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|incacadet||12:16pm on Monday, June 21st, 2010|
|The YSP YAMAHA YAMAHA AV equipment series is a special and long strips of loudspeaker inside a lot of small monomer monomers, by the voice. The Yamaha YST-FSW150 is oriented horizontally subwoofer which only 6 inches high.|
|pracslipkerm||1:07am on Tuesday, June 1st, 2010|
|Stand) FEATURES MORE ....... Type ....... Advanced Yamaha Active Servo Technology II Driver ..............................................|
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POWERED MULTIMEDIA SPEAKERS
Active Servo Technology
OWNERS MANUAL / MODE DEMPLOI
POWERED MULTIMEDIA SPEAKERS YST-MS28
V O LU M E
Explanation of Graphical Symbols
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN
The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol, within an equilateral triangle, is intended to alert you to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage within the products enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK). NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert you to the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the appliance.
WARNING TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS UNIT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE.
IMPORTANT! Please record the serial number of this unit in the space below. Model: Serial No.: The serial number is located on the rear of the unit. Retain this Owners Manual in a safe place for future reference.
Read Instructions All the safety and operating instructions should be read before the unit is operated. Retain Instructions The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference. Heed Warnings All warnings on the unit and in the operating instructions should be adhered to. Follow Instructions All operating and other instructions should be followed. Water and Moisture The unit should not be used near water for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool, etc. Carts and Stands The unit should be used only with a cart or stand that is recommended by the manufacturer. should be moved with care. Quick stops, excessive force, and uneven surfaces may cause the unit and cart combination to overturn.
10 Power Sources The unit should be connected to
a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the unit.
11 Power-Cord Protection Power-supply cords
should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the unit.
12 Cleaning The unit should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer.
13 Nonuse Periods The power cord of the unit
should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time.
14 Object and Liquid Entry Care should be taken so
that objects do not fall into and liquids are not spilled into the inside of unit.
6A An unit and cart combination
15 Damage Requiring Service The unit should be
serviced by qualied service personnel when:
A. The power-supply cord or the plug has been
B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled
into the unit; or
Wall or Ceiling Mounting The unit should be mounted to a wall or ceiling only as recommended by the manufacturer. Ventilation The unit should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. For example, the unit should not be situated on a bed, sofa, rug, or similar surface, that may block the ventilation openings; or placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the ow of air through the ventilation openings. Heat The unit should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, stoves, or other appliances that produce heat.
C. The unit has been exposed to rain; or D. The unit does not appear to operate normally or
exhibits a marked change in performance; or
E. The unit has been dropped, or the enclosure
16 Servicing The user should not attempt service
the unit beyond those means described in the operating instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualied service personnel.
17 Power Lines An outdoor antenna should be
located away from power lines.
18 Grounding or Polarization Precautions should be
taken so that the grounding or polarization is not defeated.
FCC INFORMATION (for US customers only)
1. IMPORTANT NOTICE: DO NOT MODIFY THIS UNIT! This product, when installed as indicated in the
instructions contained in this manual, meets FCC requirements. Modications not expressly approved by Yamaha may void your authority, granted by the FCC, to use the product. Compliance with FCC regulations does not guarantee that interference will not occur in all installations. If this product is found to be the source of interference, which can be determined by turning the unit OFF and ON, please try to eliminate the problem by using one of the following measures: Relocate either this product or the device that is being affected by the interference. Utilize power outlets that are on different branch (circuit breaker of fuse) circuits or install AC line lter/s. In the case of radio or TV interference, relocate/reorient the antenna. If the antenna lead-in is 300 ohm ribbon lead, change the lead-in to coaxial type cable. If these corrective measures do not produce satisfactory results, please contact the local retailer authorized to distribute this type of product. If you can not locate the appropriate retailer, please contact Yamaha Corporation of America, 6600 Orangethorpe Ave, Buena Park, CA 90620 The above statement apply ONLY to those products distributed by Yamaha Corporation of America or its subsidiaries.
2. IMPORTANT: When connecting this product to accessories and/or another product use only high quality shielded cables. Cable/s supplied with this product MUST be used. Follow all installation instructions. Failure to follow instructions could void your FCC authorization to use this product in the USA.
3. NOTE: This product has been tested and found to comply
with the requirements listed in FCC Regulations, Part 15 for Class B digital devices. Compliance with these requirements provides a reasonable level of assurance that your use of this product in a residential environment will not result in harmful interference with other electronic devices. This equipment generates/uses radio frequencies and, if not installed and used according to the instructions found in the users manual, may cause interference harmful to the operation of other electronic devices.
FOR CANADIAN CUSTOMERS
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK, MATCH WIDE BLADE OF PLUG TO WIDE SLOT AND FULLY INSERT. THIS CLASS B DIGITAL APPARATUS COMPLIES WITH CANADIAN ICES-003.
POUR LES CONSOMMATEURS CANADIENS
POUR VITER LES CHOCS LECTRIQUES, INTRODUIRE LA LAME LA PLUS LARGE DE LA FICHE DANS LA BORNE CORRESPONDANTE DE LA PRISE ET POUSSER JUSQUAU FOND. CET APPAREIL NUMRIQUE DE LA CLASSE B EST CONFORME LA NORME NMB-003 DU CANADA.
We Want You Listening For A Lifetime
YAMAHA and the Electronic Industries Associations Consumer Electronics Group want you to get the most out of your equipment by playing it at a safe level. One that lets the sound come through loud and clear without annoying blaring or distortion and, most importantly, without affecting your sensitive hearing. Since hearing damage from loud sounds is often undetectable until it is too late, YAMAHA and the Electronic Industries Associations Consumer Electronics Group recommend you to avoid prolonged exposure from excessive volume levels.
System Example / Exemple de connexion
TO RIGHT SPEAKER
TO LEFT SPEAKER
E M LU O V
SATELLITE RIGHT SPEAKER SATELLITE LEFT SPEAKER
Portable CD player / Lecteur de CD portatif Keyboard / Clavier CD-ROM player / Lecteur de CD ROM Personal computer /Ordinateur individuel 3.5 mm stereo mini-plug cable (Accessories) / Cble avec ches mini-jack stro 3,5 mm (Accessoires)
Front & Rear Panels / Face et Face arrire
INPUT 1 INPUT 2
Please read the following operating precautions before use: When disconnecting the AC power cord from an AC receptacle, hold and pull the plug, not the power cord. If the YST-MS28s are not going to be used for a while, disconnect the AC power cord from the AC receptacle. Always disconnect the AC power cord from the AC receptacle before making any connections. The YST-MS28s do not contain any user serviceable parts. Refer all servicing to your Yamaha dealer. Never open the cabinet. If a foreign object drops into the set, contact your dealer, and do not use the YST-MS28s. Otherwise, you may cause a re. Do not expose the YST-MS28s to temperature extremes, direct sunlight, excessive dust, humidity, or vibration. Position the YST-MS28s on a level, stable surface. Do not drop the YST-MS28s, apply excessive force to their controls, or put heavy items on top of them. Since this unit has a built-in power amplier, heat will radiate from the rear panel. Therefore, place the unit apart from the walls, allowing a space of at least 10 cm (3-15/16") above, behind and on the both sides of the unit. Also, do not position with the rear panel facing down on the oor or other surface. (Subwoofer only) Do not obstruct the port with your hand or a foreign object. To protect the YST-MS28 speakers, avoid microphone feedback, continuous and excessive output from electronic musical instruments, and excessive signal distortion. If the YST-MS28s are located close to uorescent or neon lights, a slight hum may be heard. In this case, relocate the YST-MS28s away from the light. Although the YST-MS28 speakers are magnetically shielded, keep oppy disks and tapes away from them. The YST-MS28s may cause picture distortion when located close to a television or computer monitor. In this case, move them away a short distance. Avoid sources of hum (transformers, motors). To prevent re or electrical shock, do not expose to rain and water. Do not use force on switches, knobs or cords. When moving the YST-MS28s, rst turn the YST-MS28s off. Always turn the volume control counterclockwise before starting to play the audio source: increase the volume gradually to an appropriate level after the playback has started.
This unit is not disconnected from the AC power source as long as it is connected to the wall outlet, even if this unit itself is turned off. This state is called the standby mode. In this state, this unit is designed to consume a very small quantity of power.
Connections & Controls
Refer to the illustrations on page 1.
1 INPUT 1 and 2: These 3.5 mm jacks are used to
input signals to the YST-MS28s. You can, for example, connect a CD-ROM player and personal computer to these jacks. The signals from these jacks are mixed together. TO RIGHT SPEAKER: Connect the right speaker here. TO LEFT SPEAKER: Connect the left speaker here. BASS control: Use this control to adjust the volume of the subwoofer. We recommend that the control be set to the 11 or 12-oclock position. Turn it clockwise to increase the volume; counterclockwise to decrease it. (Headphone): A pair of stereo headphones can be connected here for private listening. The YSTMS28 speakers do not produce sound when headphones are connected to this jack. VOLUME control: Use this control to adjust the volume of the left and right speakers. Turn it clockwise to increase the volume; counterclockwise to decrease it. (power) switch and indicator: Press the (power) switch to turn on the YST-MS28s; the power indicator lights up. Press again to turn off. Turn down the VOLUME control before turning on and off the YST-MS28s.
Speaker angle and Non skid pad
You can adjust the speaker angle. To prevent the speakers from sliding around, attach the supplied pads to the four points on the bottom of each main speaker, as shown below. Place the speaker on a stable, at surface.
Thank you for purchasing Yamahas YST-MS28 Powered Multimedia Speakers. Yamahas Active Servo Technology offers exceptionally high performance.
Type Output power Input sensitivity Input impedance Frequency response Speaker unit Power consumption Power supply Active Servo Technology Satellite speakers. 5 W + 5 W (1 kHz, 4 at T.H.D.=10%) Subwoofer.. 15 W (100 Hz, 4 at T.H.D.=10%) 200 mV (1 kHz, 4 at 5 W) 10 k 40 Hz to 20 kHz Satellite speakers. 5 cm (2") full-range cone, magnetic shielding Subwoofer.. 12 cm (5") cone, magnetic shielding
25 W U.S.A. and Canada models. AC 120 V, 60 Hz Australia model. AC 240 V, 50 Hz U.K. and Europe models.. AC 230 V, 50 Hz General model. AC 110/120/220/240 V, 50/60 Hz Dimensions (WHD) Satellite speakers. 80 (3-1/8") 70 (2-3/4") 120 (4-3/4") mm Subwoofer.. 148 (5-13/16") 283 (11-1/8") 210 (8-1/4") mm Weight Satellite speakers. 0.35 kg (12 oz.) 2 Subwoofer.. 4 kg (8 lbs. 13 oz.) Finish YST-MS28 W. Computer white YST-MS28 B.. Black Accessories 3.5 mm stereo mini-plug cable 1 (1.8m), 8 non skid pads 1 * Specications subject to change without notice.
If the speakers fail to operate normally, check the following table. It lists common operation errors and simple measures that you can take to correct problems. If a problem cannot be corrected, or the symptom is not listed, disconnect the AC power cord and contact your authorized YAMAHA dealer or service center for help.
FAULT No sound comes from the speakers or subwoofer. CAUSE The AC power cord is not properly plugged into the wall outlet. The (power) switch is turned OFF. CURE Insert the AC power cord rmly into the wall outlet. Turn ON the (power) switch (the indicator lights).
Connections are faulty or incomplete. The volume is set to minimum.
Make the connections again, rmly, or use a different cable. Turn the speaker VOLUME control to the right to increase the volume. Turn the subwoofer VOLUME control to the right to increase the volume.
The level of the signal being input is too low. Turn up the volume on the connected component. Headphones are connected. Sound is distorted. Noise. Noise is heard when the power is turned on. The level of the signal being input is too high. Connections are faulty or incomplete. The power cord of this unit connected to another units SWITCHED AC OUTLET. Disconnect the headphones. Turn down the volume on the connected component. Make the connections again, rmly, or use a different cable. Connect the power cord to an UNSWITCHED AC OUTLET. Make sure to use the (power) switch on this unit to turn on and off.
Even if the (power) switch is turned OFF, a small amount of sound may be heard from the headphones if the VOLUME control is set to MAX. This is normal.
Active Servo Technology Bafes satellites..5 W + 5 W (1 kHz, 4 avec une dist. harm. =10%) Subwoofer..15 W (100 Hz, 4 avec une dist. harm. =10%) Sensibilit dentre 200 mV (1 kHz, 4 5 W) Impdance dentre 10 k Rponse en frquence 40 Hz 20 kHz Haut-parleur Bafes satellites..5 cm (2") cne full-range, protection magntique Subwoofer..Cne 12 cm (5"), protection magntique Consommation 25 W Alimentation Modle pour les E.U. et le Canada. AC 120 V, 60 Hz Modle pour lAustralie.. AC 240 V, 50 Hz Modle pour le R.U. et lEurope. AC 230 V, 50 Hz Modle Gnral.. AC 110/120/220/240 V, 50/60 Hz Dimensions (L H P) Bafes satellites..120 mm Subwoofer..210 mm Poids Bafes satellites..0,35 kg (12 oz.) 2 Subwoofer..4 kg (8 lbs. 13 oz.) Finition YST-MS28 W..Blanc ordinateur YST-MS28 B..Noire Accessoires Cble avec ches mini-jack stro 3,5mm 1 (1,8m), 8 pieds anti-drapage 1 * Spcication sujettes modications sans pravis. Type Puissance de sortie
En cas de problme
Transportation Research Part F 4 (2002) 219241
The eects of music tempo on simulated driving performance and vehicular control
Department of the Arts, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel Received 7 June 2001; received in revised form 20 September 2001; accepted 3 October 2001
Abstract The automobile is currently the most popular and frequently reported location for listening to music. Yet, not much is known about the eects of music on driving performance, and only a handful of studies report that music-evoked arousal generated by loudness decreases automotive performance. Nevertheless, music tempo increases driving risks by competing for attentional space; the greater number of temporal events which must be processed, and the frequency of temporal changes which require larger memory storage, distract operations and optimal driving capacities. The current study explored the eects of music tempo on PC-controlled simulated driving. It was hypothesized that simulated driving while listening to fast-paced music would increase heart rate (HR), decrease simulated lap time, and increase virtual trac violations. The study found that music tempo consistently aected both simulated driving speed and perceived speed estimates: as the tempo of background music increased, so too did simulated driving speed and speed estimate. Further, the tempo of background music consistently aected the frequency of virtual trac violations: disregarded red trac-lights (RLs), lane crossings (LNs), and collisions (ACs) were most frequent with fast-paced music. The number of music-related automobile accidents and fatalities is not a known statistic. Police investigators, drivers, and trac researchers themselves are not mindful of the risks associated with listening to music while driving. Implications of the study point to a need for drivers' education courses to raise public awareness about the eects of music during driving. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Simulated driving; Music eects; Vehicular music; Music tempo; Driving performance; Control; Speed estimates
Tel.: +972-8-6461443; fax: +972-8-6472822. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (W. Brodsky).
1369-8478/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S - ( ) 5 - 0
W. Brodsky / Transportation Research Part F 4 (2002) 219241
1. Introduction 1.1. Vehicular music listening The use of music in everyday life has nally been taken to the center stage of music science research. Until now, few studies have documented how real people employ music in particular social spaces or temporal settings. But recently, several studies have capitalized on a conceptual underpinning whereby the eects of music are not disassociated from the specic contexts of use; these point to the fact that not only do we do things to music, but most of the time we do things with music. DeNora's ethnographic study exploring how music is used in Western culture conrms that we ride, eat, fall asleep, dance, romance, daydream, exercise, celebrate, protest, purchase, worship, meditate, and procreate with music playing in the background (cf. DeNora, 2000). To investigate everyday involvement with music, Sloboda cued the responses of 500 representative correspondents of the 1998 Sussex Mass Observation survey (Sheridan, 2000) with questions such as: `Do you use music in dierent ways?' and, `Are they (i.e., the music pieces) linked to particular times, places, activities, or moods?' The ndings demonstrate that activities which were accompanied by music were predominantly domestic or solitary, and most frequently included housework or driving (Sloboda, 1999). In a follow-up study investigating specic functions of music in everyday life, (Sloboda, O'Neill, & Ivaldi, 2000, 2001) studied diary-type journals of non-musician participants whereby entries were written subsequent to hearing a random pager signal 7-times per day for one week. The whereabouts of the participants most often recorded in the journals was their home (50%) and workplace (21%), while transit (10%), and commercial outlets/entertainment venues (6%) were also reported but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the frequency to which music was experienced during episodes was signicantly contrary: transportation (91%), commercial outlets/entertainment venues (86%), home (46%), and workplace (5%). The study demonstrates that while many situations involving everyday activities oer little room for music involvement, other types of activities are more open to such stimuli. Accordingly, music exposure is more likely to occur when the person is alone in situations associated with the opportunity for personal choice over the music (Sloboda, 1999; Sloboda et al., 2000, 2001). It is somewhat absurd that the popular location where individuals seem to be found when they listen to music is not in the comfort of their living room, nor is it shared with social agents such as intimate partners, extended family, or friends. Rather, the circumstance most frequently reported while listening to music involves unaccompanied vehicular driving. It should not, then, be surprising that many automobile consumers outt their vehicle as an audio-environment. Over the past decade, the once-upon-a-time standard AM/FM car-radio receiver has been replaced with the radio/tape-cassette player as a stock-item. Today, many drivers further customize their automobile with audio-components including compact-disk players, changers, ampliers, equalizers, and speakers of various congurations and frequency ranges. This consumer behavior sparked-o several studies (Melka & Pelent, 1999; Ramsey & Simmons, 1993) which measured owneradjusted acoustic outputs of car stereo systems, and evaluated the overall sound quality of various cabin-positioned loudspeaker installations. These studies highlight the subjectivity for acoustical and psychological peculiarities of listening to reproduced music in car interiors. Clearly, the future
trends for `audiophile-drivers' will involve customizing their vehicles with PC-interfacing downloadable MP3-players. The relationship between music, driver, and the automobile was studied by Oblad (2000) who presumed that more than just an attraction, individuals have specic expectations when they play music in the car. She felt that it is not necessarily the music drivers want to listen to, but rather, they simply want to spend time in the car with accompanying music. Oblad reported that the music played most often in the car was rhythmic, vocal, and familiar popular hit songs or varieties of `rock' music. She claimed that many drivers were aware of their own reactions to specic melodies, and chose music pieces dierentially. Accordingly, participants described the eects of music as inuencing both their rhythms of driving and concentration, as well as charging their perceptions of relaxation and stimulation. Drivers reported to feel `near' or `inside' the music, and perceived the experience as `impenetrable'. Oblad postulated the existence of an interactive codependent relationship between driving and music, which was conceived early in one's driving history during the mid-late teen-years. It is interesting to note that previous studies (Arnett, 1991, 1992; Gregersen & Berg, 1994) pointed to an inter-relationship between music and driving, but these directly associated specic music with negative lifestyle, driving recklessness, and trafc accidents; `heavy-metal' and `hard-rock' music correlated with signicantly higher rates of driving while intoxicated, accelerated driving speeds, and trac accidents among adolescents and young novice drivers. Finally, exploring the impact of music on driving performance, Oblad employed a car designed by the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute to monitor spontaneous verbal commentaries, as well as on-the-road performance parameters including clutch, brake, and accelerator pedals. Oblad reported that accelerated driving speeds occurred as a result of the music being played in the car. She noted that when a driver liked the music, the sound level could never be high enough, and intensity level always caused accelerated cruising speeds. 1.2. Eects of intensity on vehicular control In a recent review (Staum & Brotons, 2000) ve music-listening environments dierentiated by their intensity levels (dBA) were identied: comfortable listening 70 dBA; symphony concert (76100 dBA); Walkman headphone 90 dBA; bar and dance-club 100 dBA; and amplied rock concert > 112 dBA. It is of particular interest, then, that Ramsey and Simmons (1993) previously measured in-car driver-adjusted acoustic outputs in the 83130 dBA range. One must question if aural stimuli presented at intensity levels as these impede on driving performance (and therefore place the driver at increased risk), or facilitate driving performance (and hence reduce actual everyday hazards). For example, a most interesting study by Ayres and Hughes (1986) demonstrated that dierent types of aural stimuli presented at the same level of intensity do not necessarily encode the same acoustic characteristics, nor cause the same level of eects. The study found that while visual search and pursuit tracking tasks were unaected, visual acuity was impaired when loud background music (107 dBA) was presented (but no eects were seen for music at 70 dBA nor for either noise at 70 dBA or noise at 107 dBA). This nding suggests that momentary peak levels in loud-music may play a role in disrupting vestibulo-ocular control. Clearly while not all auditory stimuli interfere with visual tasks, music is somewhat dierent than other forms of aural stimuli (for example, noise and verbal instructions) in that it is more prone to cause
temporary havoc with performing primary tasks (and it may even increase demands exceeding dual-task processing capacity). In actuality, some people feel that driving with music in the background is itself the cause of automobile catastrophes. Spinney (1997) challenged such speculations demonstrating that music exposure during driving actually increased performance ability with improved reaction times; accordingly, background music facilitates avoidance of driving hazards. Turner, Ferdandez, and Nelson (1996) also found a signicant decrease in response time to randomly presented unexpected red lights (representing automobile rear break-lights) with music at 70 dBA (but not for either music at 60 dBA or music at 80 dBA). Nevertheless, most people believe that soft music facilitates driving (or at least does not aect the cognitive aspects of the performance), while loud music impairs vehicular control. This belief may be perpetuated as driving is seen as a complex task involving a vigilance component. Hence, certain aspects of driving are expected to improve with low-to-moderate intensity background music. With this in mind, Beh and Hirst (1999) explored low-demand single-task driving versus high-demand multi-task driving under soft (55 dBA) and loud (85 dBA) background music conditions. The results indicated that while the simple tracking tasks were not aected by either music intensity, and that response times to centrally located visual signals (i.e., shorter stopping times to critical signals in the driving environment) improved with both music intensities, louder music signicantly increased reaction times to peripheral signals during high-demand driving. These ndings demonstrate that while there may be benecial eects of softer music on vigilance, the improvement in response time to central signals for louder music was o-set by an increase in response time to peripherally located cues. This, then, suggests an interaction between music intensity and attentional focus, whereby lower intensity music facilitates performance requiring a broad attention span, yet higher intensity music impairs performance under such conditions. Beh and Hirst conclude that while it could be argued that louder music may be a benet to driving performance under increased attentional demand for signals located within central vision, the trade-o of an increase in response time to peripheral signals essentially nullies any advantage. On face value, it might appear that music's eects are solely attributable to `intensity' or loudness. For example, North and Hargreaves (1997) concluded that drivers tend to turn down the radio volume in heavy trac as loud arousing music requires greater processing demands. Nevertheless, it seems appurtenant to question the variance of music intensity on driving. Especially when considering that some music genres are composed of highly dense and active musical characteristics, how loud they are played might not actually have any bearing whatsoever on vehicular control. Hence, North and Hargreaves (1999b) explored the eects of music `complexity' on driving performance. The basis of their study was the following: (1) listening to a piece of music requires cognitive work (such as, analyses of musical components, and on-line temporal processing of uid auditory combinations); (2) arousing music (which is more cognitivelydemanding) will reduce the amount of attentional space available; and (3) when arousing music and driving draw simultaneously on the same limited processing capacity driving performance will be signicantly impaired. The study utilized a PC-controlled simulated 5-lap motor-race course. Low-demand and high-demand simulated driving tasks were accompanied by either moderatelyslow/soft `low-arousal' music (80 bpm at 60 dBA) or fast/moderately loud `high-arousal' music (140 bpm at 80 dBA); a measure indicating the number of beats per minute is referred to as `bpm'. The results indicated interaction eects between task diculty and music type: simulated speed-
driving was best performed in the low-demand/low arousal music combination. While these results provide valuable information, the researchers' claim to have examined `music complexity' appears unlikely. Music theorists view complexity as the resultant perception borne-out from the confederation of eects and interactions of several stimulus properties, and not as autonomous element. It would then seem imprudent to assume that it could be teased-out in such a discernible fashion. Yet, when considering their stimuli (i.e., 80 bpm at 60 dBA versus 140 bpm at 80 dBA), it might be warranted to view the study as an exploration of the combined eects of `tempo + intensity' on simulated speed driving. 1.3. Eects of tempo on vehicular control In the context of everyday environments, background music variegated by tempo have been seen to modify human motor-behavior. Studies demonstrate that supermarket shoppers move around the store more quickly with fast-paced music than with slow-paced music, restaurant patrons eat their meals more quickly in the presence of fast- rather than slow-tempo music, and drinks in pubs are consumed more quickly and aggrandize to the gradually increasing tempo of music heard in the background (Herrington & Capella, 1996; North & Hargreaves, 1999a; North, Hargreaves, & Heath, 1998). Traditionally, studies exploring the eects of music tempo investigate both the speed and accuracy of human task performance. For example, fast music increases the rate and precision of mathematical computations in stock-market environments (Mayeld & Moss, 1989), step-up self-paced line drawings (Nittono, Tsuda, Akai, & Nakajima, 2000), and accelerate driving speeds (Konz & McDougal, 1968). Moreover, several studies note that music tempo also aects aspects of human perceptual processing. Iwamiya and Sugimoto (1996) and Iwamiya (1997) reported that drivers characterized scenic country sides as either `pleasant' (with slow-tempo background music) or `powerful' (with fast-paced background music) even though identical video-clips of panned landscapes were viewed. However, the most outstanding music eect of particular relevance to driving performance is that related to time perception especially when considering how perception of `time' overlaps with the perception of `velocity'. In contexts where the visual eld is more or less stationary, music has been seen to aect time judgments. For example, shoppers incorrectly perceived that they spent more time shopping when they heard familiar background music (Yalch & Spangenberg, 2000), and patients incorrectly perceived that they spent less time waiting in reception halls when listening to music (North & Hargreaves, 1999a). These inconsistencies relate to the fact that music itself is a temporal stimulus, and that sensory input of a temporal nature perhaps interferes with other temporal perceptual impressions (such as internal timing mechanisms). North et al. (1998) point out that music preference also inuences how `time' is perceived (as less information is encoded when music is disliked), and that higher intensity levels lead to longer time-estimates (as more salient features evoke higher levels of attention, processing, and recall). Nonetheless, in contexts where the visual eld is a constantly changing stream such as during vehicular driving the eects of music may be far more complex. Levin and Zakay (1989) demonstrated that time perception relates to the number of events processed within a given period, and increases with both the amount of memory taken up by an event as well as with the number of changes that occur during a specic period. Hence, even when both faster and slower
moving objects start and stop together, faster moving objects are perceived as traveling for a longer period of time (Zakay, 1989). Conceptual links between `time', `velocity' and `distance' based on experiences that faster moving objects travel a greater distance during a xed time interval than slower moving objects is formulated at an early developmental stage. Therefore, already in childhood we equate `quicker' with `longer duration'. By the same logic, it could be hypothesized that musical stimuli which move at higher levels of perceived activity (i.e., at a faster velocity, pace, or tempo) will be perceived as longer in duration than musical stimuli which move at lower levels of perceived activity. To test such a presumption, North et al. (1998) investigated the eects of slow < 80 bpm versus fast > 120 bpm pop tunes on the perceived time spent on tness training. The study demonstrated that time spent in a gym was under-estimated, and that time estimates were less inaccurate with fast-paced music. The researchers concluded that time was experienced to some extent in terms of the subjective pace of the accompanying background music. They tie these ndings to Zakay's conceptual model accounting for eects of incongruent temporal information as distorting attention from internal cognitive timers, and further purport that the greater degree of time-inaccuracy (with slow music) was attributable to `music-situation incongruence'. 1.4. Study aims and hypothesis No study as yet has investigated the role of background music tempo on driving performance (especially while controlling for intensity). The current study was therefore planned to explore the eects of this music stimulus parameter utilizing several dependent measures (such as cardiovascular activity, simulated driving acceleration, and virtual trac violations). It was hypothesized that PC-controlled simulated driving with fast-paced background music >120 bpm at 85 dBA will signicantly increase heart rate (indicating higher levels of physiological arousal), decrease simulated lap-time (indicating accelerated speeds), and increase the amount of virtual trac violations (indicating reckless behaviors), in comparison to simulated driving with nomusic, slow-paced music, or medium-paced music. Furthermore, the extent to which the tempo of music heard during vehicular driving contributes to information processing failures has also not as yet been considered; therefore, the study investigated possible interference eects of music tempo on perceived speed-estimates. The presumption about music-situation incongruence highlights a signicantly overlooked line of research in the context of music eects on driving performance and vehicular control. This focus is especially warranted when considering the associated link between `time' (duration) and `speed' (velocity) in temporal events such as driving. While the study exclusively highlights PC-controlled simulated driving, it is clear that on-the-road inaccuracies involving perception of velocity could have serious implications. 2. Experiment 1 2.1. Participants Twenty N 20 music education students participated in the study for course credit. On average they were 32.6 years old (S.D. 7.2285), with a majority (70%) being women (a gender-
bias attributed to more female students enrolled in music education). The participants had passenger-car licenses for an average 11.4 years (S.D. 5.3860), and nearly all (95%) reported to have had no previous trac-related judicial action taken against them. It should be pointed out that self-report driving behavior has been reported as highly reliable (West, French, Kemp, & Elander, 1993). All of the participants reported that they listen to music while driving: 65% reported that they drive with music `all of the time', and 30% reported that they drive with music `most of the time'. The majority (87%) reported that they listen to moderate-tempo (85110 bpm) music, at medium-intensity (5060 dBA) sound levels.
2.2. Stimuli In order not to contaminate the music stimuli with extra-musical associations and surface cues (such as those related to popularity, language, ethnic origin, gender, sensuality, and sexual preference), the music stimuli did not include vocal performances involving lyrics, nor instrumental cover-versions of well-known popular tunes. Only neutral sounding instrumental pieces were considered. All prospective stimuli characterized a fusion music incorporating pop, rock, jazz, blues, funk, and country genres. The typical orchestration was composed of a rhythm section (drums, bass guitar, electric guitar, and electronic keyboard) and a solo instrument (electric guitar, electronic keyboard, or woodwind/brass instrument); in some pieces a backing strings-section was present for added texture or mood painting. Prospective selections were classied as either slow-tempo (4070 bpm), medium-tempo (85110 bpm), or fast-tempo (bpm). All audio-tracks were subjected to tempo criterion ratings by three independent referees (16, 25, and 43 years old), who used a Swiss-made analog Cadenzia Pocket Metronome (Neuchatel) to measure the felt pulsation of the main beat of each track. Selections that deviated between the judges by more than 10% were dropped from the stimuli pool. The nal selection of music used in the study consisted of twelve tracks (four for each of the three music tempos). See Table 1.
2.3. Apparatus Simulated driving was controlled by a Dynasty (Mitzuba) 3D Multi-Media Notebook computer (Intel 233 MMX lap-top computer, 12:1HH TFT SVGA LCD display, on-board 16-bit digital stereo sound Yamaha audio system), with external AC/powered full-range (2020 kHz) PC Stereo Speakers (Mli 691H at 7 w), and a Side-Winder Force Feedback Steering Wheel with Pedals (Microsoft). Simulated driving was executed with `Mid-Town Madness' (Chicago Edition) software (Microsoft), performed in single-user cruise mode. Music stimuli (CDs) were presented via a 24 w micro-component stereo (JVC UX-T150) with two detachable wooden-cabinet stereo speakers placed on the oor at 45 angels (upwards) facing the subject. Loudness was monitored and controlled 85 dBA with a digital sound level meter (Radio Shack #33-2055; accuracy 2 db; range 50126 db SPL). Physiologic arousal was measured continuously, recorded and stored every 15 s, with a wireless Polar Accurex-Pluse Heart rate monitor (Polar
Table 1 Music stimuli used in the study # 1 Tempo Slow Track title Stranger On The Shore Being With You Artist Kenny G Album source Classics In The Key Of G (1999, Arista/BMG) 07822-19085-2; LC 03484 Best Of George Benson: The Instrumentals (1997, Warner Bros.) 9362-46660-2; LC 0392 Late Night Guitar (1999, Blue Note/Capitol) 7243-4-98573-2-2; LC 0133 Larry Carlton Collection, Volume 2 (1997, GRP/ BMG) 11105-98892-6; LC 6713 Best Of George Benson: The Instrumentals (1997, Warner Bros.) 9362-46660-2; LC 0392 Spyro Gyra 19771987 (1997, BMG/RCA) 74321-47123-2; LC 0316 Best Of George Benson: The Instrumentals (1997, Warner Bros.) 9362-46660-2; LC 0392 Spyro Gyra 19771987 (1997, BMG/RCA) 74321-47123-2; LC 0316 This Is DJ Jurgen His Favorite Tracks Part 2 (Star Traxx, The Hague) F7056 STA-99001 This Is DJ Jurgen His Favorite Tracks Part 2 (Star Traxx, The Hague) F7056 STA-99001 This Is DJ Jurgen His Favorite Tracks Part 2 (Star Traxx, The Hague) F7056 STA-99001 This Is DJ Jurgen His Favorite Tracks Part 2 (Star Traxx, The Hague) F7056 STA-99001 BPM 56 Exposure 2:50
Like A Lover
Heart To Heart
DJ Jurgen (DJ Paul One VS Dave Scott) DJ Jurgen (Sequential One)
Kiss That Sound
DJ Jurgen (Pulsedriver IV)
The Was It Isn't
DJ Jurgen (Horney Bruce)
Electro Oy; accuracy 1% or 1 bpm). 1 The HR monitor consists of an integrated lightweight one-piece coded transmitter (elastic electrode belt) worn on the subject's chest, and a receiver watch-like monitor worn on the experimenter's wrist. HR data were downloaded via the Polar Interface Pluse serial-port data-transfer cradle with Polar Training Advisore integrated data analysis software. Total elapsed time and simulated lap-time data were logged via stopwatch timer and split-recording features of the Accurex-Plus (synchronized with all HR data recordings). 2.4. Design and test presentation The study utilized a single factor within-subjects design. Simulated driving conditions in an everyday cruising mode included: daytime hours, bright sunshine weather conditions, moderate pedestrian activity, and no additional trac. The simulation employed a virtual VW New Beetle, including: automatic transmission, dash-board digital speedometer, rearview mirror, and life-like engine-motor revs. On the right lower quadrant of the display was a small Chicago city-map indicating the current grid-position continuously updated in real-time. It should be noted that map reading was not part of design (the route used was a continuous `ring' road which did not require left- or right-turns). Total simulated driving time per subject was approximately 90 min., encompassing eight-laps of a 6-mile ring-route (3.5 miles of a 3-lane boulevard expressway + 2.5 miles of an interstate highway). The route used is highly accurate in detail but emulates a 50% scaled-down model of Chicago area and city-center (veried by `Chicago and Lake Front Vicinity' street-map, 1998 Automobile Association of America). See Fig. 1. During the laps subjects simulated driving under one of four conditions: ``NM'' no background music engine-motor at 30 dBA; ``MUS1'' slow-tempo music bpm at 85 dBA; ``MUS2'' medium-tempo music (85110 bpm at 85 dBA); or ``MUS3'' fast-tempo music P 120 bpm at 85 dBA. It should be noted that engine motor sound eects were present (but at times masked) in all music conditions. Music conditions were counter-balanced to oset eects of presentation order and acclimation to music tempo. 2.5. Procedure Each experiment ran for approximately 120 min. consisting of six segments: (a) short oral brieng; (b) tting of HR monitor; (c) completion of 10-item descriptive information questionnaire; (d) training period (ca. 10 min, 1 lap); (e) experimental task (ca. 90 min, 8 laps); and (f) debrieng. On a typical trial, a subject was exposed to the following sequence of events. After completing a short one-lap training segment, and upon entering `Sector A' of the course, the start
frequently reported for drive-time listening was `8090 s Rock' (34%), `Hebrew Rock' (29%), and `Israeli Popular Songs' (13%). It is interesting to compare these subjects to a similar sample participating in an early 1960s study (Brown, 1965) whereby only 37% reported they own or `use' a car radio. 3.2. Methodology The stimuli, apparatus, design, test presentation, procedure, and statistical methodology of Experiment 2 were the same as used previously in Experiment 1, with four exceptions: (1) the computer used to control the experiment was replaced by a DeskPro (Compaq) desk-top PC computer (Pentium III EY 666MMX, Creative EMU10K1 audio processor SoundBlaster Live/ Live!DriveII Platinum soundcard), with external AC/powered full-range (4020 K) multi-media speakers (Yamaha YST-MS28 consisting of two 2HH satellite speakers at 5 W, and one 5HH subwoofer at 15 W), and a 17HH Flat SVGA monitor (Compaq S710); (2) two items about vehicular audio equipment were added to the pre-existing 10-item questionnaire; (3) the dash-board digital speedometer was removed from the visual display, and hence municipal and interstate speed-limits were not conveyed but rather subjects were directed to simulate normal driving, to abide by safety and highway codes, and to exhibit maximum vehicular control; and (4) a speed estimation form for simulated interstate highway driving (scored on a 12-point scale representing 0120 KPH) was completed by subjects upon conclusion of each Sector C. It should be noted that as the subjects estimated driving speed in kilometers (KPH) all subsequent comparative analyses involving speed calculations converted MPH to KPH. 3.3. Results The results of Experiment 2 relate to three categorical areas: physiological data, driving performance, and vehicular control. 1. Physiological data. HRs and HRFs for each subject in each condition were entered into separate repeated measures ANOVAs. No main eects were found for HRs. However, signicant main eects of music tempo were found for HRFs (F3;81 3:39, MSe 0.7330, p < :05). See Fig. 3. Dierences of HRFs were found between the NM (mn 3.43; S.D. 1.30) and combined MUS (mn 2.86; S.D. 0.71) conditions, and these dierences were statistically signicant (t 2:806; df 27; p < :01). 2. Driving performance. Speed calculations of simulated performed speed (KPH) and perceived speed estimates (P-KPH) for each subject in each condition were entered into separate repeated measures ANOVAs. No main eects were found for KPH. See Fig. 4. However, when KPH data were re-entered into a repeated measures ANOVA across the three music conditions signicant main eects of music tempo for KPH surfaced (F2;54 3:61, MSe 140.55, p < :05). Further, signicant main eects of music tempo were found for P-KPH speed estimates (F 3; 54 7:34, MSe 49.194, p < :001). See Fig. 5. T-tests for dependent samples were used to explore the dierence (DIF) between KPH and P-KPH data. The results indicated statistically signicant dierences in every condition. See Table 2. DIF scores for every subject in each condition were entered into a repeated measure ANOVA. No main eects were found.
Fig. 3. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for HRFs.
3. Vehicular control. ACs, LNs, and RLs for each subject in each condition were entered into separate repeated measures ANOVAs. See Table 3. While main eects of music tempo for ACs were not signicant (F 3; 81 2:21, MSe 0.1940, p :09), trends in the direction of the hypothesized eect can be seen. See Fig. 6. In addition, main eects of music tempo were found for LNs (F 3; 81 11:67, MSe 7.4834, p < :0001). See Fig. 7. Moreover, while main eects of music tempo for RLs were not signicant (F 3; 81 2:62, MSe 0.7567, p 056), trends in the direction of the hypothesized eect can be seen. See Fig. 8. Further still, analyses exploring relationships between speed and trac violations indicated that subjects in a faster-driving group violated signicantly more virtual RLs while listening to fast-paced music than subjects
Fig. 4. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for simulated driving speed (KPH).
Fig. 5. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for P-KPH. Table 2 Experiment 2, dierences between simulated driving speed (KPH) and perceived speeds (P-KPH) Condition NM MUS1 MUS2 MUS3 Total cases KPH M 144.50 141.13 143.11 147.43 N 19 S.D. 30.18 32.10 26.97 30.98 P-KPH M 91.71 93.88 95.39 101.84 S.D. 10.54 10.33 10.65 12.19 DIF M 52.79 47.26 47.71 45.59 S.D. 29.81 35.16 28.42 32.02 t 7.717 5.856 7.319 6.186 df p.000.001.000.000
Table 3 Experiment 2, virtual trac violations ACs, LNs, and disregarded RLs Condition NM MUS1 MUS2 MUS3
LNs SD 0.2623 0.4484 0.3563 0.7310 Range MN 2.43 3.36 4.68 6.50
RLs S.D. 3.3602 3.9927 4.0373 6.9735 Range MNa.61.72.79 1.21 S.D. 0.7880 0.8968 1.1661 1.2280 Range 04 03
MN violation % of total sample.
in a slower-driving group (t 2:997; df 26; p < :01). See Fig. 9. Finally, positive correlations were found for average overall simulated driving speed and virtual trac violations committed across all conditions, as well as between the violation subtypes: KPHACs (r 0:53; p < :05); KPHRLs (r 0:52; p < :05); ACsRLs (r 0:45; p < :05); ACsLNs (r 0:49; p < :05).
Fig. 6. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for ACs.
Fig. 7. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for LNs.
3.4. Discussion of Experiment 2 Experiment 2 highlights vast dierences between simulated driving without music (NM) in comparison to simulated driving with background music (MUS1, MUS2, MUS3). First, HRFs were signicantly greater in the NM condition. Second, subjects' simulated driving speed was just as fast without background music as it was with medium-paced background music. Third, subjects were not aware of this inadvertent behavior and they estimated their simulated driving speed without music as quite slow. Therefore, the question as to the validity of NM driving as a
Fig. 8. Experiment 2, main eect of music tempo for disregarded RLs.
Fig. 9. Experiment 2, interaction eects between speed-group and music tempo for disregarded RLs.
comparative control condition against the eects of background music (MUS1, MUS2, MUS3) on simulated driving speed must be raised. Especially, when considering that decreases in HR variability are related to increased mental eort and stress and in the current study HRFs are a crude measure of such uctuations then it seems clear that simulated driving conditions with music gives way to states that are not present without music. Hence, from the point of view of exploring the eects of music tempo on simulated driving speed, it appears wise to exclude NM from the analysis. Within the empirical context, while the non-music driving condition was originally conceived to represent the lowest level of performance, in retrospect it was clearly a
default of the planned methodology (and hypothesis) to enter NM driving as a `control' and comparison against simulated driving with music. The fact remains that upon re-entering the simulated speed data across all three levels of music tempo, signicant main eects resulted demonstrating that as music tempo increases so too does simulated driving speed. The results of Experiment 2 indicate that subjects tended to signicantly under-estimated their simulated driving speed by an average by 45 kph, and these speed estimates consistently increased across music tempo conditions. These ndings, then, suggest that while subjects' perception of simulated velocity was generally aected by music tempo, interference eects (or perceptual inaccuracies) were not necessarily greater with fast-paced music than slow-paced music. Truth be told, background music during simulated driving (regardless of music tempo) seemed to facilitate subjects' perception of velocity to some extent; estimates without background music were found to be the most inaccurate. Therefore, the presumption about `music-situation incongruence' as a possible explanation for interference eects of music tempo on perception of velocity (i.e., speedestimate) was not demonstrated. Experiment 2 demonstrates a positive relationship between simulated driving speed (mean interstate highway driving speed) and virtual trac violations (total number of collisions and disregarded RLs committed across conditions). In addition, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the various violation subtypes. Moreover, Experiment 2 demonstrates a signicant eect of music tempo on simulated vehicular control as seen in the increased number of virtual trac violations across conditions: 7% of the subjects committed an average of 1 collision when no music was heard, 11% committed 1.3 collisions with slow-paced music, 14% committed 1 collision with medium-paced music, and 25% committed 1.4 collisions with fast-paced music; 60% of the subjects crossed lanes on average 4 times when no music was heard, 72% crossed lanes 4.7 times with slow-paced music, 93% crossed lanes 5 times with medium-paced music, and 93% crossed lanes 7 times with fast-paced music; 39% of the subjects violated an average 1.6 red-lights when no music was heard, 47% violated 1.5 red-lights with slow-paced music, 39% violated 2 redlights with medium-paced music, and 61% violated 2 RLs with fast-paced music. 4. General discussion 4.1. Summary Anecdotal evidence points to the fact that when most people drive they nd themselves simultaneously thinking about their everyday aairs and concerns, telling a story, doing mental calculations, trying to remember something, monitoring a football match, or listening to the news radio. It is especially interesting that current surveys depict a fairly new phenomenon involving unaccompanied automobile driving as the most popular and frequently reported location for listening to music. Perhaps with this in mind, drivers today outt their car for enhanced audio reproduction with CD players and custom-tted stereo speakers. Far too often we hear an automobile even before we see it, and this situation is not only annoying to pedestrians and other drivers, but perhaps represents a characteristic driver-prole associated with reckless drivingbehavior. While not much is known about the eects of music intensity on driving performance, studies tend to report that loudness leads to a decrement of automotive control. Yet, intensity is
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