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Unloading 35 mm. Film After all exposures have been made the 35 mm. film has to be rewound into its cassette. To do this: 1. 2. 3. Pull out the rewind release button "R" and give it a slight turn to keep it in this position. Rewind film by turning the protruding film spool locking knob on the base of the side wall of the camera (which also carries the 35 mm. film wind knob) in a clockwise direction until all film is rewound into the cassette. Open camera back and remove cassette by pulling out film spool locking knob, close camera. Make certain to remove and retain the auxiliary supporter shaft (stepped rod) from the cassette. You need it for the next and all future cassettes you load into the camera,
Shooting with 35 mm. Film 1. 2. 3. Advance the film to the next frame by pressing the 35 mm. film release button and turn the 35 mm. winding knob as far as it will go. Set shutter speed and aperture and cock shutter as described for shooting with roll film. (steps 2 and 3) Focus and determine picture area. The picture area for 35 mm. film is indicated on the reflex screen by the red lines. The image at infinity to 10 ft. is represented by the rectangle without the lower strip, at 3.5 ft. by that without the upper strip but including the lower one, at distances between 10 and 3.5 ft. appropriate between settings. Where using the eye-level frame finder, attach the frame finder mask provided with the conversion kit into the 2 x 2 frame to reduce the field of view to correspond with the 35 mm. size. Release the shutter.
USING 35 mm. FILMS
Above: The 35 mm. conversion unit for Model 635. 1. auxiliary spool assembly; 2. sprocket; 3. pressure plate aligning hole; 4. converter mask assembly; 5. film pressure plate; 6. 35 mm. film; 7. auxiliary supporter shaft; 8. film cassette; 9. metal adapter ring.
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Top row, left to right: To adapt the camera, pull out the rewind release button, insert the converter mask and let the button snap back. Screw the adapter spool spool supporter shaft and attach the auxiliary shaft to the cassette spool. Above, left to right: Insert the cassette in the camera and place the take-up spool in the top chamber. Fix the film end to the take-up spool. Insert the pressure plate and close camera back. Release the shutter and wind the film on three times. Finally (bottom-left), set the exposure counter to No. 1.
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YASHICA MAT AND YASHICA MAT LM Yashica Mat and Yashica Mat LM are equipped with f 3.5 Yashinon, a four-element triplet of 80 mm. focal length as taking lens and an f 3.2 Yashinon as viewing lens. The shutter is the Copal MXV giving speeds 1,,, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125,1/250 and 1/500 sec. and B for time exposure with XM flash synchronization and built-in delayed action release. The shutter speed and the aperture are actuated by thumb wheels on either side of the shutter and are read off in a cut-out window above the finder lens. Focusing is by wheel on the side of the camera with distances engraved in feet and metres. A depth of field indicator is engraved on the camera body above the focusing wheel. The film transport is fully automatic by lever wind. One movement advances film, sets shutter and operates exposure counter and is interlocked with shutter release to prevent double exposures. The folding reflex finder hood, opened and closed by one hand operation, incorporates a frame finder and focusing magnifier. The focusing screen incorporates a fresnel screen giving enhanced brightness and even illumination. The camera back is hinged on and incorporates a film pressure plate. THE YASHICA MAT has a reminder disc in the centre of the focusing wheel showing the speed of the film loaded into the camera. THE YASHICA MAT LM has a built-in photo-electric exposure meter. The cell is incorporated in the top of the front plate of the camera and the light reading window is adjacent to it. The exposure setting scale is in the centre of the focusing knob. BOTH MODELS have a bayonet mount around viewing and taking tenses to accept filters, close-up lenses and lens hood. ACCESSORIES for Yashica Mat and Mat LM include filters for colour and black-and-white photography, close-up lens sets with built-in wedge for parallax compensation, lens hood and hand grip. NOTE: To operate the transport crank without film in the camera, remove the take-up spool from the upper chamber. The automatic mechanism of the Yashica Mat and ML may jam if the crank is operated with only the bare metal spool in the take-up position. Loading 1. 2. Open camera back. Insert the film and turn up the transport crank and wind it slowly in a clockwise direction until the lateral double arrow or bar printed on the backing paper of the film points to the red markers on either side of the film aperture on the camera body. Close camera back. The letter S (= start) automatically appears in the film counter window. Get film ready for first exposure by turning the crank handle forward until it comes to a stop. The number 1 appears in the film counter window. Turn the crank handle backwards (anticlockwise) until it stops and fold it over into its rest position. The crank handle should be operated gently. The forward cranking movement must be completed before it is brought back. The shutter should not be kept cocked for long periods. It would tend in time to weaken the shutter spring and you also could inadvertently press the release and waste a film frame. Therefore, crank for first and subsequent exposures just before you are ready to take the photograph. Set film speed on Yashica Mat on the reminder disc by turning the ASA or DIN speed of the film used opposite the indicator dot on the rim. This has no function as far as working the camera is concerned; it is solely intended as a reminder. On the Yashica Mat LM set the ASA speed on the exposure setting scale. (See below under "Photo-electric Exposure Meter").
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Unloading 1. 2. 3. Wind off film, after all 12 exposures have been taken, by turning the film crank handle another 6 turns to wind off the remainder of film and backing paper. Open camera back. Remove the exposed film, close back or reload with new film.
Shooting 1. Advance the film to the next number by turning up the crank handle and swinging it smoothly forwarddownwards to its stop and then backward to its stop and fold it over into its rest position. The next number will then show in the film counter window. Select shutter speed by turning the thumb wheel (right) until the speed required appears in the cut out window on the top of the finder lens, the figures engraved 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500 are fractions of seconds and stand for 1/1,,, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125,1/250, 1/500 sec. See also the chapter on "Exposure". Select aperture by turning the thumb wheel (left) until the required aperture appears in the cut-out window on top of the finder lens. See also the chapter on "Exposure". Focus and determine picture area. See p. 10, "The Reflex Finder". Release the shutter gently by pressing the release button on the camera front.
3. 4. 5.
Special Controls TIME EXPOSURES are made by setting the shutter to B - the shutter will remain open as long as the release is depressed. Use a cable release. See the chapter on "Exposure". FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION. The shutter is XM synchronized and is set to the X or M position by pushing the lever (with yellow head) behind the aperture thumb wheel to the engraved X or M. See the chapter on "Flash". SELF-TIMER (delayed action release). This permits the photographer to appear in the picture. Place the camera on a tripod or other rigid support. Set flash synchronizing lever to X and push down the delayed action lever (with red head) on the base of the shutter as far as it will go. On pressing the shutter release, the shutter opens after a delay of approximately 10 sec. The delayed action can be used with all speeds from 1-1/500 sec. If set to B it will release but gives a speed of approximately 1/60 sec. It can also be used with flash shots, but only with X Synchronization.
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USING THE METER
On the Yashica Mat LM, first set the film speed (top left). Point the camera at the subject and read Off the key number indicated in the exposure meter window (top centre). Turn the key number ring until this number is opposite the black dot on the outer rim of the focusing knob (top right). Select an aperture/shutter speed combination from those appearing on the other side of the knob (above left) and set this combination by means of the aperture and shutter speed wheels (above right),
On the Yashica 44LM first set the film speed (top left). Point the camera at the subject and read off the key number indicated in the exposure meter window (top centre). Turn the key number ring until this number is opposite the white dot on the outer rim of the focussing knob (top rght). Select an aperture/shutter speed combination from those appearing on the other side of the knob (above left) and set this combination by means of the aperture and shutter speed wheels (above right). Scans and Document copyright by Mischa Koning - www.3106.net This document or parts thereof may not be sold and / or resold in either print form or electronically without prior written consent from Mischa Koning
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YASHICA 44LM The Yashica 44LM is equipped with f 3.5 Yashinon, a four-element triplet of 60 mm. focal length for both taking and viewing lens. The shutter is the Copal SV giving speeds 1,,, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125,1/250 and 1/500 sec. and B for time exposures with XM flash synchronization and built-in delayed-action release. The shutter speed and the aperture are actuated by thumb wheels on either side of the shutter and are read off in a cut-out window above the finder lens. Focusing is by wheel on the side of the camera with distances engraved in feet and metres. A depth of field indicator is engraved on the camera body above the focusing wheel. The film transport is semi-automatic by transport wheel which locks when the next frame is in position. An automatic exposure counter in the side wall of the camera shows the number of frames transported. An accessory shoe is fitted on the left-hand side of the body, primarily intended to accept a flash gun. The folding reflex finder hood, opened and closed by one hand operation, incorporates a frame finder and focusing magnifier. The focusing screen incorporates a fresnel screen giving enhanced brightness and even illumination. The camera back is hinged on and incorporates a film pressure plate. The Yashica 44LM has a built-in photo-electric exposure meter. The cell is incorporated in top of the front plate of the camera and the light reading window is adjacent to it. The exposure setting scale is in the centre of the focusing knob. A film speed converter from DIN to ASA is built into the focusing knob. The Yashica 44LM has a bayonet mount around viewing and taking lenses to accept bayonet-mounted filters, close-up lenses and lens hood. ACCESSORIES for Yashica 44LM include filters for colour and black-and-white photography, close-up lens sets with built-in wedge for parallax compensation, lens hood and hand grip. Loading 1. 2. Open camera back. Insert the film. To remove empty take-up spool from the top chamber, press the serrated, chromed stud on the left of the spool downwards. Then press down the right side of the spool and it will spring up. Now place the take-up spool into the lower chamber, by pushing its shaft to the left towards the spring-loaded spool holder. Place the film in the top chamber by engaging the right end of the spool shaft in the hollow on the right-hand side, and pushing it gently down on the left when it will automatically engage and lock in position. Pull paper end of film spool across film aperture and over the roller bar into the wide slot of the take-up spool. Close camera back. Get film ready for first exposure by turning the film winding knob until the figure 1 appears in the red film window on the back of the camera. Push the exposure counter reset button (above the film transport wheel) backwards, while at the same time pressing in the film release button (that is, the centre of the film transport knob). The film is now ready for the first exposure. Set film speed on the exposure setting scale in the film transport knob by turning the inner black disc until the ASA speed of the film inserted into the camera appears in the cut-out beside the engraved "ASA".
Unloading 1. Wind off film, after all 12 exposures have been taken, by operating the film transport knob (the automatic film counting window will show a red circle O) until the backing paper disappears from the red film window in the back of the camera and give another two turns. Open camera back. Remove the exposed film by pushing it to the left, when it will spring out. Close back or reload with film.
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Shooting 1. 2. Advance the film. Press film release button in the centre of the film transport knob and turn the knob as far as it will go. The next number will then appear in the automatic film counter window. Select shutter speed by turning the thumb wheel (right) until the speed required appears in the cut-out window on the top of the finder lens. The figures engraved 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 125, 250, 500 are fractions of seconds and stand for 1/1,,, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125,1/250, 1/500 sec. See also the chapter on "Exposure". Select aperture by turning the thumb wheel (left) until the required aperture appears in the cut-out window on top of the finder lens. The correct aperture for any pre-selected shutter speed is determined with the built-in exposure meter (see below). Focus and determine picture area. See the chapter on "The Reflex Finder". Release the shutter by gently pressing the release button on the camera front.
The Photo-electric Exposure Meter The Yashica 44LM has an exposure meter built into the camera top plate with a light reading window (observed from above through a built-in magnifier) on its right. The reading is converted into aperture/ shutter speeds for the speed of the film in the camera by an exposure reading scale built into the film transport knob. See the chapter on 'Exposure" for selection of appropriate aperture/speed pairing. The reading scale is calibrated in ASA film speeds. If the film speed is known in DIN, a conversion scale from DIN to ASA in the centre of the focusing knob Permits reading off the equivalent in ASA. Using the Meter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set ASA speed of the film used on the exposure setting reading scale in the film transport knob by turning the inner black disc until the ASA value appears in the cut-out. Point camera to subject. Read off the key number to which the needle in the light reading window points. Set key number (white on red base) opposite its white indicator mark on outer rim of exposure reading scale. Read off correct aperture opposite the shutter speed required on the opposite side of the ring. Transfer aperture/shutter speed to camera.
Special Controls TIME EXPOSURES are made by Setting the shutter to B. The shutter then remains open as long as the release is depressed. Use a cable release. See the chapter on "Exposure". FLASH SYNCHRONIZATION. The shutter is XM synchronized and is set to the X or M position by pushing the lever (with yellow head) behind the aperture thumb wheel to the engraved X or M. See the chapter on "Flash". SELF-TIMER (delayed action release). This permits the photographer to appear in the picture. Place the camera on a tripod or other rigid support. Set flash synchronizing lever to X and push down the delayed-action lever (with red head) on the base of the shutter as far as it will go. On pressing the shutter release, the shutter opens after a delay of approximately 10 sec. The delayed action can be used with all speeds from 1-1/500 sec. If set to B it will release but gives a speed of approximately 1/60 sec. It can also be used with flash shots, but only with X synchronization.
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The exposure meter cell measures the light and presents a reading at he exposure meter window. The focusing knob carries an ASA/DIN conversion scale to facilitate setting the film speed on the exposure scale on the film winding knob. There is a depth of field scale over the focussing knob. Over the film winding knob are the exposure counter and counter reset button. The flash socket and shutter release are at the bottom of the camera front. The focussing hood carries a magnifier and a sportsfinder frame. Aperture and shutter speed are selected by means of wheels located between the two lenses, one on either side of the camera front.
Shooting with the Yashica 44LM. Left to right: Advance the film by pushing the film release button and turning the film winding knob until it stops. Set shutter speed and aperture. Cock the shutter. Focus the picture on the screen and press shutter release. (Using the exposure meter, see next page)
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FILMS AND FILTERS There are two kinds of films available for the Yashica Reflex: black-and-white and colour. Black-and-white Film This produces a negative in which the colours and brightness range of the subject are translated into black and white. From it, prints or enlargements on paper (or, in special cases, black-and-white transparencies) can be made. The black-and-white film used normally is panchromatic. That means that it is sensitive to all colours There is a choice of several types differing mainly in sensitivity as well as certain other characteristics. SLOW FILMS are of low sensitivity, requiring comparatively great exposure. Their main advantage is the extremely fine grain, permitting a high degree of enlargement without the granular structure becoming. unpleasantly visible. Such films also yield images of the greatest sharpness. On the other hand, these slow films are not very suitable for coping with fast movement in other than exceptionally good lighting', nor for general work in poor light. Such films are rated at 40-80 ASA or 17-20 DIN. MEDIUM SPEED FILMS still yield a reasonably tine grain with good gradation. They are the most suitable material for all-round photography, other than in poor light. These films are rated at 90-160 ASA or 20-23 DIN. FAST FILMS with somewhat coarser grain (still acceptable for reasonable degrees of enlargement) will cope with most light conditions including poor light and interiors in favourable conditions. This is the right film for the photographer who wants to be prepared for the unusual, to arrest fast movement with high shutter speeds, as welt as shots in poor light. The speeds are 200-400 ASA or 24-27 DIN. ULTRA FAST FILMS are primarily intended for high speed sports shots in dull weather, interior snapshots in poor light, night photography and ill-lit stage pictures. These films are specialist types for conditions where normal materials are totally inadequate. They should not be used for general photography. The high speed is achieved at some cost in definition and graininess. Speed ratings range from 500-1600 ASA or 28-33 DIN. The above speed figures are based on the latest ASA Standard for film speeds (and on the BS and DIN standards under revision). These figures, when used on the exposure meter, give minimum correct exposures, to make the most of the versatility of the film and of the image quality. They are also the figures quoted by most film manufacturers. Sometimes films are, however, still rated according to earlier standards which in effect incorporated a generous safety factor against underexposure - by the simple process of overexposing films about 100 per cent (well within the exposure latitude of most black-and-white films). So you may come across films apparently only half as fast as others of similar type, because of this difference in ratings. The table on p. 70 indicates the current film speeds to be used with the exposure meter, even if the film packing gives a lower rating. This applies to black-and- while negative materials only; speed rating methods have not changed for colour films. There is a wide range or different makes of films in all speeds on the market. Their characteristics, apart from speed, vary slightly from make to make. It is safe to say that all well-known brands are reliable and good. The best film is the one you are used to. Professional photographers and advanced amateurs may find one or the other characteristics of a particular make - i.e., its gradation, granular structure, acutance, etc. - of particular value for specific jobs. Colour Film These films produce an image in colour after appropriate processing, corresponding directly or indirectly to the natural colours of the subject. From the practical point or view, colour film is as easy to use as black-and-white film but needs a little more care in exposure. Processing is more complex and is often carried out by the film-maker or specially appointed processing laboratories. There are two basic types of colour film: reversal and negative.
Colour Film Speeds The majority of colour films, reversal and negative, are rated between 25 and 64 ASA or 15 and 19 DIN, corresponding to a slow to medium speed for black-and-white material. A few films go up to 160 ASA or more for poor light conditions. Others may be as slow as 10 ASA or 11 DIN. As with black-and-white films, the slower types tend to yield improved image detail, especially with negative colour film, while the fastest emulsions may show slightly reduced colour saturation and image sharpness. Scans and Document copyright by Mischa Koning - www.3106.net This document or parts thereof may not be sold and / or resold in either print form or electronically without prior written consent from Mischa Koning
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The Choice of Colour Film Making your choice between colour reversal or negative film (in spite of the various uses that can be made of either type of material) remains an individual question. First there is the way you want to see the result, as a colour print or as a colour transparency. The print has no doubt much to commend itself. It is easily shown, stored and carried about. The transparency calls for the aid of a viewer or projector. Next, the cost of a colour print is about three times that of the transparency. This may at times be mitigated by the fact that from unsuitable negatives no colour prints need or can be made. The transparency user, however, has additional outlay in the form of a viewer or projector with screen (in most cases both). Yashica reflex transparencies made on size 120 film need projecting in a large-size projector which, takes 2 x 2 in. slides. Alternatively, you can cut down the transparency to fit 2 x 2 in. miniature slide frames (1 5/8 x 1 5/8 in. super slides). The Yashica Reflex 44 models (#) yield 1 5/8 x 1 5/8 in. transparencies directly. With the Yashica 635 model, used with 35 mm. film, you get 24 x 36 mm. transparencies for mounting in 2 x 2 in. standard frames. A final point to consider is the quality. The transparency will record each colour and its brilliance in full. Held to the light or projected on a screen, the brightness range, which may be 100 : 1, is fully or almost fully retained. It shows colours brilliant with great depth and realism. The colour print can at its best reflect only four-fifths of the light failing on it and even the darkest tones reflect about one-twentieth to one-tenth, so that the full range is no more than 16 : 1. While the colour print is, by necessity, duller than the transparency, it is only fair to say that the eye soon adjusts itself to the reduced brightness range, and subjects without great contrasts will be very satisfying. From the point of view of convenience, reversal film has the advantage that it directly gives finished colour pictures of high quality and is still capable of producing colour prints as well. For the maximum versatility and control in print making, however, negative film is superior. Filters for Black-and-White Film By its nature, a black-and-white film can only translate colour values of the subject into tones of lighter or darker grey. Mostly these correspond fairly closely to the brightness to the brightness of the colours, but do not, of course, differentiate between them. In certain cases the difference between the brightness of two colours may be so slight that both record in almost the same tone of grey. There a filter helps by modifying the depth of one or the other colour, and so making it show up lighter or darker than it would normally. The commonest example is the blue sky in a landscape, with white clouds. The blue is so brilliant (and the film is often excessively sensitive to it) that the clouds do not show up against it. By putting a yellow filter in front of the camera lens we can subdue or "hold back" the blue, so making it record darker in the final print. We can even go further and overemphasize the effect progressively with an orange or red filter; these darken the blue so much that the.sky looks almost black for a really dramatic effect. The same considerations hold for other filter effects. For instance, the film renders a red rose in the same tone of grey as the green leaves of the rose bush. With the colour contrast gone, the rose disappears in its surroundings. A green filter makes the rose darker and the leaves lighter; conversely, a red filter will show up the rose as light against dark foliage. Scientifically, both filters falsify the tone rendering, but produce a more acceptable pictorial result. In all these cases a filter lightens objects of its own colour and darkens objects of its complementary colour. Apart from isolated Instances in pictorial photography, such contrast control is very valuable in copying and scientific work (e.g., photomicrography). All filters cut out some part of the light and thus, as a compensation, an increase exposure time is necessary when using them. This is stated on most filters in the form of a filter factor indicating by how much (e.g., 2 times, 3 times) the exposure must be increased with that filter. The factors are approximate for they depend not only on the nature of the filter but also on the exact colour sensitivity of the film and on the colour of the prevailing light. Scans and Document copyright by Mischa Koning - www.3106.net This document or parts thereof may not be sold and / or resold in either print form or electronically without prior written consent from Mischa Koning
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Shutter Speeds and Movement The actual shutter speed you need within a series of available aperture shutter speed combinations is governed by considerations of camera steadiness as well as of subject movement. An unsteady camera hold results in camera shake. Even the slightest shake will result in inferior definition on the negative. Practical experience goes to show that 1/125 sec. is safe, while you have to hold tile camera particularly steady when using 1/60 or 1/30 sec. Where lighting conditions make even longer exposure times essential and there is no subject movement, either support the camera on a tripod or took round for extra support for your elbows and hands - e.g. a wall, railing, etc. The shutter speed required to arrest movement depends of course primarily on the speed with which the subject moves. Remember, however, that parts of the subject (e.g. the legs of a runner) may move faster than the subject as a whole; you may sometimes have to compromise and show such parts slightly unsharp. Often that is not a serious fault, as slight blurring - provided the main part of the subject is sharp-helps to emphasize the impression of movement. Other factors to consider are the distance of the subject - the farther away, the less noticeable the movement blur; the focal length of the lens - a long-focus lens in effect brings tile subject nearer; and the direction of the movement - objects moving across your field of view blur more than if they are approaching or receding. The most convenient way of allowing for all these factors is with the aid of a simple table (p. 67). Aperture and Depth of Field When you focus the camera on a given object, tile image of that object wilt be really sharp on the film. Things nearer or farther away will be gradually less and less sharp, until they are noticeably blurred. The range of distances over which objects are still acceptably sharp, before you do notice tile loss of definition, is known as the depth of field. You can control the extent of this sharp zone by the lens aperture. As you stop down the lens, the zone of sharpness grows in both directions; as you open up the lens, it's depth decreases. You can obtain the actual zone of sharpness at various apertures and distances from depth tables, but in practice the most convenient way is to use the depth of field indicator. This exists in two types. A special scale of aperture numbers is marked opposite the distance scale of the Yashica reflex cameras. There are two sets of such numbers from the largest stop (f3.5) to the smallest (f22) on each side of the focusing index (the mark that indicates the distance to which you have set the lens). At any distance setting, the distance figures opposite each pair of aperture numbers on the depth of field scale give the near and far limits of sharpness. For example, at 10 ft. you may find the two stop values 5.6 on the scale (f5.6) opposite about 8 and 11 ft. - so you have a sharp zone from 8 to 11 ft. At f3.5, the distances opposite the stop values 3.5 may be 9 and 10 ft. respectively: at f11 you might get a sharp zone from 7 ft. to 15 ft. You will also notice that the depth of field is greater at far distances than at near ones. At 5 ft. and f 5.6 the sharp zone only covers from about 4 to 5 2/3 ft. - less than 1 ft. altogether - against nearly 3 ft. at the 10 ft. Setting. Two more points on depth of field. First, the depth obtained depends also on the focal length of the lens. Short focus lenses yield more depth and tele lenses less depth. As the lens of the Yashica reflex camera is not interchangeable we can ignore this point. Secondly, the sharp zones obtained by the indicator or tables are based on a somewhat arbitrary assumption of how much blurring is acceptable. So depth of field data for different cameras with the same lens may not always agree, and you are also quite safe in rounding off figures obtained from such data. And if you intend to make really big enlargements from your negatives, you can use stricter standards of sharpness by simply stopping down the lens by one stop.
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Zone Focusing With action subjects and similar occasions where you want to shoot quickly. determining sharp zones even with the depth of field indicator wastes too much time. There you need prepared settings covering given near and medium distance ranges that you can easily memorize and set on the camera. The zone focusing table (p. 65) gives such settings; then you only have to worry about keeping the subject within that zone while you shoot. With landscapes and views You sometimes need depth from infinity to the nearest possible point. Thus by stopping down to f11 and focusing on 25 ft. you get a really extended zone from infinity down to about 12 ft. But don't use this setting if you want the maximum sharpness in the far distance; in that case focus on infinity. Close-up Work The Yashica reflex focuses down to 3 ft. and covers a subject field of about 23 x 23 in. at this distance. For work at still nearer distances close-up supplementary lenses have to be used. Two identical lenses (i.e., matched in focal length) are required, one for the viewing lens and the other for the taking lens; they should be obtained as a matched pair, otherwise the focusing on the screen will not be exactly the same as that on the film. For the Yashica reflex models with bayonet lens mount special bayonet-mounted close-up lens sets are available consisting of one lens that fits over the taking lens and a second one with a built-in wedge to fit over the finder lens. The wedge compensates for the finder parallax, ensuring that the reflex screen shows the same field as the camera lens will reproduce on the film. Place the finder close-up lens into the bayonet mount on the camera finder lens in such a way that the engraved red circle on its rim shows to the top. The Yashica Close-up Lens Set I permits focusing distances - measured from the back of the camera body to subject - of 23 in. down to 17 in. on the 2 x 2 models and from 23 in. down to 15 in. on the 1 5/8 x 1 5/8 models. The Yashica Close-up Lens Set II permits focusing distances - measured from the back of the camera body to subject - of 18 in. down to 14 in. on the 2 x 2 models and from 16 in. down to 12 in. in the 1 5/8 x 1 5/8 models. For cameras which accept a push-on lens mount, the normal close-up lens pairs - obtainable from photographic dealers should be chosen in appropriate push-on mount of 32 mm. or 28.5 mm. diameter (according to camera model) fitted with +1 or +2 diopter close-up lens pairs. The +1 diopter lens pairs permit focusing distances - measured from back of camera to subject - of 43 in. down to 24 in. on the 2 x 2 in. models and from 42 in. to 23 in. on the 1 5/8 x 1 5/8 models. The +2 diopter close-up lens pair permit focusing distances - measured from back of camera to subject - of 24 in. down to 16 in. in the 2 x 2 model and 23 in. down to 17 in. in the 1 5/8 x 1 5/8 model. With the push-on close-up lens sets you have to allow for the finder parallax (this is only compensated for in the bayonet models by means of the built-in wedge) by allowing for a strip of the image on top that will not actually appear on the negative. The depth of this strip becomes the larger the closer the focusing distance. While at 30 in. it is about 1/10 of the screen height, it will increase to about 1/5 at 18 in. No change in exposure is required when using close-up lenses, but you should stop down in order to increase the depth of field which, at such short distances, is extremely shallow. Whenever possible, f8 to f11 should be chosen. See also closeup lens table on page 69.
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DEPTH OF FIELD
A depth of field scale is engraved around the focusing knob of the Yashica cameras next to the distance scale. It is thus quite a simple matter to read off what area will be in sharp focus for any distance setting and aperture. With the camera focused on 8 ft. (top) the depth of field indicated by the scale for an aperture of f8 is from a little under 7ft. to about 10ft. With the camera focused on 30 ft. (bottom) the depth of field at an aperture of f 16 extends from about 14 ft. to infinity.
MASS AND TONE. Simplicity is the keynote of many a successful picture. A simple arrangement of shapes on a delicately-toned backcloth can be appealing.
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FOREGROUND INTEREST can be overdone. Although boats have popular appeal, it is difficult to arrange them pleasingly and there are often too many of them.
A SIMPLE FOREGROUND adds depth to the picture without drawing attention away from the main subject. The figures set the scale, emphasising the vastness of the scene. WATCH THE VERTICALS when photographing buildings. You cannot always get them completely parallel, but they should be reasonably so unless you are striving for a special effect Use the viewpoint that shows two sides of the building, helping to create an impression of shape and form. A DELIBERATE TILT can be effective. Here you throw out the rule book to give your picture impact. The tilt must be violent and it is usually better not to include the base of the building.
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Above: The ever-ready case of the Yashica 2 x 2 models. To remove the camera, a raise the two metal slides at the top of the case (left), spread the sides of the case apart (centre) and lift out the camera (right).
The lens caps of bayonet models. To remove the lens caps, raise the lower cap and fold it back on its hinge (left). Turn the upper cap clockwise (right) and lift the complete assembly away.
Cable release for all models. To fit the cable release, first unscrew the ring around the shutter release button (left). The cable release then screws over the release button (right).
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FLASH PHOTOGRAPHY Flash is an efficient light source where no or insufficient daylight is available, such as at night, indoors, etc. In the flashlight you carry your own private "sun" with which you can illuminate your subject or scene at any time and place. THE FLASH BULB is similar to a small electric bulb. However, when current passes through it, it lights up in an intense flash lasting usually about0 to 1/60 sec. Each bulb will flash only once and has to be discarded afterwards. The flash bulb is inserted in a flash gun and the current of the battery fires the bulb, while a reflector fixed behind the bulb makes sure that all the light is directed towards the subject. Most flash guns incorporate a capacitor unit which increases the reliability of firing, even when the battery is nearly exhausted. The shutter speed, provided it is slower than 1/50 sec., has no effect on exposure, since the flash is shorter than the exposure time. Most flash bulbs are available with a clear glass bulb (for black-and-white and negative colour film and for type F reversal colour film) or with a blue-tinted bulb (for daylight type reversal colour films). The blue bulbs can also be used for fill-in lighting by daylight with any type of colour film. ELECTRONIC FLASH UNITS utilize the discharge of a high-tension capacitor through a flash tube. The power is derived from an accumulator or battery (there are also models working from the mains electricity supply). The electronic flash outfit is rather bigger and heavier than the flash bulb outfit. Its light output is about equal to that of a small flash bulb and its initial cost is higher than that of a battery-capacitor gun. On the other hand, anything from 10,000 to 25,000 flashes are obtained from one tube. The flash duration is extremely short (1/700 to000 sec.) and will arrest the fastest movements. The cost of an individual exposure is negligible. Electronic flash is suitable for black-and-white and negative colour film and also for daylight type, reversal colour films. It can also be used for fill-in lighting by daylight. How to use Flash The Yashica reflex camera shutters (except A models) are internally synchronized for use with flash bulbs and electronic flash. The cable from the flash gun is plugged into the flash socket of the camera. On releasing the shutter, an electric circuit is automatically closed through the flash socket, setting off the flash at this moment. The shutter of the Yashica A models have a nonadjustable flash contact which has the characteristics of the Xsynchronization described below. On all other shutters the synchronizing lever can be set to X or M. WITH THE SYNCHRONIZING LEVER SET TO X the shutter closes the flash circuit at the moment when the blades are fully open. Therefore, electronic flash is synchronized at any shutter speed to 1/300 or 1/500 sec. This setting may also be used with flash bulbs with short firing delay (i.e. bulbs which require only 4-6 milliseconds - thousands of a second) to reach the peak of their light output with the shutter set to 1/60 sec. With other bulbs, the fastest usable speed is 1/30 sec. WITH THE SYNCHRONIZING LEVER SET TO M the shutter closes the flash circuit 16-18 milliseconds before the shutter blades open to allow for the firing delay of most average flash bulbs. This setting is suitable for normal flash bulbs at all speeds up to 1/300 or 1/500 sec. The M-setting will not synchronize electronic flash or short-delay bulbs. Exposure Guide Numbers There is a convenient way of working out exposures with flash and this is by means of a guide number. When you buy flash bulbs you will always find the guide number for any speed of film printed on the packet. To find the correct aperture to use, divide the guide number by the distance between the flash and the subject. For instance, Suppose You find that the guide number of the bulb with he film in use is 160. If you then want to take a photograph tat a distance of 10 ft. from the subject, divide 160 by 10 = 16. Therefore, the correct aperture to use is f 16. Alternatively, if you want to use an aperture of f8 for any reason, then the correct flash distance is 160 / 8 = 20. So the flash must be 20 ft. from the subject.
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So far we have assumed that the exposures have been for average shots without much subject movement. For these a shutter speed of 1/30 sec. is long enough to utilize all the light emitted from the bulb. On the other hand, to arrest fast movements a faster shutter speed is required, such as 1/125,1/250 or even 1/500 sec. With each of these speeds a different guide number is needed (usually printed on the flash bulb packet) to determine the correct exposure. They allow for a wider aperture to compensate for the fact that at fast shutter speeds some of the fight emitted from the bulb is lost.
FLASH The X flash synchronization Setting is suitable for electronic flash at all speeds and for ordinary (class M) flash bulbs up to1/25 sec. (Model A) and up to 1/30 sec. (All other models). M setting is suitable for ordinary (class M) flash bulbs at all speeds. It is not suitable for flash with electronic flash units.
Flashguns can be attached to the Yashica models either by means of the accessory shoe on the side of the camera or by a bracket affixed to the tripod socket in the camera base. Either of these positions may be used, whether the synchronization socket is at the top or bottom of the camera.
CAMERA CARE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES High and widely varying temperatures with low humidity, as occur in desert regions and dry seasons, and very high humidity in rainy seasons, call for special precautions to protect the life and continued good performance of the camera. These conditions also cause the growth of moulds on organic matter, Sand, dust and insects may present problems. The camera should be kept dry and clean. Leather parts should be wax polished, metal parts lightly greased. Never leave the camera unnecessarily exposed to heat. Always keep it in its case. The lens should be covered with the lens cap when not in use. Outer lens surfaces have to be kept clean, dirt and grit removed with an air-blower and by tapping. Wipe the lens surface with cotton wool or open mesh fabric (butter muslin) when required. Store photographic equipment in an airtight metal box or a tin which should be sealed with adhesive (e.g. medical) tape. In a humid atmosphere, add some desiccating agent, e.g. silica gel. Condensation on the lens may occur when the camera is moved from a cool place into humid heat; this has to be removed before use and the whole camera carefully wiped before re-storing. Films should not be kept longer than six months in their original airtight tins (tropical packing) at continual temperatures of 90F (32C). At continual 100F (38C), the life of most films is limited to a month or two, Keep films for as short as possible a time in the camera. Films should be processed as soon as possible after exposure-within a week or two or, in very hot humid climates, within a few days. Keep the film in an airtight container with desiccant (to absorb moisture). If possible, keep in a refrigerator, but only if you can dry out the exposed film and the container is sealed. Scans and Document copyright by Mischa Koning - www.3106.net This document or parts thereof may not be sold and / or resold in either print form or electronically without prior written consent from Mischa Koning
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There are two ways in which you can keep the exposure time reasonably short. The sitter may either be placed to one side of the window, with a reflector to lighten the shadows, while the camera is pointed towards him from the other side of the window, or he may sit facing the window, in which case no reflector is needed. The camera may then be placed either in front or to one side of the window. If two windows are available in one wall, the sitter should be placed between them so that both front and back fighting is given; a reflector should be used to lighten the shadow side and the camera can be used either parallel with the windows or pointing slightly away from them into the room. If the windows are at an angle to each other the sitter should be placed in the corner between them and looking into the room. The reflector is placed facing the corner, while the camera can be put between a window and a reflector. Use a fast film for preference, to keep exposures reasonably short. Artificial Light Portraits A good background is supplied by a self-coloured wall, a piece of light or dark cloth stretched taut or simply the frame of an open door leading into an unlighted room. The sitter should be about 3 ft. away from the background. The exposure time will be fairly short, particularly when two lamps are used, so one can straddle a chair and support the camera on the chair back. If one lamp only is available a reflector must be used to lighten the shadows. The position will be the same as for daylight indoors, the lamp being substituted for the window. When two lamps are employed, one should be used as a main light source while the other one, farther away, should lighten the shadows. Different lamp positions can give different effects. Do not be afraid, therefore, of moving your lights, or the subject of the camera. Flash Portraits Bounced flash is a useful technique. It avoids the unpleasant hard shadows You would have to accept with the flash pointed straight at the subject. All you have to do is direct the flash -upwards to the white or light coloured ceiling; the reflected light is soft and diffused, resulting in an almost shadowless picture. To determine the correct aperture for bounce flash, use (in place of the direct flash to subject distance) the distance from flash to ceiling plus ceiling to subject. Then set the lens to one stop larger to compensate for the loss of light on reflection from the ceiling. Children Assuming that the Yashica user is not fond of posed and sentimentally arranged pictures of children (which after all do not require a technique different from that applied to legitimate portraits), he will have to work inconspicuously. Divert the child's attention by letting him play his games while you play with the camera. Set the lens to a suitable distance and watch until you are sure that the camera does not attract attention. Then shoot quickly. In this way you get not only lifelike child studies but also some of the natural surroundings. Avoid looking down at children with the camera-it means dwarfing them in a ludicrously unflattering mariner. Low angles are strongly recommended and are quite easily obtained with the reflex camera. Sports As actions worth recording happen, as a rule without warning, you must be ready for them. It is here that knowledge of the game will help. The first problem is to find a Suitable zone of focus which covers the most likely field of action without having to stop down more than is absolutely essential. A small stop necessitates a relatively long exposure time, while on the other hand, short shutter speeds are needed to arrest movement. Use the frame finder whenever you try to follow the action and keep the other eye open to watch for figures moving in to the picture area. It goes without saying that fast film is the best safeguard against under-exposure if the weather is not particularly bright; on the other hand, if a fast lens or good lighting conditions are available the medium speed film, on account of its finer grain, will give a better chance of getting sectional enlargements. Scans and Document copyright by Mischa Koning - www.3106.net This document or parts thereof may not be sold and / or resold in either print form or electronically without prior written consent from Mischa Koning
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reproduction of colours. The rules for taking colour photos of firework displays and thunderstorms are the same as for black-and-white pictures: shutter release at B, shutter open, stop 3.5, focus at infinity. The shutter is closed when the photographer considers that the film has accumulated a sufficient store of light impressions. The old trick of using an ordinary electric lamp for lightening the shadows of an object near the window will not work with colour film in the camera if daylight material is used. The side of the object which is lit by the electric bulb appears reddish on the picture. If, on the other hand, you use an artificial light colour film the colours on the daylight side of the picture are not true to life. Once they have been exposed, colour films should not be left undeveloped too long. Otherwise the colour reproduction may suffer. So once a film has been started, finish it off within a reasonable time, and when the whole film is exposed. do not leave it lying about for longer than you need. In all cases where colour reversal films are not returned from the processor already cut and mounted, it cannot be too strongly emphasized that they must be divided into individual pictures immediately on receipt, even before examining them. Each individual film should be mounted. Only then are they in a fit state to be handled and admired. This is the only way to prevent damage, finger marks. scratches and so on. Colour films and prints should not be exposed for long to bright sunshine, or the colours may fade.
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FACTS AND FIGURES
This section gives the. more important exposure, close-up, zone focusing, using, film, etc., data for tile Yashica reflex in handy tabular form for easy reference.
CONVERSION OF FEET AND INCHES INTO METRIC UNITS Many cameras are marked only in either the metric or British system, while most of the tables in this book are also given in only one system. The table below shows at a glance equivalent lengths.
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DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE VALUES For Yashica models without exposure meter add up the respective figures in Tables and 3. The result is the exposure value to be set. On models without exposure value scale use Table 4 to get aperture-speed combinations (set the shutter to nearest marked speeds if necessary - e.g.1/25 sec. for 1/30 sec.).
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SHUTTER SPEEDS TO ARREST MOVEMENT
The shutter speeds as listed above are applicable to motion which cuts right across the direction in which the lens and the photographer look. If the motion photographed is at an acute angle with the direction in which the lens points the exposure time can be longer, say 1/30 sec. instead of 1/60. If the subject moves directly towards the lens (or for that matter away from it) the exposure time can be three or four times longer, say 1/8 of a sec. instead of 1/30. Where the above table shows speeds not marked on the shutter use the next faster speed. APERTURES WITH CLEAR FLASH BULBS (80-100 ASA FILMS)
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