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8. Music Rack lnstallation
CHAPTER II: PLAYING THE DX21
1. The 32 Voice RAM Memory
The DX21 has 32 RAM (Random Access Memory) locations which contain voices which may be immediately selected by pressing the appropriate memory button while the DX21 is in one of the three normal play modes described below. The two rows of 16 buttons- row A and row B-are the voice memory selectors. The row A and B selectors correspond to DX21 tone generator channels A and B.
These same buttons actually serve a number of functions. In the FUNCTION and EDIT modes--which are covered in later sections of this manual--they serve to select the function or edit parameter to be programmed. Since RAM memory can be written to as well as read from, it is possible to load new voice data into the 32 available RAM memory locations. This can be done by loading new voices from the DX21s internal 128-voice ROM (Read Only Memory) into the RAM memory (see 5. The 128 Voice ROM Memory, below), or by loading a new set of 32 voices from data stored on an external cassette tape (see CHAPTER III: THE FUNCTION MODE, Memory Management Functions). If youre just starting out, youll want to try out the voices that are pre-programmed into the RAM memory. You can do this in any of the three play modes discussed below. Make sure your DX21 is properly connected to a sound system--or you could simply plug a pair of headphones into the PHONES jack (see CHAPTER I: SETTING UP), set the VOLUME control to about its center position, and set the A/B BALANCE control to its center position (youll feel a click stop at dead center). Now you can start experimenting with the DX21 voices in the SINGLE play mode. Enter the SINGLE play mode by pressing the PLAY SINGLE button to the left of the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panel. When you do this the LCD will look something like this.

2. The SINGLE Play Mode

The top line of the LCD reads PLAY SINGLE, indicating that you are in the SINGLE play mode, and the bottom display line will indicate the selected memory location number (A1 through A16, or B1 through B16) followed by the name of the selected voice. In this mode you can play any of the voices currently in the DX21s RAM memory individually.
Enter the DUAL mode by pressing the PLAY DUAL button.

3. The DUAL Play Mode

DU in the upper left display corner indicates that the DUAL mode has been selected. The upper display line now shows the number and name of any voice selected from the A row of memory selectors, while the lower display line shows the number and name of any voice selected from the B row of voice selectors. The number in the lower left display corner indicates the value of the DUAL MODE DETUNE (see CHAPTER III: THE FUNCTION MODE). In this mode any of the 16 voices from tone generator A can be selected and combined with any voice from tone generator B. As you try out various combinations of voices youll notice that some voices are louder than others, resulting in one voice overpowering the other when two are combined. This can be adjusted by using the A/B BALANCE control. Moving this control more towards the A end of the scale increases the volume of the A voice while decreasing the volume of the B voice. Moved in the opposite directiontowards Bit has the opposite effect. Use this control to achieve the best balance between the two selected voices in the DUAL play mode. Enter the SPLIT mode by pressing the PLAY SPLIT button.

The Yamaha Breath Controller
The optional Yamaha BC1 Breath Controller is a unique way of adding expression to the sound as you play the DX21 keyboard. The BC1 is held in the mouth just like the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. Blowing harder or softer into the BC1 mouthpiece then produces a corresponding effect. The Breath Controller can be used to apply varying amounts of pitch or amplitude LFO modulation, just like the modulation wheel. In addition it can be set up to directly affect pitch, amplitude or timbre in response to breath pressure. Set to directly affect amplitude (EG BIAS), for example, the Breath Controller can be used to apply realistic tonguing effects to brass and other wind instrument sounds. The four BREATH parameters listed below determine just how the Breath Controller will affect the DX21 sound. These parameters may be set individually, or combined for more complex effects.

B10: BREATH RANGE, PITCH

This function is used to set the maximum depth of LFO pitch modulation which can be applied using the Breath Controller. The actual effect produced depends on the settings of the LFO parametersthese will be discussed in CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate voice PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter must be set to a value higher than 0 for pitch modulation to be effective. The voice PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter will be discussed in CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 pitch modulation is OFF, and applying breath pressure to the Breath Controller will cause no pitch modulation to be applied to the voice. A setting of 99 produces the greatest possible pitch modulation depth.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY controls and -1/+1 switches. Once this function is called, subsequent presses on the B10 button increment the data value.
B11: BREATH RANGE, AMPLITUDE
This function is used to set the maximum depth of LFO amplitude modulation which can be applied using the Breath Controller. The actual effect produced depends on the settings of the LFO parametersthese will be discussed in CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate voice AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter must be set to a value higher than 0 for amplitude modulation to be effective. The voice AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter will be discussed in CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 amplitude modulation is OFF, and applying breath pressure to the Breath Controller will cause no amplitude modulation to be applied to the voice. A setting of 99 produces the greatest possible amplitude modulation depth. Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY controls or switches. Once this function is called, subsequent presses on the B11 button increment the data value.

Once you have selected the desired ROM memory group, press the DATA ENTRY YES button to go on to the next step. If you press the NO button at this point the display will revert to the Group to Bank? stage. If you do press the YES button, the display will prompt you to select the group of 8 memory locations to which you will load the selected ROM voice groupA1 through A8, A9 through A16, B1 through B8, or B9 through B16. The desired memory location group is selected by pressing the A1 through A4 buttons. The selected group will be displayed on the lower line of the LCD.
Now the selection of the source voices and the destination memory locations is complete, all you have to do to actually load the selected voices is press the DATA ENTRY YES button. If you press the NO button at this point the display will revert to the Group to Bank? stage. If you do press YES, the display will announce that the load job has been accomplished with the COMPLETED ! display. You can now press any play mode selector to try out the newly loaded voices. * * Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function back ON after the load operation.
A12: LOAD SINGLE INTERNAL MEMORY
This function lets you load one ROM voice into the DX21 voice edit buffer, from which it can be stored in any of the 32 RAM memory locations using the STORE function. Make sure the MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) is OFF before attempting to use the LOAD SINGLE INTERNAL MEMORY function. When this function is first called the LCD will look like this.
Confirm your intention to load a single ROM voice into the voice edit buffer by pressing the DATA ENTRY YES button. The upper line of the display will now show the currently selected ROM voice group, and the lower line will show the voice currently selected from that group.
The various voice groups can be selected by using the A1 through A16 buttons, and the 8 voices within each group are individually selected using the B1 through B8 buttons. When the desired voice has been selected in this way, simply hold down the STORE button and press the memory selector button to which you want to store the selected voice.
You can now try out the newly loaded voice. ** Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function back ON after the load operation.
A13: CASSETTE SAVE/VERIFY
This function actually incorporates two sub-functions SAVE and VERIFY. After calling this function, subsequent presses on the B13 button alternate between the SAVE and VERIFY sub- functions. Normally, however, you will start with the SAVE function which saves the entire contents of the DX21 RAM voice memory onto cassette tape. The VERIFY function is then used to check the saved data against the data still in RAM memory, to ensure that no errors occured in the SAVE process. Before using this function, make sure that an appropriate data cassette recorder is properly connected to the DX21 as described in CHAPTER I: SETTING UP. When this function is initially called the LCD will read Save to Tape ?. Confirm your intention to save the contents of the 32 voice memory locations to cassette tape by pressing the DATA ENTRY YES button. The display will then read from Mem to Tape, all ready ?. At this point reconfirm that the cassette recorder is set up properly, make sure a suitable blank tape is loaded into the cassette recorder, and start the recorder running in the RECORD mode. To begin the actual save operation press the DATA ENTRY YES button. Pressing another function button, a PLAY mode button or the EDIT mode button prior to the final step in the above process will abort the CASSETTE SAVE function. As the DX21 saves each voice to tape, the upper line of the display will indicate the voice number being saved. When all 32 voices have been saved the DX21 will automatically go into the tape verify mode, permitting you to check that the data was recorded properly. Stop the cassette recorder. The LCD will now read Verify Tape ?. To verify, first rewind the tape to the beginning of the file just saved, then press the DATA ENTRY YES button in response to the Verify Tape ? display which should be showing. the display will now read Verify Tape, ready?. Press the DATA ENTRY YES button then start the cassette recorder running in the PLAY mode. The DX21 will now read each voice from the cassette tape, and compare it with the corresponding voice data in the RAM voice memory. If the cassette and RAM data matches, the display will read VERIFY COMPLETED. Any PLAY mode can then be entered simply by pressing the corresponding mode selector button. If an error is encountered this fact will be displayed on the LCD. If this happens, go back and try the SAVE processfollowed by the VERIFY processone more time. If the error persists then you may have to carefully adjust the record and/or playback level of the cassette recorder, or use a higher quality recorder or tape. Be sure to check that all cassette connections are made properly.

A14: CASSETTE LOAD

This function loads a complete set of 32 voices from cassette tape into the DX21 RAM voice memory. Before using this function make sure that all cassette connections have been properly made, as described in CHAPTER I: SETTING UP. Also make sure that the DX21 MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) is OFF. When this function is initially called the LCD will read Load from Tape ?". Confirm your intention to load a complete set of 32 voices from cassette tape into the RAM voice memory (remember, this will erase any voices previously in the RAM memory) by pressing the DATA ENTRY YES button. The LCD will now read from Tape to Mem, all ready ?". At this point make sure the appropriate cassette tape is loadeed into the recorder and is rewound to the beginning of the desired voice file. To execute the load operation press the DATA ENTRY YES button again and start the cassette recorder running in the PLAY mode. Pressing another function button, a PLAY mode button or the EDIT mode button prior to the final step in the above process will abort the CASSETTE LOAD function. The DX21 will indicate each voice on the LCD as it is loaded. When the load function is completed the LCD will read LOAD COMPLETED. Stop the cassette recorder and turn the DX21 MEMORY PROTECT function back ON. The LOAD function can be interrupted at any time by pressing the DATA ENTRY NO button. This can, however, result in incomplete data loading, possibly causing garbled voice data to appear in one memory location. ** Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function back ON after a successful LOAD operation.
A15: CASSETTE LOAD SINGLE
This function allows you to load a single voice from a previously saved 32-voice cassette file into the DX21 voice edit buffer, from which it can be stored in any voice memory using the STORE function. Make sure the MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) is OFF before using the LOAD SINGLE function. When this function is initially called the LCD will read "Load Single ?". Press the DATA ENTRY YES button to go on to the next step. The LCD will now read Tape # ? to Buff, (A1-A16,B1-B16)". You must now enter the voice number of the voice you wish to load from cassettedo this by pressing the corresponding voice memory seleactor button. The selected voice number will appear in place of, the # ? portion of the upper display line. Then, make sure the appropriate cassette is loaded in the cassette recorder and is rewound to the beginning of the voice file containing the desired voice, press the DATA ENTRY YES button, and start the cassette recorder running in the PLAY mode. The DX21 will automatically locate the selected voice and load it into the voice edit buffer. When finished, the display will read LOAD COMPLETED. The LOAD SINGLE function can be interrupted by pressing the DATA ENTRY NO button. Doing this may, however, result in garbled voice data in the DX21 voice edit buffer. The loaded voice may now be stored into any voice memory location by holding down the STORE button while pressing the voice selector of the destination voice memory location. This must be done before another voice selector button is pressed if you desire to keep the loaded voice in memory, otherwise the loaded voice data in the voice edit buffer will be erased and replaced by the voice data called by the pressed voice selector button. ** Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) back ON after a successful LOAD operation.

A16: MEMORY PROTECT

This function turns the DX21 MEMORY PROTECT function ON or OFF. When ON, the internal RAM voice memory cannot be altered using the STORE, INTERNAL MEMORY LOAD, or CASSETTE LOAD functions. The MEMORY PROTECT function does not affect the voice edit buffer, so the INIT VOICE, EDIT RECALL, INTERNAL MEMORY LOAD SINGLE, and CASSETTE LOAD SINGLE functions will operate whether MEMORY protect is ON or OFF. When this function is called the LCD will read either "Mem Protect:ON" or "Mem Protect:OFF", according to the current state of the MEMORY PROTECT function (MEMORY PROTECT is automatically turned ON each time mains power to the DX21 is turned ON). The DATA ENTRY ON and OFF buttons are used to turn MEMORY PROTECT ON or OFF. This group of functions deals with parameters which control the transmission and reception of MIDI data via the DX21 MIDI OUT and MIDI IN terminals. This section will describe how each parameter is programmed, while actual operational details will depend entirely on the type of MIDI equipment with which the DX21 will be used.

6. MIDI Functions

A3: MIDI ON-OFF
This function turns transmission and reception via the DX21s MIDI terminals ON or OFF. When ON the DX21 can transmit or receive MIDI data to or from external MIDI equipment. When OFF, no MIDI data interchange is possible. This function is turned ON or OFF using the DATA ENTRY buttons.

A4: RECEIVE CHANNEL

The DX21 is capable of receiving data on any of the 16 available MIDI channels, or in the OMNI mode which enables reception on all channels simultaneously. This function is used to set the desired MIDI receive channel or activate the OMNI mode. The receive channel is normally set to match the transmission channel of the MIDI equipment from which the DX21 will be receiving MIDI data. Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY control or buttons, and the data range is from "Midi Omni: ON (in this state the OMNI mode is ON) to "Midi Recv Ch = 1" through "Midi Recv Ch = 16".

A8: BULK TRANSMIT

This function permits transmission of "32 Bulk Data. That is, the data pertaining to the 32 voices contained in the DX21 RAM voice memory. This data could be transmitted, for example, to the RAM voice memory of another DX21. When this function is called the LCD will read "Midi Transmit ?". Pressing the DATA ENTRY YES button then begins actual transmission of the data. During transmission the LCD will go blank. Transmission takes about two seconds. NOTE: System exclusive communication data is only useable with compatible Yamaha MIDI equipment.
CHAPTER IV: THE PERFORMANCE MEMORY
1. Performance Memory Organization
In addition to the DX21s 32 voice RAM memories and 128-voice ROM memory, the DX21 also features a special 32 performance memory system. This performance memory can be programmed with a voice number or pair of voice numbers (one from each channel), play mode, split mode split key number or dual mode detune data, key shift data, and pitch bend mode data. Thus, when one performance memory is called a voice or combination of voices in any play mode is automatically called along with the most important real-time performance parameters programmed for that voice or voice combination. To access the performance memory, hold down the FUNCTION key and press the EDIT/COMPARE key. The LCD will look something like this:
2. Accessing the Performance Memory
The 32 performance memories are then selected by pressing the voice selector buttons (A1 through A16 = 1 through 16, B1 through B16 = 17 through 32). The first data on the top LCD line is the selected performance memory and its performance name. This is followed by the programmed play mode: SI = SINGLE play mode, DU = DUAL play mode, SP = SPLIT play mode. From left to right on the lower display line we have the number of the voice or voices selected by this performance memory, the split or detune data (this depends on whether the SPLIT or DUAL play mode is selected), the key shift data, and the pitch bend mode. The performance memory is programmed quite simply by setting up the desired voice or voices in the desired play mode, with the desired performance parameters. Then, after making sure the MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) is OFF, access the performance memory by holding down the FUNCTION button and pressing the EDIT/COMPARE button. Now you can store the currently set up performance combination in any memory location by holding down the STORE button and pressing the performance memory selector button to which you wish to save the performance data. Before you do this, however, you might want to give your performance combination a name. ** Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function (A16) back ON after a successful storage operation. The performance name can be programmed at any time while in the performance mode as follows. Hold down the FUNCTION/CHARACTER button. Youll notice that a cursor begins flashing over the first letter of the current performance name. While holding down the CHARACTER button you can enter characters by pressing the appropriate character buttons (see CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING, B16: VOICE NAME). The available characters are printed in white on the right of the voice selector buttons and the buttons to the left of the LCD. Pressing the PLAY SINGLE button inputs a space. The cursor can be moved backwards or forwards by pressing the DATA ENTRY +1 and -1 buttons. Once a performance name has been entered the entire performance combination must be stored using the STORE function, as described in "3. Programming the Performance Memory, above. 22

3. The Voice Parameters

at the top right corner of the LCD: for example, OP 3. This only applies to parameters which can be individually programmed for each operator, however, when parameters that affect all operators simultaneously are called (the LFO WAVE, SPEED and DELAY parameters, for example) the current operator display will disappear from the LCD and individual operators cannot be selected.
A1-A4: OPERATORlAMS ON-OFFIEG COPY, 14
Individually turns operators 1 through 4 ON or OFF. In many cases a voice will not require all operators in an algorithm. Operators that are not needed should be turned OFF while editing. Also, during the voice creation process, it is a good idea to start with all operators OFF and then turn them ON one at a time as you program and add them to the algorithm. The four digits immediately following the algorithm number on the upper display line represent the four operators, 1 through 4, in order from left to right. When an operator is ON a 1 appears in the corresponding position, and when an operator is OFF a 0 appears in the corresponding position. Each press on the A1 through A4 buttons alternately turns the corresponding operator ON and OFF. When the AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter is selected (A14), these switches are used to determine to which operators the sensitivity setting will apply. When the EG COPY function is in use these switches are used to select the operator to which the data from the currently selected operator will be copied. The parameters which can be copied are those of ENVELOPE GENERATOR and KEYBOARD SCALING.

A5: ALGORITHM

Permits selection of any of the 8 available algorithms. The desired algorithm number is selected using either the DATA ENTRY control or switches.

A6: FEEDBACK

Feedback can be applied to one operator in each algorithm. Pressing this switch permits setting the amount (level) of feedback which will be applied. The feedback level range is from 0 to 7. At 0 feedback is OFF, and at 7 maximum feedback is applied. Data is entered via the DATA ENTRY control or switches.

A7: LFO WAVE

Permits selection of the low frequency oscillator waveform. The available waveforms are SAW UP (a rising sawtooth waveform), SQUARE, TRIANGLE, and S/HOLD (sample and hold). These waveforms are selected using the DATA ENTRY control or switches.

A8: LFO SPEED

Permits setting the speed of the low frequency oscillator. The data range is from 0 to 99. 0 corresponds to the slowest LFO speed (0.06 Hz), and 99 corresponds to the fastest LFO speed (50 Hz).

A9: LFO DELAY

Permits setting a delay of between 0 and approximately 3 seconds before the LFO modulation effect begins after a key is played. This is particularly useful for simulating brass instruments, human voice, etc., in which the a vibrato effect is gradually applied after the note has been initiated. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 there is no delay, and a setting of 99 produces a delay of approximately 15 seconds. With longer delay settings the modulation effect begins gradually for a remarkably natural sound.

A10: LFO PMD

This parameter sets the depth of pitch variation produced by LFO modulation for all operators simultaneously. This function is independent from pitch modulation produced by the modulation wheel and breath controller, and is always ON once set. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 pitch modulation is OFF, and a setting of 99 produces the greatest pitch variation, dependent on the PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY setting, described below (A13). When the PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter is set to maximum (7), the maximum pitch variation (PM DEPTH = 99) will be plus and minus 1 octave. Even if this parameter is set to 0, pitch modulation can still be applied via the modulation wheel or breath controller.

A11: LFO AMD

This parameter sets the depth of amplitude variation (tremolo or wow) produced by LFO modulation for all operators simultaneously. This function is independent from amplitude modulation produced by the modulation wheel or breath controller, and is always ON once set. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 amplitude modulation is OFF, and a setting of 99 produces the greatest variation, dependent on the AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY setting (A14). When the AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter is set to maximum (3), the maximum amplitude variation (AM DEPTH = 99) will be plus and minus 42 dB peak-to-peak. Even if this parameter is set to 0, amplitude modulation can still be applied via the modulation wheel and breath controller.

A12: LFO SYNC

The beginning of the LFO cycle is normally synchronized with key-on timing. This parameter permits turning this synchronization ON or OFF. All operators are affected simultaneously.
When this parameter is ON, the LFO cycle always begins from the peak of a positive half-cycle (90 degrees phase angle) when a key is played. This produces a clear, consistent attack on all notes. When LFO KEY SYNC is OFF, the LFO cycle starts from a random point when a key is played. This is the ideal setting when the LFO is being used to create natural-sounding chorus or phasing type effects. NOTE: When in DUAL or SPLIT mode, the B voice is affected by the LFO data of the A voice.

A13: PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY
This parameter sets the sensitivity of all operators to pitch modulation applied either via the LFO PMD parameter, above, or via the modulation wheel of breath controller. The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0 no pitch modulation can be applied, and at 7 the maximum pitch modulation can be achieved. When LFO PMD, above, is set to 99 a setting of 7 produces a plus and minus one-octave pitch variation.
A14: AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY
This sets the operators sensitivity to LFO and EG BIAS effects applied via the LFO PMD or AMD functions, or via the modulation wheel or breath controller. The application of LFO modulation to a carrier results in tremolo, and applied to a modulator the result is a periodic variation in timbre which is similar to wow effects. When EG BIAS is applied to a carrier via the breath controller the result is volume (expression) control, and applied to a modulator the result is brilliance control. The data range is from 0 to 3. At 0 amplitude modulation sensitivity is OFF and no LFO or EG BIAS effects can be applied to the selected operators. A setting of 3 produces maximum sensitivity and therefore maximum effect depth. The operators to which modulation sensitivity is to be applied are selected using buttons A1 through A4. The four digits1 or 0at the top right corner of the LCD correspond to operators 1 through 4. When an operator is turned ONi.e. able to receive amplitude modulationthe corresponding digit will be a 1. When OFF the corresponding digit will be a 0. The operators are turned ON and OFF alternately each time the corresponding OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF/EG COPY button is pressed.

A15: EC BIAS

This sets the operators sensitivity to EG BIAS effects applied via the breath controller. EG bias changes the overall output level from the operator. The harder you blow into the breath controller, the higher the maximum envelope level. When EG 31
BIAS is applied to a carrier via the breath controller the result is volume (expression) control, and applied to a modulator the result is brilliance control. The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0 EG BIAS sensitivity is OFF and no EG BIAS effects can be applied to the selected operators. A setting of 7 produces maximum sensitivity and therefore maximum effect depth.

A16: KEY VELOCITY

While the DX21 has no key velocity sensitivity of its own, its voice generators will accept key velocity data from an external MIDI controller keyboard which does have this feature. This function determines the sensitivity of each operator to keyboard velocity sensitivity data from an external keyboard connected to the DX21 MIDI IN terminal (key velocity sensitivity = the harder you play a key, the louder the note. Timbre variations are produced when keyboard sensitivity is applied to a modulator). The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0 key velocity sensitivity for the selected operator is OFF. A setting of 7 produces the highest sensitivity, and therefore the greatest effect.

The following EG curve shows the relationship between the RATE and LEVEL parameters.
The following EG curves show the parameters for some common instruments. When creating voices on the DX21 you should apply these EG curves to the carrier operator.
B8: OPERATOR OUTPUT LEVEL
Permits setting the output level of the selected operator. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 the operator is OFF, and a setting of 99 produces maximum output level from the selected operator. Varying the output level of an operator which is functioning as a carrier results in a change in the overall level of the sound contributed to the voice by that operator, while varying the output level of an operator which is functioning as a modulator results in a change in the harmonic spectrum produced by the carrier, thereby changing the timbre of the sound. Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY control or switches.

B9: RATE SCALING

This parameter makes it possible to gradually shorten the overall envelope length (increase EG rate) as higher notes on the keyboard are played. This is particularly useful for simulating the sound of stringed instruments such as piano or guitar, in which the envelope of the higher notes is noticeably shorter than the lower notes.
The data range is from 0 to 3. At 0 RATE SCALING is minimum and at 3 the greatest variation in envelope length is produced.

B10: LEVEL SCALING

This parameter produces a gradual decrease in note output level towards the right (high) end of the keyboard. Many acoustic instruments exhibit a gradual falloff in level towards the higher notes, and this function can be used to create the most natural overall keyboard response for any particular voice. The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 no level scaling is applied. At 99 the deepest keyboard level scaling effect is produced, and highest note on the keyboard may be almost inaudible. Set this parameter for the most natural overall balance for the particular voice.
B11-16: PITCH ENVELOPE GENERATOR, PR1, PL1, PR2, PL2, PR3, PL3
These switches select the specific pitch envelope generator parameters to be worked on: PITCH RATE 1, PITCH LEVEL 1, PITCH RATE 2, PITCH LEVEL 2, PITCH RATE 3 and PITCH LEVEL 3. Note that the parameters are slightly different from those of the volume envelope generator, and that there are six parameters instead of five. The data range for all pitch envelope generator RATE and LEVEL parameters is 0 to 99. For the RATE parameters 99 is the fastest rate (instantaneous) and 0 the slowest. The LEVEL parameters actually correspond to pitch. 50 is standard pitch, 99 is the highest pitch and 0 is the lowest pitch reachable with the pitch EG. The following chart shows the relationship between the pitch EG rate and level parameters.

2. Transmission Data

All MIDI data is transmitted when the MIDI ON/OFF function is ON. The MIDI transmission channel is determined by the setting of the MIDI TRNS CH function. 2-1. CHANNEL INFORMATION 2-1-1. Channel Voice Message (1) Key Off Status Note no. Velocity
1000nnnn 0kkkkkkk 01000000
n=channel no. k=36(C1) ~ 96(C6)
(2) Key On Status Note no. Velocity (3) Control Change Status Control no. Control code 1011nnnn 0ccccccc 0vvvvvvv n=channel no. 1000nnnn 0kkkkkkk 01000000 n=channel no. k=36(C1) ~ 96(C6)
a) Transmitted whether MIDI CH INFO is ON or OFF Control no. C=64: Sustain
Control code. V=0:OFF, 127:ON
b) Transmitted when MIDI CH INFO is ON Control No. C=1 : modulation wheel C=2: breath control C=6: data entry slider C=7: foot volume C=65: portamento SW. (4) Program Change Status Program no. 1100nnnn 0ppppppp n=channel no. p=0~31 Control code V=0~127 V=0~127 V=0~127 V=0~127 V=0:OFF, 127:ON
This data is transmitted when a voice selector is pressed during the play mode, when MIDI CH INFO is ON and MIDI SYS INFO is OFF. Also transmitted when a performance selector is pressed in the performance mode. (5) Pitch Blend Status Code (LSB) Code (MSB) 1110nnnn 0uuuuuuu 0vvvvvvv n=channel no.
The transmitted data is as follows: MSB 01111111 LSB 01111110 Lowest value Center value Highest value
2-2. SYSTEM INFORMATION 2-2-1. System Real-time Message Active sensing Status 11111110
Transmitted once approximately every 200 milliseconds 2-2-2. System Exclusive Message Transmitted only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON
(1) Parameter Change Status ID no. Substatus/ch. no. Parameter group no. Perameter no. Data EOX 0001nnnn 00010010 0ppppppp 0ddddddd 11110111

n=channel no.

This data is transmitted when voice or function parameters are changed in the EDIT or FUNCTION modes. The voice parameters transmitted are those given in voice parameter table 5-2, and the function parameters transmitted are shown in function parameter table 5-3. (2) 1 Voice Bulk Data Status ID no. Substatus/ch. no. Format no. Byte count Byte count Data 0000nnnn 01011101 0ddddddd 0ddddddd 0eeeeeee 11110111

93 bytes Checksum EOX

The data for one voice is transmitted when a voice selector is pressed in the PLAY SINGLE mode. Data in the voice edit buffer is transmitted when a format no. f=3 dump request is received. The transmitted data is showm in voice parameter table 5-2. The check sum is the lowest 7 bits of the twos complement sum of all data bytes (the same applies below). (3) 32 Voice Bluk Data Status ID no. Substatus/ch. no. Format no. Byte count Byte count Data 0000nnnn 00000000 0ddddddd 0ddddddd 0eeeeeee 11110111

5. System Exclusive Data

5-1. VOICE DATA (VMEM format)
Parameter no. P 72 Parameter ATTACK RATE DECAY 1 RATE DECAY 2 RATE RELEASE RATE DECAY 1 LEVEL OP4 KEYBOARD SCALING LEVEL AMPLITUDE MODULATION ENABLE/EG BIAS SENSITIVITY/KEY VELOCITY OUTPUT LEVEL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY KEYBOARD SCALING RATE/DETUNE 1 SAME AS FOR OP4 SAME AS FOR OP4 SAME AS FOR OP4 OP2 OP3 OP 1
LFO SYNC/FEEDBACK LEVEL/ALGORITHM LFO SPEED LFO DELAY PITCH MODULATION DEPTH AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEPTH PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY/AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY/LFO WAVE TRANSPOSE PITCH BEND RANGE CHORUS SWITCH/PLAY MODE/SUSTAIN FOOT SWITCH/PORTAMENTO FOOT SWITH/PORTAMENTO MODE PORTAMENTO TIME FOOT VOLUME MODULATION WHEEL PITCH MODULATION RANGE MODULATION WHEEL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL PITCH MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL PITCH BIAS RANGE BREATH CONTROL EG BIAS RANGE VOICE NAME 1 VOICE NAME 10 PITCH EG RATE 1 PITCH EG RATE 2 PITCH EG RATE 3 PITCH EG LEVEL 1 PITCH EG LEVEL 2 PITCH EG LEVEL 3
5-2. VOICE PARAMETERS (VCED format) Parameter no. P
SAME AS FOR OP26 SAME AS FOR OP39 SAME AS FOR OF92 ALGORITHM FEEDBACK LEVEL LFO SPEED LFO DELAY PITCH MODULATION DEPTH AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEPTH LFO SYNC LFO WAVE PETCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY TRANSPOSE PLAY MODE POLY/MONO PITCH BEND RANGE PORTAMENTO MODE PORTAMENTO TIME FOOT VOLUME SUSTAIN FOOT SWITCH PORTAMENTO FOOT SWITCH CHORUS SWITCH MODULATION WHEEL PITCH MODULATION RANGE MODULATION WHEEL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL PITCH MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE BREATH CONTROL PITCH BIAS RANGE BREATH CONTROL EG BIAS RANGE VOICE NAME ALGORITHM SELECT FEEDBACK LFO SPEED LFO DELAY LFO PMD LFO AMD LFO SYNC LFO WAVE P MOD SENS. A MOD SENS. Middle C Poly Mode P Bend Range Full Time Porta Porta Time Foot Volume Foot Sustain Foot Porta Chorus MW Pitch MW Amplitude BC Pitch BC Amplitude BC Pitch Bias BC EG Bias 0 ~ ~ 7 0~99 0~99 0~99 0~, ~ 3 0~~ ~ 48 0, ~ , 1 0~99 0~, , , 1 0~99 0~99 0~~~99 0~ASCII 10~~~~~~99 0~99 OP1 OP3 OP2

Parameter

ATTACK RATE DECAY 1 RATE DECAY 2 RATE RELEASE RATE DECAY 1 LEVEL KEYBOARD SCALING LEVEL KEYBOARD SCALING RATE EG BIAS SENSITIVITY AMPLITUDE MODULATION ENABLE KEY VELOCITY OUTPUT LEVEL OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY DETUNE 1

LCD Display

EG AR EG D1R EG D2R EG RR EG D1L LEVEL SCALE RATE SCALE E BIAS SENS. A MOD SENS. KEY VELOCITY OUTPUT LEVEL FREQUENCY DETUNE
0 ~~~~~15 0~~ ~ , ~ 7 0~99 0~63 0~7
PITCH EG RATE 1 PITCH PITCH PITCH PITCH PITCH EG EG EG EG EG RATE 2 RATE 3 LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3

 

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