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doc0

The First Steps towards Starting a Community Radio Station Compiled by the Staff of NFCB and The Center for Native American Public Radio
1. Conduct a frequency search. You must find out if there are any frequencies available. The quick and dirty way is to run through the dial on your radio and see if there is space. Ultimately you will have to hire an engineer. NFCB can suggest several engineers to help. Approximate cost: $500.00. 2. Form a Board of Directors and incorporate as a non-profit organization, or find a nonprofit organization which is willing to sponsor/house you. 3. With the Board, determine the need(s) for a radio station in your community and the mission of the station. 4. Find a tower or another place to put your antenna. 5. Start raising money. 6. Apply for a license from the FCC. We recommend that you use a communications attorney for this process. We can supply names. 7. Become a member of NFCB and start receiving benefits. 8. Find studio space. 9. Keep raising money. 10. With your Board, begin to outline as many policies as you can. Think about: Volunteer management; underwriting policies; employment policies. Think about Programming and programming policies. What kinds of programs do you want? Who will do them? How will you find them? Do you need to train them? How will you change programming? How will new programs get on the air? Who will do program evaluations? Think about bringing someone from NFCB to conduct planning session with your Board. 11. Raise more money. We estimate that it will cost $200,000 just to get the station on the air, and a minimum of $100,000 per year to operate the station. National Federation of Community Broadcasters 1970 Broadway, Suite 1000 Oakland, CA 451-8200 www.nfcb.org
Master Control El Cheapo Broadcast Tools - ProMix 12 Console M-Audio Powered Monitor Speakers Dell Tower PC for Audio Storage / Air Logging 2 MXR Large Condenser Microphones with booms 2 Somewhat quality CD players -several options 2 Used Panasonic SL1200 Turntables -complete W/ preamps 1 Barebones studio console Custom fab 2 3ft. 19 tilt table top rack boxes Custom Fab 1 two row patch bay 19 with 2 doz cables 2 Sony headphones 2 Homebrew Distribution amplifiers Custom Fab 1 Used EAS system Plus 3X receivers1 Used DBX DDP Audio Processing unit 1 lot Audio wire, ground strap, and installation materials 1 lot Labor for installation of On-Air control room 80 hrs @ $15/Hr. $1500 $350 $1100 $350 $500 $1000 $450 $300 $350 $200 $350 $1000 $400 $450 $1,200
Total: Created by Jim Ellinger, Austin Airwaves

$9,500

MAIN STUDIO Minimal
ASSUMES AN EXISTING DESK OR TABLE SURFACE FOR EQUIPMENT QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL NOTES 1 OPTIMUS (RADIO SHACK) SSM 1250 STEREO MIXER CONSOLE (32-3009) 3 LINE, 1 MIC INPUTS 1 RADIO SHACK 15-1956 STEREO A/V 4-INPUT SELECTOR 2 YAMAHA CDX 393 MKII CD PLAYERS 1 SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK 1 RADIO SHACK NOVA 71 HEADPHONES 1 RADIO SHACK UNIDIRECTIONAL DYNAMIC 12 1/2" GOOSENECK MICROPHONE (33-3011) NO STAND REQ IF USED W/EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) DECODER (WITHOUT ENCODER) 1 CHEAPY BOOMBOX W/DETACHABLE SPEAKERS FOR REFERENCE MONITOR 1 CUSTOM BUILT MIC SWITCH (FOR MUTING SPEAKERS WHEN MIC IS ON & VICE VERSA) PARTS COST ONLY 1 RADIO SHACK ET-216 SINGLE-LINE SPEAKERPHONE - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE 1 misc & wiring parts 2% shipping costs 20% contingency 345 TOTAL - MAIN STUDIO - MINIMAL >> 2073 Created by Michael Brown, Brown Broadcast Service
Low Power vs. Full-Power FM Fact Sheet
Prepared by Michael D. Brown Brown Broadcast Services February 19, 2007

Low Power FM (LPFM)

-limited to 100w @30m HAAT1

Full-Power FM (FPFM)

-minimum 100w @30m HAAT maximum 100kw @600m HAAT a minimum FPFM is equal to a maximum LPFM -protected from interference received
-not protected from interference received -many LPFMs experience severe interference, greatly limiting their coverage areas -is a quasi-secondary service can get bumped at any time by a full-power station. however if the FPFM situation is a move-in after the LPFM is on the air, the LPFM has a limited right to continue broadcasting as long as it does not cause interference inside the FPFM 70dbu contour2 (but in these cases the LPFM will often receive severe interference and be severely compromised) -co-equal with translators in most regards -cannot be sold FCC Rules prohibit transfers, however some transfers have been approved by a waiver, on a case-by-case basis no money can be paid or received for transferring the license

-is a primary service can bump most LPFM stations that are in the way, as defined by 73.809.
-can bump translators that are in the way -transferrable and sellable in most cases, for any price NCE FPFM stations in major markets can be worth millions of $$
Height above average terrain. See 73.313 See 73.809

Brown Broadcast Services

Michael D. Brown 3740 S.W. Comus St.

INCORPORATED

Portland, Oregon 97219-7418

503-245-6065

doc1

LOW POWER FM EQUIPMENT GUIDE

prepared for

The Microradio Implementation Project
September 29, 2000 revised October 2,2000

Brown Broadcast Services

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Michael D. Brown 3740 S.W. Comus St. Portland, Oregon 97219-7418 503-245-6065

INCORPORATED

prepared for The Microradio Implementation Project September 29, 2000

503-245-6065

Portland, Oregon

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction A. How to use this guide B. FCC Rules re: type-accepted equipment C. Factors dictating needs D. New vs used equipment E. Donated equipment F. What you can do or build yourself - what you probably shouldnt II. Main Studio Equipment A. Minimal facilities B. Economy facilities C. Moderate facilities D. Deluxe facilities E. Add-on: automation III. Second Studio (Production Room) Equipment A. Minimal facilities B. Economy facilities C. Moderate facilities D. Deluxe facilities IV. Transmitting System A. Minimal facilities B. Economy facilities C. Moderate facilities D. Deluxe facilities E. Add ons - Studio-Transmitter Link systems & Remote Broadcast Units 18 V. Sample Complete Stations A. Economy facilities B. Moderate facilities VI. Engineering Issues VII. Equipment Suppliers 17

20 21, 22

I. INTRODUCTION

A. HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE

Were often asked, How much will it cost to put an LPFM on the air? The question is rather like asking how much a house costs, without having any more information to go on. If youre happy sleeping under a blue tarp, your house might cost about twelve dollars. If you want a mansion on Malibu Beach, the cost might be closer to twelve million. This equipment guide can be a starting point for budgeting your LPFM project, with a modular building block approach at four price levels: Minimal, Economy, Moderate, and Deluxe. The Deluxe option is about par with an average medium-market full-power radio station (ie: Eugene, Oregon). Remember that such projects always take longer and cost more than expected. A 15% contingency for unforseen costs is an absolute minimum. Every stations needs are different - your programming style and content will largely dictate your equipment needs. Most stations will want to plan for a Moderate or Economy facility. The enclosed equipment guides contain known good equipment available from domestic distributors. There are imported manufacturers of transmitters and antennas that sell less expensive products, but they sometimes have little or no domestic service infrastructure. When buying imported transmitters or antennas, make sure that service and parts are available domestically. Eventually youll need it. This guide does not include costs for office equipment or furniture, office telephone systems, programming, remodeling, permits, labor, engineering or legal. These costs will vary incredibly depending on the individual situation.
B. FCC RULES - WHY YOU CANT BUILD YOUR OWN TRANSMITTER
All LPFM transmitters must conform with Part 2 of the FCC Rules, dealing with Type Certification. The fact was recently clarified by the FCC Memorandum Opinion and Order on Reconsideration, and further verified by the author with the Supervisory Attorney, Audio Services Division, Mass Media Bureau, FCC. Its entirely impractical for an individual applicant to go through this approval process. Purchase only a pre-built transmitter that is Type Certified, not just a unit that claims to meet FCC specifications.
C. FACTORS DICTATING NEEDS
No two stations are the same. Some of the factors to consider are: 1. Need for a second studio. Most stations will want to build a second studio, for use as a production room. For some, particularly those who will automate frequently, or whose main studios will be idle most of the time, one main studio may suffice. 2. Co-location vs remote transmitter site. Co-location is the most convenient and inexpensive configuration, but a remote hilltop or hillside transmitter site will most often provide the best coverage. Remote sites require a Studio to Transmitter Link or STL system, which normally will consist of equalized telco phone lines, or a microwave transmitter/receiver system. You must also have a positive way of turning the transmitter on and off, and 2
should have a way to verify at any time that it is operating within legal parameters. This normally will require a remote control system. 3. ERP vs TPO vs Antenna Gain (and other factors). LPFM stations are rated by the Effective Radiated Power, or ERP. This is the effective power actually coming out of the antenna system, at its angle of maximum signal, which is normally directly horizontal from the antenna. At angles other than directly horizontal, the antenna will emit less ERP. LP100 stations have a maximum ERP of 100 watts, but this is reduced if the antenna is above 30meters (100 feet) above average terrain. ERP is not the power coming out of the transmitter or Total Power Output (TPO). Depending on how much the antenna concentrates the power in the horizontal direction, it may have a gain or a loss of power. Significant power may also be lost in the transmission line between the transmitter and the antenna. Thus, an LP100 station may need as little at watt or as much as 220 watts TPO, depending on the above factors. An Engineering Consultant and/or the equipment manufacturers can help sort out these issues. For purposes of this guide, just the 100 watt and 25-30 watt (TPO) transmitters have been listed. 4. Computerization and Automation. The old reel-to-reel and cartridge (cart) tape machines are rapidly disappearing from radio stations worldwide, as computerized digital audio storage and editing becomes the norm. Even the smallest LPFM stations will probably want to have at least one computer for recording and playing IDs, announcements, etc. Free software such as Real Jukebox can be used as a rudimentary cart machine, albeit without audio overlap or segueing. Windows 95/98/ME comes standard with a basic stereo audio recorder, while powerful recording/editing software using standard sound cards and file formats (such as Cool Edit 2000) is available for under $100. Computer Automation makes unattended operation possible, although most community radio stations prefer to be (and in this writers opinion, should be) live. Automation is best suited for satellite-delivered formats, or stations playing a limited number of songs or other programming repeatedly. Versatile professional software starts at about $1000. Low-end software (originally intended for small-time webcasters) can be much less - such as the IIGYS WebJockey for $150. 5. Sharing Facilities. An FCC license is merely a license to operate. Studios can be shared, or for that matter rented or leased from other entities or licensees. Licensees that are timesharing a single frequency will probably be best served by sharing all facilities. Two or more LPFM stations on different frequencies can also share studio facilities, even if those studios are outside the local community. LPFM stations are not required to have an official main studio. The local content and local ownership requirements remain, however, and are based on the location of the transmitting antenna vs the headquarters of the organization or its board members. The studio location is immaterial. One possible arrangement would be to have multiple LPFM stations at one location, each having separate control rooms, but sharing one production room. On the other hand, an LPFM station can usually best serve a community if its main studio is in or near that local community - at least close enough to clearly listen to the station on the air. 6. Telephone-to-Air. Putting high quality audio from a telephone on the air can be one of the most problematic and potentially one of the most expensive challenges to do properly in a studio construction project. Determining how much air time will be devoted to callers on 3

the air, whether on-air conferencing will be used, and what level of audio quality will be acceptable, will greatly affect the costs involved.

D. NEW vs USED EQUIPMENT

All equipment can be purchased used. Equipment with the longest expected life spans are stronger candidates for used purchases. Like any used item, however, they will require more maintenance. Weigh any decision to purchase used equipment against the availability of engineering personnel, downtime, and general frustration of staff. Our personal opinion: buy used furniture, office equipment, office computers, on-air audio processor, and possibly a production-room console. Purchase most or all of the remaining on-air equipment new. See Section VII for sources of used equipment.

E. DONATED EQUIPMENT

Some commercial stations have been generous in donating to non-commercial stations in the past. Approach the Chief Engineers first, not the station General Managers, who are most often anti-LPFM. Some commercial stations have a garage loads worth of retired equipment, some of which might actually still be repairable! Look for donated furniture, chairs, computers and the like from your members and supporters, and local businesses who have expressed interest in your station
F. WHAT YOU CAN DO OR BUILD YOURSELF
It is not cost-effective, in most cases, to build your own broadcast equipment. Exploit your members enthusiasm to remodel offices, move furniture, pull cables, and work on all manner of administrative and programming-related tasks. Much of the studio wiring can be accomplished by those with a moderate level of technical expertise. The final transmitter and antenna installation, particularly if it involves climbing towers, should be performed or supervised by the specialists. A good plan might be to employ an Engineer to compile wiring and construction plans, with nearly all of the grunt work being done by volunteers. The dangers involved in erecting and/or climbing towers or poles cannot be overemphasized.

page 5

MAIN STUDIO

MINIMAL FACILITIES

ASSUMES AN EXISTING DESK OR TABLE SURFACE FOR EQUIPMENT QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL 345

3 LINE, 1 MIC INPUTS

OPTIMUS (RADIO SHACK) SSM 1250 STEREO MIXER CONSOLE (32-3009) RADIO SHACK 15-1956 STEREO A/V 4-INPUT SELECTOR YAMAHA CDX 393 MKII CD PLAYERS SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK RADIO SHACK NOVA 71 HEADPHONES RADIO SHACK UNIDIRECTIONAL DYNAMIC 12 1/2" GOOSENECK MICROPHONE (33-3011) EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) DECODER (WITHOUT ENCODER) CHEAPY BOOMBOX W/DETACHABLE SPEAKERS FOR REFERENCE MONITOR CUSTOM BUILT MIC SWITCH (FOR MUTING SPEAKERS WHEN MIC IS ON & VICE VERSA) RADIO SHACK ET-216 SINGLE-LINE SPEAKERPHONE - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE
NO STAND REQ IF USED W/1250 EST COST - NOT YET ON MARKET PARTS COST ONLY

1 misc & wiring parts 1 2% shipping costs 1 20% contingency
TOTAL - MAIN STUDIO - MINIMAL >>

page 6

ECONOMY FACILITIES
ADDS BASIC COMPUTER AND MINI DISK CAPABILITY ASSUMES AN EXISTING TABLE OR DESK FOR EQUIPMENT QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL 1005 NOTES
4 STEREO LINE, 6 MONO MIC/LINE IN
MACKIE 1402-VLZ 10 FADER CONSOLE 550 SONY CDPXE500 CD PLAYERS 190 SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK 140 SONY MDSJE520 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER 330 PENTIUM PIII COMPUTER, 20GB HD, DUAL SOUNDCARDS, 14" MONITOR, WINDOWS BSI WAVECART (VIRTUAL CART MACHINE) SOFTWARE 299 SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE 70 SONY MDR-7502 HEADPHONES 70 SHURE BETA-58A MICROPHONE 250 LUXO LM2 MICROPHONE BOOM 95 LUXO MODEL C DESK MOUNT FOR LM2 BOOM 13 EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) DECODER (WITHOUT ENCODER) 800 50W/CHANNEL STEREO RECEIVER WITH SEPARATE SPEAKERS FOR STUDIO MONITORING 250 CUSTOM BUILT MIC SWITCH (FOR MUTING SPEAKERS WHEN MIC IS ON & VICE VERSA) 20 HENRY ENGINEERING U.S.D.A. 2X4 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER 180 RADIO SHACK 4 LINE SPEAKERPHONE W/INTERCOM - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE180
OPTIONAL BUT RECOMMENDED OLDER COMPUTER MAY ALSO BE OK FREE ALTERNATIVE - REAL JUKEBOX OPTIONAL IF ALSO IN PRODUCTION ROOM MANY OPTIONS HERE
EST COST - NOT YET ON MARKET I.E.: RADIO SHACK STA-3750 W/STS-620 SPKRS PARTS COST ONLY
TOTAL - MAIN STUDIO - ECONOMY >>

page 7

MODERATE FACILITIES
WITH A PROFESSIONAL BROADCAST CONSOLE, TWO MICS, MULTI-VOICE SOUNDCARD, 3 CDS, BETTER HEADPHONES, MICS, AND MONITORING SYSTEM, STUDIO FURNITURE QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL 2694 NOTES
AUDIOARTS R-5 13-CHANNEL AUDIO CONSOLE 4500 SONY CDPXE500 CD PLAYERS 190 RACK MOUNT KITS FOR ABOVE 40 SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK 140 RACK MOUNT SHELF FOR CASSETTE DECK 40 SONY MDSJE520 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER 330 RACK MOUNT KIT FOR MINI DISK 40 PENTIUM PIII COMPUTER, 30GB HD, AUDIOSCIENCE ASI4312 SOUNDCARD, 15" MON, WIN982400 BSI WAVECART (VIRTUAL CART MACHINE) SOFTWARE 299 SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE 70 SONY MDR-7506 HEADPHONES 99 SENNHEISER MD421ii MICROPHONE 400 OC WHITE 51900 HEAVY DUTY MIC BOOM W/RISER 150 EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) DECODER (WITHOUT ENCODER) 800 SAMSON SERVO 120 60W/CHAN POWER AMPLIFIER 180 pair EVENT 20/20 2-WAY STUDIO MONITOR SPEAKERS W/8" WOOFERS 370 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-DSK CENTER DESK SECTION 470 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-R12 RACK DESK 230 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-OB6 TOP RACK SHELF 140 HENRY ENGINEERING U.S.D.A. 2X4 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER 180 RADIO SHACK 4 LINE SPEAKERPHONE W/INTERCOM - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE180 TEAC TR600 FM STEREO TUNER (FOR AIR MONITOR SYSTEM) 180
3RD PLAYER FOR VERSATILITY AND BACKUP BETTER:DENON DN720R @$450
3 OUT + SIMULTANEOUS RECORD SOUNDCARD FREE ALTERNATIVE - REAL JUKEBOX OPTIONAL IF ALSO IN PRODUCTION ROOM
EST COST - NOT YET ON MARKET MANY OTHER OPTIONS MANY OTHER OPTIONS

TOTAL - MAIN STUDIO - MODERATE >>

page 8

DELUXE FACILITIES
COMPARABLE TO A MEDIUM MARKET COMMERCIAL STATION ADDS ONE TURNTABLE AND CLOSED CABINETRY ADDS OUTBOARD AUDIO EFFECTS QTY 1 ITEM AUDIOARTS R-CHANNEL (MODULAR) TASCAM CD450 PROFESSIONAL CD PLAYER W/VARISPEED TASCAM 122MKII PROFESSIONAL 3 HEAD CASSETTE RECORDER/PLAYER SONY MDSJE11 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER PENTIUM PIII, 30GB HD, AUDIOSCIENCE ASI4312 SOUNDCARD, 15" MONITOR BSI WAVECART (VIRTUAL CART MACHINE) SOFTWARE BSI STINGER (INSTANT RANDOM ACCESS AUDIO PLAYER) SOFTWARE SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT PRO 64-TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE SONY MDR-7506 HEADPHONES SHURE SM7A MICROPHONE SYMETRIX 528E MIC PROCESSOR OC WHITE 51900 HEAVY DUTY MIC BOOM W/RISER EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) DECODER (WITHOUT ENCODER) HAFLER 75W/CH PROFESSIONAL MONITOR AMPLIFIER JBL 4412A 3 WAY STUDIO MONITOR LOUDSPEAKERS ARRAKIS MODULUX FLEX-STUDIO-1 - PREFABRICATED STUDIO FURNITURE TECHNICS SL1200MKII TURNTABLE STANTON 680AL PHONO CARTRIDGE STANTON D6800AL REPLACEMENT STYLUS RDL ST-PH1 TURNTABLE PREAMP RADIX 2X8 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER TELOS 235 SIX LINE TELEPHONE SYSTEM AND DIGITAL HYBRID TELOS 310 DESKTOP SWITCH CONSOLE DENON TU-1500 FM TUNER FOR AIR MONITOR SYSTEM SCALA CL-FMRX HIGH PERFORMANCE DIRECTIONAL FM RECEIVE ANTENNA EACH 300 TOTAL NOTES
3RD PLAYER FOR VERSATILITY AND BACKUP
3 OUT + SIMULTANEOUS RECORD SOUNDCARD
OPTIONAL IF ALSO IN PRODUCTION ROOM SECOND PAIR FOR GUEST ALTERNATE: ELECTROVOICE RE20 @600
EST COST - NOT YET ON MARKET MANY OTHER OPTIONS MANY OTHER OPTIONS TYPICAL CONFIGURATION OPTIONAL OPTIONAL OPTIONAL OPTIONAL FOR HIGH QUALITY TELEPHONE INTERFACE
TOTAL - MAIN STUDIO - DELUXE >>

page 9

MAIN STUDIO ADD-ONS

PROGRAM AUTOMATION

ASSUMES THERE IS NO OTHER COMPUTER IN THE STUDIOS PARTIALLY DUPLICATES EQUIPMENT SPECIFIED IN SOME BASIC STUDIOS ABOVE QTY 1 ITEM EACH TOTAL 300 NOTES
3 OUT + SIMULTANEOUS RECORD SOUNDCARD CHEAP ALTERNATIVE: IIIGYS WEBJOCKEY $150 IF TAKING SATELLITE FEEDS FOR RECORDING CDS QUICKLY IF SWITCHING MULTIPLE PROGRAM SOURCES
PENTIUM PIII, 30GB HD, AUDIOSCIENCE ASI4312 SOUNDCARD, 15" MONITOR - CONTROL RM 2400 PENTIUM PIII, 30GB HD, SOUNDBLASTER SOUNDCARD, 15" MONITOR - PRODUCTION RM 1200 BSI ON AIR SUITE: WAVESTATION, WAVECART, STINGER, SAYTIME 1299 SATELLITE TRIGGER KIT 220 SPEEDY CHANNEL HARDWARE MIXER 1200 MISC AND CONTINGENCY 300

page 10

PRODUCTION STUDIO
ASSUMES AN EXISTING DESK OR TABLE SURFACE FOR EQUIPMENT QTY 1 ITEM EACH 50 TOTAL NOTES
OPTIMUS (RADIO SHACK) SSM 1250 STEREO MIXER CONSOLE (32-3009) RADIO SHACK 15-1956 STEREO A/V 4-INPUT SELECTOR YAMAHA CDX 393 MKII CD PLAYER SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK RADIO SHACK NOVA 71 HEADPHONES RADIO SHACK UNIDIRECTIONAL DYNAMIC 12 1/2" GOOSENECK MICROPHONE (33-3011) CHEAPY BOOMBOX W/DETACHABLE SPEAKERS FOR REFERENCE MONITOR CUSTOM BUILT MIC SWITCH (FOR MUTING SPEAKERS WHEN MIC IS ON & VICE VERSA) RADIO SHACK ET-216 SINGLE-LINE SPEAKERPHONE - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE

LINE, 1 MIC INPUTS 35 NO STAND REQ IF USED W/20 PARTS COST ONLY 15 162
TOTAL - PRODUCTION STUDIO - MINIMAL >>

page 11

ADDS BASIC COMPUTER AND MINI DISK CAPABILITY ASSUMES AN EXISTING TABLE OR DESK FOR EQUIPMENT QTY 1 ITEM EACH TOTAL NOTES
MACKIE 1402-VLZ 10 FADER CONSOLE 550 SONY CDPXE500 CD PLAYERS 190 SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK 140 SONY MDSJE520 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER 330 PENTIUM PIII COMPUTER, 10GB HD, DUAL SOUNDCARDS, 14" MONITOR, WINDOWS SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE BASE T NETWORK KIT W/HUB & 2 LAN CARDS 110 SONY MDR-7502 HEADPHONES 70 SHURE BETA-58A MICROPHONE 250 LUXO LM2 MICROPHONE BOOM 95 LUXO MODEL C DESK MOUNT FOR LM2 BOOM 13 50W/CHANNEL STEREO RECEIVER WITH SEPARATE SPEAKERS FOR STUDIO MONITORING 250 CUSTOM BUILT MIC SWITCH (FOR MUTING SPEAKERS WHEN MIC IS ON & VICE VERSA) 20 HENRY ENGINEERING U.S.D.A. 2X4 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER 180 RADIO SHACK 4 LINE SPEAKERPHONE W/INTERCOM - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE 180
OPTIONAL BUT RECOMMENDED OLDER COMPUTER MAY ALSO BE OK

MANY OPTIONS HERE

I.E.: RADIO SHACK STA-3750 W/STS-620 SPKRS PARTS COST ONLY
TOTAL - PRODUCTION STUDIO - ECONOMY >>

page 12

QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL 1552 NOTES

4 STEREO, 8 MONO INPUTS

MACKIE 1642 VLZ PRO AUDIO MIXER 950 SONY CDPXE500 CD PLAYERS 190 RACK MOUNT KITS FOR ABOVE 40 SONY TC WE435 DUAL CASSETTE DECK 140 RACK MOUNT SHELF FOR CASSETTE DECK 40 SONY MDSJE520 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER 330 RACK MOUNT KIT FOR MINI DISK 40 PENTIUM PIII COMPUTER, 30GB HD, AUDIOSCIENCE ASI4312 SOUNDCARD, 15" MON, WIN10 BASE T NETWORK KIT W/HUB & 2 LAN CARDS 110 SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE 70 SONY MDR-7506 HEADPHONES 99 SENNHEISER MD421ii MICROPHONE 400 OC WHITE 51900 HEAVY DUTY MIC BOOM W/RISER 150 SAMSON SERVO 120 60W/CHAN POWER AMPLIFIER 180 pair EVENT 20/20 2-WAY STUDIO MONITOR SPEAKERS W/8" WOOFERS 370 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-DSK CENTER DESK SECTION 470 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-R12 RACK DESK 230 MIDDLE ATLANTIC MD2-OB6 TOP RACK SHELF 140 HENRY ENGINEERING U.S.D.A. 2X4 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER 180 RADIO SHACK 4 LINE SPEAKERPHONE W/INTERCOM - CUSTOM MODIFIED FOR ON-AIR USE 180

BETTER:DENON DN720R @$450
MANY OTHER OPTIONS MANY OTHER OPTIONS
TOTAL - PRODUCTION STUDIO - MODERATE >>

page 13

COMPARABLE TO A MEDIUM MARKET COMMERCIAL STATION QTY 1 ITEM AUDIOARTS R-CHANNEL (MODULAR) TASCAM CD450 PROFESSIONAL CD PLAYER W/VARISPEED TASCAM 122MKII PROFESSIONAL 3 HEAD CASSETTE RECORDER/PLAYER SONY MDSJE11 MINI DISK RECORDER/PLAYER TASCAM DA-40 DAT RECORDER PENTIUM PIII, 30GB HD, AUDIOSCIENCE ASI4312 SOUNDCARD, 15" MONITOR 10 BASE T NETWORK KIT W/HUB & 2 LAN CARDS SYNTRILLIUM COOL EDIT PRO 64-TRACK EDITING SOFTWARE SONY MDR-7506 HEADPHONES SHURE SM7A MICROPHONE EVENTIDE H3500B BROADCAST ULTRA HARMONIZER (MULTI EFFECTS PROCESSOR) SYMETRIX 528E MIC PROCESSOR SYMETRIX 565E MULTI-DYNAMICS PROCESSOR (COMPRESSOR/LIMITER/EXPANDER) SYMETRIX 552E PARAMETRIC EQUALIZER OC WHITE 51900 HEAVY DUTY MIC BOOM W/RISER HAFLER 75W/CH PROFESSIONAL MONITOR AMPLIFIER JBL 4412A 3 WAY STUDIO MONITOR LOUDSPEAKERS ARRAKIS MODULUX FLEX-STUDIO-1 - PREFABRICATED STUDIO FURNITURE TECHNICS SL1200MKII TURNTABLE STANTON 680AL PHONO CARTRIDGE STANTON D6800AL REPLACEMENT STYLUS RDL ST-PH1 TURNTABLE PREAMP RADIX 2X8 DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER TELOS 235 SIX LINE TELEPHONE SYSTEM AND DIGITAL HYBRID TELOS 310 DESKTOP SWITCH CONSOLE EACH 310 TOTAL NOTES
SECOND PAIR FOR GUEST ALTERNATE: ELECTOVOICE RE20 @600
MANY OTHER OPTIONS MANY OTHER OPTIONS TYPICAL CONFIGURATION OPTIONAL OPTIONAL OPTIONAL OPTIONAL FOR HIGH QUALITY TELEPHONE INTERFACE
TOTAL - PRODUCTION STUDIO - DELUXE >>

page 14

TRANSMITTING SYSTEM
ASSUMES ROOFTOP ANTENNA, CO-LOCATED WITH STUDIOS ANTENNA VERTICALLY POLARIZED ONLY COAX LOSSES ARE CONSIDERABLE AND MAY PREVENT FULL 100 WATT OPERATION QTY ITEM BEXT XTWATT FM TRANSMITTER ENERGY ONIX MAXIMIZER II, 3-BAND AUDIO PROCESSOR/DIGITAL STEREO GENERATOR DECADE LGBFM GROUND PLANE VERTICAL FM TRANSMITTING ANTENNA (GAIN = 1.0) MISC MOUNTING AND GROUNDING HARDWARE RG8 COAX (TRANSMISSION LINE - PER FOOT) 88% EFFICIENCY N CONNECTORS RADIO SHACK 15-FOOT TV MAST WITH ROOF BASE, GUY WIRES, ETC. MISC HARDWARE, CLAMPS, GROUNDING ROD, ETC EACH 0.TOTAL NOTES
3200 30W CROWN - $3693 / BEXT LEX 25SPC - $ 144 CIRCULARLY POLARIZED: SWR FM1-2 - $60 120
1 misc & wiring parts 1 5% shipping costs 1 20% contingency
TOTAL - TRANSMITTING SYSTEM - MINIMAL >>

page 15

ASSUMES ROOFTOP ANTENNA, CO-LOCATED WITH STUDIOS QTY 1 ITEM BEXT XTWATT FM TRANSMITTER USED OPTIMOD 8100a AUDIO PROCESSOR/STEREO GENERATOR - RENOVATED SWR FM1-2 , 2-BAY CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA MISC MOUNTING AND GROUNDING HARDWARE 1/2" ANDREW OR CABLEWAVE FOAM DIELECTRIC COAX (PER FOOT) (92.5% EFFICIENCY) FEMALE N CONNECTORS FOR COAX 3 FOOT N TO N CONNECTORIZED PIGTAIL CABLES 30 FOOT ROHN 25 G TOWER WITH FLAT ROOF MOUNTING, GUY WIRE BRACKETS, ETC MISC HARDWARE, CLAMPS, GROUNDING ROD, ETC EACH 120 TOTAL NOTES

3200 30W CROWN - $3068 / BEXT LEX25 EXO $120
TOTAL - TRANSMITTING SYSTEM - ECONOMY >>

page 16

ASSUMES ROOFTOP ANTENNA, CO-LOCATED WITH STUDIOS ADD NEW AUDIO PROCESSOR QTY ITEM CROWN FM100E 110 WATT TRANSMITTER (ONLY) OMNIA JR 3 BAND AUDIO PROCESSOR/STEREO GENERATOR SHIVELY BAY CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA (GAIN =.99) RADOMES FOR ABOVE ANTENNA MISC MOUNTING AND GROUNDING HARDWARE 1/2" ANDREW OR CABLEWAVE FOAM DIELECTRIC COAX (PER FOOT) (92.5% EFFICIENCY) FEMALE N CONNECTORS FOR COAX 3 FOOT N TO N CONNECTORIZED PIGTAIL CABLES 30 FOOT ROHN 25 G TOWER WITH FLAT ROOF MOUNTING, GUY WIRE BRACKETS, ETC MISC HARDWARE, CLAMPS, GROUNDING ROD, ETC EACH TOTAL NOTES
4432 30W CROWN - $3068 / BEXT LEX25 EXO $ALTERNATE: APHEX 2020 FM PRO $47 2776
TOTAL - TRANSMITTING SYSTEM - MODERATE >>

page 17

COMPARABLE TO A MEDIUM MARKET COMMERCIAL STATION ASSUMES ROOFTOP ANTENNA, CO-LOCATED WITH STUDIOS QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL NOTES
CROWN FM100E 110 WATT TRANSMITTER (ONLY) 4432 OMNIA 4 BAND AUDIO PROCESSOR/STEREO GENERATOR 9200 SHIVELY BAY CIR. POLARIZED ANTENNA W/ MATCHING TRANSFORMER-PRESSURIZED 5025 RADOMES FOR ABOVE ANTENNA 700 REGULATOR, HOSES, AND NITROGEN TANK FOR PRESSURIZATION 300 MISC MOUNTING AND GROUNDING HARDWARE 150 7/8" ANDREW OR CABLEWAVE AIR DIELECTRIC COAX (PER FOOT) (96% EFFICIENCY) 5 7/8" EIA FLANGE CONNECTOR FOR COAX 125 7/8" TO 1 5/8" ADAPTER FEMALE N CONNECTOR FOR COAX FOOT N TO N CONNECTORIZED PIGTAIL CABLE FOOT ROHN 25 G TOWER WITH FLAT ROOF MOUNTING, GUY WIRE BRACKETS, ETC 400 MISC HARDWARE, CLAMPS, GROUNDING ROD, ETC 200 INOVONICS 530-00 FM MODULATION MONITOR/ANALYZER 2200
4432 30W VERSION FOR $200 2200
TOTAL - TRANSMITTING SYSTEM - DELUXE >>

page 18

TRANSMITTER ADD-ONS
STUDIO -TRANSMITTER LINK (STL) REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM
ASSUMES EXISTING MOUNTING STRUCTURES STL SYSTEM REQUIRES A SEPARATE LICENSE QTY ITEM EACH TOTAL WATTS 300 NOTES
ENERGY ONIX STL-1 TRANSMITTER AND STL-R RECEIVER (950mhz MICROWAVE STL SYSTEM)4800 SCALA PR-850 PARAFLECTOR STL ANTENNAS 650 1/2" HELIAX CABLE 2 FEMALE N CONNECTORS FOR COAX 32 MISC HARDWARE, ETC FOOT N TO N CONNECTORIZED PIGTAIL CABLE 35 SINE SYSTEMS RFC1 REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM 1200 SINE SYSTEMS RELAY PANEL 400 SINS SYSTEMS RACK ADAPTER/BATTERY BACKUP SYSTEM 650 MISC AND CONTINGENCY 300

TOTAL - STL SYSTEM

REMOTE BROADCASTING EQUIP
ASSUMES EXISTING STRUCTURE FOR RECEIVE ANTENNA, AND AN EXISTING LINK TO STUDIO SYSTEM REQUIRES A SEPARATE LICENSE MARTI RPT30, 30 REMOTE PICKUP TRANSMITTER MARTI SR10 REMOTE PICKUP RECEIVER SCALA CA7-460 RPU TRANSMIT/RECEIVE ANTENNAS ANTENNA ROTOR FOR RECEIVE ANTENNA W/CABLE MICROPHONE STAND FOR TRANSMITTING ANTENNA AT A REMOTE SITE BOOMBOX FOR MONITORING AT REMOTE BROADCAST MICROPHONES AND CABLES FOR REMOTE BROADCAST MISC AND CONTINGENCY 400 300
TOTAL - REMOTE BROADCASTING SYSTEM

page 19

SAMPLE COMPLETE STATIONS
ECONOMY STATION W/PRODUCTION RM - CO-LOCATED
QTY ITEM EACH 10210 TOTAL 10210 NOTES
1 MAIN STUDIO - ECONOMY 1 PRODUCTION ROOM - ECONOMY 1 TRANSMITTER SITE - ECONOMY (CO-LOCATED WITH STUDIO)

TOTAL - ECONOMY STATION

MODERATE STATION W/PRODUCTION RM & REMOTE XMTR
MAIN STUDIO - MODERATE PRODUCTION ROOM - MODERATE TRANSMITTER SITE - MODERATE STL SYSTEM (FOR REMOTE TRANSMITTER SITE) 16659 5550

TOTAL - MODERATE STATION

VI. ENGINEERING ISSUES
A. ENGINEERING RECOMMENDATIONS - FCC APPLICATION
If there is one area where a potential applicant should not skimp on getting professional help, it is in the application process. The LPFM filing windows may be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. A small but consequential error by the applicant can cost it the chance of a license, forever. Without a license, there is no station. Most reputable Engineering Consultants with significant past experience in filing FCC applications should be qualified to assist in this effort. While the engineer need not be local, there are many practical advantages to hiring one who is. The FCC does not screen or license consultants. Most will be members of the Society of Broadcast Engineers, and/or the Association of Federal Communications Consulting Engineers. The best place to find a local Engineering Consultant is to talk to the Chief Engineers of other local radio stations. If in doubt, ask for references and check them out. Studio Transmitter Links (STL) and Remote Pickup Units (RPU) facilities also require a license application which is usually prepared by an Engineering Consultant. These are fairly routine, must be coordinated with the regional (volunteer) Frequency Coordinator, and will be granted only to holders of a radio station Construction Permit. Short-term operation on these frequencies can commence while the application is still pending at the FCC. One way to control costs is to do as much of the legwork yourself as possible (i.e.: locating transmitter sites; using the online channel finder), in consultation with the consultant. The other way is to network with organizations such as the Microradio Implementation Project, using their pooled resources.

B. ENGINEERING RECOMMENDATIONS - FACILITIES PLANNING & CONSTRUCTION
Every station is different. This document can be a starting point to initial budgeting for an LPFMs final studio and transmitter sites. When the time comes to plan the facilities in detail, an Engineering Consultant should be employed to help compile the detailed plans, compile wiring plans, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved by working with an engineer who is willing to work with volunteers who do most of the actual physical work.

VII. EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS

This list is by no means exhaustive, but is a sampling of suppliers known to be knowledgeable in professional broadcast station equipment, and appear to have a good reputation in the industry. This list is not an endorsement by the writer or the MIP. Some of the consumer equipment, such as the less expensive CD players, can be obtained at a variety of local discount retailers. Pay attention to shipping times and costs, return policies, guarantees, and in some cases with the more expensive equipment, try-before-you-buy opportunities. Cost is important, but not nearly as important as the above issues. While the original manufacturers may provide the most detailed technical information, the resellers can usually provide the best prices. Used equipment is always a risk. Make sure the return policy and any guarantee is understood, and check the item out very thoroughly upon receipt. Budget for unexpected repairs - there usually are a few.

A. NEW EQUIPMENT

RF Specialties contact: Jerry Hill Seattle, WA (& other offices elsewhere) 800-735-7051 206-546-6546 www.rfspec.com (catalog online) Broadcast Supply Worldwide contact: John Lynch Seattle, WA (& other offices elsewhere) 800-426-8434 www.bswusa.com (catalog online) Cancom contact: Eric Lane Beaverton, OR 800-443-0728 ericl@avocetinst.com Antronics of Oregon (for Rohn towers) contact: Stan Griffiths Beaverton, OR 503-649-0837 www.reprise.com/antronics/ Harris Broadcast Richmond, IN 800-622-0022 www.broadcast.harris.com/ 21

B. USED EQUIPMENT

Your friendly local radio station & engineer Your Engineering Consultant PMA Marketing Pat Martin 414-482-2638 www.amfmtv.com/ Harris Broadcast Richmond, IN contact: Mike : 1-800-300-0733 www.broadcast.harris.com/used-eq/eq.html Radio Resources Baltimore, MD 21230 800-547-2346 www.radioresources.com/ Radio World (free subscription magazine with ads) Falls Church, VA 703-998-7600 Hall Electronics Charlottesville, VA 804-984-HALL(4255) www.halls.com/ Broadcast Service Company Houston, TX 713-926-2209 www.broadcast.net/bsc/bscused.html Contract Broadcast Services Reynold P. Lark Amery, WI www.radiorey.net/ Broadcastmarket.com http://www.broadcastmarket.com/

 

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