Cables are crafted with Gepco Gep-Flex DS608 mulitcore 110ohm AES/EBU digital audio cable. All channels are numbered and individually shielded twisted pairs of #26 AWG gauge conductors. Designed for superior connectivity and strain relief, these assemblies feature the Neutrik XLR's and industry standard AMP DSub cable hood. Wired to the Yamaha MYAE8 convention. Compatible with Apogee, Mackie, Sony and Yamaha machines.
Part Number: 25MD-4XF-YG05
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Yamaha MD4 Questions And Answers
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CAUTION USE OF CONTROLS OR ADJUSTMENTS OR PERFORMANCE OF PROCEDURES OTHER THAN THOSE SPECIFIED HEREIN MAY RESULT IN HAZARDOUS RADIATION EXPOSURE.
ADVARSEL Usynlig laserstrling ved bning. Undg udsaettelse for strling.
VAROITUS Laitteen kyttminen muulla kuin tss kyttohjeesa mainitulla tavalla saattaa altistaa kyttjn turvallisuusluokan 1 ylittvlle nkymttmlle lasersteilylle.
VARNING Om apparaten anvnds p annat stt n i denna bruksanvisning specificerats, kan anvndaren utsttas fr osynlig laserstrlning, som verskrider grnsen fr laserklass 1.
Explanation of Graphical Symbols
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the product. The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage within the products enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK). NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. SEE BOTTOM OF ENCLOSURE FOR GRAPHIC SYMBOLS MARKING.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Read Instructions All the safety and operating instructions should be read before the appliance is operated. Retain Instructions The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference. Heed Warnings All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to. Follow Instructions All operating and use instructions should be followed. Water and Moisture The appliance should not be used near water for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool, and the like. Carts and Stands The appliance should be used only with a cart or stand that is recommended by the manufacturer. 6A An appliance and cart combination should be moved with care. Quick stops, excessive force, and uneven surfaces may cause the appliance and cart combination to overturn. 7. 8. Wall or Ceiling Mounting The appliance should be mounted to a wall or ceiling only as recommended by the manufacturer. Ventilation The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa, rug, or similar surface that may block the ventilation openings; or, placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through the ventilation openings. Heat The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other appliances (including amplifiers) that produce heat. 10. Power Sources The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the appliance. 11. Grounding or Polarization The precautions that should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated. 12. Power-Cord Protection Power-supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the appliance. 13. Cleaning The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer. 14. Nonuse Periods The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time. 15. Object and Liquid Entry Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings. 16. Damage Requiring Service The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: A. The power-supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or C. The appliance has been exposed to rain; or D. The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or E. The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged. 17. Servicing The user should not attempt service the appliance beyond that described in the operating instructions.
5 PAN control
This rotary control has two functions: For recording its used in conjunction with the GROUP ASSIGN switches to assign the input channel signal to even and odd numbered tracks. For mixdown its used to pan (i.e., position) the signal in the stereo mix.
6 Input source selector switch
This switch is used to select the signal source for the input channel: MIC/LINE input or PB (disc playback signal).
This fader has two functions: For recording its used to adjust the level of the input channel signal thats recorded to a track. For mixdown its used to balance the input channel signal relative to the other input channel signals. For optimum performance, faders should be positioned about the 78 mark.
1 AUX RETURN GROUP ASSIGN switches
These switches are used to assign (i.e., send) the Aux Return signals to the recorders tracks. The left-channel signal is sent to odd buses 1 and 3. While the right-channel signal is sent to even buses 2 and 4. The Aux Return signals are typically the processed signals returned from a stereo effects processor. Note that the Aux Return signals are always sent to the Stereo bus for mixing regardless of these switch settings.
2 AUX RETURN LEVEL control 7
This rotary control adjusts the level of the Aux Return signals that are sent to the Stereo bus for mixing. Its also used in conjunction with the AUX RETURN GROUP ASSIGN switches to adjust the level of the Aux Return signals that are assigned to the recorders tracks.
1 GROUP 3
3 MONITOR SELECT switches
These switches are used to select the signal source for the MONITOR OUT and headphones.
4 STEREO 2
GROUPThese switches select the Group buses as the monitor source. This allows you to monitor signals assigned to tracks. When only the  or  switch is pressed, the monitor signal is mono. Press both switches to monitor stereo signals. STEREOThis switch selects the Stereo bus as the monitor source. This allows you to monitor the STEREO OUT signal and is typically used during mixdown. CUEThis switch selects the CUE bus as the monitor source. This allows you to monitor track signals, which is useful for punch in/out.
MIN MAX 0 10
4 MONITOR LEVEL control This rotary control adjusts the level of the monitor signal that is sent to the MONITOR OUT and headphones. 5 STEREO fader This fader is used to adjust the level of the stereo signal that is sent to the STEREO OUT. For optimum performance this fader should be positioned about the 78 mark. 6 STEREO SUB IN GROUP ASSIGN switches
These switches are used to assign (i.e., send) the Stereo Sub In signals to the recorders tracks. The left-channel signal is sent to odd buses 1 and 3. While the right-channel signal is sent to even buses 2 and 4. The Stereo Sub In signals are typically the stereo output signals from another mixer. Note that the Stereo Sub In signals are always sent to the Stereo bus for mixing regardless of these switch settings.
7 STEREO SUB IN LEVEL control
This rotary control adjusts the level of the Stereo Sub In signals that are sent to the Stereo bus for mixing. Its also used in conjunction with the STEREO SUB IN GROUP ASSIGN switches to adjust the level of the Stereo Sub In signals that are assigned to the recorders tracks.
8 CUE LEVEL controls
These controls adjust the level of the CUE signal for each track. During recording, or when no disc is inserted, the CUE source is the signal assigned to a track. During playback, the CUE source is the disc playback signal.
CLIP 9 FRAMES 39 dB 1
+12 +9 +6 +10 20
PITCH FIX VARI
MIN. ELAPSE REMAIN TOTAL
REPEAT MEMO A AUTO PUNCH MEMO B 8 E 1 ALL PRE IN OUT POST
Note: For explanation purposes, the illustration above shows most of the available indicators. During normal operation, however, you will not see so many indicators on the display at the same.
1 Status indicators
These indicators show the current operating mode.
Indicator Normal playback Cue or Review Playback is paused
Rehearse Pause mode Rehearsal in progress
Record Pause mode Recording in progress
2 Disc type indicators
These indicators show the type of disc loaded: MD DATA Disc or MiniDisc.
3 MASTER and MTC indicators
These indicators light up when MIDI synchronization is used. MASTER appears when the MD4 is generating MIDI Clock, and MTC appears when it is generating MIDI Timecode.
4 Pitch indicators
These indicators show the current Pitch mode: FIX (xed) or VARI (variable).
5 TOC EDIT indicator
The TOC EDIT indicator lights up when the TOC needs to be updated, usually after a new recording or edit.
6 Time Counter mode
These indicators show the Time Counter mode. ELAPSEThis mode shows the time position within a song. REMAINThis mode shows the time remaining for a song or when you are recording a new song, it shows the available time remaining for the song. TOTALThis mode shows the time position within the entire disc.
7 Title and function display
Disc titles, song titles, functions, messages, and other information appear here.
8 Time counter
The time counter shows the disc time in minutes, seconds, and frames.
9 Track level meters
These track level meters show group signal levels from 39 dB to 3 dB in 9 steps. A CLIP indicator warns of possible distortion caused by signal clipping. With no disc loaded, the meters display group signal levels.
0 Stereo level meters
These level meters show the STEREO OUT signal levels from 20 dB to +12 dB in 9 steps.
These indicators show the status of the Start, End, and eight markers in between. When a song is recorded, Start and End markers are recorded automatically. You can also add up to eight markers per song while recording is in progress or during subsequent playback. When a song is positioned on or after a marker (stopped, playing, paused, or recording) that marker ashes. When the beginning of a song is located, the Start marker ashes. When the end is located, the End marker ashes.
B Repeat mode indicators
These indicators show the Repeat modes. REPEAT 1The current song is played repeatedly (One Song Repeat). REPEAT ALLAll songs are played repeatedly (All Song Repeat). REPEAT MEMO AMEMO BPlayback cycles between memo points A and B (AB Repeat). REPEAT Auto Punch I/OAuto Punch In/Out is rehearsed repeatedly.
C AUTO PUNCH, PRE, IN, OUT & POST indicators
The AUTO PUNCH indicator shows that the AUTO PUNCH In/Out function is ON. The IN and OUT indicators light up when the LAST REC IN and OUT points have been set. When a song is positioned on or after the PRE, IN, OUT, or POST point, the corresponding indicator ashes. PREThis indicator ashes when a song is at the Pre-Roll point. INThis indicator lights up when the LAST REC IN point has been set and it disappears when a song is located on or after the specied IN point. OUTThis indicator lights up when the LAST REC OUT point has been set and it disappears when a song is located on or after the specied OUT point. POSTThis indicator ashes when the song is located at the Post-Roll point.
Setting the Pre-Roll & Post-Roll Times
Pre-Roll and Post-Roll are used in conjunction with the Auto Punch In/Out function. Pre-Roll refers to the time before the IN point at which playback starts. Post-Roll refers to the time after the OUT point at which playback stops. The default time for both Pre-Roll and Post-Roll is 5 seconds. You can change the values independently using the PrePost Roll function, as explained below. These settings are not stored when MD4 is turned off.
Pre-Roll Point Pre-Roll Time Post-Roll Point Post-Roll Time
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the PrePost Roll function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows PreXXX5sec 3. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to set the Pre-Roll time from 0 to 9 seconds. 4. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows Post 5sec 5. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to set the Post-Roll time from 0 to 9 seconds. 6. Press the [UTILITY] button to nish.
The ping-pong recording technique (also known as bounce down) is used to free up tracks for further recording. This is accomplished by bouncing down (i.e., mixing and recording) one or two existing tracks to an unused track. Those tracks are then used for further recording. Although MD4 is a four-track recorder, effectively you can record more than just four tracks using this technique. The only drawback is that once several tracks have been bounced, you cannot adjust the individual sounds. You can, however, balance the levels and apply EQ and effects during the actual ping-pong operation. The following illustration shows the ping-pong technique.
Track 4 Track 3 Track 2 Track 1
Tape-based multitrackers always need at least one unused track for ping-pong operations. MD4, however, provides four-track playback with ping-pong. So you can record on all four tracks and then bounce them down to one of those tracks. This is possible because MD4 is able to read audio data from a track before writing new audio data to it. When the ping-pong operation is complete of course, the previous audio data in that track is lost. However, you can rehearse ping-pong operations. The following illustration shows four-track playback with ping-pong.
Preparing for Ping-Pong
1. Press the [ ] SONG SEARCH button to locate the beginning of the song. 2. Set the input select switches on the source track channels to PB. This sets the disc playback signal as the source for the channels. 3. Set the faders on the source channels to the 78 mark. 4. Use the ASSIGN switches and PAN controls on the source track channels to assign the signals to the destination track. See Recording the First Track on page 13 for information about using the ASSIGN switches and PAN controls to assign signals to tracks. 5. Press the [REC SELECT] button of the destination track. A circle ashes around the corresponding track indicator. 6. Press the MONITOR SELECT [GROUP] switch for the destination track. This sets the monitor source to the destination track. 7. Set the MONITOR LEVEL control as required.
q On Mode Before Indicators REHE Stop Play Play Pause Cue/Review Record Pause Rehearse Pause Play Record Wait Play Rehearse Wait Record Rehearse New Record Pause New Record Auto Punch Record Standby Auto Punch Rehearse Standby
1. 2. 3. 4.
Mode After PLAY q Play Play Play Play Play Record Wait Play Rehearse Wait Record2 Rehearse Play Play New Record Stop3 Auto Punch Record Wait4 Auto Punch Rehearse Wait4 Pause1 REHE Indicators REC PLAY q
q q q q q q q q q q q
q q q q q q
[PAUSE] button operation. Effective only when a [REC SELECT] button is pressed. [STOP] button operation. After locating the Pre-Roll point, the Auto Punch In/Out sequence starts.
For the optional Yamaha FC5 Footswitch, operation is initiated when the footswitch is pressed, not when its released. This may differ, however, with other footswitches.
The AUX SEND and AUX RETURN allow you to connect an external effects processor and apply effects to MD4 signals. Effects can be applied when recording tracks, using ping-pong, or during mixdown. Typically, reverb and delay type effects, which are often applied to several sounds in a mix, are used with this type of connection. The input channel AUX controls are used to send signals to the effects processor. The processed signal is returned to MD4 and mixed with the original, unprocessed signal to achieve a balance before being recorded to an MD4 track, or the master recorder during mixdown. The signal for the AUX control is sourced post-fader. So as well as turn up the AUX control, you must also raise the fader. This has the advantage that the level of the processed signal from the external effects processor is controlled in unison with the unprocessed signal that is controlled by the fader.
1. Connect the MD4 AUX SEND jack to the external effects processors input. 2. Connect the MD4 AUX RETURN jacks to the external effects processors stereo outputs. The Left AUX RETURN signal is fed to the Left Stereo bus and Groups 1 and 3. The Right AUX RETURN signal is fed to the Right Stereo bus and Groups 2 and 4. So if you want to send the processed signal to both the left and right channels during mixdown, or both odd and even groups when recording tracks, you must connect to both AUX RETURN jacks.
The following illustration shows how to connect an external effects processor to MD4. Other equipment has been removed for clarity.
Stereo Outputs Input
Applying Effects at Mixdown
1. To send a signal to the effects processor, set the input channel fader to the 78 mark and turn up the AUX control. The input channel signal is sent to the effects processor and the Stereo bus.
2. Set the effects processor as required. 3. To mix the processed signal back into the stereo mix, turn up the AUX RETURN LEVEL control. Use the AUX RETURN LEVEL control to balance the processed signal with the dry, unprocessed signal that is coming directly from the input channel. Use the input channel fader to adjust the level of the unprocessed signal.
The Song Combine function allows you to combine adjacent songs that were divided using the Song Divide function. Songs that were recorded separately cannot be combined.
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the Song Combine function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows CmbnXXX*+XX* 3. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to select the Songs that you want to combine. For example: CmbnXXX1+XX2 4. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows Cmbn EXE? 5. Press the [ENTER] button to proceed or the [CLEAR] button to cancel. The songs are combined in to one. Writing UTOC appears on the display as the TOC is updated.
A marker is added at the point where the songs are combined and existing markers from both songs remain valid. If the total number of markers including the new marker at the join point exceeds eight, you will not be able to access markers above Marker number 8. These higher markers are still stored, however. So if you delete one or more of the rst eight markers, they will reappear successively.
Song 1 before combine [S]  [E]
Song 2 before combine [S] Song 1 after combine [S]      [E]    [E]
When songs are combined, subsequent songs are renumbered. For example, Song 1 and Song 2 are combined into Song 1. The previous Song 3 then becomes Song 2, and so on.
The Off Line Punch function allows you to perform track-to-track copies. The section of the source track to be copied is determined by the LAST REC IN and OUT points, and you must set these points before trying to use this function. As the copy operation is performed by the recorder, the mixer settings have no effect. The copy is recorded at the same volume level as the original. You can monitor the destination track while the copy is in progress. The Off Line Punch function also includes a rehearsal option, so you can perform a dry run before performing the actual copy.
Source Track [IN]
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the OffLinePunch function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. If nothing happens, you havent yet set the LAST REC IN and OUT points. See Setting the In/Out Points On-the-Fly on page 24 for more information.
If you have set the IN and OUT points, the display shows PNCHX*Tr*Tr
3. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to select the source track. For example: PNCHX1Tr*Tr 4. Press the  SELECT button. 5. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to select the destination track. For example: PNCHX1Tr4Tr
Existing data between the IN and OUT points on the destination track is overwritten.
6. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows PNCHXREHE?
At this point you have the choice of performing the copy or just rehearsing it.
Using MD4 in a Synchronized MIDI System
The MD4 MIDI OUT jack should be connected to the MTC input of your MIDI sequencer if you are using MTC, or a normal MIDI IN if you are using MIDI Clock. MD4 transmits MTC or MIDI Clock during play, record, and rehearsal. When the MIDI sequencer receives MTC or MIDI Clock from MD4, it locates to the same time position as MD4 and plays along in synchronization. Each MD4 song starts at 00:00.00. So you should start the MIDI sequencer song at 00:00:00:00. Your MIDI sequencer may allow you to specify a timecode offset. This allows you to start the MIDI sequencer song at a different time.
About Tempo Maps
For use with MIDI Clock, a Tempo Map allows you to specify song tempo and meter (time signature). Each Tempo Map allows up to 26 tempo and 26 meter changes. Tempo and meter changes are organized in steps from A to Z. You can insert and delete steps as you like and they are automatically sorted. If your song does not contain any tempo or meter changes, the Tempo Map contains only a tempo and meter setting on the rst beat of the rst measure, which is step A. One Tempo Map can be saved with each song. When you select a different song, you must load its Tempo Map. The Tempo Map is not stored when MD4 is turned off. You must load a Tempo Map each time MD4 is turned on. A Tempo Map Chart is provided on page 56 to help you organize your Tempo Maps. Please feel free to photocopy it.
Setting Up a Synchronized MIDI System
The following illustration shows how MD4 can be integrated into a MIDI-based recording system. In this example, acoustic sounds are recorded to the MD4 and MIDI devices are controlled by the MIDI sequencer, which receives MTC or MIDI Clock from MD4. This example also shows how the MD4 DIRECT TRACK OUTs can be used to output signals directly from the MD4 tracks. The individual track sounds are sent to the other mixer for mixing with the sounds from the sequencer controlled MIDI instruments.
To Monitor Amp
STEREO SUB IN STEREO OUT MONITOR OUT TRACK DIRECT OUT
MIDI OUT MIDI IN
Synthesizer 2 (MIDI Master)
Computer & MIDI Sequencer Software
MIDI IN MIDI OUT MTC IN (for MTC) or MIDI IN (for MIDI Clock)
Setting MD4 for MTC Operation
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the MIDI Sync function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows OFFXMTCXCLK 3. Press the  SELECT button to select MTC. MTC appears on the display. 4. Press the [UTILITY] button. MD4 is now ready for synchronized operation.
When MTC is on, MD4 stops playback at the end of each song. MTC is turned off automatically if the Cue List or Program Play function is used. MD4 generates MTC at 30 frames/second.
The number of beats in a measure can be specied from 1 to 99. The type of beat can be specied as 2, 4, 8, or 16. Pressing the [+] and  buttons together resets the number of beats or beat type to 4.
9. Press the [ENTER] button. The Tempo Map is sorted automatically and the cursor moves to the step letter. MASTER appears on the display, indicating that MD4 is ready to generate MIDI Clock information. 10. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to select other steps and set them as expla-
nined in step 8. To go to the tempo section of the Tempo Map, press the [CLEAR] button, press the  SELECT button, and then press the [ENTER] button. 11. Press the [UTILITY] button. The Tempo Map is not stored when MD4 is turned off, so you should save it to disc. See Saving a Tempo Map on page 55 for more information.
Adding Tempo Changes to a Tempo Map
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the MIDI Sync function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows OFFXMTCXCLK 3. Use the  SELECT button to select CLK. 4. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows MeterXTempo> 5. Press the  SELECT button to select Tempo. 6. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows EDITXNEW 7. Use the  and  SELECT buttons to select EDIT or NEW. EDIT allows you to edit the current Tempo Map. NEW resets all tempo steps in the Tempo Map. 8. Press the [ENTER] button. If you selected NEW, the display shows Ax001-1x120. This is the rst tempo step in the Tempo Map. If your song uses the same tempo all the way through, you only need to set step A. 9. Use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the measure, beat, and tempo parameters, and the  and [+] DATA buttons to set them. The measure can be set from 1 to 999. The beat parameter is dependent on the number of beats in a measure, which is specied by the meter setting. For example, for a meter setting of 4/4, this beat parameter can be set from 1 to 4. For a meter setting of 6/8, this beat parameter can be set from 1 to 6. Step A is always set to measure 1beat 1 (0011). Pressing the [+] and  buttons together resets the measure and beat to 0001. When the measurebeat parameter of a new step is selected (0000), pressing the  button selects the highest measurebeat already in the Tempo Map.
The tempo can be set from 20 to 300. Pressing the [+] and  buttons together resets the tempo to 120.
10. Press the [ENTER] button. The Tempo Map is sorted automatically and the cursor moves to the step letter. MASTER appears on the display, indicating that MD4 is ready to generate MIDI Clock information. 11. Use the  and [+] DATA buttons to select other steps and set them as explanined in step 9. To go to the meter section of the Tempo Map, press the [CLEAR] button, press the  SELECT button, and then press the [ENTER] button. 12. Press the [UTILITY] button. The Tempo Map is not stored when MD4 is turned off, so you should save it to disc. See Saving a Tempo Map on page 55 for more information.
Inserting Steps in a Tempo Map
The Tempo Map is sorted automatically when you press the [ENTER] button. So you can insert new meter or tempo steps in any order. The following example shows how sorting works when a new meter step is inserted.
Current Tempo Map New Meter Step Sorted Tempo Map
A 1 2/4 B 010 3/4 C 000 4/4 C 005 6/8
A 001 2/4 B 005 6/8 C 010 3/4
The following example shows how sorting works when a new tempo step is inserted.
Current Tempo Map New Tempo Step Sorted Tempo Map
A 1 -B 005-C 000-C 003-1 123
A 001-B 003-C 005-1 125
Deleting Steps in a Tempo Map
Steps that are set to measure 000 are ignored. So if you want to delete a step, set its measure to 000. When you press the [ENTER] button, the Tempo Map is sorted automatically. The following example shows how sorting works when a meter step is deleted.
Current Tempo Map Meter Step For Deletion Sorted Tempo Map
A 1 2/4 B 005 6/8 C 010 3/4 B 000 6/8
A 001 2/4 B 010 3/4 C 000 4/4
The following example shows how sorting works when a tempo step is deleted.
Current Tempo Map Tempo Step For Deletion Sorted Tempo Map
A 001-B 003-C 005-B 000-0 123
A 1 -B 005-C 000-0 120
Saving a Tempo Map
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the MIDI Sync function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows OFFXMTCXCLK 3. Use the  and  SELECT buttons to select CLK. 4. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows MeterXTempo> 5. Press the  SELECT button twice. The display shows <XSaveXLoad 6. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows SaveXEXE? 7. Press the [ENTER] button to save the Tempo Map or the [CLEAR] button to cancel. The Tempo Map is saved to disc.
The disc area that is used to store Tempo Map data can hold several Tempo Maps that use all 26 steps. If not all steps in a Tempo Map can be saved, the message SaveWarn! appears.
Loading a Tempo Map
1. Press the [UTILITY] button and use the  and  SELECT buttons to select the MIDI Sync function. 2. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows OFFXMTCXCLK 3. Use the  and  SELECT buttons to select CLK. 4. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows MeterXTempo> 5. Press the  SELECT button three times. The display shows <XSaveXLoad 6. Press the [ENTER] button. The display shows LoadXEXE? 7. Press the [ENTER] button to load the Tempo Map or the [CLEAR] button to cancel. The Tempo Map is loaded and MASTER appears on the display.
You dont have to use the AUX RETURN with an external effects processor. It can be used as an extra stereo input. It accepts line-level signals that can be assigned to tracks or sent to the stereo mix. Likewise, the STEREO SUB IN can be used as an extra stereo input. It also accepts line-level signals and has GROUP ASSIGN switches and a LEVEL control. In combination with the input channels, this provides up to eight simultaneous inputs.
EQ is not only for use during mixdown. If you are sure that a sound source requires some tone-shaping, you can use EQ for recording too. Be aware, however, that the sound will be recorded to disc that way and you cannot remove the EQ later on.
Markers can be used to arrange sections of a song into a Cue List. This allows you to experiment with song arrangements. For example, you could use markers to identify the verse, chorus, and middle eight sections and try different arrangements using the Cue List function. You can then create a new song based on the Cue List. This allows you to create new songs just like using a sequencer. The following illustration shows how a Cue List can be used to create a new song by rearranging an existing song.
Original Song Arrangement
Intro Verse A Verse B Chorus A Verse B Chorus B Mid Eight Chorus B End
STP1: STP2: STP3: STP4: STP5: STP6: s>1 1>2 2>4 6>7 5>6 8>e n=2 n=2 n=1 n=1 n=2 n=2 (start song with double-length Intro) (repeat Verse A twice) (Verse B to Chorus A as original) (have Middle Eight early) (back in with Chorus B twice) (repeat Ending twice for fade out)
New Song after Cue List Copy
Intro Intro Verse A Verse A Verse B Chorus A Mid Eight Chorus B Chorus B End End
Adjusting the pitch is a common multitrack technique. Its useful when recording instruments that are slightly out of tune. For example, youve recorded the drum and bass parts and now its time to record the acoustic piano part. However, the piano is a little at. The easy way around this problem is to record the piano part at a lower pitch with the pianist playing a little slower. When you play back the recording at normal pitch, the piano part is in tune with everything else. The Pitch function can also be used when recording a vocal phrase with high notes that a vocalist cannot quite reach. For example, drums, bass, guitar, and lead vocals have already been recorded. Now its time to record the vocal harmonies. The vocalist, however, cannot quite reach some of the high notes. The easy way around this is to record the harmony part at a reduced pitch with the vocalist singing a little slower. When you play back the recording at normal pitch, you have the high notes of the harmony and theyre in tune with everything else. A more advanced pitch technique that can be used to capture a super-fast guitar solo, which is difcult to play repeatedly, is to detune your guitar so that it matches the reduced pitch of MD4. Then record the solo at the slower speed and pitch. When you play back the recording at normal pitch, you have a super-fast guitar solo thats in tune with everything else.
Ping-PongA recording technique used to transfer (i.e., mix and rerecord) one or more tracks to other tracks to free up those tracks for further recording. MD4 allows you to record on all four tracks and then ping-pong (i.e., four-track playback with ping-pong). A feature unique to MD4. Pre-Roll TimeFor Auto Punch In/Out, this is the time before the IN point at which playback starts. See Setting the Pre-Roll & Post-Roll Times on page 28 for more information. Post FaderA point in the signal path after a fader. The signals for the MD4 AUX controls are sourced post-fader. So as well as turn up the AUX control, you must also raise the fader. This has the advantage that the level of the processed signal from the external effects processor is controlled in unison with the unprocessed signal that is controlled by the fader. Post-Roll TimeFor Auto Punch In/Out, this is the time after the OUT point at which playback stops. See Setting the Pre-Roll & Post-Roll Times on page 28 for more information. ProgramA compilation of songs for custom playback. See Program Playback on page 43 for more information. Punch In/OutA recording technique that allows you to rerecord specic sections of an existing track. MD4 provides both manual and automatic punch in/out operations. Random AccessThe ability to access data instantly. The MD4 quick locate functions allow you to locate any point instantly. Tape-based recorders do not have random access capabilities because they have to wind a tape, which takes time. SCMS (Serial Copy Management System)A protection system intended to prevent illegal copying of music. SCMS allows one-time serial copying of copy-protected material. If the source is not copy protected, its possible to make any number of digital-to-digital copies of the material. If the source is copy protected, however, its possible to make a rst-generation copy, but further copies cannot be made from the rst-generation copy. SCMS is only effective when copying via digital connections. Recordings made via analog connections are not affected. SignalSounds travel through audio equipment as electrical signals. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N)In an audio system, the difference between the nominal signal level and the residual noise oor, usually expressed as a ratio in decibels. Its used as a measure of an audio systems noise performance. Tempo MapA map containing the tempo and meter information for a song. TOCAn acronym for Table Of Contents. An area of the MD DATA disc used to store information about what is recorded on the disc, the disc title, song titles, and so on. TrackingThe process of recording sounds to tracks on a audio recorder. Also know as laying down tracks and just plain simple recording. Tracking is the rst stage of the multitrack recording process. Unity GainA gain of one. That is, the signal is output from a circuit at the same level at which it entered. Once passed the MIC/LINE amplier, a unity gain system minimizes signal noise and distortion. The unity gain position for MD4 faders is at the 78 mark.
A.PNCH Abort, message 68 AB repeat 41 AC IN connector 11 ADJST Abort, message 68 ADJUST button 8 Adjusting markers 38 Advanced multitracking 17 All song repeat 40 Applications MIDI home studio 58 one-take recording 57 stereo recording 60 Assign, see Group assign ATRAC, definition 72 Auto punch indicator 7 operation 26 rehearsal 25 using footswitch 27 AUTO PUNCH I/O button 8 AUTO PUNCH indicator 7 Auto Punch Record Standby mode 67 Auto Punch Rehearse Standby mode 67 AUX control 4 AUX RETURN beyond the basics 61 connecting 34 connectors 10 GROUP ASSIGN switches 5 LEVEL control 5 AUX SEND connector 10
Channel inputs 4 CLEAR button 9 Clipping, definition 72 CLK OFF!, message 68 CmbnProhibit, message 68 Combining Songs 46 Compiling a program 43 Connectors AC IN 11 AUX RETURN 10 AUX SEND 10 MIC/LINE INPUTs 10 MIDI OUT 11 MONITOR OUT 10 PHONES 11 POWER ON/OFF switch 11 PUNCH I/O 11 STEREO OUT 10 STEREO SUB IN 10 TRACK DIRECT OUT 10 Copy Abort, message 68 Copying cue list 42 songs 44 tracks 47 CUE level controls 5 MONITOR SELECT switch 5 Cue FF 67 Cue list copy 42 definition 72 playback 42 Cue, definition 72 CueList Err, message 68 CueLst Abort, message 68
how many songs 64 loading 13 title display 7 titling 20 write protect 68 Display disc format indicators 6 marker indicators 7 MASTER indicator 6 MTC indicator 6 pitch indicator 6 repeat mode indicators 7 status indicators 6 stereo level meters 7 time counter 7 time counter modes 7 TOC EDIT indicator 6 track level meters 7 track record indicators 7 Display messages 68 Dividing a Song 45 Duplicating tracks 47
Effects applying 34 mixdown 34 ping-pong 35 recording 35 EJECT button 9 ELAPSE, time counter 7 ENTER button 9 EQ beyond the basics 61 controls 4 response graph 4 specs 4 Erase Abort, message 68 Erase Warn!, message 68 Erasing markers 39 songs 48 tracks 48 Error, message 68 EVEN, pan 14 EXE, definition 72
Basic multitracking 17 Beyond the basics 61 Blank Disc, message 68 Blank top, definition 72 BLANK TOP, message 68 Block diagram 71 Bouncing tracks 29 Bus, definition 72 Buying discs 2
DAT, definition 72 DATA buttons 9 Dimensions 71 Direct outputs 10 Disc format indicators 6 Disc FULL, message 68 Disc Locked, message 68 Disc Transport buttons 9 DiscErr, message 68 Discs buying 2
input channel 4 master section 5 FF CUE button 9 First session 12 First track recording 13 FIX 6 Flow chart 69 Footswitch auto punch in/out 27 connector 11 definition 72 operation table 33 punch in/out operation 23 Frame, definition 72
Invalid Song, message 68
Joining songs 46
LAST REC search 36 SEARCH buttons 9 Level fader 4 Level meters stereo outputs 7 tracks 7 Line-level signal, definition 72 Load Err, message 68 Load Warn !, message 68 loading a disc 13 LoadProhibit, message 68 LOW EQ 4 Low-level signal, definition 73
MULTITRACK MD RECORDER
Questions and Answers
Table of Contents
MD / Recorder. 1
What is MD?. Why was MD selected as media?. What is the available recording time in 4TR, ST and mono modes?. What is the difference between MD Data and normal MD?. Does the Yamaha MD4 accept a normal MD (Mini Disc)?. What is compression? What is ATRAC?. What does the frame indication mean?. What does "resolution is 11.6 ms" mean?. Why is it possible to perform ping-pong recording while playing back four tracks simultaneously?. Doesn't data slip when overdubbing due to data compression?. How does the Yamaha MD4 identify and differentiate the MD Data from the Mini Disc?. Is there any sound degradation after repeated ping-pong recording?. How long is the life of a disc?. How long is the pickup laser life?. Does the compression process lower the sound quality?. Is there a "No Compression" mode that sacrifices total recording time?. What types of information can be stored in the disc using the MD4?. Does a disc have a front and back side?. What will happen if a 4TR disc created on the MD4 is inserted into a normal MD ( Mini Disc) player?. Does the unit have any protection against skipping sounds due to shock or vibration?. The unit employs a magneto-optical system. Is it OK to place the unit on a TV?. How quickly can the MD4 locate a point?. What is SONG Search?. Is the Repeat operation continued endlessly, or stopped after a given number of repetitions?. Is it necessary to format the Mini Disc?. 4
Why does the Yamaha MD4 have no digital outputs?. Is the mixer section digital?. Can you synchronize two or three units?. Does it have a song naming function?. 4 4
Is MMC ( MIDI Machine Command) supported?. What is Cue List play?. Can you sort songs or divide a song?. Is external synchronization possible?. What are the precautions for using the unit?. How to use MTC out. Is there SONG Copy (buck up) function?.
Will disc supply continue for years, like cassette tapes?. Is the MD4 compatible with other manufacturers' discs?. Are there any types of MD data?. Where can we buy discs?. Why is an MD Data Disc more expensive than an MD Audio Disc?. 6
MD / Recorder
1. What is MD?
MD stands for Mini Disc, which is a type of media that allows you to perform magneto-optical digital recording. It first appeared on the market in 1992. Its main features are Random access, good sound quality, Easy Song editing, and compact size.
Why was MD selected as media?
MD is removable and easy to handle and reasonably priced. Its quality and future supply are ensured.
What is the available recording time in 4TR, ST and mono modes?
Recording time:37 minutes for 4 track; 74 minutes for Stereo; and 148 minutes for mono. So, recording time is proportional based on how many tracks are used.
What is the difference between MD Data and normal MD?
Normal MD is called "Mini Disc," and is used only for mono and stereo audio signals. MD Data was originally developed to save computer data and other general-purpose data (such as digital camera data). It can also work with handle mono, stereo, and four-channel audio signals.
Does the Yamaha MD4 accept a normal MD (Mini Disc)?
A normal Mini Disc can be played back, but cannot be recorded on by the MD4. If you insert a normal Mini Disc in a Yamaha MD4, the MD4 will not enter recording mode. (Only playback is available.)
What is compression? What is ATRAC?
Even though Mini Discs are only 64 mm in diameter, they can store up to 74 minutes of stereo audio, which is the same as the standard 120 mm audio compact disc. To achieve this data capacity, audio data is compressed using Sonys ATRAC (Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding) system. Using the ATRAC system, the Yamaha MD4 provides a four-track recording time of 37 minutes. ATRAC uses established psychoacoustic principles to compress audio data to about one-fifth of its original size, with virtually no loss in sound quality. For example, the sensitivity of the human ear is frequency dependent. Two tones of the same level but at different frequencies will not be heard at the same loudness. Another principle used is the masking effect. That is, softer sounds become inaudible when louder sounds at similar frequencies are present. ATRAC uses both of these principles to compress the audio data. ATRAC also employs a variable bit length technique, whereby bits are allocated to data depending on signal amplitude. For example, a low level signal does not require as many bits as a high level signal. So rather than waste 8 bits on a 5-bit value, ATRAC removes the 3 unused bits, thereby reducing the amount of data.
What does the frame indication mean?
One second consists of 86 frames. Since the data is compressed by units of 11.6ms (512 sample @44.1 kHz) based on the ATRAC system, a frame is obtained by dividing one second by 11.6 ms.
What does "resolution is 11.6 ms" mean?
This is the unit of one frame (11.6 msec) of resolution. Since each compression block is 11.6ms (0.0116 second), this is the minimum unit for recording and editing.
Why is it possible to perform ping-pong recording while playing back four tracks simultaneously?
The MD4 handles data compressed to about one-fifth of its size and length of time. In addition, random access capability will locate the playback point immediately for recording. Therefore, the Yamaha MD4 has enough room to record and play back data at the same point in the same channel.
10. Doesn't data slip when overdubbing due to data compression?
The compression and expansion process takes some amount of time. The Yamaha MD4 has a special dedicated circuit that compensates with a time offset for overdubbing and ping-pong recording.
11. How does the Yamaha MD4 identify and differentiate the MD Data from the Mini Disc?
The shape of one corner is different: tapered or round. Also, the TOC in the disc itself contains a code that identifies the disc.
12. Is there any sound degradation after repeated ping-pong recording?
No apparent degradation will occur, thanks to digital recording. However, since the ping-pong operation is performed on an analog mixer, after many repeated ping-pong operations a slight degradation may be noticed. This is still much better than a cassette recorder.
13. How long is the life of a disc?
No degradation occurs, even after one million instances of repeated recording/playback. It has an indefinite life time, as long as the disc is not damaged physically.
14. How long is the pickup laser life?
Almost the same as CD players.
15. Does the compression process lower the sound quality?
ATRAC system offers virtually no audible loss in sound quality.
16. Is there a "No Compression" mode that sacrifices total recording time?
No, the ATRAC process is always applied.
17. What types of information can be stored in the disc using the MD4?
TOC(Table of Contents) can save the start/end locate information of each song, remaining recording time, and the title of a disc and each song, and eight MARK points in each song, which can be edited by users.
18. Does a disc have a front and back side?
Yes. You cannot insert a disc upside down.
19. What will happen if a 4TR disc created on the MD4 is inserted into a normal MD ( Mini Disc) player?
The MD data disc cannot be played back on a normal Mini Disc player.
20. Does the unit have any protection against skipping sounds due to shock or vibration?
Buffering memory is equipped for continuous playback. It holds about 10 seconds of data.
21. The unit employs a magneto-optical system. Is it OK to place the unit on a TV?
The disc can be re-recorded based on the opto-thermal magnetic recording. A point on a disc is heated by a laser beam above the Curie temperature and then applied to a magnetic field to overwrite the data. Therefore, simply applying an external magnetic field does not modify the MD data.
22. How quickly can the MD4 locate a point?
The random access/quick locate facility, like a CD player, cannot be allowed on a tape-based multitracker.
23. What is SONG Search?
It is equivalent to the Track Search function on CD players that locates the beginning of a song.
24. Is the Repeat operation continued endlessly, or stopped after a given number of repetitions?
It will continue endlessly until you press the STOP key.
25. Is it necessary to format the Mini Disc?
No. Formatting is not required. This is convenient.
26. Why does the Yamaha MD4 have no digital outputs?
A normal Mini Disc player adopts the SCMS (Serial Copy Management System), and creating a second-generation digital copy is prohibited. The Yamaha MD4 can play back a normal Mini Disc, though the MD4 is an MD data format recorder, which, from the copyright point of view, may confuse customers. We decided not to implement digital outs this time.
27. Is the mixer section digital?
It is analog. 4
28. Can you synchronize two or three units?
It is impossible with this model.
29. Does it have a song naming function?
Yes. Each song and disc can have a name, which can be input on the MD4.
30. Is MMC ( MIDI Machine Command) supported?
No. The Yamaha MD4 is compact, desktop, standalone equipment that includes a mixer section. The MD4 will not frequently be remote controlled. However, the MD4 has an MTC (MIDI time code) out function that allows you to use the unit as timecode master to synchronize a music sequencer.
31. What is Cue List play?
Cue List play is one of the functions in UTILITY. Each song can have up to 8 Mark points. Using these Mark points in any order will allow you to make a Cue List of up to 9 steps. The MD4 plays back data based on this list. Also, the number of repeats can be set for Cue List play.
32. Can you sort songs or divide a song?
One song can be divided into two songs. These divided songs can be combined again. ( You cannot combine songs that originally had different song numbers.) But you cannot change the order of songs or relocate them (that is, the Cut and Paste operation), with the exception of the Program Play function, which allows you to change the playback sequence.
33. Is external synchronization possible?
34. What are the precautions for using the unit?
The operating temperature is 5 to 35 degrees Celsius. The unit is a precision device. Handle the cartridge gently and with care.
35. How to use MTC out.
MTC stands for MIDI Time Code. The Yamaha MD4 operates only as a timecode master of MIDI sequencer. In this case, MTC is output at 0:00, the beginning of each song. The MD4 does not have MIDI In/Out.
36. Is there SONG Copy (buck up) function?
Yes. The song Copy function allows you to copy an entire song. You can restore the original song if you make mistakes during editing.
37. Will disc supply continue for years, like cassette tapes?
Like CDs and 3.5" floppy disks, the standards of the MD format are open to anybody based on a licensee fee. SONY will support supply for a long period of time due to its responsibility as licenser.
38. Is the MD4 compatible with other manufacturers' discs?
MD data discs manufactured by SONY and TDK are currently compatible.
39. Are there any types of MD data?
Only one type: 140MB.
40. Where can we buy discs?
Since it is currently difficult to obtain discs, Yamaha will purchase SONY MD data discs to supply to the MD4 dealers.
41. Why is an MD Data Disc more expensive than an MD Audio Disc?
Due to the relationship between demand and supply, the number of MD Data discs in the market is still small. Thats why they are more expensive than MD Audio discs. However, the price will go down in the future in accordance with increasing applications with MD data disc such as digital cameras and computer data.
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