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COLUMBIAN SHARP-TAILED GROUSE
Scientific Name: Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus Species Code: B-STGR Status: Blue-listed Distribution Provincial Range Sharp-tailed Grouse occur from the Fraser River Basin Ecoregion north of Prince George to the southern Thompson Upland Ecosection south of Meritt (Ritcey 1995). Isolated populations of Sharptailed Grouse are also found in the east Kootenay and in the southern Okanagan. Elevational Range: 275 to 2,135m Provincial Context Historically Sharp-tailed Grouse populations in North America were much more abundant and widespread than todays populations. In British Columbia, however, the Sharp-tailed Grouse still inhabits more than 80% of its historical range. The most abundant populations occur in the Fraser Plateau Ecoregion and this area also represents the largest unfragmented portion of this species distribution (Ritcey 1995). Project Area: Ecoprovince: Central Interior Ecoregions: Chilcotin Ranges and Fraser Plateau Ecosections: Central Chilcotin Ranges (CCR), Chilcotin Plateau (CHP) and Fraser River Basin (FRB) Biogeoclimatic Zones: BGxh3, BGxw2, IDFxm; IDFdk3; IDFdk4; MSxk; MSxv; ESSFxv2, ESSFxvp2; SBPSxc The ecosections and biogeoclimatic zones that have been italicized indicate areas within the project area, that have suitable habitat for the species under consideration, and have therefore been rated.
Ecology and Key Habitat Requirements In British Columbia, the Sharp-tailed Grouse is dependent upon a variety of habitats throughout the course of the year. Most habitats occupied by this grouse usually consist of open grasslands that are adjacent to brushy or scattered open woodlands (Campbell et al. 1990). In the Chilcotin, open parklands adjacent to spruce, Douglas-fir, or trembling aspen stands are characteristic of habitat used by Sharp-tailed Grouse (Campbell et al. 1990). The winter habitat must provide good cover and also enough food for survival. Winters are spent in small loosely joined flocks in the cover of brushy Douglas-fir, Aspen or Spruce forests. Winters may also find this grouse species in riparian forests of willow-scrub, birch thickets, or Spruce-Cottonwood Riparian. Deciduous habitats are also important for Sharp-tailed Grouse. Sharp-tailed Grouse usually avoid steep slopes except as local feeding areas and generally prefer gentle terrain (Ritcey 1995). Grassland habitats are also important for Sharp-tailed Grouse and they use the climax grasslands of the Ponderosa Pine and Bunchgrass zones and grassland phases of the Interior Douglas-fir zone (Ritcey 1995). Grazing on these grasslands can affect sharptails by reducing nesting cover and changing the composition of grass species. Sharp-tailed Grouse also use the seral grasslands that result from disturbances such as fire or logging of lodgepole pine stands of the Interior Douglas-fir, Sub-boreal Pine-Spruce and Sub-boreal Spruce zones (Ritcey 1995). Common seasonal food sources found in these habitats are prickly rose, soopolallie and kinnikinnick (Ritcey 1995). The breeding period lasts from April to August (Campbell et al. 1990).
Habitat Use and Life Requisites The life requisites that will be rated for Sharp-tailed Grouse are: living and reproducing (eggs) which are described in detail below.
Living During the winter Sharp-tailed Grouse feed on buds and catkins of deciduous trees or shrubs, berries and grain where available (Ritcey 1990). During periods of deep snow they may use a variety of broad habitat types which include marshes, shrub fens, shrub swamps, trembling aspen forests and sprucecottonwood riparian areas as well as early successional stages of other forested habitats (Ritcey 1995). Scrub birch is a key winter food species for sharptails throughout much of their range, as they can feed on the upper buds while standing on the snow (Ritcey 1995). Another important food source is water birch, and less preferred but also important are trembling aspen, saskatoon, willow, chokecherry and bittercherry (Ritcey 1995). Berries from hawthorn, rose and snowberry are eaten during the winter but due to the low protein content are not considered suitable for sustaining sharptails over winter (Ritcey 1995). Sharp-tailed Grouse often use snow-burrows which are located in shrub-marshes and sedge-meadows for night-roosts as the burrows provide good thermoregulation and close proximity to feeding sites (Ritcey 1995).
Table 1. Important forage plants for Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse.
Winter Populus tremuloides Symphoricarpos albus Rosa spp. Amelanchier alnifolia
Spring green leafy material Poa secunda Taraxacum officinale Ranunculus spp. Trifolium spp. alfalfa
Growing Summer green leafy material Poa secunda Taraxacum officinale Ranunculus spp. Trifolium spp. alfalfa
Fall cultivated grains native grains and fruits
Reproducing (eggs) During the breeding season the males gather in dancing grounds or leks. These leks are located on open, dry, elevated sites in bunchgrass habitats with areas of reduced grass cover and areas of moderate grass cover (Ritcey 1995). These leks are often adjacent to brushy wooded areas. Such areas are dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass and/or sagebrush. Females build nests on the ground, often in moderately heavy cover but on the edge of lighter cover (Ritcey 1995). Records in Idaho have found nests in an overstory of big sage, low sage and balsamroot (Ritcey 1995). In British Columbia nests were found both in open grasslands and under sparse canopies of lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir and trembling aspen (Campbell et al. 1990). Both space and cover are important components of nesting habitats.
Seasons of Use Sharp-tailed Grouse are year round residents in the study area and therefore the living requisite is required for both the winter and growing seasons. The Reproducing life requisite is required only for the breeding season. Table 1 summarizes the life requisites required for each month of the year. Table 2. Monthly Life Requisites for Sharp-tailed Grouse. Life Requisite Living Living Living Month January February March Season Winter Winter Winter
Living, Reproducing (eggs) Living, Reproducing (eggs) Living, Reproducing (eggs) Living, Reproducing (eggs) Living, Reproducing (eggs) Living Living Living Living
April May June July August September October November December
Growing Growing Growing Growing Growing Growing Growing Winter Winter
Habitat Use and Ecosystem Attributes Table 2 outlines how each life requisite relates to specific ecosystem attributes (e.g., site series/ecosystem unit, plant species, canopy closure, age structure, slope, aspect, terrain characteristics). Table 3. Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping (TEM) Relationships for each Life Requisite for Sharp-tailed Grouse. Life Requisite Living Habitat TEM Attribute - site: site disturbance, slope, structural stage - soil/terrain: flooding regime - vegetation: % cover by layer, plant species, cover for each species, for each layer - marshes, shrub fens, shrub swamps, trembling aspen forests and spruce-cottonwood riparian - site: site disturbance, slope, structural stage - soil/terrain: flooding regime - vegetation: % cover by layer, plant species, cover for each species, for each layer
Reproducing Habitat (eggs)
Ratings There is an intermediate level of knowledge on the habitat requirements of Sharp-tailed Grouse in British Columbia and thus, a 4-class rating scheme will be used. Provincial Benchmark Ecosection: Biogeoclimatic Zone: Habitats: Summer Winter Fraser River Basin Chilcotin Plateau IDFxm IDFdk4 grasslands mixed coniferous and deciduous depressions
Ratings Assumptions 1. Grassland habitats will be rated up to high for living and reproducing in the growing season and up to low or moderate in the winter for living. Bunchgrass arrow leaf balsam root grasslands will be rated higher (high) than stipa or poa grasslands and will be selected over big sagebrush structural stages of the same site series. 2. Disturbed/agricultural habitats rated up to moderate for living. 3. Coniferous forests in the BG subzones will be rated low to moderate for living in the winter and up to moderate in the growing season. 4. Coniferous forests in the IDF and SBPS subzones will be rated moderate to high for living in the winter and up to moderate in the growing season. 5. Riparian - deciduous habitats will be rated up to high for living in all seasons. 6. Gentle slopes ( 30%) will be rated high if favourable vegetation. Slopes > 30% will be rated low and slopes > 70% will be rated nil. 7. Preferred lekking (RE) habitat occurs on sites with sparse vegetation and good visibility. Pasture sage dominated ridges rate high. 8. Ideal nesting habitat is found in tall rank grasses (high). Shrubby sites rate up to moderate and open Douglas-fir forests with abundant herbaceous or tall grass understory rate low to moderate. 9. Herbaceous wetlands will be rated nil.
Table 4. Summary of habitat requirements for Sharp-tailed Grouse in the study area. Season Growing Growing Winter Life Requisite Living (LI) Reproducing (RE) Living (LI) Structural Stage 2-7 2-5 2-7 Requirements Open grasslands, sage flats, open forests clearings and deciduous riparian vegetation Grasslands and sparse Douglas-fir, aspen, lodgepole pine forests Riparian, wetland and deciduous habitats.
Ratings Adjustment Considerations Final capability and suitability map products may incorporate 1) landscape heterogeneity and connectivity; 2) habitats adjacent to significant anthropogenic disturbance regimes (e.g. settlements); 3) interspersion of different structural stages within the landscape. Please note that eventhough structural stage substage or modifiers and stand composition modifiers were employed in the original mapping, these units (other than structural stage modifier 3a and 3b) have not been included in the final ratings tables. This is because the ratings for the modified and unmodified ecosystem units are the same and including these units in the final ratings table would in turn make the ratings table too cumbersome. In instances where the modified ecosystem unit (either structural stage substage or modifiers and stand composition modifiers) is mapped, please use the wildlife habitat rating for the same unmodified ecosystem unit.
References Campbell, W.R., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of prey through woodpeckers. Royal B.C. Museum, Victoria B.C. 636pp. Campbell, R.W, K.H. Morgan and C. Palmateer. 1988. Wildlife Habitat Handbooks for the Southern Interior Ecoprovince. Volume 2: Selected Notes for Selected birds. Wildlife Report No. R16. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Wildlife Branch, Victoria, B.C. 131pp. Hooper, T.D. and M.D. Pitt. 1996. Breeding bird communities and habitat associations in the grasslands of the Chilcotin Region, British Columbia. FRDA Rep. 243. Can. For. Serv., B.C. Minist. For., Victoria, B.C. 60pp. Ritcey, R. 1995. Status report of the Sharp-tailed Grouse in British Columbia (columbianus subspecies). Wildlife Working Report. WR-70. B.C. Ministry of Environment Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, B.C. 40pp. Stevens, V. 1993. Wildlife Diversity in British Columbia: Distribution and Habitat Use in Biogeoclimatic Zones Draft Report. Wildlife Interpretations Subgroup. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Victoria B.C.
Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera (body)
With Sony, Anyone Can Shoot Like a Pro. Sonys (alpha)DSLR-A100 camera combines 10 MP performance, high-sensitivity shooting, Super SteadyShot in-camera image stabilization, Dynamic Range Optimizer to recapture detail and Eye-Start Autofocus for faster response -- plus precision Sony and Carl Zeiss lens systems and Minolta A-mount lens compatibility Superior Electronics, Amazing Simplicity In the revolutionary new Sony (alpha) DSLR-A100 camera, Sony digital technology takes you a giant step toward professional performance - with advanced imaging, image stabilization and creative control functions, plus ease of operation that helps everyone take better digital pictures right from the start. Advanced Lenses and Accessories The Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 camera is your gateway to an incredibly sophisticated array of lenses and accessories -- including precision Sony standard and zoom lenses, Sony "G" Series lenses with advanced motorized autofocusing, amazingly bright Carl Zeiss T coated lenses, professional-quality flash units, and compatibility with over 16 million Maxxum, Dynax and A-mount lenses sold worldwide. 10 MP APS-size CCD Imager A large APS-size CCD imager allows more light to pass to each pixel, increasing sensitivity and reducing noise -- and providing greater detail when you make big prints or crop in close on your subject. Super SteadyShot Image Stabilization When you shoot with high sensitivity, the shutter remains open longer -- so to compensate for shaky hands or fastmoving subjects, the Sony Super SteadyShot system automatically reduces image blur. And because it works in-camera, youll get the benefit of Super SteadyShot stabilization with every lens you use. Sharp, Clear Photos that Preserve the Mood With high-sensitivity (ISO 1600) shooting, the Sony(alpha) DSLRA100 camera captures great photos without flash even in low light -- which makes it an ideal system camera for shooting without a tripod or in locations (like museums and churches) where flash is prohibited. Anti-Dust Technology Changing lenses in a DSLR can allow dust to enter the camera -- so to keep the CCD imager clean for better pictures, the Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 camera utilizes both static-free anti-dust coating on the CCD filter and anti-dust vibration that automatically shakes the CCD to dislodge dust each time the camera is shut off. Dynamic Range Optimizer To recover details in dark or bright areasof the picture, the Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 camera provides two levels of Dynamic Range Optimization: Normal DRO, to improve shadow detail using standard gamma curves for fast shot-to-shot response time, or Advanced DRO, to adjust dynamic range area-by-area for the greatest precision. Bionz Image Processor At the heart of the Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 camera is the advanced Bionz Image Processor, using hardware-based Large Scale Integrated (LSI) circuitry that responds ten times faster than software image processors -improving camera response time, handling Dynamic Range Optimization processing and extending Stamina battery life. Eye-Start Autofocus System Some DSLR systems dont start focusing until the shutter button is half-pressed -but that can slow down camera response. The Sony(alpha) DSLRA100 camera begins its precision autofocus adjustments the moment you bring your eye to the viewfinder, to capture fast-action subjects other cameras might blur. 2.51 Clear Photo LCD Plus Screen The Clear Photo LCD Plus design of the Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 cameras built-in screen makes it easy to read camera setup menus even in bright sunlight -- and gives you a better picture when you use your screen to set up shots and check results. Continuous Burst Mode at 3 Frames Per Second To catch fast action more effectively, the Sony(alpha) DSLR-A100 camera offers continuous JPEG image capture up to the limit of your flash memory card -- plus RAW Burst Mode (up to 6 shots) with intelligent buffer management to allow more shots to be captured without waiting for the buffer to clear.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES Super-Accurate Exposure Control Flexible Exposure Modes 9-Point Auto Focus Selection Lithium Ion Battery with Stamina Power Dual Media Options
Shown with optional 18-70mm lens
Megapixel: 10.2MP Imaging Device: 10.2 (effective) APS CCD Sensor; 23.6 x 15.8 mm; RGB primary color filter Shutter Speed: 30 < 1/4000 sec 52 step, Bulb Exposure Compensation: 2.0 EV, 1/3 EV Steps ISO: Auto/160/200/400/800/1600/ Lo80/Hi200 Exposure: Manual Exposure: Yes, w/EV indicator Manual Exposure: Yes; Aperture/Shutter Priority, Manual Program Shift: Yes, Command Dial Lens Type: Interchangeable A mount
STILL IMAGE STORAGE CAPACITIES
Memory Stick 3880x2600 (10MP) Duo Media1 Raw/Raw+JPEG 128MB 7/5 Memory Stick PRO Duo Media1 256MB 14/10 512MB 30/23 1GB 62/48 2GB 128/100 4GB 264/208 Compact Flash 128MB 7/5 256MB 15/12 512MB 32/25 1GB 65/51 2GB 132/103 4GB 265/207 Microdrive 1GB 69/54 2GB 132/103 4GB 265/208 6GB 399/312 3880x2600 (10MP) Fine/Standard 29/46
54/85 112/174 229/358 471/735 968/1509 29/46 59/93 120/188 242/377 485/755 968/1508 254/396 485/755 969/1509 1455/2265
2896x1936 (5.6MP) Fine/Standard 52/80
95/145 194/296 397/606 815/1245 1673/2557 51/79 104/159 208/319 419/640 838/1279 1673/2553 439/671 838/1279 1674/2556 2512/3835
1920x128 (2.5MP) Fine/Standard 108/158
197/287 402/586 822/1196 1687/2454 3462/5035 107/156 216/315 433/630 867/1262 1734/2523 3460/5034 910/1324 1734/2523 3464/5039 5197/7560
White Balance: Auto plus 6 Modes (Daylight, Shade, Cloudy, Tungsten, Fluorescent, Flash); +/-3 step adjustable Kelvin tempature control Self Timer: Yes (10 seconds, 2 seconds, Off) Memory Stick PRO Media Compatibility: Tested to support up to 4GB media capacity; does not support Access Control security function Red-Eye Reduction: On/Off (all modes) Burst Mode: Up to 3FPS; Unlimited to capacity of media (JPEG L/M/S); Maximum 3 frames (RAW + JPEG); Maximum 6 frames (RAW) Color Mode(s): Black & White, Standard, Vivid, Adobe RGB (Except for Adobe RGB, all other color modes use the sRGB color space)
Battery Type: NP-FM55 Lithium-ion rechargeable battery Battery Capacity: 7.2V, 1600 mAh; CIPA standard: approx. 750 pictures4
Service and Warranty Information
Limited Warranty: 1 Year Parts & Labor
Supplied Software: Picture Motion Browser for Sony v1.1 (Windows), Image Data Converter SR Ver. 1.1 (Windows & Macintosh), USB Driver Operating System Compatibility: Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, ME, XP Home and Professional; Macintosh OS X (v 10.3 or later). OS must be installed at the factory.
Histogram Display: Yes, playback AF Illuminator Light: Yes, On/Off Select Multi-Pattern Measuring: 40 Segment, Center Weighted, Spot Clear RAW NR: N/A Scene Mode(s): Portrait, Landscape, Sunset, Night View/Night Portrait Movie Mode(s): N/A
Bionz Engine: Yes (LSI with Dynamic Range Optimizer (DRO/DRO+))
Weight: 1 lb., 3 oz (545 g) body, not including battery, lens and media Measurements: (WHD) 5 1/4" x 3 3/4" x 2 7/8" (133 x 95 x 71 mm)
Inputs and Outputs
USB Port(s): Yes, Supports USB 2.0 Hispeed3 Output(s): Video: Yes, NTSC/PAL Selectable
NP-FM55 rechargeable battery BC-VM10 battery charger Video and USB cables Shoulder strap with eyepiece cap and Remote Commander clip MSAC-MCF1N MS-Duo to CF Adaptor Body cap Accessory shoe cap Image Data Converter SR Ver.1.1/Picture Motion Browser Ver.1.1 CD-ROM NOTE: No Memory Stick media is included.
LCD: 2.5" TFT (230k pixels) LCD with Clear Photo design Viewfinder: Optical: TTL, 0.83x, 95% coverage Microphone: No/ No
Flash Effective Range: GN12 at ISO 100 (39 feet/ 12 meters) Flash Mode(s): Manual Pop-up: Auto, Fill-flash, Rear flash sync, Wireless off camera flash (with Flash HVL-F56AM, F36AM) Auto/On/Off/Rear Curtain/ Wireless
Lightweight Tripod (VCT-1500L) Memory Stick Duo PRO (MSX-256S) Memory Stick Duo PRO (MSX-512S) Memory Stick Duo PRO (MSX-1GST) Memory Stick Duo PRO (MSX-2GS) Memory Stick Duo PRO (MSX-4GS) External Flash (HVL-F56AM) External Flash (HVL-F36AM) M Series Lithium Battery (NP-FM55) AC Adaptor/Charger (AC-VQ900AM)
Focus: Auto Focus: TTL Phase Detection Multi-point: 9 Area, 8 Line, 1 Cross Sensor Auto Focus Mode: Yes Adjustable Spot AF: Selectable Sensor Visual Focus Confirm: Direct via VF Matte Screen Manual Focus
1: Viewable area, measured diagonally. 2: Actual results may vary based on product settings, usage patterns and environmental conditions. 3: Not all products with USB connectors may communicate with each other due to chip-set variations 4: Under average conditions; when fully charged, actual results may vary based on camera settings and conditions of use. 2006 Sony Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. Sony, Bionz, Clear Photo LCD Plus, Cyber-shot, Eye-Start, Memory Stick Duo, Stamina, SteadyShot, and Super HAD are trademarks of Sony. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners.
Please visit the Dealer Network for more information at Color: Black www.sony.com/dn UPC Code: 027242694132 Sony Electronics Inc. 16530 Via Esprillo San Diego, CA 92127 1-800-222-7669 www.sony.com/dslr Last Updated: 01/10/2008
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