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Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME05), Vancouver, BC, Canada
Frequency Content of Breath Pressure and Implications for Use in Control
Gary Scavone and Andrey da Silva
Computational Acoustic Modeling Laboratory Music Technology, McGill University 555 Sherbrooke Street West Montreal, QC, H3A 1E3 Canada
gary@music.mcgill.ca ABSTRACT
The breath pressure signal applied to wind music instruments is generally considered to be a slowly varying function of time. In a context of music control, this assumption implies that a relatively low digital sample rate (100-200 Hz) is sucient to capture and/or reproduce this signal. We tested this assumption by evaluating the frequency content in breath pressure, particularly during the use of extended performance techniques such as growling, humming, and utter tonguing. Our results indicate frequency content in a breath pressure signal up to about 10 kHz, with especially signicant energy within the rst 1000 Hz. We further investigated the frequency response of several commercially available pressure sensors to assess their responsiveness to higher frequency breath signals. Though results were mixed, some devices were found capable of sensing frequencies up to at least 1.5 kHz. Finally, similar measurements were conducted with Yamaha WX11 and WX5 wind controllers and results suggest that their breath pressure outputs are sampled at about 320 Hz and 280 Hz, respectively. utes are, in contrast, controlled by the air jet velocity. No matter the underlying physics, however, it is the concept of breath pressure that players of all wind instruments perceive as the predominate control parameter. Through years of practice, performers develop an ability to precisely regulate their respiratory physiology, in conjunction with nger movements, to produce a myriad of musical eects. Given the level of control demonstrated by wind instrument players, as well as the intimacy inherent in its use, breath pressure oers a natural parameter to be exploited by developers of human-computer interfaces. A few commercial music input devices have been developed which sense breath pressure, most notably wind controllers such as the Lyricon, Akais EWI, and Yamahas WX series of products [5]. A variety of non-commercial devices have also been reported [1, 2, 4, 7]. Most of these systems measure breath pressure with sensors based on the principles of a strain gauge. That is, an applied pressure deforms a diaphragm and this deformation is measured using electrical, mechanical, or optical components. In no case, however, has there been found a discussion of sensor frequency response or, for MIDI-based systems, a necessary discrete-time sample rate. In general, there appears to be an expectation that the breath pressure used in wind instrument performance is a slowly varying function of time. Considering breath pressure as an envelope control for note events and estimating a maximum note on event rate (or a repetitive tonguing rate) by human performers of 20 Hz, one might be inclined to suggest as sucient a discrete-time sample rate of perhaps 100 Hz (assuming ve breakpoints per envelope and breakpoint interpolation by the sound processing system). What is overlooked in this estimate, however, is the fact that wind instrument players make use of several techniques, such as utter tonguing and growling, that eectively modulate the breath pressure signal at audio rates. If we wish to capture the full bandwidth of the breath pressure signal, it then becomes necessary to sample the breath pressure at signicantly higher rates than rst imagined. It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the frequency content of breath pressure, particularly in the context of extended technique playing, and to suggest an appropriate sample or control rate from measured data. Further, we evaluate the frequency response of several commercially available pressure sensors to determine their eectiveness in capturing the full bandwidth of a breath pressure signal. Finally, sim-

Keywords

Breath Control, Wind Controller, Breath Sensors
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The sounds produced by a wind music instrument are initiated and maintained via the application of air ow from a players mouth to the input of the instrument. For a majority of wind instruments, it is the pressure inside the players mouth, resulting from this air ow, that controls the vibrations of the reed mechanism and the subsequent oscillations of the air column1. Instruments such as recorders and
1 Technically speaking, it is the dierence in pressure between the mouth and the mouthpiece that controls the reed vibrations, though the player can only inuence the former.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for prot or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the rst page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specic permission and/or a fee. NIME05, Vancouver, BC, Canada Copyright 2005 Copyright remains with the author(s).
ilar measurements are performed and reported for Yamaha WX11 and WX5 MIDI wind controllers.
BREATH PRESSURE IN PRACTICE
Breath pressure in wind instrument performance is expected to be nearly proportional to the amplitude envelope of an oscillatory note event. In the context of steady tone production, the pressure signal varies slowly in time except during the attack and release portions of the sound. The most common use of breath pressure variation is to produce vibrato. By periodically varying diaphragm tension, players are able create a slow (46 Hz) modulation of the breath pressure. The breath pressure variations of particular interest in this study, however, are those used by musicians to achieve extended techniques, such as utter tonguing and growling. Flutter tonguing is produced by vibrations of either the false vocal folds or the tongue under otherwise normal playing conditions. Flutter tongue rates are estimated to approach 50 Hz without excessive effort. Growling is produced by vibrations of the vocal folds and thus involves signicantly greater frequency bandwidth. However, it is not possible to produce such vocalizations with the same exibility and range as when singing without an instrument in ones mouth.
Figure 1: Spectrogram of pressure signal in mouth while growling, non-oscillatory conditions.

MEASUREMENTS

Magnitude Response (dB)
In most theoretical analyses of reed and lip mechanisms, pressures within the mouth and mouthpiece are considered independent. In practice, however, the vibrating reed is coupled to the mouth, inducing an oscillatory component of pressure which is distinct from that caused by variations of a players respiratory physiology2. For this reason, our measurements must be conducted without causing vibrations of a reed. The data for the measurements discussed in this section was collected at a sample rate of 44100 Hz using a National Instruments LabVIEW system.

3.1 Breath Pressure Modulation
To estimate the frequency range of breath pressure modulation, a measurement was made while growling into a short plastic tube of small diameter (to approximate the air ow impedance under normal playing conditions). A miniature, low sensitivity DPA microphone, type 4062-FM, was inserted into the corner of the players mouth to record the breath signal. Figure 1 shows a spectrogram of the measured signal. The growl began at a frequency of about 130 Hz and was swept to about 400 Hz over an eight second time period. From Fig. 1, the breath signal clearly exhibits harmonic energy up to 10 kHz. However, the most signicant energy occurs within the rst 1000 Hz, as evidenced by the spectrum plot of Fig. 2. The frequency components in the plots at 3812, 7314, and 7624 Hz are due to mechanical leakage into the computer measurement system.

4000 Frequency (Hz)

Figure 2: Single FFT of pressure signal in mouth while growling, non-oscillatory conditions. make use of suitable sensors, as well as appropriate discretetime sample rates. One possible solution is to sense pressure with miniature microphones. However, microphones typically have very poor low frequency response, making them inappropriate for sensing the constant, or slowly varying, component of breath pressure. A large number of commercial pressure sensors are available for use in sensing gauge or dierential pressure. For this study, we evaluated six such devices as listed in Table 1. Most of the sensors were purchased from either Digi-Key Corporation or Jameco Electronics. Freescale Semiconductor, formerly a part of Motorola Inc., provides free samples of many of its products, including the MPXV5010GC7U device tested here. All but the All Sensors 1 product sell for less than $50 US. The device sensitivities varied between pounds per square inch (PSI)3.
3 For reference, 1 kPa = 0.145 PSI = 4.021 H2 O = 102 mm H2 O = 0.01 bar.

3.2 Pressure Sensors

If the developer of an HCI device wishes to support breath pressure sensing over at least some of the extended frequency range demonstrated in the previous section, it is necessary to
2 The term reed is used here to refer to the general class of wind instrument excitation mechanisms, including air reeds.

Make Fujikura Freescale All Sensors All Sensors Honeywell MSI Sensors
Model XFPN-025KPGNW1 MPXV5010GC7U 1 INCH-D-4V 4 INCH-GF-H-MINI SDX01G2 1451-005G-T
Type Gauge Gauge Dierential Gauge Gauge Gauge

Range (kPa) 0 0.0 6.34.5

Response Time 2 msec 1 msec NA NA 100 sec 1 msec
Price $25 US $20 US $88 US $38 US $26 US $16 US
Frequency Response Noisy and weak Good to 2.5 kHz Good to 1.5 kHz Noisy and weak Poor Poor
Table 1: Evaluated commercial pressure sensor specications. There is no mention of frequency response in the data sheets for these sensors. For some products, mechanical response time values are provided. The Freescale data sheet denes this as the time for an incremental change in the output to go from 10% to 90% of its nal value when subjected to a specied step change in pressure. To roughly estimate the frequency response of these sensors, we attached a plastic hose of 37.5 cm length to their pressure ports and hummed or growled through the tube while simultaneously recording the signal inside the mouth. The output voltage from the sensors was measured with the LabVIEW system, as well as monitored on an oscilloscope to avoid clipping. The hum signal typically started around 140 Hz and increased to about 400 Hz. Results for the two All Sensors devices are shown in Fig. 3. Spectrograms for the Freescale and Fujikura sensors are shown in Fig. 4. While the attached tubing likely colored the results, it is still possible to derive general characteristics from these results. Figure 4: Pressure spectrograms as measured with Freescale and Fujikura sensors during upward hum.
device was found superior.
3.3 Commercial Wind Controllers
A few wind controllers have been developed as commercial products, the most well known being Yamahas WX and Akais EWI series of instruments. The Akai controllers use analog circuitry, freeing them from the constraints of a discrete-time sample rate. The Yamaha wind controllers, on the other hand, are designed to output MIDI data and thus require sampling and discretization of sensor values. The physical MIDI specication denes a unidirectional serial bit stream at 31250 bits per second, with 10 bits transmitted per byte. MIDI breath control messages are transmitted with a Control Change status byte and controller number two. In general, each breath control message requires three bytes, though in running status mode this can be reduced to two bytes. In an ideal scenario, MIDI transmission rates for breath control messages could reach almost 1.5 kHz, though practical considerations make maximum rates less than 1 kHz more likely. As a result, MIDI wind controllers can be expected to support no more than about 500 Hz of breath pressure bandwidth, no matter the constraints of the pressure sensor used. This expectation was evaluated with Yamaha WX11 and WX5 MIDI wind controllers. A computer program was written using the Synthesis ToolKit in C++ (STK) to collect an incoming MIDI stream from the device and to write it to a Matlab MAT-le formatted data le for subsequent evalua-

Figure 3: Pressure spectrograms as measured with All Sensors 1 and 4 devices during upward hum. The Freescale and All Sensors 1 devices were found to measure frequency content up to Hz. The All Sensors 4 and Fujikura sensors exhibited signicant noise and their overall magnitude response was signicantly weaker. Results for the Honeywell and MSI devices are not shown because they were found to have almost no AC response at all. Thus, available pressure sensors display significant dierences in behavior that are not necessarily related to price. In terms of price and performance, the Freescale
tion [3]. In particular, because MIDI events do not occur at regular intervals, it was necessary to resample the data on a uniform time grid, as well as lter out all but the breath pressure events. An upward sweeping hum between about Hz was performed on both controllers and the resulting MIDI data was subsequently analyzed. The incoming MIDI breath values were monitored during recording to avoid clipping at both the lower and upper range boundaries. The MIDI data was received on a Macintosh OS X computer using the CoreMIDI protocol. CoreMIDI makes use of a callback mechanism, though no maximum MIDI rate is mentioned in the documentation. The recorded data was resampled on a time grid corresponding to a sample rate of 1000 Hz and is shown in Fig. 5.

WX11 Signal

Frequency (Hz)

4 Time (seconds)

WX5 Signal
marily for contexts involving slowly-varying pressures, we found that a few were capable of sensing frequency content up to at least 1.5 kHz. Finally, WX11 and WX5 MIDI wind controllers were evaluated and found to limit breath pressure signals to about 160 Hz and 140 Hz, respectively. At this point, we cannot assess the frequency-domain magnitude or phase characteristics of pressure sensors in a rigorous manner. Informal tests indicate signicant variations in magnitude response for all the devices and in many cases, signicant noise content. In light of these limitations, a practical solution for sensing full-bandwidth breath pressure signals could involve the combined use of a traditional breath sensor and a miniature microphone. Another possible approach to achieving the eects of breath pressure modulation without actually sensing the associated high-frequency signal content was presented in [6]. In that case, modulation signals appropriate to utter tonguing or growl eects were implemented in a physical modeling algorithm with low bandwidth controls exposed for performer interaction. A question remains as to the importance in HCI contexts of higher-frequency breath pressure content. As was previously noted, breath pressure modulations are primarily associated with extended techniques and are not necessary for the general production of musical tones in wind instruments. That said, these authors feel that devices designed for HCI applications should strive to achieve a full range of possible sensory input. Restricting breath pressure control to slowly varying contexts will only continue the disconnect felt by many performers with respect to available music input devices.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Figure 5: MIDI pressure signals from WX11 and WX5 wind controllers during upward hum. From Fig. 5, the hum component that begins around 100 Hz is seen to reect at about 160 Hz for the WX11 and around 140 Hz for the WX5. These rough estimates can be further veried by considering the second and third partial components of the modulation signal. In the case of the WX11, the second partial is aliased to a downward sweep from about Hz and the third partial is aliased to a downward sweep from about Hz, followed by a reected upward sweep. A similar analysis can be made for the WX5 plot. From this, we can conclude that the WX11 and WX5 controllers implement sample rates of about 320 Hz and 280 Hz, respectively.
The authors would like to thank Kelly Braun and John Henderson for their help in acquiring measurements for this study. Support for this research was received from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation. As well, the WX11 MIDI wind controller used in this study was generously donated to the rst author by the Yamaha Corporation in 1993.

6. REFERENCES

[1] G. T. Beauregard. Rethinking the design of wind controllers. Masters thesis, Dartmouth College, 1991. [2] P. R. Cook. A meta-wind-instrument physical model, and a meta-controller for real time performance control. In Proc. 1992 Int. Computer Music Conf., pages 273276, San Jose, California, 1992. Comp. Music Assoc. [3] P. R. Cook and G. P. Scavone. Audio Anecdotes: A Cookbook of Audio Algorithms and Techniques, chapter The Synthesis ToolKit (STK) in C++. A.K. Peters, Natick, MA, 2004. [4] I. Fritz. http://home.earthlink.net/ijfritz/. [5] International Wind Synthesis Association. http://windsynth.org/. [6] G. P. Scavone. Modeling and control of performance expression in digital waveguide models of woodwind instruments. In Proc. 1996 Int. Computer Music Conf., pages 224227, Hong Kong, 1996. Comp. Music Assoc. [7] G. P. Scavone. THE PIPE: Explorations in Breath Control. In Proceedings of the NIME-03 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Montreal, Canada, pages 1518, May 2003.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study indicate that breath pressure signals can contain signicant frequency content up to 1 kHz and beyond. The highest-frequency components result from vibrations of the vocal folds, most typically at a periodic rate with associated harmonics. These vocalizations subsequently modulate the oscillations of the air column under playing conditions. We have also analyzed several commercial pressure sensors to estimate frequency response and adequacy for use in sensing high-frequency breath pressure content. While most of these devices appear designed pri-

Wind MIDI Controller

Extraordinary Playability and Versatility
The Yamaha WX5 Wind MIDI Controller takes wind MIDI control to new levels of performance and playability. With precise, responsive wind and lip sensors, a choice of single-reed or recorder type mouthpieces, and a range of fingering modes, the WX5 makes expressive wind control more accessible than ever before. The WX5 gives experienced wind players a new medium and vastly expanded sonic possibilities in a familiar format, playable enough for beginners.

Expressive Controls

The WX5 provides expressive control and nuances that are simply not available with keyboards or other MIDI controllers. Although it is ideal for use with just about any MIDI tone generator or synthesizer, combined with a state-of-the-art tone generator such as the Yamaha VL70m Virtual Acoustic Tone Generator, the WX5 is capable of expressive depth and tonal subtlety that rivals the finest acoustic instruments.

Most Advanced

The Yamaha WX5 Wind MIDI Controller is simply the most advanced, most versatile, most playable and most expressive MIDI controller of its kind.
If You Already Play a Wind Instrument.
The WX5 is your key to vastly expanded expression and musical scope. You'll be able to use familiar fingering and techniques to play an unlimited range of new sounds. Play the WX5 like a saxophone, for example, but sound like a trombone, piano, electric guitar, bass. literally any sound that gives you the musical effect you want. Why leave this type of sonic versatility to the keyboard players?
If You've Never Played a Wind Instrument Before.
The WX5 is easy to learn. You can choose a fingering that you're most comfortable with right from the beginning. And, unlike an acoustic wind instrument, it doesn't take months of practice just to get a decent tone. The reedless recorder type mouthpiece supplied in addition to the saxophone type mouthpiece makes playing even easier. An extensive range of customizable parameters lets you set up the WX5 to play the way you want it to.The WX5 can open the door to a whole new world of expression.
Play Any MIDI Tone Generator
MIDI, the Music Instrument Digital Interface, is the standard used by virtually every modern MIDI tone generator or other electronic music device available from any manufacturer. Since the WX5 is a 100% MIDI-compatible controller, it can be used to play any MIDI tone generator on the market today - starting with the extensive lineup available from Yamaha.
Use the WX5 with the Yamaha VL70-m or MU Series Tone Generators
The Yamaha VL70m Virtual Acoustic Tone generator is a perfect match for the WX5. Although a mono tone generator, its advanced computer-modeling technology delivers some of the most realistic and expressive wind-instrument sounds available in any tone generator system. The MU-series XG tone generators are also an excellent choice. But you're in no way limited: choose the MIDI tone generator that provides the type of sound you want.
High-Resolution Wind and Lip Sensors with Precision Calibration Controls
The WX5 translates the player's breath and lip pressure to MIDI data via high-resolution wind and lip sensors that can be precisely calibrated to match individual playing characteristics. If you normally play sax, for example, you can set up the WX5 so that it plays almost exactly the same as your acoustic instrument. That way you can switch back and forth between instruments without even having to think about adjusting your style.
A Choice of Fingering Modes
Whether you're an experienced wind instrument player or a beginner, one of the WX5's four selectable fingering modes will provide optimum playability for you. The "Saxaphone (c)" mode, in particular, allows the same type of alternate fingerings that sax players use to add subtle variety and expression to their sound.

Saxophone (a) Fingering Mode
Basically the same as saxophone fingering, except that the fingering remains the same in all octaves, and thus easy to learn.
Saxophone (b) Fingering Mode
This mode is similar to Saxophone (a), but with additional trill key functions to facilitate rapid passages. This fingering is similar to that on the WX5's predecessor, the Yamaha WX11 Wind MIDI Controller.

Flute Fingering Mode

Similar to flute fingering, this mode is ideal for players who are familiar with flute fingering. Rather that continuous pitch bend in response to lip pressure, the pitch jumps up one octave when lip pressure is applied simulating the "overblow" octave shift on an acoustic flute.
Saxophone (c) Fingering Mode
A variation of the Saxophone (a) fingering mode, this mode allows saxophone-type alternate fingerings. Although alternate fingerings produce the same note, they produce slight variations in pitch and timbre which can be used for musical effect.
WX5 and VL70-m Virtual Acoustic Tone Generator
WX5 and VL70m Acoustic Tone Generator: The perfect match: extraordinarily realistic and expressive wind instrument sounds, as well as direct connection via the WX cable without the need for batteries or an AC Adaptor.
WX5 and MIDI Tone Generator
Basic but very versatile, this is the type of setup you'll use with any MIDI tone generator of your choice.
WX5 with the MFC10 Foot controller
With the MFC10 Foot Controller you can switch voices, control volume or other parameters, and generally change setups via foot control without interrupting your performance.
WX5 and QY70 or QY700 Music Sequencer
The WX5 can be connected to an integrated sequencer/tone generator unit such as the Yamaha QY70 or QY700 to allow convenient recording and playback of MIDI data.
Comprehensive Setup Capability and Versatile Realtime Control
In additon to connectors, calibration controls and setup switches, the "thumb side" of the WX5 offers a range of controls and features which are not available on conventional acoustic instruments.

Sensor Gain Controls

These four controls adjust the gain and zero point of the wind and lip sensors for optimum playability.

Octave Keys

These keys allow you to shift the pitch of the instrument up or down by one, two, or three octaves while playing.

Setup Button

Used in conjunction with other WX5 control buttons, the Setup Button allows software wind gain, octave transpose, and other settings to be changed while playing.

Pitch Bend Wheel

Like the pitch bend wheel on keyboard synthesizers, the WX5 pitch bend wheel can be used to produce smooth pitch bends.

Key Hold Button

The Key Hold button controls any of the four assignable key hold functions.

Program Change Button

Used in conjunction with the instrument's keys, the Program Change button can be used to transmit MIDI program changes and bank numbers to the connected MIDI tone generator in order to change voices directly from the WX5.

MIDI Out Connector

When not using the WX cable, this connector is used to directly connect the WX5 to a MIDI tone generator via a standard MIDI cable.

WX Out Connector

This connector allows the WX5 to be directly connected to compatible Yamaha tone generators (such as the VL70m) via the supplied WX cable.
Customize the WX5 for Your Playing Requirements Dip Switches 1 - 3
The WX5 has 16 DIP switches which allow it to be customized to meet your individual playing requirements. 1. Velocity: determines whether the key-on velocity (i.e. the attack of each note) will be fixed or controlled by wind pressure; 2. Wind Sensor to MIDI data: specifies the type of MIDI data which the WX5 wind data will be transmitted; 3. Wind Curve: determines the relationship between breath pressure and the output MIDI volume data

Dip Switches 4 - 6

4. Tight Lip/Loose Lip Mode: selects the Tight Lip or Loose Lip playing mode;
5. Lip Data Range: determines the range of data which can be produced via lip control - "Normal" or "Wide"; 6. LipData: specifies the type of MIDI data which the WX5 lip data will be transmitted - "Pitch Bend" or "Modulation".

Dip Switches 7 - 10

7. Lip + Control Change Data: determines whether or not MIDI control change number #18 will be added to the lip data transmitted by the WX5; 8. Transpose: sets the "key" of the WX5: i.e. the actual pitch played when all keys are closed - "C2," "Bb1," or "Eb2." 9. Fingering: specifies the WX5 fingering mode - "Saxophone (a)," "Saxophone (b)," "Saxophone (c)," or "Flute"; 10. Fast Response: sets the speed at which the WX5 will respond when a note is played.

Dip Switches 11 - 12

11. High D/D# Key Assign: determines whether the high D and D# keys will be used normally as playing keys, or to transmit control change data; 12. Pitch Bend to MIDI Data: determines the initial power-on Pitch Bend Wheel control mode.

Specifications:

Controls Note keys (16 keys including assignable high keys (2), Octave Change Keys (4) (Control range: 7 octave), Pitch Bend wheel, Setup Switch, Hold Switch (Key Hold/Sustain/Portament), Program Change Switch, Power On/Off Switch WIND ZERO, WIND GAIN, LIP GAIN, LIP ZERO Key Transpose: C2,Bb1,Eb; Octave Transpose: 5 step (-2/-1/0+1/+2) Saxophone (a), Saxophone (b), Saxophone (c), Flute Velicoty:On/Off; Wind Data: CC#2(Breath Controller), CC#7(Volume), CC#11(Expression); Wind Curve: Normal/Hard; Lip Mode: Tight Lip/Loose Lip; Lip Range: Normal/Wide; Lip Data: Pitch bend/Modulation wheel; Lip+ CC#18 (Gen3): On/Off; Transpose: C2/Bb1/Eb2; Fingering: Saxophone (a,b,c), Flute; Fast Response: On/Off; High D,D# key assign: On (D:CC#81, D#: CC#80)/Off; Pitch Bend Data: Pitch bend Up and Pitch bend Down/Modulation wheel and Pitch bend Down/CC#16 (Gen1) and CC#17(Gen2) Bright Up/ Down Wind Sensor, Lip Sensor Red LED x 2 (WIND Monitor, LIP ZERO Monitor) 10 - 16 channel MIDI Out connector, WX Out connector (Power and MIDI Out), DC in Jack UM-4, AAA, R03 x 6, PA3B AC Adapter, WX Out Connector (from compatible Yamaha Tone Generators or BT7 MIDI/Power Pack) 611 x 62 x 70 mm 520 g

Rotary Controls Transpose Fingering Dip Switches
Sensors LED MIDI Transmit Channel Connections Power Suppy Dimnsions ( L x W x D) Weight

Accessories:

Included:
Soft Case WX Cable Strap Recorder Cream Mouthpiece
Saxophone Type Mouthpiece (attached), Mouthpiece Cap (attached), Recorder type Mouthpiece

Optional:

VL70M VL70m Virtual Acoustic Tone Generator is a compact, low-cost addition to Yamaha's expanding line of Virtual Acoustic Synthesis instruments, giving electronic musicians unprecedented musical flexibility. MIDI Foot Controller - Provides remote switching of up to 100 control change parameters and 128 program change numbers (or up to 12,800 control change parameters if 100 bank select messages are used), and more. MIDI/Power Pack for the WX5 Music sequencer Music sequencer

BT7 QY70 QY700

PROTECTIVE GEAR: YCWX5 Deluxe hardshell case for the WX5 Wind Controller. Inside this hardshell case your Yamaha wind controller rests safely surrounded by custom formed foam with a soft valour covering.

 

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