt to mistake failure to head failure due to scratch) PES Check (PES, RCO, Mechanism) : Compare PES value from the first cylinder starting OD(except MC ),MD,ID region to the 3rd cylinder. (Check 30 times per 1 cylinder) Remark "failure" when error occurred more than 3 times per 1 cylinder. Maintenance Cylinder Check(M/C): Read Maintenance cylinder from the number of 0 to the last. In case of "MC", remark "failure" when error happened in one time. Media Check : Read from OD to ID region same as the existing read test function and progress "D/F" whenever defect occurred. Auto Defect Free: Reading along OD to ID region, progress "D/F" promptly if defect occurred. Read the next sector if no defect occurred and progress D/F if defect occurred. When we don't have any more cylinder space for D/F, stop progressing D/F and then remark defect status for the next 30 defects occurred from the D/F stopping location. Remark failure: - If the number of defects are same in OD,MD,ID region remark failure in order of OD > MD > ID. - If the number of defects are different in OD,MD,ID region remark failure in region have the most defects among OD,MD,ID region continuousness: Continuous scratch more than 15 cylinders divergence: Divergent scratch less than 15 cylinders Test OK: Remark "Test OK" if no problem occurred when test done. If it passed due to D/F, remark "Defect free by pass~" and show the corresponding failure region in the below. At this time, input the code of failure region shown and the control code 'is a "Defect controlled". Display Read time with checking during Read test, (Stop reading if expecting read time exceeded +10 when 50 % tested.) 4) HUTIL Error message Error messages - ECC ERROR: Where the data was written (data writing dimension in sector, data zone) occur physical damage (hard related error: disk ding by head caused by impact and vibration) or logical damage. (soft related error: error is occurred during writing) Logical error(damage) could be cured by re-writing. - DATA AM NOT FOUND ERROR: Damaged address mark(AM:current address information of data) among the structure of sectors, containing the logical and physical defect. - ABORTED COMMAND: Message when HDD can't recognize the fixed order in program. (PCBA failure or HDA failure.)
Example of disk failure
< Error List >
CYL HD(Head) SEC 102 Error List ECC Err Data Am Not Found ECC Err ECC Err ECC Err ECC Err ECC Err
Maintenance Cylinder 0 ~ Maintenance Cylinder : When it Read to Happen Error on CYL number1
HEAD RETRY I/D scatter hits. I/D continuous
[AJ42] [AJ22] [AJ23] [AJ24] [AJ25] [AJ26] [AJ27] [AJ38]
M/D scatter hits. M/D continuous O/D scatter hits. O/D continuous
AUTO DEFECT FREE
continuoud: more than 15Cylinder
N> VIRUS [SJ15] [SJ16] [SJ13]
[SJ19] [SJ12] [SJ23]
FAT,format error compatibility
control speed other failure
8. How to progress Burn-In Test
1) Summary of B/I Test Progress defect detection and reliability test of HDD according to program written in maintenance/cylinder in temperature 405, humidity 50 10% stress condition. 2) Progress B/I Test A way of detection for HDD defect by reading/ writing the existing written information. 3) Flow sheet. Down load if small defect like mentioned above occurred.(Progress ALT-I in HUTIL program) (Be sure to check download before progress B/I program. Led off if there is no program down loaded or maintenance/cylinder is unreadable.) As Main and B/I Firmware are separate from VG11/VG11+ series, progress test after changing to B/I Firmware before test.( if B/I finished, change main firmware.) Check appearance & jumper pin status. (B/I test is Led off if jumper pin connection is incorrect.) Connect drive to power supply.(same as drive ready.) If drive is progressing burn-in regularly,led blink after ready. If drive is progressing burn-in irregularly,led off after ready. (Led Off or ready state if the initial state isn't burn-in low or cont-in flow when we check B/I program by loading burn-in program: written by how to B/I flow, SETC 0,SETH 0, SETS 5,(M/C region) Mark failure and Led frequency appear when lots of defects are occurred or error in drive is occurred during burn-in test.) Led is repeated one time if pass after done test. (Be cautious because burn-in test time is different by every model) Write end-in flow on maintenance/cylinder if pass after done test and write fail-in flow in fail case. Led blank after write the test result. Pass: repeat one time. Fail: the number of error code. 4) Subject of B/I Program
Progress B/I Program - Main order: LED Bilnk : Format : Change Pattern : Change Slvel Label : Change Retry Count : ECC ON/OFF : Read Track Reverse : Read Track Forward : Write Track Forward : Write Track Reverse : Random Write : Random Read - Record M/C if error happened : recording location - from CYL 1, Head 0 SEC 1
5) Failure status and repairing
Failure state Jumper pin connection failure State -LED off after ready when drive is connected.(Not execute burn-in ) Not down load -Led off after ready when drive is connected.(Not execute burn-in) -Order"Can't~" is occurred during progressing down load(ALT-I)in LEO program. -Order"Can't~" is occurred during re-progressing in down load state,check the drive burn-in state. Method Remarks
-Check the location of jumper pin and DXX:All sorts of jumper execute to change. in "-C/D".) DCF:Size operation pin -C/D:Master/slave operation -Read cyl:1, head:0, sec:5 on Maintenance/cylinder and check the burn-in program write state.Be sure to be in "Burn-in Flow" state if dump. 1.INIT 0 2.SETC 1 3.SETH 0 4.SETS 5 5.PHRD 1 6.DUMP - Write location according to test result CYL:1 1.INIT 0 4.JLUP 2 HEAD:0 SEC:10 2.RTRK 3.ADDH 1 Read Program (The location of jumper pin is always DSP:Master/slave operation -Don't execute down load :execute again.
MAINTENANC -Can't read burn-in -Error is occurred in reading E /CYLINDER read Failure program so perceive as not maintenance/cylinder or no error is occurred in writing&formatting again or down load then execute Burn -in. -If failure is occurred in entire head after changing PCBA. -If defect is occurred, catch hold of failure symptom and failure degree then progress operation,execute servo write change disk. (process in head office.) LED failure -Drive is ready regularly but only led can't run. PCBA failure Power cable failure in burn-in rack -NO power state -Off condition if power cable is -Execute again after changing PCBA. -Short occur when it is connected drive to power cable, then come to reconnect in 30 second. -Due to led specific & imperfect soldering - change PCBA then repair.
-Check the error state by reading CYL:1 HEAD:0 SEC:5 in maintenance/cylinder. -Execute one more heads during writing & formatting not one head only.(Failure can't duplicate if
down loaded state. maintenance/cylinder,progress pre-test
DOS PARTITION : This is to dos as system disk is to floppy disk and dos is run by this partition. EXTENDED DOS PARTITION : The rest region of the disk was occupied by dos partition. The size of partition from dos 4.0 isn't restricted, hard disk over 32MB(to DOS 3.3) must be treated as a independent drive each diving two more partitions. Transfer Rate: The mass of controller is transferred a data from hard disk. That is transferring to computer after reading the data from hard disk. Transfer rate depends on how faster the disk spin and how many data sector is recorded. Cache: One of method to optimize capacity of disk drive. Drive using read cache send a data to host computer ,on the contrary write cache used when host send to drive. Read Cache: How to read the continuous data as well as data needed by host. This is possible because the files in drive storage orderly. If the host want information read before, we transfer information data in buffer without reading dada again. This can be picked up the speed. Write Cache: All data transferred from host are received in buffer of disk drive, host is informed that written already. While disk drive is recording,host can record another information therefore system efficiency is improved. But this is risk loss of data when power is cut off before recording the data yet. PC use write cache within operating systems like smart drive, so PC doesn't have such like a risk. Disk controller,which manages the interchange of data between drive and computer,and hard ware and soft ware in the circuit of disk controller and disk drive. PC is used AT(IDE) and SCSI interface normally. Disk controller,which manages the interchange of data between drive and computer,and hard ware and soft ware in the circuit of disk controller and disk drive. PC is used AT(IDE) and SCSI interface normally. IDE Drive: Abbreviation of Integrated device electronics. This drive make all circuits connected to AT bus directly by putting within drive, we call this general AT drive. Enhanced IDE: Current IDE spec only two drive can be attached and the speed isn't fast. The higher capacity of system,the lower that of the whole system due to that of HDD. Enhanced IDE is an improved IDE-AT Interface spec. resolve the problem like lower transferring speed and 528MB barrier cause by current BIOS. Fast-IDE Interface or local bus IDE-AT Interface are the same. SCSI: Current IDE spec only two drive can be attached and the speed isn't fast. The higher capacity of system,the lower that of the whole system due to that of HDD. Enhanced IDE is an improved IDE-AT Interface spec. resolve the problem like lower transferring speed and 528MB barrier cause by current BIOS. Fast-IDE Interface or local bus IDE-AT Interface are the same. Defect-Free: A region isn't able to read exist in media. When we find defect like this in manufacturing process, we replace with the normal region. Thus we can supply perfect drive to user. Defect magnet is a method can arrange the defects in read/write from the replaced sector. ECC On-the-Fly: A region isn't able to read exist in media. When we find defect like this in manufacturing process, we replace with the normal region. Thus we can supply perfect drive to user. Defect magnet is a method can arrange the defects in read/write from the replaced sector. Multi-Zone Recording: Zone-bit recording or constant recording are the same. In case we record data on spinning disk in constant frequency signal, shorten the inside caliper and lengthen the outside diameter. If we make this evenly, the capacity of drive is improved.
Master/Slave/Cable Select: When we attached 2 IDE drive, one is master and the other is slave. Being a M/S whether or not of drive is determined by jump in drive or cable select. BPI: Abbreviation of bit per inch, recording density towards a circumference. Usually we decide the maximum diameter of track. Buffer: The RAM where executed data between HDD and host computer is stored in RAM temporary. The resolution of the bottleneck according to difference of speed and improving the efficiency. Controller: Same as disk controller, chip or circuit make possible transfer command and data of computer according to HDD. DMA: Abbreviation of direct memory access, a technique for transferring data from main memory to a device without passing it through the CPU. This is useful for making quick backups and for real-time applications. Servo Local control technology enable to read and write data.When spinning flatter high-speeded read data, head is the accurate position according to the position written data,this technology could be a standard about HDD efficiency. Local controller apply stepping spindle motor or voice coil motor to head located in actuator and settled a position. More over another important factor is how far the magnetic head could fly on the surface of hard disk. The lower the height of magnetic head is, the narrower the magnetic region on the disk surface, so the more data can be read or written on the same disk surface.
Attachment 2. Explanation of HDD terms
Access Access time Actuator Allocation Allocation Unit Buffer ABS Access Access time Actuator AFR Allocation Allocation Unit APM Areal Density Arm AT ATADevice ATA-2 Audit Average Seek Time Back Gap Bad Block BALANCING PLATE Base Read, write, or update inforamtion on some storage medium such as a disk. The interval between the time a request for data is made by the system and the time the data is available from the drive.Access time includes the actual seek time, rotational latency and command processing overhead time. The internal mechanism that moves the read/write head to the proper track The process of assigning particular areas of the disk to particular data or instructions. An Allocation unit is a group of sectors on the disk that can be reserved for the use of a particular file.(usually in the form of sector, block or cluster) An area of RAM reserved for temporary storage of data that is waiting to be sent to a device. Air Bearing Surface. Establish flat surface slantingly at the both sides of head to make head rise on disk by using air pressure. Reading, writing, updating information stored in disk. Time from requesting data to assuring data on disk in system. (contained seek time, rotational latency, command processing overhead time) Mechanism of making read/write head move to the proper track. Annualized Failure Rate. Accumulated failure rate. Process of storing Data instruction at the particular region in disk. Remaining sector set on disk to be used for specific file. (commonly, in form of sector, block, cluster ) Advanced Power Management Hardware. Recording capacity per 1 square inch. Areal Density = BPI TPI [Mb/Inch] Assembled HGA(Head Gimbal Assembly) and VCM at the back and forth of ARM. Parts which is connected to pivot bearing of base. (Parts enable to move head to proper location on Base physically) Advanced Technology interface or IDE. Interface to be designed for IBM transfer PC. AT Attachment Device. CD-ROM. Device is equivalent to ANSI ATA spec. HDD, contained tape drive,
The existing IDE specification enable to adhere only 2 drives and transferring speed was low. But HDD efficiency are resulted to low the whole capacity according to getting system efficiency higher. Enhanced IDE has specification of revised IDE-AT interface by current BIOS and 528Mb barrier and we settled the low speed problem with this new spec. Same as Fast-IDE Interface or Local Bus IDE-AT Interface. End of Life. Erasable programmable read only memory. Engineering verification test. File allocation table. Data table is recorded at the most outer side of disk, inform sector location and order of each recorded file to Operating system. Flux change per inch. magnetization rotation density per unit inch.
EOL EPROM EVT FAT FCI
Flux Change Per Inch. Magnetization rotating density per unit inch. Concerned with BPI, this FCI/FCPI/Flu value is decided by track has maximum radius. BPI is proportion to FCI according to difference x Density of coding method. FDD FILTER Firmware Flash Memory Flexure Assembly Flux Density Flying Height Form factor Format Formatted capacity FPC FPC ASS'Y GASKET GigaByte(G B) GMR Head Half height Hard Error/Soft Error HDA HDA label Floppy Disk Drive. 5.25"/3.5" drive is used for PC
Components filtering particle from the flowed air to the inside/outside of HDA. Hardware control program, this is stored in Among PROM of the memory for searching only which can re-write, memory chip enable to rewrite and erase the old contents electrically. Control rising by Slider ABS, flying height of slider and make slider move to proper track by connecting to head positioning mechanism. Flux density, the number of magnetic field pattern can be recorded on the disk surface. Distance between Read/write head and disk surface. Air resistance due to disk rotation can maintain this distance, the small flying height is, the large data recording density is, but it need more specified mechanical design. Industrial specification decided diameter of Disk. 3.5", 2.5" in case of Samsung. Recording the particular signal to divide track and sector and this information should be recorded on disk in first before user want to store data. Be careful because formatting erase all recorded information. Available HDD capacity after HDD formatting. Flexible Printed Circuit, or PCC, inputted parts enable to flow current to the flexible material. (Polemize) Status of soldering IC, CAPACITOR, 14PIN CONNECTOR to FPC surface or connecting HOLDER-FPC, SUPPORT-FPC, CLIP-FPC. Parts made of rubber to protect inner inflow air and moist from the outside of HDD Data storing unit. Accurately 1,073,741,824 bytes(1024*1024*1024), i.e. 1,000MB Giant Magneto Resistive head. New type head of MR head. One of the standard height specification of HDD and the real height is 1.6inch Hard error is a continuous misreading due to defect of disk surface) and it can read correct data if in case of read again, we call this soft error. Head Disk Assembly, half assembled product of HDD. SPINDLE MOTOR, DISK, HSA, VCM etc. are sealed within Base and Cover. Label remarked assembly status of Disk/Head by 5digit-english & number.
HDD Head Head Crash Head Stack Height HGA High-Level formatting HOLDER-FP C HSA Hz I/O IC IDE IDE Drive Initialize Interface Interleave/ Interleave Factor IQC Jumper Jumper Pin
Hard Disk Drive, memory device by transferring data to permanent magnetic field rather than digital pulse. It organized HDA and PCBA. Read/write data on disk directly. (MIG, Thin film, MR,GMR) The damages of read/write and media cause a sudden contact between head and disk surface, they are also occurred because of dust,particles or other contamination within HDA. Status ARM and HGA assembled. Vertical height of HDD ( 1 inch height is used generally in case of 3.5" drive) Head Gimbal Ass'y, recording and replaying data and it organized slider and suspension for supporting slider, usually we say Head. Progressing mechanism to format program of management system. Root directory, File allocation table created. Parts made of plastic enable to make routing FPC. HEAD STACK ASS'Y,. Assembled HGA with FPC ASS'Y in ARM. Herz. The number of event during 1 second. Data Input/output Integrated circuit. Electric circuit,assembly of elements of transistor,diode,resistance on the thin plate of semiconductor. CPU of PC and RAM are sort of IC. Integrated Device Electronics. Bus directly In IBM PC AT, drive type enable to connect all circuits to AT
Integrated Device Electronics, In IBM PC AT, drive enable to connect all circuits to AT Bus. Generally, AT drive. Refer to low level formatting. Disk controller to manage data between drive and computer and hard ware & software contained within disk drive circuit. AT(IDE) and SCSI interface are usually used in small computer system. Order of sector arranged within track. For example, interleave factor is 3:1 then arranged by 3 sectors for sector interval, that is, it is possible to read sector2 after reading sector1 by leaping over 2sector. We need 3 rotations to read all data of track. Now days, Most interleave is 1:1. Incoming quality control. Inspection process for import.
Device in type of hardware, it decide HDD connecting status (Master/Slave etc.) A small parts enable to choose drive running mode.(Master/Slave) KB = Kilo Byte, MB = Mega Byte, GB = Giga Byte. K,M,G have double meanings. First, K=1000, M=1000000, G=1000000000, second K=2^10=1024, M=2^20=1048576, G=2^30=1073741824. The second one is more accurate mean on HDD capacity, but we usually we use by the first one.
Both of them means the landing location of head when spindle motor stopping. This zone used Landing for protecting the risk of data damage caused from the contact between head and disk, this Zone/Parking zone is not stored. Recently most drives using VCM are designed head should be landed in Zone landing Zone automatically. Latch LATCH SCREW Parts enable to hold ARM putting on head in constant power. HEAD is located in parking zone on off, at this time latch screw connected in parking magnetic and make head fixing. (latch force is determined by magnetic power )
Sector Seek Seek time Server Servo Servo Data SERVO-WRI TER Settle time Shock Rating Slave Slider SMART SPC Spindle Spindle motor SSA Track Track density
Transfer rate Data transferring speed among PC and other devices of HDD. Tri-pad head Unformatted capacity USB VAR The existing thin film head have 2 ABS and adding one more ABS, head is designed to be profitable to low flying height. Produced by SAE, ReadRite company. HDD capacity before formatting. Universal Serial Bus. Particular chip was connected in period plate and manage keyboard, mouse, printer,modem, this chip unify the connecting pot shape of other device period plate, then make easy to connect and speed is 10 times higher than the current vertical connection. Value Added Re-seller. Vendor sell the existing product after making higher value added. Voice Coil Motor: Stable and high speed motor applying speaker system, make move head in proportion to magnetic strength. Motor used voice coil has fewer components than step motor so it is strong for stress and abrasion and move head in high speed. They divided Rectangular and Flat coil type of VCM according to shape and Linear and Rotary type according to rotation method. Recently flat coil type and rotation type is general. Trapezoid shaping parts connected to ARM with winding coated write in 250 times. Disk drive same as fixed Disk and hard Disk. Winchester was the of developing model at that time by IBM, establish fixed magnetic disk within airtight space then head rise on connecting disk, we apply to all kind of hard disk drive now days. Make hole so head for servo write to write locational information could enter inside of HDD. Pin hole to enter HDA. Write cache improve system capacity, i.e. make possible to work while recording information on disk and this is risk to loose data when off but PC use write cache within operating system like smart drive to prevent that risk.
VCM COIL Winchester Disk Window Clock Window Pusk Pin Write cache
Customer's Q&A 1) What is "Bad Sector"? Bad sector is divided physical Bad sector(Hard defect) and logical Bad sector(Soft defect). Physical Bad sector Visual defect occur in the surface of disk where is recorded data, it contain the minute defect could checking with electric microscope. The main occurring cause of physical bad sector are particle,impact,vibration. Among them, impact is the most serious cause, this affect other components and bad sector as well and get weak HDD status( noise,bad sector). Logical Bad sector We can't find physical error on the surface of disk where the real data recorded but actually abnormal data recorded in this case. Physical bad sector occur due to sudden effect(stoppage, unstable power, head mis-running due to impact/vibration,unstable finish, Virus,colloision with other hardware). But real data storage could not damaged, if you over write data again, you can use newly recorded data without problem. But you'd better HDD installation in state of manufactured in factory to prevent next data error.(After data back-up) Resolution for bad sector: Self-examination by Shdiag program. Progress low level format with clear HDD program. 2) The real product capacity is not consistent with capacity on window screen. The reason of 4.3GB is displayed instead of 4.0GB is follows.(e.g. 4.3GB) Generally 1K = 1000, but 1K = 1024 in case of computer. The reason is that computer and OS can perceive only two number, 0 and 1. So 10 square of 2 is recorded as 1024.(2^10=1024) User's capacity of HDD is 4,300,000,000 Byte, it is not changed but due to computer perceiving restriction method, it looks capacity was reduced. Consequently remark is changed according to unit change, the real capacity is not changed. 3) What is LBA,Large and Normal mode ? LBA and Large mode of HDD is one of the method to recognize the high capacity HDD of 528MB more. LBA mode has been applied to SCSI, it recognize cylinder,head and sector by the way of not three-dimensional but one-dimensional and numbering the first sector in form of block unit is to number 0 then the sector become a unit and the assigned number become a address, then change those numbers into physical three-dimensional address of cylinder,head and sector. At this time, LBA mode is useful if BIOS and Hard is applied. In case of Large mode, if the number of cylinder is in between 1024~2048, divide that value then multiple the number of head and we can use HDD which doesn't apply LBA mode by setting for this method and we can just establish HDD capacity until 528MB in case of Normal mode. But we don't produce HDD in normal mode any more. The difference of Large and LBA is that LBA is recognized as the number of cylinder was reducing in half and the number of head was raised double and Large mode is set as the same way of general Normal
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