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Comments to date: 6. Page 1 of 1. Average Rating:
nei 2:00am on Saturday, October 16th, 2010 
You can hardly beat Newegg on this kinda of deal. Fast shipping and nice packaging. Thanks Newegg, you rock! Burns DVD and CD media very quickly. Lightscribe is as quick as on my desktop.
suman_bhar 2:55am on Monday, October 4th, 2010 
Not the fastest but easy to use A little faster and would should have been 5 stars. Neat, easy to store or carry. Quality product The product arrived and is a nice slim shiny little unit. Very light weight. Just plugged it in.
Chessalavakia 6:37am on Saturday, October 2nd, 2010 
my own is now and Currently, Hewlett Packard launch the author of SATA DVD with the additional techonology which developed only, Lightscribe.
dfrench 7:40am on Friday, July 23rd, 2010 
GOT IT AT BEST BUY BEFORE XMAS, TRYING TO FIND ANOTHER. AT THIS POINT THE BEST DVD BURNER I HAVE EVER HAD FROM ANY MANUFACTURER, OR DESIGN.
divita 8:52pm on Sunday, June 20th, 2010 
LG, SONY. I have this drive installed with a SuperMicro P8SCT motherboard and found it to be incompatible used with Windows XP.
hansm 11:25pm on Sunday, April 18th, 2010 
Samsung External DVD Writer I was disappointed with the quality of this DVD Writer and although it was cheap in price did not come up to expectation. Value for Money. Bought for a Sony Vaio Netbook. Did not install software that came with it. Just plugged in and worked straight away. Easy to use.

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Documents

doc0

P1: SFK/UKS BLBK362-IND

P2: SFK/UKS

QC: SFK/UKS

T1: SFK

Color: 4C Trim: 276mm X 219mm Printer Name: Yet to Come

BLBK362-Cohen

March 28, 2011
Note: Page numbers with f and t refer to gures and tables, respectively. Ablation, 237. See also specic procedures Accu Touch Simulator, for GI hemostasis, 1778 Achalasia luminal dilation for, 193 measuring skill in dilation for, 194 Acid suppression, in mucosal ablation, 2389 Adenoma bile duct, 32, 36f cecal, 53f narrow band imaging of, 1623, 163f AdvanceCE device, 100, 100f Agile patency capsule, 99, 100f, 101 ALARA principle, 135 Alligator forceps, for foreign body removal, 199, 200f Alpha loop, 579, 58f Alpha loop, reverse, 579, 58f Ampullary neoplasm argon plasma coagulation of, 321 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for evaluation of, 320 treatment of, 32022, 321f endoscopic ultrasound for examination of, 320 intraductal polyp extension of, 321 postprocedure follow-up of, 321 Anal papilla, hypertrophied, 53f Anatomy, surgical, 18. See also specic procedures Angioectasia, cecal, 53f Angulated turns, in colonoscopy, 5960, 60f Animal simulators, 373 for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) training, 3940 ex vivo animal tissue simulators (See Ex vivo) live animal, 1011 in vivo large, for GI hemostasis, 178 Antibiotics, preprocedure prophylactic, 24 Anticoagulation. See also specic procedures in mucosal ablation, 238 Anxiolysis, 24 Arcs, 130, 130f Argon plasma coagulation (APC), 1312, 131f for GI hemostasis, 175, 176f for mucosal ablation, 23940, 240f for polypectomy, 2545, 256f Argon plasma coagulation (APC) device, 239, 240f Arterio-venous malformation, 32, 36f Aryepiglottic folds, erythema of, 35, 37f ASA classication, preoperative, 24, 24t ASGE Integrated Technology and Training (ITT) Center, 10, 37071, 370f71f courses at, 3745, 375t EASIE simulator training at, 3734, 374t ASGE Integrated Technology and Training (ITT) Center initiative, 3756 Assessment, clinical. See also specic procedures preprocedure, 24, 24t Assessment, skills, 38083. See also specic procedures credentialing and, 3812 initial training period in, 381, 381t practice competency in, 3823, 383f practice measurements on training practice and, 383 quality challenges and, 380 threshold numbers in, 380 Autouorescence imaging (AFI), 164 AUTOLITH system, 308, 308f Automaticity, 16 Automatic submucosal circumcisor, 223 Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, 10914. See also Deep enteroscopy Balloon dilation, measuring skill in, 194 Balloon dilators, 1889 vs. xed-diameter push-type dilators, 1889 through the scope, for stricture dilation, 38 Balloon dissection, submucosal, 223 Balloon, gastric, 2756 Balloon sphincteroplasty, large diameter, 306, 306f Balloon stone extraction, via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 89 Band and Snare mucosal resection kit, 213f, 214 Band erosion, postbariatric surgery, 274 Band ligation, for GI bleeding adult, 1767 pediatric, 1512 Bariatric endoscopy, 27079 competency in, 279 equipment for, 2723 initial evaluation for, 273 overview of, 270, 271t for postbariatric surgery complications band erosion, 274 equipment for, 272 essential skill sets for, 272 foreign body reaction/pain syndromes, 274 key steps in, 2734 leaks/stulae, 273 outlet stenosis, 2734 overview of, 270 skill sets for, 272 ulceration, 274 prerequisite expertise and technical ability for, 271 for primary bariatric obesity procedures endoluminal gastric volume reduction, 271 endoluminal metabolic prosthetics, 271 essential skill sets for, 272 key steps in, 2757, 276f7f overview of, 27071 space occupying devices, 27071 primary endoscopic metabolic prosthetics in EndoBarrier, 278, 278f ValenTx, 278, 278f for revisional procedures for failed gastric bypass equipment for, 2723 essential skill sets for, 272 key steps in, 2745, 275f overview of, 270, 271t setting for training in, 2712, 278 skill maintenance in, 279 skill sets for, 272 tools for training in, 278 Bariatric surgery, complications after overview of, 270 Barretts cancer, CapEMR for, 21114, 212f13f Barretts esophagus on capsule endoscopy, 101, 102f dye-based chromoendoscopy for, 161 long-segment, 32, 33f mucosal ablation for, 237 (See also Mucosal ablation techniques) narrow band imaging of, 162, 162f Basket Dormia, 3013 ower, 306, 306f retrieval, for foreign body removal, 199, 200f stone extraction with, via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 89 trapezoid, 302, 302f Battery retrieval, 200201, 200f Benzodiazepines, pediatric administration of, 145, 145t Bifurcation stent placement, for malignancy, 31820, 318f20f Bile duct adenoma, with high-grade dysplasia, 32, 36f Bile duct lesions, malignant, choledochoscopy therapy for, 11920

Successful Training in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, First Edition. Edited by Jonathan Cohen. C 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Published 2011 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bile (biliary) stricture choledochoscopy for, 118 dilation, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 90 guidewire and, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 90, 90f Biliary lling defect, cholangioscopy for, 11718 Biliary sphincterotomy, electrosurgical incision in, 133, 133f Biliary tract calculi ERCP for, 300310 (See also Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), for complicated pancreatobiliary stone disease) Bipolar circuits, 127, 128f Bipolar electrosurgery techniques, 133 electrocautery, for GI hemostasis, 175, 175f, 181t3t electrocoagulation, for mucosal ablation, 240 Bougie dilation technique, 19091 Bougie dilators, 188 Bovie generator, 125, 126f Bowel bridging folds, 102, 104f Bowel lobulated mucosa, 102, 104f Bowel surface ulceration, 102, 104f Bowel umbilication, central, 102, 104f Brueners gland hyperplasia, of duodenal bulb, 32, 35f Brush cytology, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 90, 31314, 314f Button battery retrieval, 200201, 200f Calculi, pancreatobiliary tract, ERCP for, 300310. See also Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), for complicated pancreatobiliary stone disease Candidal esophagitis, 32, 35f Cannulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, selective, 88 Capacitive coupling, in electrosurgery, 129 Cap endoscopic mucosal resection (capEMR), 210, 21114, 211f13f for polypectomy, 252, 256f Capsule endoscopy, 97107 AdvanceCE device in, 100, 100f Agile patency capsule in, 99, 100f, 101 capsule administration in, 99101, 100f capsule endoscopy unit in, 97, 98f capsule retention in, 99100, 99t capsules in, 97, 98f credentialing guidelines for, 1045 current literature on training in, 1057 patient preparation in, 978, 99f pediatric endoscopy, 155 reading of in clinical setting, 101, 103f4f study of, 1012, 102f retrieval of capsules in, 200201, 200f Capsule, in capsule endoscopy, 97, 98f Catheter endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for luminal dilation, 192 for sphincter of Oddi manometry, 3256, 326f Cecal adenoma, 53f Cecal angioectasia, 53f
Cecum anatomy of, 434, 45f ulcerated, 53f Celiac disease, 53f Charge-coupled device (CCD), 159 Cholangiograms, 137 Cholangiopancreatoscopy, 3067 Cholangioscope, 113, 114f, 114t Cholangioscopy. See Choledochoscopy Cholangioscopy, peroral direct, 12021 Choledochoscopy, 11621 competency assessment in, 123 complications of, 120 cost of, 120 indications for, 117, 118t biliary lling defect, 11718 biliary stricture, 118 for malignant vs. benign stricture diagnosis, 11819 nomenclature for, 116 peroral direct, 12021 sampling with, 118 technical aspects of, 11617 therapy with bile duct lesions, malignant, 11920 electrohydraulic lithotripsy for lling defects, 119 training in skills and steps to learn, 123 trainee prerequisites, 122 trainer and facility prerequisites, 1223 without uoroscopy, indications for, 119 Chromoendoscopy, 15962, 160f61f Circular Cutter, 223 Circumcisor, automatic submucosal, 223 Classic snare endoscopic mucosal resection, after submucosal injection, 210, 207f Clinical assessment. See also specic procedures preprocedure, 24, 24t Clips endoscopic hemoclip closure with, in polypectomy, 2578, 257f for GI bleeding, 151, 1767 for nonvariceal UGI lesions, 182t, 183 for GI hemostasis adult, 1767 pediatric, 151 for GI perforation closure, 2846, 285f6f for mucosal defect repair, 283, 283f in NOTES R , 264 Closure, of gastrointestinal perforations. See Mucosal defect repair; Perforation Closure point, of snare handle, 247 Coagulation argon plasma, 1313, 131f3f for GI hemostasis, 175, 176f for mucosal ablation, 23940, 240f for polypectomy, 2545, 256f coaptive, 131, 176, 177f contact, 131, 131f, 131t, 176, 177f electrocoagulation bipolar or multipolar, 240 for mucosal ablation, 240 electrosurgical, 129, 1312, 131f, 131t with electrosurgical cutting, 132 noncontact, 1312, 131f, 131t thermal, 151

Coagulation forceps, 222 Coaptive coagulation, 131, 176, 177f Cognitive overload, 19 Cold snare polypectomy, 545, 55f Colon anatomy, 423, 43f Colon capsule, 97, 98f, 101 Colonic lesions, SPEC hemostasis of, 18081, 183t Colonic polyps, 53f Colonic stenosis colon stents with, 13940, 139f40f uoroscopy of, 13940, 139f40f Colonoscope adult, 469, 46f pediatric, 1489, 149t Colonoscopy anatomy for, 425 cecum, 434, 45f colon, 423, 43f hepatic exure, 43, 43f, 45f rectal, 44f splenic exure, 43, 43f transverse colon, 43, 43f4f intraoperative, for polypectomy, 258 pediatric, 143, 1489 diagnostic techniques in, 149 indications for, 148, 148t instruments in, 1489, 149t skills in, 148 screening, endoscopic, demand for, 3623 technical success rates for, 380 therapeutic, immediate complications of, 3523, 353f Colonoscopy skills, 4270, 43t early cognitive, 427 anatomy, 424, 43f5f endoscopic anatomy, 445, 44f indications/contraindications, 47 preparation, 456 scope selection, 46, 46f sedation, 47 early motor, 4752 holding the scope, 47, 48f lumen identication, 5051, 51f scope advancement, 4950, 50f51f scope dials, 478, 48f scope insertion, 49, 49f scope valves, 489, 48f9f trap in suction circuit, 48, 49f withdrawal/inspection, 512, 52f intermediate cognitive, 526 complication management, 556, 56f device selection and settings, 545, 55f pathology recognition, 523, 53f therapy, 545, 55f intermediate motor, 5661 angulated turns, 5960, 60f ileocecal valve, 6061, 61f loop reduction, 569, 57f8f teaching and assessing, 6170 difculties in, 61 early cognitive skills, 623 early motor skills, 635, 63f4f intermediate cognitive skills, 65 intermediate motor skills, 656, 66f ongoing assessment, 62t, 667, 67t9t, 70f Colon perforation closure of, 2826 (See also Mucosal defect repair)
endoscopic devices for, 283 immediate endoscopic management of, 2846, 285f6f from colonoscopy, 556, 56f diagnosis of, 284 prevention of, 2834 Colon stenting. See Stenting, colorectal Colon stents uoroscopy for deployment of, 13940, 139f40f types and use of, 13940, 139f40f Colorectal surgeons, colonoscopy skills of, 364 Compact-EASIE simulator, 910, 9f in ASGE ITT center, 3734, 374t for GI hemostasis, 178 for upper endoscopy, 3940 Competency. See also specic procedures in practice, 3823, 383f skills assessment for (See Assessment, skills) Complex stricture, 190 Complications. See also specic procedures postprocedure, recognition of, 25, 25t Computer simulators, 373. See also specic procedures for esophagogastroduodenoscopy training, 39, 40f evolution and use of, 1112, 11f12f Conductors, in human tissue, 1267, 127f Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), 164 Conscious sedation, 24 Consent, informed. See also specic procedures adult, 224 pediatric, 144 Contact area, in electrosurgery, 129 Contact coagulation, 131, 131f, 131t, 176, 177f Continuous access dilation, 1912, 191f Contrast-enhanced endoscopy (CEE), 15966. See also specic procedures advantages of, 159 chromoendoscopy, 15962, 160f61f confocal laser endomicroscopy, 164 uorescence imaging, 164 history of, 159 MBI and iScan, 1634 molecular imaging, 164 narrow band imaging, 1623, 162f3f scope of, 159 training in evidence of effect of, 1656 methods for, 1645, 165t Cook endoscopy, 313 Credentialing, 3812 Critical self-reection, 17 Crohns disease, ASCA positive, 53f Cryotherapy, for mucosal ablation, 2434, 244f Current, 125, 126 Current density, 129, 130, 130f Current leaks, in electrosurgery, 129 Cutting, electrosurgical, 13031, 130f Cutting with coagulation, electrosurgical, 132 Cytology, brush, 90, 31314, 314f Deep enteroscopy advancement techniques in, 11213 bowel preparation for, 110 complication recognition in, 114 denition and use of, 109 diagnostic depth of insertion in, 112 uoroscopy with, 112

route of insertion in, 11112 sedation for, 111 technical maneuvers in, 112 equipment for accessories, 111 overtubes, 11011, 111f ex vivo training models for, 11314, 113f indications for, 110 quality and performance assessment in, 114 sedation for, 110 setting for, 10910 therapeutic maneuvers in ERCP/enteral stent placement, with altered anatomy, 113 hemostasis, 113 polyp resection, 113 stricture dilatation, 113 training in, 10914 cognitive component of, 110 equipment for, endoscopes, 110, 111f technical aspects in, 110 trainee prerequisites for, 109 trainer prerequisites for, 109 Deep sedation, 24 Defect repair, mucosal. See Mucosal defect repair Deliberate practice, 17 Demonstration models. See Simulators Device-assisted enteroscopy. See Deep enteroscopy Diagnostic endoscopy, in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 348 duodenum examination in, 37, 37f endoscope handling in, 34, 36f esophageal intubation in, 346, 37f esophagus and stomach examination in, 367 patient positioning in, 34 tissue biopsy in, routine, 378 Diagnostic imaging. See specic procedures Diathermy, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 87 Digestive endoscopy, manpower needs in, 35965. See also Manpower needs, gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy Dilation techniques, 188 continuous access, 1912, 191f xed-diameter push-type (bougie), 19091 luminal, 18895 (See also Luminal dilation techniques) Maloney dilator, 192 measuring skill in, 194 Dilator balloon, 1889 xed-diameter push-type (bougie), 188 xed-diameter push-type (bougie) vs. balloon, 189 selection of, 192 Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS), 381, 382 Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEG), 349 Disk battery retrieval, 200201, 200f Dispersive pad, 1289 Distal attachment cap, 210, 212f Diverticulum, 53f Documentation. See also specic procedures of informed consent, 234 of intraprocedure period, 24, 24t of postprocedure period, 25, 25t
of preprocedure period, 234, 23t of procedure, 25, 25t Dormia basket, 3013 Double-balloon enteroscopy, 10914, 111f, 14041. See also Deep enteroscopy Double-lumen brush cytology, 314, 314f Dual-knife, 219 Dual task interference, 19 Duodenal bulb Brueners gland hyperplasia of, 32, 35f normal, 32, 34f Duodenal fold, normal, 32, 34f Duodenoscope-assisted cholangiopancreatoscopy. See Pancreatoscopy Duodenoscope, for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 86 Duodenum diagnostic endoscopy for, 37, 37f stenting of (See Stenting, distal stomach/duodenum) Dye staining, 15962 EASIE-R simulator for deep enteroscopy, 11314, 113f for endoscopic ultrasound, 7981, 82f for GI hemostasis, 178, 178f for NOTES R , 267, 267f EASIE simulator, 373 compact, 910, 9f at ASGE ITT center, 3734, 374t for GI hemostasis, 178 for upper endoscopy, 3940 for endoscopic submucosal dissection, 232, 232f Echoendoscope, for pseudocyst management, 334 Econometrics, 35960 Economics, labor, 359 Electric arcs, 130, 130f Electricity, 1256, 126f Electrocautery, for GI hemostasis, 175, 175f, 181t3t Electrode neutral, 128 return, 1289 Electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) for lling defects, 119 for pancreatobiliary stones, complicated, 3078, 307f, 308f Electronic targeting model, 6, 7f Electrosurgery, 125 Electrosurgery principles, 12534 art and science in, 125, 126f clinical applications argon plasma coagulation, 1312, 131f, 133, 133f bipolar techniques, 133 incision techniques, 133, 133f resection techniques, 1323, 132f electricity in, 1256, 126f in endoscopy training, 1334 frequency in, 127, 127f history of, 125, 126f monopolar and bipolar circuits in, 127, 128f safety measures in current leaks, 129 explosion risk, 129 neuromuscular stimulation, 129 pacemakers, 129 return electrode, 1289

electrohydraulic, 3078, 307f8f extracorporeal shock wave, 310 laser, 30810, 309f mechanical, 3016, 301f6f prerequisites for, 300 training in, 300301 training modalities for, 311 Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), for malignancy, 31322 ampullary neoplasm in, 32022 metal stent placement in, 31620 tissue sampling in, 31316 brush cytology, 31314, 314f ne needle aspiration, 31415 uid aspiration, 313 forceps biopsy and cytology, 315, 315f intraprocedural ERCP tissue diagnosis, 31516, 316f triple sampling, 315 training in, advanced, 322 Endoscopic sphincter dilation, 121 Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), 21433 complications in, 225f, 230, 230f, 231f electrosurgical settings in, 2213 vs. endoscopic mucosal resection, 229 equipment for, 21418 endoscopes, 21415, 215f16f general considerations on, 21415 pre-interventional endosonography, 218 transparent distal endoscope cap, 215f, 218 viscous substances, 217f history of, 204 injection substances for, 217f, 218 needle injection for tissue elevation in, 217f, 218 patient positioning and preparation for, 209f, 21718 for polypectomy, 253, 253f5f postprocedure management in, 230 procedural steps in, 2236 circumcision, 2234 en block resection laterally spreading tumor, mid and upper rectum, 221f22f widespread esophageal, 225f6f widespread at polyp, distal rectum, 223f34f at esophageal junction, 227f8f overview of, 2234 resection base inspection, 228 specimen preparation for histopathology, 228, 229f specimen retrieval, 2267 submucosal dissection, 2256 vessel occlusion, 228 resection knives for conventional, 21819 with integrated uid injection capability, 21921, 219f22f skills for, 214 steps in, 214 training and rst steps in, 205f, 2323, 232f use of, 214 Endoscopic suturing platforms, 276 Endoscopic training. See also specic procedures retraining in (See Endoscopist retraining) for surgeon, 3634 Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), 7383
anatomy for, 735 assessment in, quality performance, 813, 83t complications of, immediate, 3534, 354t diagnostic imaging in, 76 learning resources for, 73, 74t5t pediatric, 155 for pseudocyst predrainage evaluation, 334 skill sets for, 738 anatomy, 735 diagnostic imaging, 76 diseases and conditions, 75 equipment operation, 76 ne-needle aspiration, 767 ne-needle aspiration cytologic evaluation, 77 image interpretation, 76 interventional, 77 overview, 73, 74t report generation and referring physician communication, 778 scope use, 76 ultrasound principles, 75 training pathways in, 7880 barriers to, 79 for established practitioners, 78 fellowship training in, 75t, 78 simulators in, 7981, 80f82f Endoscopist retraining, 36771 components of, essential, 36970 effective methods for, 3678 endoscopic ultrasonography in, 367 nancial considerations in, 369 ITT center, ASGE, 37071, 370f71f lack of experienced trainers and, 369 lack of suitable models for, 3689 laparoscopy training model and, 368 in new imaging modalities, 368 training variation and, 367 Endoscopy. See also specic procedures manpower needs in, 35965 (See also Manpower needs, gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy) therapeutic (See also Therapy; specic procedures) immediate complications of, 352 Endoscopy training. See Skill set deconstruction; Training, endoscopy; specic procedures Endo Stitch, 277 Endo TS-1 simulator, 634, 63f Energy, 125 Enteral access techniques, 34150 equipment in, 34142 key steps in competency in, 34950 for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, 3429 (See also Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)) skill maintenance in, 350 training setting in, 349 training tools in, 349 prerequisite expertise and skill for, 341 training setting for, 341 use of, 341 Enteral stents denition of, 138 uoroscopy for deployment of colon, 13940, 139f40f esophageal, 1378, 138f

gastroduodenal, 1389 placement of, 137 Enteroscopy deep (See Deep enteroscopy) double-balloon, 14041 uoroscopy with, 14041, 141f push, 140 single-balloon, 14041, 141f Eosinophilic esophageal microabscesses, 32, 35f Eosinophilic esophagitis, food bolus extraction in, 2012, 201f Erbostat, 125, 126f ERCP. See Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ERCP mechanical simulator (EMS), 923, 93f Erlangen Endo-Trainer, 3940 for deep enteroscopy, 113 history of, 373 Erlanger Active Simulator for Interventional Endoscopy (EASIE). See EASIE-R simulator; EASIE simulator Erosive esophagitis, mucosal erosion in, 32, 33f Esophageal cancer uoroscopic imaging of, 1378, 138f stenting for, 389, 39f Esophageal capsule, 97, 98f Esophageal intubation, in diagnostic endoscopy, 346, 37f Esophageal lesions, food bolus extraction with, 2012 Esophageal microabscesses, eosinophilic, 32, 35f Esophageal perforations closure of, 2826 (See also Mucosal defect repair) endoscopic devices for, 283 immediate endoscopic management of, 2846, 2856f diagnosis of, 284 prevention of, 283 Esophageal stenting. See Stenting, esophageal Esophageal stricture, 32, 35f luminal dilation techniques for, 18895 (See also Luminal dilation techniques) refractory (recurrent), 190 Esophageal varices, on capsule endoscopy, 101, 102f Esophagitis candidal, 32, 35f eosinophilic, food bolus extraction in, 2012, 201f erosive, 32, 33f gastroesophageal reuxinduced, 32, 33f Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), 3140 for diagnostic endoscopy, 348 duodenum examination in, 37, 37f endoscope handling in, 34, 36f esophageal intubation in, 346, 37f esophagus and stomach examination in, 367 patient positioning in, 34 tissue biopsy in, routine, 378 indications for, 32 pediatric, 143 sedation administration in, 32 for therapeutic endoscopy hemostasis, 38 PEG placement, 38, 342, 342f stenting, 389, 39f stricture dilation, 38 variceal ligation, 38
training in cognitive aspects of, 32 equipment in, 323, 36f format of, 31 landmarks and pathology recognition in, 32, 33f6f need for, 31 performance assessment in, 40 requirements for, 31 simulator-based animal models, 3940 computer simulators, 39, 40f technical aspects of, 32 Esophagus examination, diagnostic endoscopy for, 367 EUS FNA phantom, 79, 81f EUS-guided ne-needle aspiration cytologic evaluation in, 77 technique in, 767 Explosion risk, in electrosurgery, 129 Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), pancreatic duct stones and, 310 Ex vivo animal tissue simulators, 910, 9f for deep enteroscopy, 11314, 113f for ERCP of complicated pancreatobiliary stone disease, 311 for GI hemostasis, 178, 178f for NOTES R , 267, 267f porcine stomach in deep enteroscopy training, 11314, 113f in ERCP training, 92, 92f Ex vivo articial tissue simulators, 89, 8f Feedback, 17. See also Assessment, skills; specic procedures to referring provider, postprocedure, 25, 25t Filling defects, electrohydraulic lithotripsy for, 119 Fine needle aspiration (FNA) endoscopic ultrasound-guided cytologic evaluation in, 77 technique in, 767 for ERCP malignant tissue sampling, 31415 Fistulae, postbariatric surgery, 273 Fixed-diameter push-type dilation technique, 19091, 194 Fixed-diameter push-type dilators, 1889 Flex-knife, 219 Flower basket, 306, 306f Fluid aspiration, for ERCP malignant tissue sampling, 313 Fluid collection, in pseudocyst management, 332 Fluid injection, for tissue elevation in endoscopic mucosal resection, 207f in endoscopic submucosal dissection, 217f, 21821, 219f21f in polypectomy, 25052, 251f Fluorescence imaging, 164 Fluoroscope, 135 Fluoroscopy, for GI endoscopy, 13541 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with, 1367 for enteral stent deployment colon, 13940, 139f, 140f esophageal, 1378, 138f gastroduodenal, 1389 use of, 137 with enteroscopy, 1401, 141f

Fluoroscopy, for GI endoscopy (Continued) hardware in, 135 protective garments for, 1356 scout lms in, 136, 136f training in, 135 uses of, 135 Fluoroscopy, for luminal dilation, 189 Flush-knife, 22021 Flush pump, endoscopic, 206 Food bolus extraction with esophageal lesions, 2012 technique of, 200201, 201f Forceps coagulation, 221 for ERCP malignant tissue sampling, 315, 315f for foreign body removal, 199, 200f Foreign body extraction, adult, 197202 button or disk batteries, 200 devices in protective instruments, 1989, 198t, 199f retrieval instruments, 198t, 199200, 200f endoscopic removal in, 201, 201f endoscopy anticipation in, 200201, 200f food boluses, 200, 201f further evaluation in, 2012 iatrogenic objects, 200201, 200f locations of, 197 preprocedure assessment for, 19798, 198t steps in, 197, 198t training in, 1978 Foreign body extraction, pediatric, 14950 Foreign body reaction, postbariatric surgery, 274 FREDDY laser lithotripsy unit, 309, 309f Frequency, in electrosurgery, 127, 127f Fundamental skills, 17. See also specic procedures Fundic gland polyps, 32, 34f Fundoplication, Nissen-type, 32, 35f Fundus, normal, 32, 34f Gastric antrum, normal, 32, 33f Gastric balloons, 2756 Gastric bypass, failed, revisional procedures for equipment for, 2723 essential skill sets for, 272 key steps in EndoCinch, 2745 incisionless operating platform, 275, 275f sclerotherapy, 274 StomaphyX, 275 overview of, 270, 271t Gastric inlet patch, 32, 35f Gastric outlet obstruction, gastroduodenal stents with, 1389 Gastric ulcer, 32, 35f Gastric variceal ligation, therapeutic endoscopy for, 38 Gastric volume reduction, endoluminal, 271 Gastroduodenal stenting. See Stenting, distal stomach/duodenum Gastroenterology future projections in, 362 manpower needs in, 35965 (See also Manpower needs, gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy) workforce modeling for, 3612, 362f Gastroesophageal reux-induced disease (GERD), aryepiglottic fold erythema in, 35, 37f
Gastroesophageal reux-induced esophagitis, 32, 33f Gastrointestinal bleeding (hemorrhage) obscure, capsule endoscopy for, 97107 (See also Capsule endoscopy) sources of, by location, 170, 171t stigmata of recent hemorrhage in, 1712, 173f Gastrointestinal endoscopy uoroscopy for (See Fluoroscopy, for GI endoscopy) for GI bleeding (See Gastrointestinal hemostasis, adult) Gastrointestinal hemostasis, adult, 17085 anatomy, blood supply, and location of, 171, 172t common knowledge for, 172 competency in, 1845, 185t GI endoscopy limitations and future for, 1824, 184t adherent clots, 182t, 183 awkward locations, 1834 clot evacuation, 173f, 182 gastric varices, 184 interventional radiology in nonvariceal hemostasis, 184 limitations in, 18081, 181t3t new accessories, 182 promotility drugs, 182 severe hematochezia and clots in colon, 183 knowledge for common, 172 prerequisite cognitive, 17071, 171t prerequisite technical, 1712 limitations and future of, 1824, 184t simulators for articial tissue models, 178 ex vivo models, 178, 178f overview of, 177 virtual reality, 1778 in vivo large animal, 178 skill maintenance for, 185, 185t skills for, common changing patient position, 174, 174f clearing endoscopic eld, 1724 team communicating, 174 strategies for, specic injection, 1745, 174f, 174t mechanical, 172t, 1767 thermal, 1756, 175f6f, 181t3t training in additional aides in, 18081, 181t3t challenges in, 170 key components of, 179 learning progress in, 17980 simulator, data on effectiveness of, 179, 179t simulators in, 180 for skill maintenance, 180 Gastrointestinal hemostasis, pediatric band ligation, 1512 injection therapy, 151 mechanical clips, 151 thermal coagulation, 151 Gastrointestinal perforation closure. See Mucosal defect repair Gastrointestinal societies, in training, 3757 ASGE ITT center initiative for, 3756 (See also ASGE Integrated Technology and Training (ITT) Center)

course offering expansion and brand extension by, 3767 navigation and standardization of new technology by, 3778 overview of, 375 Gastroscopes, pediatric, 1468, 146t, 147f, 148t Gastrostomy tube for luminal dilation, 192 placement of adult, therapeutic endoscopy for, 38, 342, 342f pediatric, 150, 150t Geenen brush, 313 GI Mentor II simulators colonoscopy virtual reality, 1112, 12f endoscopic ultrasound, 7981, 80f81f for GI hemostasis, 177 for upper endoscopy, 39 Grasping instruments, for foreign body removal, 199, 200f Grounding, of electrosurgical unit, 128 Grounding pad, 1289 Grunds model, 89, 8f, 178 Hair dryer tube model, 6, 6f Handeye coordination models, 67, 7f HBIN device, 314, 314f Heater probe, for GI hemostasis, 1756, 181t Hemoclip, endoscopic closure with, in polypectomy, 2578, 257f for GI bleeding adult, 1767 pediatric, 151 for nonvariceal UGI lesions, 182t, 183 Hemostasis deep enteroscopy for, 113 in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 38 gastrointestinal (See Gastrointestinal hemostasis) therapeutic endoscopy for, 38 upper gastrointestinal tract, nonvariceal hemoclipping of, 182t, 183 MPEC settings for, 18081, 181t Hepatic exure anatomy, 43, 43f, 45f High-resolution endoscopes (HRE), 159 Hochberger model, 910, 9f Homemade demonstration models, 6, 6f Hood, latex protective, 1989, 199f Hook-knife, 219 Human capital, 359. See also Manpower needs, gastroenterology and digestive endoscopy Hydroxy ethylic starch (HAES), for endoscopic submucosal dissection, 217f Hyperplastic polyps, narrow band imaging of, 1623, 163f Hypertrophied anal papilla, 53f Ileocecal valve, 44, 6061, 61f Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), 159. See also Contrast-enhanced endoscopy (CEE) Image intensier/receiver, in uoroscope, 135 Immersion AccuTouch colonoscopy simulator, 11, 11f Immersion Medical simulator, upper endoscopy, 39, 40f Impedance, 125, 126f Imperial College/St. Marks College Simulator, 67, 7f
Imperial College/St. Marks College Simulator MK2, 7, 8f Implantable cardiac debrillators (ICDs) electrosurgery and, 129 mucosal ablation techniques with, 239 Incision. See specic procedures Incisionless operating platform (IOP), 275, 275f Incompetence, 23. See also Assessment, skills; specic procedures India ink tattoo, 53f Indigo carmine, 162 Indigocarmine blue, for endoscopic mucosal resection, 207, 210f, 211, 211f Industry, training by, 374 Informed consent. See also specic procedures adult, 224 pediatric, 144 Informed refusal, 23 Injection substances, for endoscopic submucosal dissection, 217f, 218 Injection therapy, for GI bleeding, pediatric, 151 Insertion, scope. See specic procedures Inspection, 1920. See also specic procedures Instrumentation, 20 Insufation in inspection, 20 in navigation, 18 in overcoming obstacles, 19 Insulators, in human tissue, 1267, 127f Integrated Technology and Training (ITT) Center, ASGE, 10, 37071, 370f71f courses of, 3745, 375t EASIE simulator training at, 3734, 374t initiative of, 3756 Interstitial modulation, 131 Interventional endoscopic ultrasound, 77 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), pancreatoscopy for, 122 Intraprocedural endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, for tissue diagnosis, 31516, 316f Intraprocedure period, high-quality training for, 2425, 24t Introduction, of scope, 1718. See also specic procedures In vivo large animal simulators, for GI hemostasis, 178 iScan, 1634 Isolated tip knife, 218 IT2-knife, 21819 ITT center, ASGE. See ASGE Integrated Technology and Training (ITT) Center Jejunal extension, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with, 3489 Jejunostomy, direct percutaneous endoscopic, 349. See also Enteral access techniques Jelly bean test, 97, 98f Ketamine, pediatric, 145, 145t Kudo pit pattern classication, 160, 160f Labor economics, 359 Landmarks. See also specic procedures for colonoscopy, 445, 44f for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 32, 33f6f for navigation, 18

Mucosal ablation techniques, 23745 ablation method selection in, 238 acid suppression in, 2389 anticoagulation in, 238 competency in, 245 equipment and technical steps in, 23945 argon plasma coagulation, 23940, 240f bipolar or multipolar electrocoagulation, 240 cryotherapy, 2434, 244f overview of, 237 photodynamic therapy, 2445 radiofrequency ablation, 24043, 241f2f with pacemakers and implantable cardiac debrillators, 239 patient selection in, 238 postablation analgesia in, 239 postablation surveillance in, 239 principles of, 237 skills in maintaining, 245 prerequisite, 2378 training in, 245 training setting in, 238 Mucosal defect repair, 2826 equipment for, 283, 283f key steps in, 2835 immediate endoscopic management, 2845, 285f6f perforation diagnosis, 284, 284f perforation prevention, 2834 postendoscopic perforation closure, 2856 learning of, 2823 settings and tools for training in, 286 Multipolar electrocautery, for GI hemostasis, 175, 175f, 181t3t Multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC) CURE settings in, for nonvariceal UGI hemostasis, 180181, 181t for mucosal ablation, 240 Narcotics, pediatric, 145, 145t Narrow band imaging (NBI), 1623, 162f3f Natural orice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES R ), 2619 animal lab training in, 267 clinical interest in, 261 competency assessment for, 266 continuing education for, 269 guidelines for, 266 history and overview of, 261 knowledge and skill sets for, 2626 access sites closure, 264 anesthesia, 2656 complication management, intraoperative, 265 sterility maintenance, 264 surgical procedures, 2634 translumenal access, 2623 postgraduate and residency training in, 2689 preceptorship/training centers in, 2678 privileging and credentialing in, 268 simulation of, 2667, 267f team development for, 266 words of caution on clinical interest in, 2612 Navigation, 1819 Neuromuscular stimulation, from electrosurgery, 129 Neutral electrode, 128
Nissen-type fundoplication, 32, 35f N-loop, 579, 58f Noncontact coagulation, 1312, 131f, 131t Nonlifting sign, 252 Nonprocedural aspects, high-quality training for, 226 intraprocedure, 245, 24t medicolegal issues in, 256 postprocedure, 256, 25t preprocedure, 224, 23t quality assurance and improvement in, 26 quality in, determinants of, 22 Nortech AUTOLITH system, 308, 308f NOTES R. See Natural orice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES R ) Obesity procedures, primary bariatric (See also Bariatric endoscopy) endoluminal gastric volume reduction, 271 endoluminal metabolic prosthetics, 271 space occupying devices, 27071 EndoCinch, 2767, 276f endoscopic suturing platforms, 276 Endo Stitch, 277 gastric balloons, 2756 OverStitch, 277, 277f TOGA, 277 Objectively Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), 381 Objectives, learning, 1617 Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), capsule endoscopy for, 97107. See also Capsule endoscopy Obstacles, overcoming, 19 Olympus colonoscopy simulator, 12 Organized pancreatic necrosis, 3334, 333f Outlet stenosis, postbariatric surgery, 2734 OverStitch, 277, 277f Overtubes. See also specic procedures for deep enteroscopy, 11011, 111f for push enteroscopy, 140 for single- and double-balloon enteroscopy, 14041 transesophageal, 1989, 199f transpharyngeal, 1989, 199f Pacemakers electrosurgery and, 129 mucosal ablation techniques with, 239 Pain syndromes, postbariatric surgery, 274 Pancreatic abscess, 333 Pancreatic necrosis, organized or walled-off, 3334, 333f Pancreatic pseudocyst acute, 332, 333f chronic, 3323, 333f Pancreatic sphincterotomy electrosurgical incision in, 133, 133f endoscopic, 121 Pancreatic stenting, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 91 Pancreatic stones ERCP for, 300310 (See also Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), for complicated pancreatobiliary stone disease) extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for, 310

Pancreatitis chronic, pancreatoscopy for, 122 post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, risk factors for, 353354, 354t Pancreatobiliary tract stone disease, ERCP for. See Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), for complicated pancreatobiliary stone disease Pancreatograms, 137 Pancreatoscope, 121 Pancreatoscopy complications of, 122 development and use of, 121 endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy in, 121 endoscopic sphincter dilation in, 121 equipment in, 121 for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, 122 intraoperative, 122 with narrow-band imaging, 1212 for pancreatitis, chronic, 122 peroral, 121 Papilla, hypertrophied anal, 53f Papillectomy, electrosurgical, 1323, 132f Papillotomy, in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 889 Pathology recognition. See also specic procedures in colonoscopy, intermediate, 523, 53f in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 32, 33f6f Patient positioning, 34. See also specic procedures Patient satisfaction, postprocedure, 25, 25t Pediatric endoscopy, 14355, 146 adult endoscopist role in, 152 advanced procedures in, 154 colonoscopy, 143 diagnostic techniques in, 149 indications for, 148, 148t instruments in, 1489, 149t technical and cognitive skills in, 148 competency in, 152, 153f, 154f endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 1545 endoscopic ultrasound, 155 esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 143 GI bleeding management in band ligation, 1512 injection therapy, 151 mechanical clips, 151 thermal coagulation, 151 history of, 143 identifying pathology in, 149 informed consent for, 144 patient assessment in, 1434 sedation in benzodiazepines, 145, 145t drug doses for, 145t ketamine, 145, 145t narcotics, 145, 145t propofol, 145 reversal agents for, 145, 145t topical agents, 1445 training in, 144 when not to use, 144 simulators for, 1523 therapeutic procedures in foreign body removal, 14950
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement, 150, 150t stricture dilation, 15051 training program requirements in, 143 upper endoscopy, 1468 diagnostic techniques in, 149 indications for, 146, 146t instruments in, 146148, 146t, 147f technical skills in, 146 wireless video capsule endoscopy, 155 Pedunculated polyps, polypectomy for, 250 Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), 3429. See also Enteral access techniques assessment form for, 347f direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy, 349 with jejunal (or duodenal) extension, 3489 peel-away sheath type insertion in, 3457, 346f pull-type insertion in, 342, 342f3f, 345 push-type insertion in, 342, 344f, 345 removal in, 348 replacement in, 3478 Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement adult, 38, 342, 342f pediatric, 150, 150t Perforation colorectal closure of, 2826, 285f6f (See also Mucosal defect repair) from colonoscopy, 556, 56f diagnosis of, 284 prevention of, 2834 esophageal closure of, 2826, 285f6f (See also Mucosal defect repair) diagnosis of, 284 prevention of, 283 gastrointestinal, closure of (See Mucosal defect repair) Peroral direct cholangioscopy, 12021 Peroral electronic pancreatoscopy (PEPS), 121 Phantom T bingen models, 89, 8f u Photodynamic therapy (PDT), for mucosal ablation, 2445 Physicians, workforce estimates for, 36061 Piecemeal resection, 208, 209f10f Pillcam ESO, 98f, 100 Pit pattern classication, 160, 160f Pneumatic dilation, for achalasia, 193 Polyp colonic, 53f fundic gland, 32, 34f hyperplastic, narrow band imaging of, 1623, 163f sessile endoscopic submucosal dissection of, electrosurgical, 1323, 132f polypectomy for, 24850, 249f Polypectomy, 204 in colonoscopy, 5455, 55f deep enteroscopy for, 113 snare, 5455, 55f Polypectomy, complicated, 24659 electrosurgical unit for, 2467 equipment in snare handle in, 2478 snare handling safety in, 248 snares for, 247

follow-up after, 258 history and theory of, 246 nonlifting sign in, 252 techniques in argon plasma coagulation, 2545, 256f cap endoscopic mucosal resection, 252, 256f endoscopic hemoclip closure, 2578, 257f endoscopic submucosal dissection, 253, 253f5f uid injection, 25052, 251f hemostasis, 2557, 256f intraoperative colonoscopy, 258 precolonoscopic laboratory testing, 258 retroversion, 252 uses of for pedunculated polyps, 250 for sessile polyps, 24850, 249f Polyp trap, 208 Polyvinyl wire guided dilators, 188 Pong Game, endoscopic, 6, 7f Porcine stomach ex vivo simulators in deep enteroscopy training, 11314, 113f in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography training, 92, 92f Postprocedure period, high-quality training for, 256, 25t Power, 1256 Practice, deliberate, 17 Preoperative clinical assessment, 24, 24t. See also specic procedures Preprocedure period, high-quality training for, 224, 23t clinical assessment in, 24, 24t informed consent in, 223 informed refusal in, 23 Prophylactic antibiotics, preprocedure, 24 Propofol, pediatric, 145 Protective hood, latex, 1989, 199f Pseudocyst management, 33240 competency in, 340 endoscopic drainage in, 3347 choosing approach to, 3345 transmural, 3358, 335f8f transpapillary, 3389, 338f9f equipment in, 334 uid collections in, acute, 332 for pancreatic abscess, 333 for pancreatic necrosis, 3334, 333f for pancreatic pseudocyst acute, 332, 333f chronic, 3323, 333f predrainage evaluation in, 334 prerequisite expertise and skill for, 332 procedures for, 332 skill maintenance in, 340 skills sets for, 332 special considerations in, 332 training in, 340 Pseudocyst, pancreatic acute, 332, 333f chronic, 3323, 333f Pull technique, 38, 342, 342f Pure NOTES R , 261 Push enteroscopy, 140 Quality assurance, training in, 26 Quality challenges, 380 Quality improvement, training in, 26
Radiation safety ofcer, 136 Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), mucosal, 24043 circumferential, 2412, 241f focal, 2423, 242f Radiofrequency leakage currents, in electrosurgery, 129 Rate of return, 359 Recredentialing, 382 Rectal anatomy, 42, 44f Rectal perforations closure of, 2826 (See also Mucosal defect repair) endoscopic devices for, 283 immediate endoscopic management of, 2846, 285f6f diagnosis of, 284 prevention of, 283 Rectal varix, tortuous, 53f Recurrent stricture, 190 Refractory stricture, 190 Refusal, informed, 23 Resection. See specic procedures Resistance denition of, 1256 in human tissue, 1267, 127f Retraining, of endoscopists, 36771 at ASGE ITT center, 37071, 370f71f components of, essential, 36970 effective methods for, 3678 endoscopic ultrasonography in, 36771 nancial considerations in, 369 lack of experienced trainers r, 369 lack of suitable models for, 3689 laparoscopy training model for, 368 in new imaging modalities, 368 training variation in, 367 Retrieval baskets, 199, 200f Retrieval instruments, 198t, 199200 Retrieval snares, 199, 200f Retroexion, learning of, 20 Retroversion, in polypectomy, 252 Return electrode, 1289 Return plate, 1289 Reversal agents for sedation, pediatric, 145, 145t Reverse alpha-loop, 579, 58f Roller demonstration model, 6, 6f Roy model, 359 Saline-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection, 208, 209f10f Satisfaction, patient, postprocedure, 25, 25t Sclerotherapy, for failed gastric bypass, 274 Sclerotherapy needle, 174, 174f Scope dials, in colonoscopy, 478, 48f Scout lms, 136, 136f Screening colonoscopy, endoscopic, demand for, 3623 Sedation, 24. See also specic procedures pediatric benzodiazepines, 145, 145t cognitive aspects of training in, 144 drug doses for, 145t ketamine, 145, 145t narcotics, 145, 145t propofol, 145 reversal agents, 145, 145t topical agents, 1445 when not to use, 144

T bingen simulators, 89, 8f u Turn, acute, in colonoscopy, 5960, 60f Turns, angulated, in colonoscopy, 5960, 60f Ulcer bowel surface, 102, 104f cecal, 53f gastric, 32, 35f postbariatric surgery, 274 Ultraslim upper endoscope, 12021 Ultrasound, endoscopic. See Endoscopic ultrasound Ultrasound principles, 75 Umbilication, central bowel, 102, 104f Upper endoscope, ultraslim, 12021 Upper endoscopy introduction of scope in, 17 navigation in, 18 pediatric, 1468 diagnostic techniques in, 149
indications for, 146, 146t instruments in, 1468, 146t, 147f technical skills in, 146 Upper gastrointestinal tract hemostasis. See also Gastrointestinal hemostasis, adult nonvariceal hemoclipping of, 182t, 183 MPEC settings for, 18081, 181t U-turn maneuver, in polypectomy, 252 ValenTx, 278, 278f Valves of Houston, 42, 44f Variceal ligation, therapeutic endoscopy for, 38 Video capsule endoscopy. See Capsule endoscopy Video-endoscope, for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 323 Videoendoscopy, 177 Villous atrophy, complete, 32, 36f Virtual reality simulators for colonoscopy, 1112, 12f
for endoscopy, 81 for GI hemostasis, 1778 Viscous substances, for endoscopic submucosal dissection, 217f Voltage, 1256, 130 Waiver emergency, 23 of self-determination, 23 Walled-off pancreatic necrosis, 3334, 333f White plaques, esophageal, 32, 35f Wire-guided dilators, 192. See also Luminal dilation techniques; specic types Wireless video capsule endoscopy. See Capsule endoscopy Workforce estimates, for physicians, 36061 Workforce modeling, in gastroenterology, 3612, 362f X-ray beam, in uoroscope, 135 X-vision ERCP simulator, 923

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Page numbers followed by an f or a t indicate a figure or table, respectively. aperture, 2 Arctic ice edge. See also sea ice characteristics, 373374 deep water convection monitoring, 383, 385, 386f eddies detection, 381, 383, 385f formation process, 379, 380f, 381, 382f identifying using SAR conceptual model, 384t dynamics, 377, 378f internal waves, 376377 structure type, 374375 wind speed and direction, 377, 378379f, 379 mapping at DMI, 431, 432433f multiyear floes detection, 383, 385f SAR images examples, 95f, 105 SAR observations examples Barents Sea/Novaya Zemlya Area, 389f, 390 Ob Gulf/Yenisei Area, 390391 Vilkitsky Strait, 391393 waves in pack ice, 385387 ASAR (Advanced SAR), 7 ASF (Alaska Satellite Facility), 297 ATI (Along Track Interferometry), 22, 6264 atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) from air-sea interactions, 54, 56f, 57 in Antarctic, 386387 coastal frontal waves, 351 described, 341, 342f island lee waves, 346348, 349f upstream waves, 349351 atmospheric vortex streets (AVS) characteristics calculations, 342346 described, 341, 342f Automatic Gain Control (AGC), 15 AVHRR. See Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer azimuth shift, 40
AATSR (along-track scanning radiometer), 217 advanced microwave instrument (AMI), 53 Advanced SAR (ASAR), 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) current images, 208, 209211f, 212f rolls and cells imaging, 327 sea ice imaging, 103, 104f surface wave imaging, 51f upwelling images, 222, 226, 228f, 230231f, 233, 235, 237f, 240, 241f use in operational ice services, 418, 420f African coast, 201, 232f AGC (Automatic Gain Control), 15 air-sea interactions, 45t atmospheric gravity waves, 54, 56f, 57 polar lows, 58 rain cells, 5758 surface winds, 5354 windrows/roll vortices, 54, 55f Alaska coast, 183, 185f, 279f, 310, 312f, 313f. See also Bering Sea; Gulf of Alaska Alaska SAR Demonstration (AKDEMO), 297301, 308 309, 311f Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), 297 Alboran Sea, 198 Aleutian Islands, 314f, 315f, 345f ALMAZ, 6, 16, 142 Along Track Interferometry (ATI), 22, 6264 along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR), 217 AMI (advanced microwave instrument), 53 Andaman Sea, 361, 362f angle of incidence, 6 Antarctic sea ice. See also sea ice backscatter response, 401403 characteristics, 400401 critical solid ocean features, 398 iceberg observation, 411414 ice zones, 399400 northern vs. southern polar oceans, 397 regional characteristics influencing ice cover, 398399 SAR observations C-band, 406410 history, 403404, 405f L-band, 405406 rapidity of change in conditions, 407 X-band, 411 antenna on SAR, 1516 Apel, John, 6
B-10 iceberg, 411 backscatter response. See also microwave scattering; radar scattering Antarctic sea ice, 401403 due to upwelling, 226228, 233238, 239240f in ocean surface imaging, 3236 sea ice modeling, 109 summer sea ice, 89, 92f, 93 from wind speed, 305306 winter sea ice, 8589, 9091f Baffin Bay, 431, 432433f Baja California, 6869 Baltic Sea, 263, 271f, 274 BAQ (Block Adaptive Quantization), 15
SAR Marine Users Manual Barents Sea/Novaya Zemlya Area, 351, 389f, 390 bathymetric maps generation market for, 257 SAR image incorporation, 258 surveying examples, 258f, 259261 bathymetry, 49, 52, 177 Bathymetry Assessment System (BAS), 258 Beaufort Sea, 95f, 98f, 100f, 110f Bering Sea analysis by NIC, 420f, 421, 422f, 423 ice edge images, 298f, 374, 375f ship detection in, 293294f storm detection over, 332333, 334f biogenic oil slicks, 5860, 270274 Bismarck-Solomon Islands, 202 Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ), 15 Block Floating-Point Quantization (BFPQ), 15 bound waves, 41 Bragg waves and scattering, 21, 3236, 172174 Brazil, 358, 359f Bristol Bay, Alaska, 280f, 284 detection by SAR, 49, 5051f estuarine outflows and channel convergence fronts, 215217 future directions, 217218 near-shore, 181183 Norwegian Coastal Current, 208210 surface roughness change mechanisms, 207 wave interactions with, 4142 wave spectra from ATI and, 6264 Western Gulf Stream, 210f, 211215 cyclones. See polar mesoscale cyclones

Dalila, Hurricane, 339f, 340 damping ratio of a radar return, 60 Danish Meterological Institute (DMI) iceberg mapping, 431, 432433f ice services using SAR, 419, 426428, 429430f data rate performance factor, 1415 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System, 411 deformed ice, 97, 401 Delaware Bay, U.S., 233, 234237f, 238, 294f Delmarva Peninsula, 233 dielectric constant and penetration depth, 29, 30f, 31f, 32, 8687 DLR (German Aerospace Center), 162, 163f DMI. See Danish Meterological Institute Doppler beam-sharpening, 6 Doppler offset, 39f, 40
California coast, U.S., 46f, 51f, 55f, 56f, 59f, 141f, 227 229f Camarinal Sill, 199f Canadian Archipelago analysis, 423, 424426f, 426 Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), 226, 385f Canadian Ice Services Canadian Archipelago analysis, 423, 424426f, 426 Great Lakes analysis, 434, 435436f, 437f Canadian Space Agency observations. See RADARSAT-1 Cape Canaveral, U.S., 48f Cape Cod, U.S., 18f, 242f Cape Farewell, Greenland, 427, 428, 430f Cape Hatteras, U.S., 214f Cape Henry, U.S., 215, 216f Cape Navarin, Russia, 333f Caspian Sea, 269, 270f, 272f, 274 CCRS (Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing), 226, 385f CEAREX, 97 cells, 322325, 327, 328f CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate method), 431 channel convergence fronts, 215217 Chesapeake Bay, U.S., 215, 216f, 233, 234237f, 238, 280f, 285f, 297f chirp, 8 Chukchi Sea, 107f, 159f, 375, 376f coastal frontal waves, 351 Constant False Alarm Rate method (CFAR), 431 continental shelf and internal waves generation, 195198, 201202 convective rain, 355 currents Coriolis force and, 222 current-bottom topography interaction, 255256
Earth Observing Catalogue, CCRS, 226 Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), 1 East China Sea, 225f, 226, 296f East Coast, U.S., 184f, 323f, 324f, 326f, 328f eddies detection on the Arctic ice edge, 381, 383, 385f mapping with SAR, 49, 5051f Ekman transport, 222 English Channel, 52f, 247248 environmental pollution, 263264 ENVISAT antenna technologies, 16 current images, 217 history, 7 ice edge images, 377 imaging products, 446447 multiple frequencies use, 61 oil slick detection, 264 polarimetric combinations capability, 109 rainfall imaging, 359 SAR imagettes, 164 surface wave detection, 43 underwater topography images, 252, 253f
Index upwelling images, 232 ERIM/NAWC SAR, 214f ERS (European Remote Sensing) air-sea interactions detection, 53 Antarctic mapping, 403 antenna technologies, 16 backscatter statistics, 402, 403t coastal frontal waves detection, 351 current images, 208, 211, 216f history, 6, 27, 142, 143 ice edge images, 376f, 377, 378f, 382f, 385, 386f imaging products, 445 inter-look cross spectrum, 153 internal waves/soliton packets imaging, 191, 193f, 194f, 196f, 198, 199200f mineral oil seep detection, 59f near-shore processes imaging, 182f, 183 oil slick detection, 264, 265267f, 269272f rainfall imaging, 359, 361, 362366f SAR imagettes, 162, 163f sea ice imaging, 95f, 98f, 100f ship detection, 289, 290f surface wave imaging, 47 surface wind imaging, 5354 underwater topography images, 249251f, 252, 254f, 257, 258f, 259 upwelling images, 225f, 226, 228, 230231f use in operational ice services, 419 use in sea ice measurement, 111 wave breaking resolution, 179 wave spectra images, 154, 155157f wind speed and direction detection, 308 estuarine outflows, 215217 European Space Agency (ESA), 164. See also ERS (European Remote Sensing)

German Aerospace Center (DLR), 162, 163f GLOBEC Program, Oregon State University, 231 gravity waves. See atmospheric gravity waves Greenland Sea DMI ice charts, 426428, 429430f ice edge eddies, 381, 383, 385f ice edge images, 377, 378f marginal ice zone images, 104f, 106f Gulf of Alaska, 312, 316f, 317f, 349f. See also Alaska coast Gulf of California, 48f Gulf of Mexico, 58, 6668, 290f, 367, 368f Gulf of Thailand, 361, 363364f Gulf Stream, 26f, 49, 50f, 62, 6970
Hudson Canyon, U.S., 191, 193f, 197f Hudson River Estuary, U.S., 235, 238f, 239f hummoking of sea ice, 97 hurricanes Dalila, 339f, 340 described, 335 Floyd, 337338f, 339340 Josephine, 161 wave fields generation, 160161 hydrodynamic modulation, 3738, 134, 147, 174
icebergs, 401, 402, 411414 ice edge. See Arctic ice edge Iceland, 361, 366f, 367, 381 ice services. See operational ice services ice sheets, 402 IFSAR, 9 Indian Ocean, 194, 266f InSAR, 9 internal waves on the Arctic ice edge, 376377 characteristics of, 47, 190194 described, 189190 detection by SAR, 4748 global occurrences, 202, 203f remote sensing of characteristics observable by SAR imagery, 195 continental shelf generated, 195198, 201202 light/dark band signature, 195 sill generated, 198201 summary, 204 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 263 Inter-Pulse Period (IPP), 13, 14 inversion, 151, 153 island lee waves, 346348, 349f
Figure of Merit (FOM), 284 first-year ice described, 8384, 85f, 400 identifying using SAR, 97 fisheries management application of SAR, 297301 floes concentration in sea ice, 103, 104f multiyear floes detection on ice edge, 383, 385f size distributions, 102 Floyd, Hurricane, 337338f, 339340 fracturing of sea ice, 97 Fram Strait, 427 frazil ice, 82, 105, 159160, 379, 387, 398, 400, 401, 404f, 406, 407, 408f, 410f frontal waves, coastal, 351 fronts, 49, 5051f, 215217 frost features of sea ice, 99
SAR Marine Users Manual MGIA (multigrid iterative approach), 120, 121 microwave scattering. See also backscatter response discrepancies due to non-linear nature of ocean, due to rough surface backscatter NRCS and wind field, 128131 bistatic scattering model, 119122 model refinements, 131134 non-Gaussian behavior of ocean surface, 133134 in the SPM limit, 122123 wave spectrum properties, 123128 hydrodynamic composite-type model, 135 smooth flat interface characteristics, 117119 Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 202 mineral oil films, 5860, 268269, 270f Mission Bay, San Diego, 63f MIZ (Marginal Ice Zone), 158, 373, 400, 423 MIZEX (Marginal Ice Zone Experiment), 103, 105, 383 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 222 monostatic strip-mapping, 9 multigrid iterative approach (MGIA), 120, 121 multiyear ice described, 8384, 85f, 400, 402 identifying using SAR, 9697

Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS), 6, 27, 142 Jet Propulstion Laboratory (JPL), 6 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), 308 Joint Ocean Wave Investigation Project (JOWIP), 291f Josephine, Hurricane, 161 JPL AIRSAR, 109, 110f, 291f Jugor Strait, 390
Kara Gate, 390 katabatic winds, 53, 397, 398, 399, 407, 408, 409f Kelvin wakes, 288289, 289291f Kirchhoff approximation, 119 Kodiak Island, Alaska, 312f, 313f Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT), 263, 297
Labrador Sea cyclones in, 335, 336f ice edge images, 383, 385, 386f wave modeling and measurement, 158 LANDSAT, 12, 414 Langmuir circulation, 268 leads and polynyas, 99102 lee waves, 341, 346348, 349f level ice, 97 line-of-sight velocity of a target, 6263 Loch Linnhe, Scotland, 291f Long Island, U.S. See New Jersey coast Loomis, Alden, 6
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, 381, 383, 387 Nantucket Shoals, Massachusetts, 3f, 224f, 226, 240, 241f narrow-V wakes, 292 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1 National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 423 National Data Buoy Center (NBDC), 313 National Ice Center (NIC) Bering Sea analysis, 420f, 421, 422f, 423 data sources, 418 Great Lakes analysis, 434, 435436f, 437f iceberg observation, 411 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 6, 297, 308, 418. See also Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer near-shore processes Bragg scattering theory review, 172174 currents, 181183 effects identifiable by SAR, 171 man-made signatures, 183184, 185f wave breaking, surf zone, 177181 wave refraction, 174177 Newfoundland coast, 155f new ice, 400 New Jersey coast, U.S., 235, 237f, 239f, 240f, 289f New York Bight, 193f, 195, 196f, 197f, 201 NIC. See National Ice Center NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric
MABL. See marine atmospheric boundary layer Malaysian coast, 267f Manaus, Brazil, 358, 359f man-made near-shore signatures, 183184, 185f mantissas, 15 Maragoni resonance effect, 60 Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ), 158, 373, 400, 423 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX), 383 marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) cells, 322325 overview, 321 rolls, 325327, 328f transition between cells and rolls, 327, 328f turbulent flux measurements, 329 Mariner Glacier, Victoria Land, 413f, 414 MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships), 263 McMurdo Sound, 407, 409f Mediterranean Sea, 199f, 263, 269f Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), 217, 222, 232
Index Administration), 6, 297, 308, 418 normalized radar cross section (NRCS), 120 North Carolina coast, U.S., 233, 234f, 235f Northern Sea Route, 390 Northern Straits of Malacca, 367, 369f North Sea, 263 Norway coast, 182f Norwegian Coastal Current, 208210 Norwegian Sea, 381, 383 Novaya Zemlya Area, 389f, 390 NRCS (normalized radar cross section), 120 environmental problem of pollution, 263 mineral oil films, 268269, 270f radar scattering and slicks, 4243 SAR imagery for pollution monitoring, 263264 spills on images, 5860 operational ice services CIC Canadian Archipelago analysis, 423, 424426f, 426 DMI ice charts for Greenland, 426428, 429430f iceberg mapping at DMI, 431, 432433f impact of SAR imagery availability, 436, 438 major ice charting nations, 417, 418f NIC Bering Sea analysis, 420f, 421, 422f, 423 NIC Great Lakes analysis, 434, 435436f, 437f satellite data sources, 418419 Operational Linescan System (OLS), 418 Oregon coast, 231f P PALSAR, 109 Pearl Bank, 199 Plaatgat area, 258f, 259261 PMR (Power-to-Mean-Ratio method), 431 Point Reyes Beach, California, 141f polarimetry, 62 polarization of sea ice, 109111 polar lows, 58 polar mesoscale cyclones (PMCs) described, 332 over the Bering Sea, 332333, 334f over the Labrador Sea, 335, 336f pollution. See oils and surfactants polynyas, 93, 99, 373, 383, 390391, 398, 400 Power-to-Mean-Ratio method (PMR), 431 Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF), 13 pycnocline, 189

Ob Gulf/Yenisei Area, 390391 ocean features, 44t bathymetry, 49, 52 currents, fronts, eddies, 49, 5051f internal waves, 4748 surface waves, 43, 46f, 47 ocean surface imaging air-sea interactions characteristics, 45t atmospheric gravity waves, 54, 56f, 57 polar lows, 58 rain cells, 5758 surface winds, 5354 windrows/roll vortices, 54, 55f case studies Baja California, 6869 Gulf of Mexico, 6668 Gulf Stream, 6970 currents and wave spectra from ATI, 6264 future directions, 66 history, 2728 multiple frequencies use, 61 multiple polarization use, 6162 ocean features characteristics, 44t bathymetry, 49, 52 currents, fronts, eddies, 49, 5051f internal waves, 4748 surface waves, 43, 46f, 47 overview, 2527 polarimetry use, 62 radar scattering and backscatter from surface roughness, 3236 dielectric constant and penetration depth, 29, 30f, 31f, 32 ocean radar return, 28 oil slicks, 4243 short and long waves interactions, 3641 wave-current interactions, 4142 spatial and temporal sampling, 6466 surface slicks from oils, 5860 the Odden, 380f, 381, 382f oils and surfactants biogenic slicks, 270274 difficulties in identifying oils, 264267

QuickSCAT, 314317

RADARSAT-1 air-sea interactions detection, 53 Antarctic mapping, 404f antenna technologies, 16 Arctic ocean mapping, 64 atmospheric gravity waves imaging, 346350 atmospheric vortex streets imaging, 342346 current images, 212f, 213 history, 6, 7, 28, 142, 143 iceberg observation, 411, 412413f ice edge images, 374375, 377, 389f, 390, 391392f inter-look cross spectrum, 153 internal waves/soliton packets imaging, 201f marine atmospheric boundary layer, 323324f, 325,
SAR Marine Users Manual 326f, 327 mineral oil seep detection, 59f near-shore processes imaging, 175f, 177, 180f, 181, 183, 184f, 185f oil slick detection, 264 operational ice services, 420f, 421, 422, 424f, 428, 431, 432433f, 435f principles, 18 processing levels, 448449 rainfall imaging, 359 rolls and cells imaging, 327, 328f roll vortices/windrows imaging, 5556f sea ice images, 404, 407410f ship detection, 279280f, 281, 282f, 283284, 288 289, 290f, 293294f, 297299f speckle noise image, 150 storm system detection, 331, 332, 333f, 336337f, 339f, 340 surface wave imaging, 46f, 47, 51f, 140, 141f, 142f surface wind imaging, 54 upwelling images, 226, 227f, 229f, 233, 234f, 235, 237f, 238f, 240, 241242f use in operational ice services, 419 use in sea ice measurement, 111 wave breaking resolution, 179 wind speed and direction detection, 309310 wind speed imaging, 309, 310314f, 315, 316318f RADARSAT-2, 7, 16, 17, 18, 66, 109, 164, 217218, 359, 419, 438 radar scattering Bragg waves and, 21, 3236, 172174 coefficient, 8589 due to rainfall, 358361 ocean surface imaging and backscatter from surface roughness, 3236 dielectric constant and penetration depth, 29, 30f, 31f, 32 ocean radar return, 28 oil slicks, 4243 short and long waves interactions, 3641 wave-current interactions, 4142 radial velocity of a target, 6263 rafted ice, 97 rainfall/rain cells air-sea interactions and, 58 detection by SAR, 355 radar signatures of rain cells Bragg wavelength and, 356 rainfall effects on sea surface, 356357 rain-related wind effects on sea surface, 357358 scattering and attenuation of microwaves, 358361 SAR images examples, 361, 362366f, 367, 368369f range resolution, 78, 14 Rayleigh criterion, 86 real-aperture radar (RAR), 8 resolution. See range resolution resonance scattering, 3236 ridging of sea ice, 97 rolls, 325327, 328f roll vortices/windrows, 54, 55f Ross Sea, 406, 407f, 408f Russian Arctic, 388

SaSS-II algorithm, 129131 Scanning Multi-Channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), 381 ScanSAR, 283284 scatterometer algorithms, 129 scatterometers use for wind speed determination, 306307 Scoresby Sound, 427 Scotia Sea, 404f, 406 sea ice Antarctic (see Antarctic sea ice) Arctic (see Arctic ice edge) backscatter modeling, 109 characteristics, 8284 deformation, 97 edge characteristics and detection, 103, 105, 106107f floe concentration, 103, 104f floe size distributions, 102 ice type determination, 9397 leads and polynyas, 99102 overview, 81 polarimetric discriminants correlation coefficient, 112 depolarization ratio, 112 expected utility, 113t phase difference, 111112 total power/span, 112 polarization, 109111 remote sensing concepts backscatter response, summer, 89, 92f, 93 backscatter response, winter, 8589, 9091f snow on, 105, 108109 surface features categories, 9799 topology of types, 94f SEASAT air-sea interactions detection, 53 antenna technologies, 16 data rate system, 14 geometry, 1112 history, 1, 6, 7, 27 imaging products, 443444 ocean surface imaging, 67f, 69f rain cells imaging, 5758 scatterometer, 306307 sea ice imaging, 105f, 107f storm system detection, 161 surface wave imaging, 48f, 50f, 52f, 140141, 159160 surface wind imaging, 5354
Index underwater topography images, 246, 248f, 252, 257 upwelling images, 224, 226 wind speed and direction detection, 307308 Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), 222, 239f ship detection applications, 297301 image phenomenon related to, 295, 296297f limitations of SAR environmental conditions, 281 image quality, 281283 image resolution, 283284 radar characteristics, 281, 282f ship characteristics, 278, 281 physical process, 277, 278f SAR imaging characteristics, 278, 279280f slicks, 292, 293294f, 295 wakes (see wakes) Shuttle Imaging Radar. See SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-band SAR. See SIR-C/X-SAR Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) antenna technologies, 16 current images, 217 history, 9 sigma naught, 28 sill generated internal waves, 198201 SIR (Shuttle Imaging Radar) antenna technologies, 16 history, 6, 27, 142 imaging products, 18f, 450 internal waves/soliton packets imaging, 201 ocean surface imaging, 68f sea ice images, 403, 404f, 405f, 406 storm system detection, 161 surface wave imaging, 142 SIR-C/X-SAR history, 67, 27, 142 multiple frequencies use, 6061, 62 rain cells imaging, 57f rainfall imaging, 356, 358359, 360f, 361, 367, 368 369f SIZEX, 383 slant plane, 1920 slicks and ship detection, 292, 293294f, 295. See also oils and surfactants small perturbation method (SPM), 119. See also microwave scattering SMMR (Scanning Multi-Channel Microwave Radiometer), 381 snow, 401 snow crab season monitoring, 297301, 423 snow on sea ice, 105, 108109 soliton. See internal waves Solomon Islands, 57f South China Sea, 289f Southern Ocean. See Antarctic sea ice Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), 103, 105, 355, 381, 419 speckle noise, 20, 150, 281283 SPM (small perturbation method), 119. See also microwave scattering SRTM. See Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), 9, 16 St. Lawrence Island polynya, 26f, 35f, 36, 350f, 351 storm-generated wave fields, 160161 storm systems, mesoscale hurricanes Dalila, 339f, 340 described, 335 Floyd, 337338f, 339340 polar mesoscale cyclones described, 332 over the Bering Sea, 332333, 334f over the Labrador Sea, 335, 336f SAR data use for monitoring, 331 Straight of Gibraltar, 198 Strait of Dover, 252, 253f Strait of Gilbraltar, 193, 194f Strait of Malacca, 250251f, 252, 290f stratiform rain, 355 Sulu Sea, 194, 198, 199, 200f, 361, 365f surface slicks, 208, 213 surface waves, 43, 46f, 47. See also wave modeling and measurement surface winds. See wind speed and direction surf zone wave breaking, 177181 swath width, 13 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) antenna dimensions, 1516 antenna technologies, 16 basic concept, 2 characteristics of orbital systems, 5t data collection and processing challenges, 9, 11 data rate performance factors, 1415 frequency bands definition, 453 geometry, 11f, 1920 history, 1, 4, 67, 2728 imaging from space, 14 imaging of the ocean surface, 2122 limits from ambiguity conditions, 1213 multi-look processing, 2021 on-line archives and resources, 451452 principles, 912 radar along-track performance, 8, 10f radar range resolution, 78 signal processing and image formation, 1619 slant plane, 1920 speckle, 20

Taimyr Ice Massif, 392 Taiwan coast, 225f, 296f
SAR Marine Users Manual Taiwan Tan Shoals, 249f, 250252 tidal pumping, 221 tilt modulation, 3738, 132 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 355 wave breaking in surf zone, 177181 wave modeling and measurement future prospects, 164 historical use of SAR, 140143 image spectra examples, 154, 155157f image spectral analysis, 145146 overview of current approaches, 139140 radar-ocean wave interaction underwater, 256257 real-time wave demonstration, 161, 162f storm-generated wave fields, 160161 wave groups from SAR imagettes, 162164 wave refraction, 154, 158 waves in ice, 158160 wave spectrum from SAR azimuth cut-off, 148149 inter-look cross spectrum, 153154 limitation of polar orbiting SAR, 151, 152f linear transform, 146148 non-linear transform, 151, 153 quasi-linear transform, 149150 speckle noise, 150 wind wave properties, 143145 wave refraction near-shore region, 174177 on ocean surface, 154, 158 waves, gravity. See atmospheric gravity waves waves, upstream, 349351 waves in ice, 158160 weathering of sea ice, 97 Weddell Sea, 405f, 406 Western Gulf Stream, 210f, 211215 Wiley, Carl, 4, 8 Willapa Bay, Washington, 175f williwaws, 310 windrows/roll vortices, 54, 55f, 308 wind speed and direction air-sea interactions and, 5354 on the Arctic ice edge, 377, 378379f, 379 backscattering considerations, 305306 buoy-SAR comparisons, 313315 challenges associated with SAR, 309310 difficulties in identifying wind direction, 315316, 317318f early uses of SAR imagery, 307309 inferred by surface roughness, 313315 L-band sensitivity, 34 observations possible with SAR, 311312, 313f scatterometers use, 306307
underwater topography bathymetric maps generation market for, 257 SAR image incorporation, 258 surveying examples, 258f, 259261 principles of radar imaging of, 246247 process contributing to radar image, 247 current-bottom topography interaction, 255 radar-ocean wave interaction, 256257 wave-current interaction, 255256 SAR image examples English Channel, 247248 Strait of Dover, 252, 253f Strait of Malacca, 250251f, 252 Taiwan Tan Shoals, 249f, 250252 Xinchuan Gang Shoal, 252253, 254f upstream waves, 349351 upwelling areas of activity, 221 described, 221 East Coast, U.S. localized seasonal upwelling, 233 low backscatter SAR signatures, 233238, 239 240f SAR's ability to delineate upwelling features, 240 241, 242f observations from space, 222226 SAR imaging of patterns, 223226 SAR's ability to detect upwelling patterns, 241243 surface water properties and, 222, 223f West Coast, U.S. low backscatter SAR signatures, 226228 SAR observation of region example, 231232 utility of SAR imagery, 228231

velocity bunching, 21, 3839, 43 Veridian Systems Division, 179, 308, 309 Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS), 301 Vilkitsky Strait, 391393 vortex streets, atmospheric, 342346
wakes internal wave, 292 Kelvin, 288289, 289291f narrow-V, 292 turbulent, 284285, 286287f, 288 Washington coast, 180f, 181, 201f, 202, 291f
Xinchuan Gang Shoal, 252253, 254f

zones, ice, 399400

 

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