Trimble Survey PRO 4 10 0
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Predetermined Area _______________________________ 83
Hinge Method_____________________________________________ 84 Parallel Method ___________________________________________ 85
Horizontal Curve Layout___________________________ 86
PC Deflection _____________________________________________ 86 PI Deflection ______________________________________________ 86 Tangent Offset_____________________________________________ 87 Chord Offset ______________________________________________ 87
Parabolic Curve Layout ____________________________ 88 Spiral Layout _____________________________________ 89 Curve and Offset __________________________________ 90
Define Your Curve _________________________________________ 90 Setup Your Staking Options _________________________________ 91 Aim the Total Station _______________________________________ 91 Stake the Point ____________________________________________ 92
Scale Adjustment__________________________________ 92 Translate Adjustment ______________________________ 93
Translate by Distance and Direction __________________________ 94 Translate by Coordinates ___________________________________ 94
Rotate Adjustment ________________________________ 95 Angle Adjust _____________________________________ 96 Compass Rule Adjustment _________________________ 97
Road Layout ____________________________________________ 99
Overview ________________________________________ 99 Components of a Road File _________________________ 99
Horizontal Alignment (HAL) ________________________________ 99 v
Vertical Alignment (VAL) __________________________________ 99 Templates _______________________________________________ 100 POB ____________________________________________________ 101
Road Component Rules ___________________________ 101
Alignments______________________________________________ Templates _______________________________________________ Widenings and Super Elevations. ___________________________ Road Rules Examples _____________________________________ 102 104
Creating Templates_______________________________ Building an Alignment____________________________ Putting the Road Together_________________________ Staking the Road _________________________________ Slope Staking the Road____________________________
TDS Survey Pro for Windows CE is available with different options and sold under the names, Survey Standard, Survey Pro, Survey Pro Robotic, Survey Pro GPS, and Survey Pro Max. Throughout the manual and software, it is simply called Survey Pro. For a listing of which features are included in each product, contact your local TDS dealer. This manual covers the routines that are available in all of the different software packages except for the GPS routines, which are included with Survey Pro GPS and Survey Pro Max. The GPS routines are covered in a separate manual.
Throughout the Survey Pro Manual, certain text formatting is used that represents different parts of the software. The formatting used in the manual is explained below.
When referring to a particular field, the Field Label, or its Corresponding Value is shown with text that is similar to what you would see in the software.
Screens and Menus
When referring to a particular screen or menu, the text is underlined.
When referring to a particular button, the text is shown in a %XWWRQ )RUPDW , similar to that found in the software.
Installation and Upgrading
The Survey software that you purchased is shipped pre-installed on the data collector. Upgrading the software is simply a matter of purchasing a registration code that is specifically generated for your data collector. Once entered in the data collector, it will activate the appropriate add-on module. If you start Survey Pro and the Standard Module has not yet been registered, the first screen shown here will open. If you select the 5HJLVWHU 0RGXOHV button, you will access the Register Modules screen, described next. If you select the 5XQ ,Q 'HPR 0RGH button, the software will run in demo mode. When running in this special mode, all areas of the software are available. The only limitation is, a job cannot exceed 25 points. If a job is stored on the data collector that exceeds this limit, it cannot be opened. Add-on modules can be purchased from your local TDS dealer to upgrade your TDS Survey Software. Upgrading is a quick and easy process and described below. 1. On the data collector, tap -RE , 5HJLVWHU 0RGXOHV from the Main Menu. 2. Contact your TDS Dealer and give him your unique serial number that is displayed on your screen. He will give you a registration number for the module that you purchased. 3. Tap the 5HJLVWHU button for the appropriate module, enter the registration number in the dialog box that opens and tap 2. All the features for the module that you purchased will now be available.
Getting Started Note: You should keep a record of all registration codes purchased in case they need to be reentered at some point.
Angle and Time Conventions
Throughout the software, the following conventions are followed when inputting or outputting angles and time:
Azimuths are entered in degree-minutes-seconds format and are represented as DD.MMSSsss, where: One or more digits representing the degrees. Two digits representing the minutes. Two digits representing the seconds. Zero or more digits representing the decimal fraction part of the seconds. For example, 212.5800 would indicate 212 degrees, 58 minutes, 0 seconds. DD MM SS sss
Bearings can be entered in either of the following formats: S32.5800W to indicate South 32 degrees, 58 minutes, 0 seconds West. 3 32.5800 to indicate 32 degrees, 58 minutes, 0 seconds in quadrant 3.
Raw Data Files
A raw data file is an ASCII text file that is automatically generated whenever a new job is created on the data collector. It has the same file name as the job file (the job name), followed by the *.RAW extension. A raw data file is essentially a log of everything that occurred in the field. All activity that can create or modify a point is written to a raw data file. Survey Pro never reads from the raw data file it only writes to the file. Since a raw data file stores all of the activity that takes place in the field, it can be used to regenerate the original job file if the job file was somehow lost. This process requires the TDS Survey Link software. Since a raw data file is considered a legal document, it cannot be edited using any TDS software other than appending a note to it using the View Raw Data screen. Editing a raw data file would invalidate all of its contents and is not supported in any way by TDS. When viewing a raw data file on a PC using a simple text editor or on Survey Pro using the View Raw Data screen, the file is shown unaltered, which can appear somewhat cryptic. Appendix B, in the Reference Manual, explains all of the raw data codes to assist in reading the file using this method. When viewing the file from within Survey Link, the codes are automatically translated on the screen to a format that is easier to understand.
Navigating Within the Program
The starting point in Survey Pro, which appears once a job is open, is called the Main Menu, shown here. All the screens that are available in Survey Pro are accessed starting from the Main Menu. Likewise, closing the screens in Survey Pro will eventually take you back to the Main 6
Getting Started Menu. The Main Menu consists of two columns. The left column contains all of the available menus and the column on the right contains the menu items associated with the active menu. When a menu is selected from the left column, the corresponding menu items will become available in the right hand column. When a menu item is activated from the right hand column, the corresponding screen will open. It is from these screens where you do your work. Navigation through the menus and menu items can be done using any of the methods described below. The best way to become familiar with navigating through the Main Menu is to simply try each method. Each menu has a number associated with it, whereas the menu items have letters associated with them. Pressing the associated number or letter on the data collectors keypad will activate the corresponding menu or menu item. You can scroll through the list of menus and menu items by using the arrow keys on the keypad. The up and down arrow keys will scroll up and down through the selected column. The other column can be selected by using the horizontal arrow keys. You can also scroll through the list of menus and menu items by tapping the special arrow buttons on the screen located at the bottom of each column. If one of these buttons appears blank, it indicates that you can scroll no further in that direction. When the desired menu item is selected, it can be activated by tapping it or pressing the [Enter] key on the keypad. There are three icons in the Main Menus title bar. The first icon indicates which collection mode the software is running in. When surveying with a total station, the icon is displayed and when surveying with a GPS icon is displayed. Tapping this icon will receiver, the open the Collection Mode dialog box where the software can be switched to the other mode. This dialog box is &ROOHFWLRQ 0RGH. also accessible by tapping -RE ,
Users Manual default settings for that model are automatically selected. If those setting are changed manually, you can switch back to the default settings by tapping the 'HIDXOWV button. The ,QVWUXPHQW 6HWWLQJV button accesses the settings that are specific for the selected total station model. Note: The options available after tapping the ,QVWUXPHQW 6HWWLQJV button directly toggle settings that are built into your particular total station. These settings are explained in your total stations documentation and are not explained in the Survey Pro Manual. The 6HQG WR ,QVWUXPHQW button is available when certain models are selected. When this button is available, it should be tapped after turning the total station on. This will send an initializing string to the instrument that will make certain robotic functions work more smoothly.
The Units Settings defines the units that are used within the software, including those that are sent from the total station, entered from the keypad and displayed on the screen. You can select the following settings for your job. Units for Distances: defines the units used for distances as Meters, Feet, or International Feet. Units for Angles: defines the units used for angles as Degrees or Grads. Display Directions As: will display directions as a Bearing or Azimuth. Azimuth Type: defines if you are using a North Azimuth or a South Azimuth.
The Format Settings defines the precision (the number of places beyond the decimal point) that is displayed for various values in all screens, and how stations are defined. Note: All internal calculations are performed using full precision. Northings / Eastings: will allow you to display from zero to six places passed the decimal point for northing and easting values. Elevations: allows you to display from zero to six places passed the decimal point for elevations. Sq Feet / Meters: allows you to display from zero to four places passed the decimal point for square feet or square meter values. Acres / Hectares: allows you to display from zero to four places passed the decimal point for acre or hectare values. Distances: allows you to display from zero to six places passed the decimal point for distances. Angles: allows you to include from zero to four fractional seconds with angle values. Stations: allows you to display stations in any of the following formats: 12+34.123: displays stations where the number to the left of the + advances after traveling 100 feet or meters. 1+234.123: displays stations where the number to the left of the + advances after traveling 1,000 feet or meters. 1,234.123: displays standard distances rather than stations.
The Files Settings allow you to select a control file or description file to use with the current job. Control File: allows you to select a control file to use with the current job. Control files are discussed in more detail on Page 26. Description File: allows you to select a description file to use with the current job. Description files are discussed in more detail on Page 28. This File Uses Codes: Check this box if the description file contains codes and associated descriptions. Leave the box unchecked if the description only contains descriptions (no codes).
%URZVH : Allows you to select a file to use with the current job. Simply tap on the filename and then tap the 2SHQ button. &OHDU : closes the currently selected file so that it is no longer used
with the current job.
The Surveying Settings allows you to select various options that affect how data collection is performed. Prompt for Description: when checked, a prompt for a point description will appear before any new point is stored. Prompt for Height of Rod: when checked, a prompt for the rod height will appear before any new point is stored. Survey with True Azimuths: when checked, angle rights will be referenced from true north when traversing. Adjust for Earth Curvature / Refraction: when checked, the elevations for new points are adjusted to compensate for the curvature of the earth and refraction. Use Scale Factor: when checked, horizontal distances to all new points will be scaled by the factor entered here. Elevations are not affected.
&DOF 6FDOH : allows you to automatically compute the scale factor from a selected map projection. If a mapping plane is not already selected, you will fist be prompted to select one.
Prompt to Reset Scale on New Setups: if checked when a map projection is selected and you setup over a new location, the specified scale factor is compared to the scale factor defined for your current location in the mapping plane. If the scale factor is different, you will be prompted to use the new scale factor.
The Stakeout Settings contains the setting that control how stakeout is performed. Stake Corners, Not Just Even Intervals: when staking by stations, locations where a line segment changes, such as from a straight section to a curve, will also be staked when this is checked. Send Stakeout Information to Gun: when checked, the direction and distance to the design point are sent to the total station so the total stations stakeout routine can be used to stake the point. Once located, the point can be stored from the data collector. Always Start Stakeout With Coarse Mode: when checked, the Coarse EDM (fast shot) checkbox found in all stakeout screens will initially be checked. This instructs the total station to measure distances faster, but with slightly less accuracy. Use Manual Updating (Remote Control): When this is checked, an 8SGDWH button in the stakeout screens must be pressed to take a shot. When this not checked, shots are continuously taken in the stakeout screens. (This is only valid when running in remote mode using a robotic total station.) Horizontal Distance Tolerance: this setting affects the Remote Staking and Stake to Line routines. When staking to a line and the prism is located at a perpendicular distance to the specified line that is within the range set here, a message will state that you are on the line. When performing Remote Stakeout, the final graphic screen that is displayed when you are near the stake point will occur when you are within the distance to the stake point specified here. Turn Gun To Design Point: only applies to motorized total stations. The following options are available: Yes: 2D (HA only): The total station will automatically turn horizontally toward the design point.
Creating an Alignment
In this step-by-step example, we will create an alignment that has all the possible horizontal and vertical segment types.
(GLW $OLJQPHQWV from 1. Select -RE , the Main Menu. If any alignments exist in the current job, they will be listed in this screen. An existing alignment can then be edited or deleted, but for this example, we will create a new alignment.
Getting Started 2. Tap 1HZ to create a new alignment. This will open the Edit Alignments screen where you can begin adding horizontal and vertical segments. 3. Tap the POB tab and enter North, East and Elev coordinates of 5000, 5000, 100. This will be the starting location of the horizontal and vertical definition. (Alternatively, you could define the starting location by tapping the /RFDWLRQ / 3RLQW button where 3RLQW is displayed and then select an existing point.)
4. Tap the HAL (Horizontal Alignment) tab and then tap the ,QVHUW button. This will open the Edit Segment screen where the first horizontal alignment segment can be defined. 5. Tap the Line tab to insert a straight line segment. Enter a Length of 100 and an $]LPXWK of 0.
Users Manual 6. Tap 2. at the top of the screen to add the segment to the horizontal alignment. You will return to the Edit Alignment screen where the new segment is displayed. The graphic shows every horizontal segment entered so far with the selected segment in bold. The dot in the picture indicates the beginning of the selected segment (in this case it is the end). This is where the next segment will be placed when using the ,QVHUW button. 7. Tap the ,QVHUW button again and then tap the Arc tab to insert a horizontal curve. 8. Enter a 5DGLXV of 100, a 'HOWD of 45 and select a Right turn. Check the Make this segment tangent to previous checkbox so that the curve will be positioned so the entrance to the curve is tangent to the end of the previous segment.
2. to add the segment to the horizontal alignment.
Note: A new segment can be inserted between two existing segments by selecting the existing segment that is to occur after the new segment and then tapping the ,QVHUW button. 10. Tap the ,QVHUW button again and then tap the Spiral tab to insert a spiral curve. 11. Enter a Radius of 100, a Length of 200, select a Right of turn and a CS to ST direction, and check the Make this segment tangent to previous checkbox.
Getting Started 12. Tap
Note: When creating a new horizontal segment and using the Make this segment tangent to previous option, the new segment will appear in the Edit Alignment screen tagged with a (P) (see picture). This means that if the previous horizontal segment is edited or deleted, thus changing the orientation, all subsequent horizontal segments that have the (P) tag will also be adjusted so they will remain tangent to the previous segments.
This does not hold true for vertical alignment segments. Vertical segments do not have the Make this segment tangent to previous option and will always begin with the specified starting grade unless they are manually modified.
We have now added all available horizontal segment types. Next, we will define the vertical alignment. Since the horizontal and vertical alignments are defined independently of each other, the first vertical segment that is defined will start at the same POB defined above in Step 3. 13. Tap the VAL (Vertical Alignment) tab and then tap the ,QVHUW button. 14. Tap the V. Line tab to insert a grade. Enter a Length of 150 and a Grade of 4%. 15. Tap 2. to add the segment to the vertical alignment.
16. Tap the ,QVHUW button again and then tap the V. Curve tab to insert a parabolic vertical curve. Enter a Length of 250 and tap the *HW 3UHYLRXV *UDGH button to automatically set the Start Grade to the ending grade of the previous section. Enter an End Grade of -2%. 17. Tap 2. to add the segment to the vertical alignment.
18. Tap 2. from the Edit Alignment screen. A prompt will ask for a description. Enter Roadway and Tap 2. You will return to the Add/Edit Alignments screen where the new alignment is stored and displayed. You have now created a new alignment using all the available types of segments. You can select the new alignment for use in the Offset Staking, Offset Points and Offset Lines routines.
Note: If the horizontal and vertical alignments end at different stations, they can only be processed in the staking routines as far as the end of the shortest alignment.
This section will explain how to get started using Survey Pro to collect data from a total station and perform stake out. It is assumed that you are familiar with the operation of your total station. The first section describes the backsight setup procedures for various scenarios. The next section walks you through the steps involved to setup and perform a simple side shot and traverse shot. The third section walks you through a simple point-staking example. The remainder of the chapter illustrates the procedures to perform the more complex routines in the Survey Pro software in a step-bystep manner. They are intended to explain only how to use a particular routine without the need for you to enter any specific values to read through the example. When beginning any job, the setup is the same; you need to establish an occupy point and a backsight. The occupy point is the point where you will setup the total station. The coordinates for the occupy point must exist in the current job or active control file. They can be assumed coordinates; known coordinates; or computed with the resection routine. (Control files and the resection routine are discussed later.) Any point in the current job can be an occupy point. Once an occupy point is established, the second reference you need is a backsight point or direction. This can be in the form of a point stored in the current job, or an azimuth or bearing. The horizontal angles recorded during data collection are relative to the backsight. If a point is not available in the job to use as a backsight, you can assume a backsight direction or you can use the solar observation routine, described later, to establish a backsight. The scenarios below will describe four different possibilities for defining a backsight.
Users Manual Go LEFT information that the rod man must move in order to be located over the design point. In this example, the Go RIGHT value indicates 0, which means the rod is precisely on the line between the total station and the design point. The BACK value indicates 0.711, which indicates that the rod must move back (away from the total station) 0.711 feet to be over the design point. The Fill value is zero so no dirt needs to be cut or filled at the rod location to match the design elevation. g. Assuming the rod has been repositioned, take another shot by tapping the 6KRW button and enter the following new shot data: Angle Right: 45 Zenith Angle: 90 Slope Dist: 70.8 and then tap 2. to continue. h. The rod must now move FORWARD by 0.089 feet to be over the design point. We will assume that this is close enough and will store the point from this shot by tapping the 6WRUH button. i. Enter the following point information: Point Name: 5 Description: Staked and tap 6WRUH. This will return you to the first Point Stake screen.
5. Stake the next design point. a. We want to stake the next design point in the project. We can do this by entering 3 in the Design Point field and then pressing 6ROYH ! , or we can simply tap 1H[W 3RLQW ! , which will automatically advance the current design point by the increment value and solve automatically. Either method will send you to the second Stake Points screen. b. The information needed to locate the next design point is displayed. When connected to a total station, you would turn the total station horizontally to 50
Fieldwork 1150000, vertically to 900000 and send the rod man out about 100 feet before continuing. Tap the 6WDNH ! button to continue to the third screen. c. Tap the 6KRW button and enter the following shot data: Angle Right: 115 Zenith: 90 Slope Dist: 99.8 and then tap 2. to continue. d. The rod man needs to move back by 0.2 feet to be over the design point. Rather than take another shot, we will instruct him to use a tape and place a stake at that location. Tap the 6WRUH7DSH button to store the point. Enter the following data in the Store Point (Tape Offset) Dialog Box: Point Name: 6 Description: Staked Tape Out/Tape In (+/-): 0.2 and tap 6WRUH. This will result in coordinates for the stored point that are 0.2 feet further from the total station than the last shot to the prism. Note: Negative Tape Out/Tape In values are toward the total station and positive values are away from the total station. e.
Point Staking Summary
1. Open a job that contains the design points that you want to stake. 2. Check the job settings. 3. Setup a backsight. 4. Stake the points from the Stake Points screen.
Surveying with True Azimuths
Some people need to collect all of their horizontal angles in the form of azimuths. Survey Pro CE can help automate this process by computing the backsight azimuth after each new setup in a traverse and updating the backsight circle and total stations horizontal angle accordingly. 1. You can setup on any existing point and use any other point in the job as a backsight if the coordinate system is properly aligned with true north. If not, you can occupy any point as long you have a known azimuth to any reference. 2. In the Surveying Settings screen, confirm that the Survey with True Azimuths checkbox is checked. 3. Setup the total station over the occupy point and aim it toward your backsight. 4. Access the Backsight Setup screen; enter the Occupy Point, and toggle the %6 'LUHFWLRQ / %6 3RLQW button to %6 'LUHFWLRQ. Note: When backsighting on a point, selecting %6 'LUHFWLRQ can still be used, as described next, making it easier to view the azimuth to the backsight. 5. If backsighting a known azimuth, enter it in the BS Direction field. If backsighting a point, use the shortcut method to enter the azimuth from the occupy point to the backsight point in the BS Direction field. For example, if you are occupying Point 1 and backsighting Point 2, enter 1-2 in the BS Direction field. Once the cursor leaves that field, the computed azimuth will replace what you typed. 6. Tap the %DFNVLJKW &LUFOH button, enter the backsight azimuth in the Backsight Circle field and tap 6HW. This will set the backsight circle as the horizontal angle in the total station and set the same angle as the Backsight Circle value. This angle will then be subtracted from all horizontal angles sent from the total station. 52
Fieldwork 7. Begin your survey. When you traverse to a new point, the New Occupy Point dialog box will open showing you the azimuth computed to the new backsight point from the new occupy point. Once you are setup over the new occupy point, and aiming toward the new backsight point, press the 6HQG &LUFOH WR ,QVWUXPHQW button to update the Backsight Circle value and the horizontal angle on the total station. Repeat this step after setting up on each new traverse point.
This section describes how to use several of the routines in Survey Pro. Each example outlines the procedure to use a particular screen. The examples are written in a general way so the user can use their own data to become familiar with the routine.
Remote Staking Within 1 Foot From Target
Remote Staking Beyond 10 Feet From Target
Remote Staking Between 1 and 10 Feet
Slope Staking in Remote Mode
Slope staking in remote control mode functions in nearly the same way as with a non-remote total station (see Page 75). The one difference is when using the final Slope Staking screen, where the catch point is being located, the graphic portion of the Horizontal Map and Vertical Map is updated continuously. This allows the user at the rod position to watch the movement of the prism in relation to the slope and easily position the rod over the catch point. Note: You can tap in the graphic portion of the screen to open the graphic in a larger window. Although the graphic portion of the screen is continuously updated, the numeric values are not updated until the 6KRW button is tapped. This is because accurately locating the catch point depends on measuring an accurate elevation at the rod position. When the rod is moving, there is no way to estimate how far the rod is lifted off the ground. Therefore, the correct procedure for slope staking in remote mode is to use the graphic portion of the screen to locate the catch point as closely as possible, position the rod on the ground and press 6KRW. Once the values are updated, you can determine if the rod needs to be moved again.
The ultimate purpose of the slope staking routine is to locate where the outer slopes of a predefined roadway intersects with the surface of the terrain at various stations so the point where a cut or a fill begins can be determined. This intersecting point is called the catch point. Before a road can be slope staked, it must first be designed. The first step to designing a road is to define the path of the roads centerline. This line can be in the form of a polyline or an alignment. Creating these lines is explained in detail, starting on Page 31. Once the centerline is defined, the cross-sectional profile of the road must be defined. This profile is then superimposed onto the centerline at a specified station interval. The final step is to go out in the field and stake the catch points at each of these Hinge Points stations.
Terrain Catch Points
A road requiring a fill on both sides.
C L Hinge Points
A roads cross sectional profile always consists of left and right road surfaces, which are tangent at the centerline. An optional curb or ditch can also be included in the road profile. The final segment of a roads profile has either a specified positive slope or a specified negative slope, which ends at the catch point. This final segment attaches to the edge of the road at what is called the hinge point since this segment can hinge between a positive and negative slope around this point. The Slope Stake routine can automatically determine if the outer slope of the road profile should have a positive or a negative slope based on the location of the hinge point. If the hinge point is located below the surface of the terrain, a positive slope is selected and a cut will be required, starting at the catch point. If the hinge point is located above the surface of the terrain, a negative slope is selected where a fill will be required, starting at the catch point.
4. Define the direction of the tangent azimuth at the PC of your curve by selecting 3& 7DQJHQW $]P or 3& 7DQJHQW %UJ and enter the appropriate value in this field.
5. Define the size of the curve by selecting 5DGLXV , 'HJUHH $UF , or 'HJUHH &KRUG and enter the appropriate value in this field.
Note: Since the length of the curve is not required, you can potentially stake a 360 curve. 6. Select the radio button that defines if the curve turns toward the Left or Right as you view the curve from the PC. 7. Enter the station that you want to assign to the PC in the Begin Station field. (This value is typically zero.) 8. Tap 90
1H[W! to continue.
Setup Your Staking Options
9. Enter the first station that you want to stake in the Station to Stake field. 10. Enter the desired spacing between the staked stations in the Station Interval field. 11. In the Offset field, select L if you wish to stake an offset on the left side of the curve, or select R if you wish to stake an offset on the right side and enter the desired offset here. (If you are not staking an offset, enter an offset of zero.)
12. Tap the 92IIVHW / *UDGH button if you want to account for a vertical offset or percent grade for the staked points and enter the appropriate valued in the same field. When specifying a vertical offset, you must also select the D or U radio button to indicate if the specified offset is downward or upward from the design point, respectively. 13. Enter the current rod height in the Height of Rod field and tap 6ROYH!.
Aim the Total Station
14. Using the information displayed on the screen, aim the total station toward the design point and tap 6WDNH !. The graphic portion of the screen shows the curve, backsight direction and design point location relative to the total station.
Stake the Point
15. The final screen allows you to stake the current station. With the rod positioned where you want it, tap the 6KRW button to take a shot. If necessary, move the rod and take another shot until it is over the design point. 16. Tap the 6WRUH button to save the stake point. You will automatically be returned to the second screen (Step 9) where you can then tap the 1H[W 6WDWLRQ button to advance the current station by the station interval and stake the next point.
The Scale routine will adjust the coordinates of selected points by a specified scale factor relative to a base point. This is useful to repair data that was collected where an incorrect scale factor was applied. 1. Tap Menu.
Compass Rule Adjustment
The Compass Rule Adjustment will adjust either a closed or an open traverse. When adjusting a closed traverse, the error between the closing point and the initial point is computed and distributed among each traverse point, except the initial point resulting in a perfect closure. When adjusting an open traverse, the error between the final points actual location and specified theoretical location is computed and distributed among the traverse points in the same way as with a closed traverse. Typically, an angle adjustment, explained earlier, should be performed to remove the angular error before performing a compass rule adjustment.
2. Use the 7DS 3RO\OLQHV or 7DS 3RLQWV button to select the polyline or points that define your traverse in the same order that they were collected. 3. Check the Adjust Elevations checkbox if you want the elevations of the traverse points to be adjusted. (Leaving this unchecked will result in only the northings and eastings being adjusted.) 97
Users Manual 4. If you are adjusting a closed traverse, leave the Close to Known Location checkbox unchecked. If you are adjusting an open traverse, check this checkbox and define the point or location to close to by toggling the 3RLQW / /RFDWLRQ button to the desired setting and entering the point name or location in the corresponding field.
5. Tap the 3UHYLHZ button to view the results of the adjustment without actually adjusting any points. 6. If you are satisfied with the adjustment results from the preview, tap the 6ROYH button and the adjustment will be applied to the points. The results can be viewed by tapping the Results and Map tabs.
The Road menu contains a powerful set of routines that allow you to enter and modify road layout information and then stake the road in the field. The road staking routines allow you to stake any part of the road or slope stake the road.
Components of a Road File
There are four basic components of a road: The Horizontal Alignment; the Vertical Alignment; Templates, and a POB. All of these components are described separately below and each is a required component to a complete road definition.
Horizontal Alignment (HAL)
The horizontal alignment, referred to as the HAL, defines the horizontal features of an alignment. It can contain information on straight, curved, and spiral sections of the alignment. Generally the HAL coincides with the centerline of a road, but it is not required to be the centerline. All stationing for an alignment will come from the HAL.
Vertical Alignment (VAL)
The vertical alignment, referred to as the VAL, defines the vertical components of the alignment including grades and parabolic vertical curves. The VAL is generated in the same way as the HAL. The VAL can be the same length as the HAL, or longer, but it cannot be shorter.
3. Super Elevation start slope value and Widening start width value must match the first segment value defined by: 102 A previous Super Elevation or Widening. (Priority)
Screen Examples A previous Template.
4. Super Elevation ending slope value and Widening ending width value must match the first segment value defined by: A following Super Elevation or Widening. (Priority) A following Template. Exception: if the Widening or Super Elevation is the last element in the road, its end transition value does not have to match anything.
5. Super Elevation and Widening ending stations must be greater than their beginning stations. 6. Widenings cannot adjust the first segment horizontal distance to or from 0. 7. Super Elevations and a Widenings may overlap, are independent, and do not affect each other. 8. Super Elevations may not overlap other Super Elevations. A Super Elevations ending station may be equal to a following Super Elevations beginning station. A Super Elevations beginning station may be equal to a previous Super Elevations ending station.
9. Widenings may not overlap Widenings. A Widenings ending station may be equal to a following Widenings beginning station. A Widenings beginning station may be equal to a previous Widenings ending station.
10. Super Elevations may hinge on edge. Hinge on edge can only be used for one side of the road for any given Super Elevation station range. If hinge on edge is used for one side of the road, Super Elevations must hinge from center on the opposite side of the road over the same station range. Hinge on edge will modify the elevation of the Center Line.
Road Rules Examples
Figure 1 Overhead view of a template-to-template linear transition
Figure 2 Template to Widening Transition
Figure 3 Widening to Template Transition
Figure 4 Widening to Widening Transition
Figure 5 Template Inserted Into A Widening Area
Figure 1 shows an overhead view of a simple transition from one template to another. Notice the linear transition of one template segment end node to the next. Figure 2 shows an overhead view of a basic template to widening transition. The widenings first segment width for the start station must match the first segment width of the previous template. Figure 3 shows a transition from a widening to a template. This example shows that a widening basically defines a new template that has a modified first segment. The modified template (widening) will transition to the next template down the road. Figure 4 shows the same concept as Figure 3 except another widening is used instead of a template. Figure 5 depicts how a template can be inserted inside a widening definition. The widening will take precedence over the first segment so the first segment will maintain the length as defined in the widening definition. However, the segments outside of the first segment now take on the shape of the inserted template. The figure shows a widening where the start width is the same as the end width but having the widening use the same start and end width is not required. The first segment of the template will be adjusted to match 106
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