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1.5 Wireless Operation Modes
The AirMax5 can perform as a multi-function wireless device. Through the AirLogic web interface, users can easily select which wireless mode they wish the AirMax5 to perform. The AirMax5 can be configured to operate in the following wireless operation modes:
1.5.1 Access Point Mode
When operating in the Access Point mode, the AIRMAX5 becomes the center hub of the wireless network. All wireless cards and clients connect and communicate through AirMax5. This type of network is known as Infrastructure network. Other AirMax5 or 802.11a CPE can connect to AP mode through Client Infrastructure Mode or Bridge Infrastructure Mode. The Access Point mode will act as WDS AP when connecting with the Bridge Infrastructure mode. Please see Chapter 8 for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
1.5.2 Repeater Mode
In Repeater mode, the AIRMAX5 functions as a repeater that extends the range of remote wireless LAN. The AirMax5s repeater mode is a universal repeater, not WDS repeater. Because the radio is divided into client + AP mode, the Repeater mode will have less performance and distance. We recommended using a dual radio product like Airlive WLA-9000AP or WH-9200AP if you require full performance in this application. Please see Chapter 10 for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
1.5.3 WDS Bridge Mode
This mode is also known as WDS Pure MAC mode. When configured to operate in the Wireless Distribution System (WDS) Mode, the AIRMAX5 provides bridging functions with remote LAN networks in the WDS system. The system will support up to total of 8 bridges in a WDS network (by daisy chain). However, each bridge can only associate with maximum of 4 other bridges in the WDS configuration. This mode is best used when you want to connect LAN networks together wirelessly (for example, between office and warehouse). If you have more than 2 AP in WDS Bridges mode, please remember to turn on the 802.1d Spanning Tree or STP option on to avoid network loop. This mode usually delivers faster performance than infrastructure mode. Please see Chapter 9 for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
1.5.4 Bridge Infrastructure Mode
This mode is also known as "WDS Station" or "Client mode with MAC address transparency". The Bridge Infrastructure mode can only connect with Access Point mode. 2 Bridge Infrastructure can not connect with each other. It works like client mode with MAC address transparency function. In another word, the MAC addresses of the PCs will be passed instead of the AP's wireless MAC address. If you require Bridge connection with WPA-PSK or WPA-PSK2 connection, please use this mode instead. However, this mode might not work with some outdoor APs. If it occurs, please use Client Infrastructure or WDS Bridge instead. Please see Chapter 8 for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
It is recommended that you change the system management settings first. Please go to System Configuration-> System Management. The default web management time out is 10 minutes, you can set to longer period if needed. For WISP administrators, you can consider turning off HTTP and Telnet for security purpose.
3.5.6 Change Password
You should change the password for AirMax5 at the first login. To change password, please go to System Configuration -> Password Settings menu.
4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
Management: Wireless and WAN Settings
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings and router mode settings in web management interface. Please be sure to read through Chapter 3s Introduction to Web Management and Initial Configurations first. For system configurations, device status, and other non-wireless related settings; please go to Chapter 5.
4.1 About AirMax5s Menu Structure
The AirMax5s web management menu is divided into 3 main menus: Operation Modes, System Configurations, and Device Status. The main menus are displayed in Top Menu Bar. Within each main menu category, there are sub-menu options which are displayed on the Side Menu Bar
TOP Menu Bar: Main Menus
Side Menu Bar: Sub Menus
Operation Mode: This menu is where you will find wireless and WAN settings. The AirMax5s wireless settings are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose; only the applicable wireless settings for selected operation mode are shown. For example; WAN port setting is available only for AP Router and WISP Router mode, it will only be shown in those modes. To access wireless settings, click on the Setup button within each operation mode. For explanation on different wireless modes, please refer to Chapter 1. We will talk about functions in
this menu for this chapter. System Configuration: All settings besides Wireless and WAN functions are in this category. The system configuration including changing password, upload firmware, backup configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management interface. We will talk about this menus function in Chapter 5. Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of AirMax5. It provides information on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless client table, and system log. Logout: Please make sure to Logout after you finish all settings.
BSSID: This is the remote APs MAC address. Channel: The current scanned channel Signal Strength: This is the RSSI value. It will refresh itself every second. The smaller the absolute value of the RSSI, the stronger the signal. For example -38dbm is stronger than -70dBm.
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Lock-to-AP This function is applicable only to Client mode, Bridge Infrastructure, and WISP Router mode. When this function is enables, the AirMax5 will put priority to associate with AP on the list. If Force connect with AP added below is selected, the AirMax5 will only connect with AP on the list.
4.2.6 Radio Mode (11a, SuperA, TurboA)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Radio Mode AirMax5 has 4 different options for WLAN transmission. should use the same WLAN mode.
All devices in the same network
11a mode (normal-A): This is the IEEE standard for WiFi operating in 5GHz frequency band. 11a is the most stable mode. If you are getting packet loss or disconnection using Super-A or Turbo-A mode. Please use 11a mode instead. SuperA: Super-A add Bursting, Compression, and Fast Frames to increase the speed over 11a mode. If you live in countries that prohibit the channel binding technology (i.e. Europe), you should choose Super-A If you need more speed than 11a mode. However, this mode is not as stable as 11a mode. Super-A with Static Turbo: Turbo mode uses channel binding technology to increase the speed further over Super-A mode. This mode might not be allowed in countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU countries). This mode will always turn on the turbo mode in all conditions Super-A with Dynamic Turbo: Dynamic Turbo mode will be turn on only when adjacent channel is not used. It is also know as intelligent turbo mode. This mode might not be allowed in countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU countries). In addition, this mode does not work in WDS Bridge mode
If you select 11a or Super-A mode, you can still combined them with Turbo mode when you select 40MHz Channel Width.
4.2.7 SuperA Option
Operation Mode -> Setup -> SuperA Option When you select Radio Mode with Super-A, the SuperA Options will be available. Allow more data frame to be sent over given period of time by overhead reduction. Compression: Increasing throughput by compressing data frame in real time Fast Frame: Utilizing frame aggregation and removing interframe pauses to increase the throughput. It is recommended to select all 3 options except for compatibility reasons with remote AP. Bursting:
5.1.2 Time Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings It is important that you set the date and time for your AirMax5 so that the system log will record the correct date and time information. We recommend you choose Enable NTP so the time will be keep even after reboot. If your AirMax5 is not connected to Internet, please enter the time manually. Please remember to select your local time zone and click Apply to finish.
5.1.3 Password Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings To change password, please go to System Configuration -> Password Settings menu.
5.1.4 System Management
System Configuration -> System Management In this page, administrator can change the management parameters and disable/enable management interface.
System Administration HTTP Port No: The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the value here Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the AirMax5 will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here. HTTP Web Server Access: HTTPS Web server Access: from WAN side You can enable or disable HTTP service from WAN side You can enable or disable HTTPS Web Server Access
Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether AirMax5 will response to PING command. Telnet: Disable/Enable Telnet Interface. interface and use SSH instead UPnP: Click here to enable UPnP. reason. It is recommend that you disable the Telnet
It is recommended not to open UPnP for security
Syslog: Syslog is an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force - the Internet standards body)-conformant standard for logging system events (RFC-3164). When the AIRMAX5 encounters an error or warning condition (ie., a log-in attempt with an invalid password), it will create a log in the system log table. To be able to remotely view such system log events, you need to check the Enable Syslog box and configure the IP address of a Syslog daemon. When doing so, the AIRMAX5 will send logged events over network to the daemon for future reviewing.
Syslog server IP address: System event messages generated by the wireless access point will be sent to a Syslog daemon running on a server identified by this IP address
5.1.5 SNMP Settings
System Configuration -> SNMP Settings This screen allows you to configure SNMP parameters including the system name, the location and contact information.
System Name: A name that you assign to your 802.11a+g Router. It is an alphanumeric string of up to 30 characters. System Location: Enter a system location. System Contact: Contact information for the system administrator responsible for managing the AirMax5. It is an alphanumeric string of up to 60 characters. Community String For Read: If you intend the router to be managed from a remote SNMP management station, you need to configure a read-only community string for read-only operation. The community string is an alphanumeric string of up to 15 characters. Community String For Write: For read-write operation, you need to configure a write community string.
Assign a specific name and IP address for your SNMP trap manager: A trap manager is a remote SNMP management station where special SNMP trap messages are generated (by the router) and sent to in the network. You can define trap managers in the system. You can add a trap manager by entering a name, an IP address, followed by pressing the ADD button. You can delete a trap manager by selecting the corresponding entry and press the DELETE SELECTED button. To enable a trap manager, check the Enable box in the corresponding entry; to disable it, un-check the Enable box.
5.1.6 Ping Watchdog
System Configuration -> Ping Watchdog The Ping Watchdog will ping remote IP addresses to make sure the wireless connection is active, if not, it can either reconnect or reboot. To prevent the AP from power recycling, the PING watchdog will start 10 minutes after power up to prevent power recycle problem.
PING Frequency means: "How often the CPE will PING". For example, it will PING once every "1" minute. Fail Tries means "How many times fails before the CPE will judge the PING failed". For example "2" means the CPE will reconnect if the PING doesn't respond for 2 times. When you set the Ping Frequency to every "2" minutes and Fail Tries to "2". It means the CPE will ping every 2 minutes, after the second failure, it will reconnect.
set beacon interval <range:20-100> Purpose: set beacon interval for wireless interface. For explanation on advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14 Example: Command> set beacon interval 100 Radio1 beacon internal: 100
set rts threshold <range:0-2347> Purpose: set rts threshold. For explanation on advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14 Example: Command> set rts threshold 2347 Radio1 RTS threshold: 2347
set fragmentation <range:256-2346> Purpose: set fragmentation value. For explanation on advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14 Example: Command> set fragmentation 2346 Radio1 fragmentation: 2346
set dtim interval <range:1-255> Purpose: To set dtim interval value. For explanation on advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14 Example: Command> set dtim interval 1 Radio1 DTIM interval: 1
set user limitation <range:1-100> Purpose: To set the user limit for wireless interface Example: Command> set user limitation 100 Radio1 user limitation: 100
set age out time <range:1-1000> Purpose: To set the age timeout for wireless clients. Example: Command> set age out time 5 Radio1 age out time: 5
set transmit power <range: 0-24> Purpose: To set the TX output power value of the radio Example: Command> set transmit power 20 Radio1 transmit power: 20
set data rate <best | 6~54> Purpose: To set the date rate. For example, 54mbps, 36mbps.etc Example: Command> set data rate 54 Radio1 data rate: 54
set acktimeout <11A> Purpose: To set the ACK timeout value Example: Command> set acktimeout 25 AckTimeOut for radio1: 11A=25
set vlan for ssid <enable | disable> Purpose: Enable VLAN function Example: Command> set vlan for ssid enable
set diffserv marking <enable | disable> Purpose: To enable diffserv marking function in multiple SSID & VLAN configuration. Example: Command> set diffserv marking enable
set security <ssid> none Purpose: To remove security policy from a SSID Example: Command> set security airlive none Set Radio1 no security !
set security <ssid> wep <key number> <64|128|152> <ascii | hex> <key string> <defaultkey> Purpose: To set the WEP security policy Example: Command> set security airmax5 wep hex 1234567890 Radio1 authentication type : wep !
Antenna Settings: You can change the settings for the antenna from Operation Modes -> Setup -> Advance Settings menu.
7.1.2 Mounting Adjustment
The degree you can adjust the AirMax5s antenna depends on what mounting kit you use:
Standard Mounting: The standard strap mount allows you to rotate the CPE in the horizontal plane only. As long as 2 wireless devices are at about the same elevation, this adjustment is already enough.
Optional Metal Mounting Kit: The optional metal mounting kit allow the AirMax5 to rotate in both horizontal (pole mount only) and vertical direction. It is recommended to use this mounting kit when there is a big elevation difference between 2 sides of the wireless connection.
7.2 About RSSI Signal Level
The RSSI level is used to indicate the signal strength of the remote wireless device. Therefore, the idea is to adjust the antenna until the RSSI level is at the highest. The unit used by RSSI is in dB or dBm. Here are the general guidelines for RSSI The smaller the absolute value of the RSSI, the strong the signal. For example, -50dB is much stronger than -80dB The most optimal RSSI range is between -50dB to -65dB Signal weaker than -80dB (e.g. -85dB) is considered to be very weak. Signal weaker than -85dB (e.g. -90dB) will most likely result in disconnection. Signal stronger than -35dB (e.g. -30dB) is considered to be too strong. result in near field effect and reduce the performance. It might
7.3 Preparation before Installation
The antenna alignment is for small adjustment only, you should not use it find remote AP. The correct way is to use a satellite map program like Google Map to find the locations of the installation site and the nearest AP/Bridge. Then measure the approximate direction and angle. It will also help to bring a pair of hi power binocular for sight survey.
7.4 Antenna Alignment using RSSI LED
There are 2 LED indicators on the side of the AirMax5 that is dedicated to display the RSSI signal strength. They are in bright blue and green color so you can see the difference in signal far away from the CPE. By varying the states of the LED, the AirMax5 can display 4 different levels of signal strength. About the Signal Threshold There are total of 4 signal levels in AirMax5: No Signal, Weak Signal, Strong Signal, Full Signal. The Signal Threshold is the dividing line between 2 signal level. For example; if the Full Signal Threshold is set to -50dB, -49dB will be Full Signal while -51dB will be Strong Signal. You can change the Signal Threshold by going to going to Operation Mode -> Setup -> RSSI LED Threshold menu. The values indicated are the default threshold value. The correct value really depends on the TX output power of the remote AP. These values are best for distance link about 2 kilometer with a remote AP of about 40dBm combined output power with antenna. If the distance is greater or output power is lower, please reduce the threshold values.
If the network you selected needs encryption, the following page will pop-up. Please enter the correct encryption key and press Apply to finish
The system will pop up a message telling you configuration is successful.
8. Application Example: Infrastructure
In this chapter, you will learn how to utilize AirMax5s Access Point mode, Client Infrastructure Mode, and Bridge Infrastructure mode in one application example. In addition, you will also learn how to configure multiple SSID and bandwidth control.
8.1 Application Environment
In this application example, an AirMax5 in Access Point mode is in the center of an infrastructure topology with two virtual wireless networks. The first wireless network is the AP-Client network and the second network is the Bridge network. Each wireless network has its own SSID, security Policy and Bandwidth policy. On the left hand side is an AirMax5 in Bridge Infrastructure mode. On the right hand side are an AirMax5 (Client Mode), a notebook, and a PC. Below is the general description about the devices of the network.
SSID: airliveclient Encryption: WPA-PSK SSID: bridgeinf Encryption: WPA-PSK2
Device A: AirMax5 in Access Point Mode Using multiple SSID to create 2 wireless network airliveclient: A network for wireless clients with WPA-PSK security policy. bridgeinf: A bridge network with WPA-PSK2 security policy Enable Per-User bandwidth Control for the airliveclient network The wireless client network will be limited to a subnet of 6 IP addresses. Each IP address will be limited to 512Kbps upload and 2MB download speed.
Device B: AirMax5 in Bridge Infrastructure Mode Using Total bandwidth Control to limit the Bridge traffic to 10Mbps both way. Use Site Survey wizard to make the connection in a simple one stop process. Device C: AirMax5 in Client Infrastructure Mode Connect to the Access Point using Client Infrastructure Multiple User mode. Use Site Survey to connect and associate with the AP.
8.2 Device A: Access Point Mode
SSID: airliveclient Encryption: WPA-PSK Distance: 2000m
SSID: bridgeinf Encryption: WPA-PSK2 Distance: 2000m
The configuration of Device A involves the followings: Using multiple SSID to create 2 wireless network airliveclient: A network for wireless clients with WPA-PSK security policy. bridgeinf: A bridge network with WPA-PSK2 security policy Enable Per-User bandwidth Control for the airliveclient network The wireless client network will be limited to a subnet of 6 IP addresses. Each IP address will be limited to 512Kbps upload and 2Mbps download speed.
Step 4 The AirMax5 will prompt you to enter security policy information. WPA2-PSK and enter bridgeinfkey for Pre-Shared Key.
Step 3 Click on Apply. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show successful connection.
8.3.2 Device B Total Bandwidth Control
Step 1 Select Bandwidth Control from the wireless setting page.
Enable Bandwidth Control, then select Total Bandwidth Control. Enter 10000Kbps (10Mbps) for both downlink and uplink bandwidth. Click on Apply to finish.
8.4 Device C: Client Infrastructure Mode
Device C: AirMax5 in Client Infrastructure Mode Set device IP to 192.168.1.100 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.248 Connect to the Access Point using Client Infrastructure Multiple User mode. Use Site Survey to connect and associate with the AP.
8.4.1 Device C IP Address
Step 1 Go to System Configuration -> Device IP settings. Select Assign Static IP to this device. Then enter the IP address and Subnet Mask as bellowed. Click Apply when finished.
8.4.2 Device C Wireless Settings
Step 1 Go to Operation Mode menu. Select Client Infrastructure, and then click on Change Mode button.
Step 2 Press Setup to enter the wireless settings page. information and click on APPLY button. Enter the distance
Press Site Survey button, the following page should appear. airliveclient and press Associate button to connect
Step 4 The AirMax5 will prompt you to enter security policy information. WPA-PSK and enter airliveclientkey for Pre-Shared Key.
Step 5 Click on Apply. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show successful connection.
You have now setup a successful Infrastructure network with AirMax5 in Access Point, Bridge Infrastructure, and Client Infrastructure modes
9. Application Example2: Bridge Network
Example 2: Bridge Network
Before reading this chapter, please read section 4.3 first on WDS settings. In this chapter, you will learn to how to build a WDS Bridge network by following our step by step example. In addition, we will talk about the general concepts and knowledge about building a long distance connection. This chapter is divided into 3 sections 9.1: Preparation for Building Outdoor Bridge Networks: This section provides basic knowledge about building long distance outdoor bridge connection. 9.2: WDS Bridge vs. Bridge Infrastructure: Here we will discuss the differences between the 2 bridge mode. 9.3: WDS Bridge Network Example: A step-by-step guide to building a multiple link Bridge network.
9.1 Preparation for Building Outdoor Bridge Networks
1. Write down the WLAN MAC address in advance Please remember to write down the WLAN MAC addresses of the AP for installation. The WDS bridge require to enter remote Bridges MAC address for WDS authentication.
11. For multi-point connection, use bandwidth control to manage the variable distance problem Using ACKtimeout for point-to-point connection is no problem. However, for point to multi-point connection, it becomes a problem at the center point. In the diagram below, the AirMax5 at point A is the center hub. While wireless clients at B, C,and D can set correct ACKtimeout values to point A, the center AP can set only one Acktimeout value.
To illustrate this problem; when you set the ACKtimeout at Point A to 2km distance. The likely result will be Point B will get about 90% of the bandwidth, Point C gets 10%, and Point D gets nothing at all. To solve this problem, please use total bandwidth control at point B, C, D to limit the bandwidth to about 40% of total bandwidth each maximum. Then set the APs(Point A) ACKtimeout value to 3km distance (the furthest point). All 3 points should then get acceptable share of the bandwidth.
12. Use XR mode when you cant connect with the extra sensitivity Atheros eXtended Range mode will improve the APs receiver sensitivity to as high as -105dB. However, when this mode is used, the performance may be reduced greatly.
9.2 WDS Bridge vs. Bridge Infrastructure
When you want to build a bridge connection, there are 2 choices with AirMax5: WDS Bridge (Pure MAC): WDS Bridge mode can make Point-to-Point and Multi-Point connections. It also delivers faster performance than infrastructure networks. In a WDS network, each node can have up to 4 connections but the total number of devices should not exceed 8. Currently, the WDS Bridge mode can only use WEP encryptions policy.
Bridge Infrastructure: Bridge Infrastructure mode connects to AP mode to form a star topology. Bridge Infrastructure mode can not make a Point-to-Point connection. However, it works with WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK encryption. This mode is also unknown as Client Mode with MAC Address Transparency.
When to use which bridge mode:
WDS Bridge Mode: When you making point-to-point connection. For example, when you build wireless bridge network between office and warehouse. When you require fast performance When you require multiple star topologies. Bridge Infrastructure When you are connection both Bridge network and wireless client to the remote Access Point When you require more advance security like WPA and WPA2 TIPS: For step-by-step instruction on how to setup Bridge Infrastructure mode, please go to Chapter 8 Application Example: Infrastructure Mode.
14. Wireless Network Glossary
The wireless network glossary contains explanation or information about common terms used in wireless networking products. Some of information in this glossary might be outdated, please use with caution.
802.11a An IEEE specification for wireless networking that operates in the 5 GHz frequency range (5.15 GHz to 5.850 GHz) with a maximum of 54 Mbps data transfer rate. The 5 GHz frequency band is not as crowded as the 2.4 GHz band. In addition, the 802.11a have 12 non-overlapping channels, comparing to 802.11b/g's 3 non-overlapping channels. This means the possibility to build larger non-interfering networks. However, the 802.11a deliver shorter distance at the same output power when comparing to 802.11g.
802.3ad 802.3ad is an IEEE standard for bonding or aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one virtual port (also known as trunking) to increase the bandwidth.
802.3af This is the PoE (Power over Ethernet) standard by IEEE committee. 803.af uses 48V POE standard that can deliver up to 100 meter distance over Ethernet cable.
802.11b International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band (2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput up to 11 Mbps.
802.1d STP Spanning Tree Protocol. It is an algorithm to prevent network from forming. The STP protocol allows net work to provide a redundant link in the event of a link failure. It is advise to turn on this option for multi-link bridge network.
802.11d Also known as Global Roaming. 802.11d is a standard for use in countries where systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to operate.
802.11e The IEEE QoS standard for prioritizing traffic of the VoIP and multimedia applications. The WMM is based on a subset of the 802.11e.
802.11g A standard provides a throughput up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology. It also operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band as 802.11b. 802.11g devices are backward compatible with 802.11b devices.
802.11h This IEEE standard define the TPC (transmission power control) and DFS(dynamic frequency selection) required to operate WiFi devices in 5GHz for EU.
802.11i The IEEE standard for wireless security. 802.11i standard includes TKIP, CCMP, and AES encryption to improve wireless security. It is also know as WPA2.
802.1Q Tag VLAN In 802.1Q VLAN, the VLAN information is written into the Ethernet packet itself. Each packet carries a VLAN ID(called Tag) as it traveled across the network. Therefore, the VLAN configuration can be configured across multiple switches. In 802.1Q spec, possible 4096 VLAN ID can be created. Although for some devices, they can only view in frames of 256 ID at a time.
IPsec IP Security. A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel. Transport mode encrypts only the data of each packet, but leaves the header untouched. The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.
LACP (802.3ad) Trunking
The 802.3ad Link Aggregation standard defines how to combine the several Ethernet ports into one high-bandwidth port to increase the transmission speed. It is also known as port trunking. Both device must set the trunking feature to work.
MAC Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices. Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices with the approved MAC address can connect with the network.
Mbps Megabits Per Second. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data transmission
MESH Mesh is an outdoor wireless technology that uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Wireless Distribution system to achieve self-forming, self-healing, and self-configuring outdoor network. MESH network are able to take the shortest path to a destination that does not have to be in the line of site.
MIMO Multi In Multi Out. A Smart Antenna technology designed to increase the coverage and performance of a WLAN network. In a MIMO device, 2 or more antennas are used to increase the receiver sensitivity and to focus available power at intended Rx.
NAT Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several PCs to share single IP address provided by the ISP. The IP that a router gets from the ISP side is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called Private IP.
Node A network connection end point, typically a computer.
Packet A unit of data sent over a network.
Passphrase Used much like a password, a passphrase simplifies the WEP encryption process by automatically generating the WEP encryption keys for the company products.
POE Power over Ethernet. A standard to deliver both power and data through one single Ethernet cable (UTP/STP). It allows network device to be installed far away from power ource. A POE system typically compose of 2 main component: DC Injector (Base Unit) and Splitter(Terminal Unit). The DC injector combines the power and data, and the splitter separates the data and power back. A PoE Access Point or CPE has the splitter built-in to the device. The IEEE 802.3af is a POE spec that uses 48 volt to deliver power up to 100 meter distance.
WAN Wide Area Network. A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. A WAN
port on the network device means the port (or wireless connection) that is connected to the Internet side of the network topology.
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy. A wireless encryption protocol. WEP is available in 40-bit (64-bit), 108-bit (128-bit) or 152-bit (Atheros proprietary) encryption modes.
Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity. An interoperability certification for wireless local area network (LAN) products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The governing body for Wi-Fi is called Wi-Fi Alliance (also known as WECA).
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. A Wireless Metropolitan Network technology that complies with IEEE 802.16 and ETSI Hiperman standards. The orginal 802.16 standard call for operating frequency of 10 to 66Ghz spectrum. The 802.16a amendment extends the original standard into spectrum between 2 and 11 Ghz. 802.16d increase data rates to between 40 and 70 Mbps/s and add support for MIMO antennas, QoS, and multiple polling technologies. 802.16e adds mobility features, narrower bandwidth (a max of 5 mhz), slower speed and smaller antennas. Mobility is allowed up to 40 mph.
WDS Wireless Distribution System. WDS defines how multiple wireless Access Point or Wireless Router can connect together to form one single wireless network without using wired uplinks. WDS associate each other by MAC address, each device
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. The most popular standard for WLAN is the 802.11 standards.
WMM Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The WMM prioritize traffic\ on Voice-over-IP (VoIP), audio, video, and streaming media as well
as traditional IP data over the AP.
WMS Wireless Management System. An utility program to manage multiple wireless AP/Bridges.
Copyright and Disclaimer
Copyright & Disclaimer
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or recording without the written consent of OvisLink Corp.
OvisLink Corp. has made the best effort to ensure the accuracy of the information in this users guide. However, we are not liable for the inaccuracies or errors in this guide. Please use with caution. All information is subject to change without notice All Trademarks are properties of their respective holders.
AirLive IP-1000R v2 Users Manual
Table of Contents
1. Introduction...1 1.1 Overview....1 1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support..1 1.3 Features....2 2. Installing the IP-1000R v2...3 2.1 Installation Requirements...3 2.2 Package Content...3 2.3 Knowing your IP-1000R v2...3 2.4 Hardware Connections..4 2.5 Restore Settings to Default...5 3. Configuring the IP-1000R v2...6 3.1 Important Information...6 3.2 Prepare your PC....6
3.2.1 Windows 95/98/ME.... 7 3.2.2 Windows XP/2000.... 9 3.2.3 Windows NT 4.0.... 11 3.2.4 Windows Vista.... 13
3.3 Management Interface...14 3.4 Startup and Login...15 4. Quick Setup....16 4.1 Time Zone...16 4.2 WAN Type...17
4.2.1 Dynamic IP (Cable Modem)... 18 4.2.2 Static IP (Fixed-IP xDSL)... 18 4.2.3 PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL)... 19 4.2.4 PPTP.... 20 4.2.5 DNS.... 21
5. System....22 5.1 System Time...22 5.2 Administrator Settings..23 5.3 Firmware Upgrade....24
5.4 Configuration Tools...25 5.5 Status....26 5.6 System Log...27 5.7 Reset....27 6. WAN....28 6.1 Dynamic IP...28 6.2 Static IP....29 6.3 PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL)...30 6.4 PPTP....31 6.5 DNS....32 6.6 DDNS....32 7. LAN...33 7.1 LAN Settings...33 7.2 DHCP Client List...34 8. NAT...35 8.1 Special Application....35 8.2 Virtual Server...37 9. Firewall....38 9.1 Block WAN Ping...38 9.2 Client Filtering...39 9.3 MAC Control...39 9.4 DMZ (De-Militarized Zone)...40 9.5 URL Filter...40 10. Routing....41 10.1 Static Routing...41 11. Specifications....42 12. Network Glossary....43
The IP-1000R v2 is a 4-port Ethernet Broadband Router. It enables users quickly and easily sharing a single high-speed Internet connection as well as sharing information and resources such as files and printers with a built-in 4-port 10/100 Switch. This manual is designed to help you connect the IP-1000R v2 to a high-speed Internet connection and 4 wired-Ethernet PCs connect to a built-in 4-port 10/100 Switch.
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support
If you encounter a technical issue that can not be resolved by information on this guide, we recommend that you visit our comprehensive website support at www.airlive.com. The tech support FAQ are frequently updated with latest information. In addition, you might find new firmware that either increase software functions or provide bug fixes for IP-1000R v2. You can reach our on-line support center at the following link: http://www.airlive.com/support/support_2.jsp Since 2009, AirLive has added the Newsletter Instant Support System on our website. AirLive Newsletter subscribers receives instant email notifications when there are new download or tech support FAQ updates for their subscribed airlive models. To become an AirLive newsletter member, please visit: http://www.airlive.com/member/member_3.jsp
Figure: AirLive Newsletter Support System
High-speed data transfer rate Supports NAT (sharing one IP address with all LAN users) Supports PPPoE and PPTP protocol for Dial-Up ADSL Supports DHCP Server / Client Supports UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) Supports virtual server mapping Supports VPN PPTP and IPSec pass-through Supports packet filtering Simple Firewall protection Upgradeable firmware for future functions Easy setup via Web Browser
2. Install the IP-1000R v2
the IP-1000R v2
2.1 Installation Requirements
A computer with a wired network adapter properly installed Broadband Internet Connection Installed Cable or DSL Modem Web Brower: Internet Explorer (5.0 or higher)
2.2 Package Content
The IP-1000R v2 package contains the following items: One IP-1000R v2 main unit One 5V 800mA DC power adapter Users Guide CD Quick Start Guide 1 x RJ-45 Ethernet Cable
2.3 Knowing your IP-1000R v2
Below are descriptions and diagrams of the product:
POWER The LED lights up a solid green when the Router is powered on. Otherwise, it is off. STATUS The LED is flashing when the Router is successfully working. If the LED is either always on or off, the Router is not working properly.
WAN The LED lights up a solid green when the WAN port is connected to a Cable/DSL Modem successfully. If the LED is flashing, the WAN port is sending or receiving data from the Cable/DSL modem. LAN (Link/ACT) The LED lights up a solid green when the port is connected to a 100Mbps Fast Ethernet device. If the LED is flashing, the port is sending or receiving data over the network.
WAN One RJ-45 10/100Mbps Auto-MDIX WAN port for connecting to your Cable/DSL Modem LAN (1-4) Four RJ-45 10/100Mbps Auto-MDIX ports for connecting to Ethernet enabled computers. RESET Use a pin-shaped object to reset the Router to factory default settings. Resetting the Router will also reset the login password to the default. Power Connect one end of the included power adapter to the power port on the Router and the other end into a power outlet.
2.4 Hardware Connections
Connect the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router 1. Connect one end of the included Ethernet cable to the WAN port on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router. 2. Connect the other end of the included Ethernet cable to the Ethernet port on the Cable or DSL modem. 3. Connect one end of another Ethernet cable to the Ethernet port on the computer and the other end of the Ethernet cable to any of the LAN ports on the Router. Since the IP-1000R
v2 Broadband Router has four LAN ports, you can connect up to four computers directly to the Router. Check The Installation The LEDs on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router are clearly visible and the status of the traffic can be seen immediately: 1. Once the Router is connected to the Cable or DSL modem and the power is connected, the Power, System and WAN port LEDs on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router will light up. 2. If the LAN port is connected to the Ethernet port on the computer, the LAN port LED on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router will light up.
2.5 Restore Settings to Default
If you have forgotten your IP-1000R v2 IP address or password, you can restore your IP-1000R v2 to the default settings by pressing on the reset button for more than 5 seconds.
3. Configuring the IP-1000R v2
3.1 Important Information
The following information will help you to get start quickly. to read through the entire manual before you start. The default IP address is: 192.168.1.1 The default user name is: admin The default password is: airlive However, we recommend you
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
3.2 Prepare your PC
Accessing the Internet through the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router, you have to properly configure the network settings of your computers to use the same IP subnet as the IP-1000R v2. The default IP address of the IP-1000R v2 is 192.168.1.1, and the default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. These addresses can be changed as needed, but the default values are used in this manual. If the network TCP/IP settings of your computer has not yet been configured, you can refer to Configuring PC Network TCP/IP Settings and configure it. Note: Disable HTTP Proxy In order to access and view the IP-1000R v2s configuration web pages, you need to verify that the HTTP Proxy feature of your web browser is disabled. The network TCP/IP settings differ based on the computers operating system (Win95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP/Vista); if you need information on how to configure a TCP/IP settings on a computer, refer to the following section.
3.2.1 Windows 95/98/ME
1. Select Control Panel - Network. You should see a screen like the following:
2. Select the TCP/IP protocol for your network card. 3. Click on the Properties button. You should then see a screen like the following.
Ensure your TCP/IP settings are correct, as follows: Using DHCP To use DHCP, select the radio button Obtain an IP Address automatically. This is the default Windows setting, and it is recommended to use it. By default, the IP-1000R v2 will act as a DHCP Server. Restart your PC to ensure it obtains an IP Address from the IP-1000R v2. Using "Specify an IP Address" If your PC is already configured, check with your network administrator before making the following changes:
On the Gateway tab, enter the IP-1000R v2's IP address in the New Gateway field and click Add, as shown below. Your LAN administrator can advise you of the IP Address they assigned to the IP-1000R v2.
On the DNS Configuration tab, ensure Enable DNS is selected. If the DNS Server Search Order list is empty, enter the DNS address provided by your ISP in the fields beside the Add button, then click Add.
3.2.2 Windows XP/2000
1. Select Control Panel - Network Connection. 2. Right click the Local Area Connection and choose Properties. You should see a screen like the following:
3. Select the TCP/IP protocol for your network card. 4. Click on the Properties button. You should then see a screen like the following.
5. Ensure your TCP/IP settings are correct. Using DHCP To use DHCP, select the radio button Obtain an IP Address automatically. This is the default Windows setting, and it is recommended to use it. By default, the IP-1000R v2 will act as a DHCP Server. Using a fixed IP Address ("Use the following IP Address") If your PC is already configured, check with your network administrator before making the following changes. In the Default Gateway field, enter the IP-1000R v2s IP address and click OK. Your LAN administrator can advise you of the IP Address they assigned to the IP-1000R v2. If the DNS Server fields are empty, select Use the following DNS server addresses, and enter the DNS address or addresses provided by your ISP, then click OK.
3.2.3 Windows NT 4.0
1. Select Control Panel - Network, and, on the Protocols tab, select the TCP/IP protocol, as shown below.
2. Click the Properties button to see a screen like the one below.
3. Select the network card for your LAN. 4. Select the appropriate radio button - Obtain an IP address from a DHCP Server or Specify an IP Address, as explained below. Obtain an IP address from a DHCP Server This is the default Windows setting, and it is recommended to use it. By default, the IP-1000R v2 will act as a DHCP Server. Restart your PC to ensure it obtains an IP Address from the IP-1000R v2. Specify an IP Address If your PC is already configured, check with your network administrator before making the following changes. 5. The Default Gateway must be set to the IP address of the IP-1000R v2. To set this: Click the Advanced button on the screen above. On the following screen, click the Add button in the Gateways panel, and enter the IP-1000R v2s IP address, as shown in below. If necessary, use the Up button to make the IP-1000R v2 the first entry in the Gateways list.
6. The DNS should be set to the address provided by your ISP, as follows: Click the DNS tab. On the DNS screen, shown below, click the Add button (under DNS Service Search Order), and enter the DNS provided by your ISP.
3.2.4 Windows Vista
1. Click the Start button then right-click Network then click Properties. 2. Under Tasks located on the left-hand side of the windows, click Manage network connections. 3. Right-click Local Area Connection listed under LAN or High-Speed Internet then click Properties. 4. Click Continue to open the Local Area Connection Properties windows. 5. Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), then click Properties button. 6. Select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically in General tab. 7. Click OK button.
3.3 Management Interface
The IP-1000R v2 can be configured using the HTTP management interface: Web Management (HTTP): You can manage your IP-1000R 2 by simply typing its IP address in the web browser. We recommend using this interface for initial configurations. To begin, simply enter IP-1000R v2 IP address (default is 192.168.1.1) on the web browser. The default password is airlive.
If you are placing the RS-2500 behind router or firewall, you might need to open virtual server ports to RS-2500 on your firewall/router HTTP: TCP Port 80
3.4 Startup and Login
Open your web browser and type in the IP address of the IP-1000R v2 into the Location (for Netscape) or Address (for IE) field and press Enter. The default IP address of the IP-1000R v2 is 192.168.1.1. After the connection is established, a logon screen will pop up. To log in as an administrator, type in the user name admin and the password airlive, then click the LOGIN button, the web-based management interface will appear.
Two setup options appear: Quick Setup and Advanced Setup. It is recommended that you use Quick Setup if you are a beginner. It will lead you through the step-by-step configuration.
4. Quick Setup
4.1 Time Zone
On the main webpage, select Quick Setup to setup the Time Zone and the WAN Type.
Select the appropriate time zone so your system clock can synchronize itself through the SNTP Server.
4.2 WAN Type
To select the WAN connection type, click Dynamic IP (Cable Modem), Static IP (Fixed-IP), PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL) or PPTP.
4.2.1 Dynamic IP (Cable Modem)
To connect to a Dynamic IP (Cable Modem) Broadband Internet connection with the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router, check the Cable Modem with the related users guide. The Cable Modem will automatically configure itself, and the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router is configured to automatically assign IP addresses to each PC. If required by your ISP, input a host name and MAC address.
4.2.2 Static IP (Fixed-IP xDSL)
If your Internet Service Provider (ISP) has assigned you a fixed IP address, select this option. Enter the assigned IP address, subnet mask, and the gateway IP address for the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router.
4.2.3 PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL)
If your DSL Broadband Internet connection is PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL), your ISP will provide a password and user name. Select this option, and enter the required information. If your ISP provides a Service Name, enter it in the Service Name field. Otherwise, leave it blank. The Service Name and IP Address fields must be completed if provided by your ISP. If your ISP provides a Dynamic IP Address, you should skip these fields. The MTU feature specifies the maximum packet size permitted for network transmission. Enter the value desired; for most DSL Broadband Internet connection users, 1492 is recommended. By default, MTU is set at 1492. The Maximum Idle Time feature can control the Internet connection time if you want to reduce the connection fees charged by your ISP (default time=0, always connect). Select Connect-on-demand for the Connect mode select feature to enable the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to connect to your ISP whenever an Internet connection is required.
If connecting to the Internet using a PPTP DSL Modem, enter the PPTP Account Name, PPTP Password, Host Name, Service IP Address, My IP Address, and My Subnet Mask in the appropriate fields provided by your ISP. If your ISP has provided you with a Connection ID, enter it in the Connection ID field. Otherwise, leave it blank. The MTU feature specifies the maximum packet size permitted for network transmission. Enter the value desired; for most DSL Broadband Internet connection users, 1460 is recommended. By default, MTU is set at 1460. The Maximum Idle Time feature can control the Internet connection time (default time=0, always connect). Select Connect-on-demand for the Connect mode select feature to enable the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to connect to your ISP whenever an Internet connection is required.
The Domain Name System (DNS) manages the translation of a domain name into an IP address, and vice versa that of an IP address into a domain name. Your ISP should provide one or more DNS Server IP addresses, type those IP addresses in the Primary DNS address and Secondary DNS address fields, the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router will utilize these simultaneously for quicker access to functioning DNS Servers.
5.1 System Time
The IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router supports advanced functions like System settings, WAN settings, LAN settings, NAT Settings, and Firewall settings. This page includes all of the basic configuration tools for the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router. Under System located on the left-hand of the windows, select that you want to configure.
Connecting to a Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) server allows the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to synchronize the system clock to the global Internet time through the SNTP Server. The synchronized clock in the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router is used to record the system log and control client filtering.
5.2 Administrator Settings
Password Settings: Set an Administrator password if you wish to restrict management access to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router. Remote Management: To manage the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router from a remote location (outside of the local network), you must specify the IP address of the remote computer. Leave the IP address as 0.0.0.0, to allow any IP address to access to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router.
5.3 Firmware Upgrade
Upgrading firmware for the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router improves functionality and performance. Specify the path and name of the upgrade file then click the APPLY button. You will be prompted to confirm the upgrade.
While upgrading the firmware, please wait after pressing the APPLY button, and follow the instructions on the screen; the System LED on the front panel will start blinking when the firmware has been upgraded successfully.
5.4 Configuration Tools
Use the "Backup Settings" tool to save the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router current configuration to a file named "config.bin" on your PC. You can then use the "Restore Settings" tool to restore the saved configuration file back to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router that was set previously. Select "Restore to Factory Default" tool to force the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to reset and restore the original factory settings. Restore Factory Default To restore the factory default settings of the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router, select the Restore to Factory Default option. Backup Settings Select the Backup Settings option to save the current IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router settings in a file called config.bin, or save to a filename of your choosing. Restore Settings To restore a backup file back to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router, specify the path and filename of the backup file (i.e. config.bin).
The Status screen will display the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Routers' WAN/LAN interfaces, firmware and hardware version numbers, and the number of connected clients to the network.
5.6 System Log
View any attempts that have been made to gain access to the network.
For some reason if you need to reset the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router without changing any settings, click on the Reset to reset the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router.
The IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router supports the following types of the Internet connections: Dynamic IP Address, Static IP Address, PPPoE, and PPTP.
6.1 Dynamic IP
The Host Name is optional, but may be required by some Internet Service Providers. The MAC address is set to the WAN's physical interface on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router. If the Internet Service Provider requires the MAC address, type it in. Click the "Clone MAC Address" button to copy the MAC address of the Ethernet network adapter installed in the PC. The WAN MAC address will be replaced by this MAC address. If your ISP is BigPond (Australia), check the Enable box.
6.2 Static IP
If the Internet Service Provider has assigned a fixed IP address, enter the assigned IP address, subnet mask and gateway IP address fields. Click Yes if you are using two or more IP addresses.
6.3 PPPoE (Dial-Up xDSL)
If you are connecting to the Internet using a PPPoE (Dialup xDSL) Modem and your ISP has provided you with a password and username, then your ISP uses PPPoE. Select this option, and enter the required information. If the ISP provided a Service Name, enter it in the Service Name field. Otherwise, leave it blank. The Service Name, IP Address, and DNS Address fields must be completed if your ISP provides you with this information. If your ISP provides a Dynamic IP Address, skip these fields. The MTU feature specifies the maximum packet size permitted for network transmission. Enter the value desired; for most DSL Broadband Internet connection users, 1492 is recommended. By default, MTU is set at 1492. The Maximum Idle Time feature can control the Internet connection time if you want to reduce the connection fees charged by your ISP (default time=0, always connect).
If connecting to the Internet using a PPTP DSL Modem, enter the PPTP Account Name, PPTP Password, Host Name, Service IP Address, My IP Address, and My Subnet Mask as provided by your ISP in the appropriate fields. If your ISP has provided you with a Connection ID, enter it in the Connection ID field. Otherwise, leave it blank. The MTU feature specifies the maximum packet size permitted for network transmission. Enter the value desired; for most DSL Broadband Internet connection users, 1460 is recommended. By default, MTU is set at 1460. The Maximum Idle Time feature can control the Internet connection time (default time=0, always connect). Select Connect-on-demand for the Connect mode select feature to enable the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to connect to your ISP whenever an Internet connection is required.
The Dynamic DNS feature allows you to host a server (Web, FTP, Game Server, etc.) using a host name with your dynamically assigned IP address. Most Broadband Internet Service Providers assign dynamic IP addresses. When you use a Dynamic DNS service provider, your friends can enter your host name to connect to your server, no matter what your IP address is.
7.1 LAN Settings
The default value of the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router is 192.168.0.1 for the IP address and 255.255.255.0 for the Subnet Mask. You may change the value according to your needs. To enable the DHCP server to allocate dynamic IP addresses to the clients PCs, click Enable. The client can get an IP Address that is between the IP Pool Starting Address and the IP Pool Ending Address. You may also change the IP Pool range value. The Lease Time is the amount of time a network user will be allowed to connect to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router with his/her current dynamic IP address. Enter the amount of time, in hours, days or weeks, which the user will be leased this dynamic IP address. You can enter your local domain name in the Local Domain Name fields.
7.2 DHCP Client List
The DHCP client list allows you to see which clients are connected to the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router via IP address, host name, and MAC address.
8.1 Special Application
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows multiple users at the local site to access the Internet through a single public IP address. NAT can also prevent hacker attacks by mapping local addresses to public addresses for key services such as the Web or FTP.
Some applications require multiple connections, such as Internet gaming, video conferencing, and Internet telephony. These applications cannot work when Network Address Translation (NAT) is enabled. When users send this type of request to your network via the Internet, the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router will forward those requests to the appropriate PC. If you need to run applications that require multiple connections, specify the port normally associated with an application in the "Trigger Port" field, select the protocol type as TCP or UDP, then enter the public ports associated with the trigger port to open them for inbound traffic. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - A method (protocol) used along with the Internet Protocol (Internet Protocol) to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data (called packets) that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - A communications method (protocol) that offers a limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between computers in a network that use the Internet Protocol IP). UDP is an alternative to the TCP and, together with IP, is sometimes referred to as UDP/IP. Like the Transmission Control Protocol, UDP uses the Internet Protocol to actually get a data unit (called a datagram) from one computer to another. Unlike TCP, however, UDP does not provide the service of dividing a message into packets (data grams) and reassembling it at the other end. Specifically, UDP doesn't provide sequencing of the packets that the data arrives in. This means that the application program that uses UDP must be able to make sure that the entire message has arrived and is in the right order. Network applications that want to save processing time because they have very small data units to exchange (and therefore very little message reassembling to do) may prefer UDP to TCP
8.2 Virtual Server
The virtual server option allows you to define port number on your IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router for redirection to an internal LAN IP address. This feature is useful for hosting online services such as FTP or Web servers.
The IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router provides extensive Firewall protection by restricting connection parameters to limit the risk of hacker attacks and by defending against a wide array of common hacker attacks. The IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router provides packet filtering rules by restricting service ports, IP address or MAC address. However, for applications that require unrestricted access to the Internet, you may configure a specific client/server as a demilitarized zone (DMZ)
9.1 Block WAN Ping
When "Discard PING from WAN side" is checked, it causes the public WAN IP address on the IP-1000R v2 Broadband Router to ignore ping commands. Pinging public WAN IP addresses is a common method used by hackers to test whether the WAN IP address is valid.
9.2 Client Filtering
You can filter Internet access for local clients based on IP addresses, application types, (i.e., HTTP port), and time of day. For example, this screen shows that clients in the address range 192.168.0.50-60 are blocked from using FTP (Port 21) from Sunday to the following Saturday and from 2:00AM to 11:00 PM
9.3 MAC Control
MAC Control allows you to block certain client PCs from accessing the Internet based on MAC addresses.
9.4 DMZ (De-Militarized Zone)
If a local client PC cannot run an Internet application properly from behind the NAT firewall, open the client up to unrestricted two-way Internet access by defining a PC as a virtual DMZ Host.
9.5 URL Filter
URL Filter is used to deny LAN computers from accessing specific web sites by its URL. A URL is a specially formatted text string that defines a location on the Internet. If any part of the URL contains the blocked word, the site will not be accessible. If any part of the URL contains the blocked word, the web page will also not display.
12. Frequent Asked Questions
10.1 Static Routing
The process by manually specify a specific route packets should take on the way to a destination address. You need to configure the Static Routing only for such as multiple Routers or multiple IP subnets located on your network.
14. Wireless Network Glossary
Standards WAN Interface LAN Interfaces Firewall
VPN Support Configuration & Management Diagnostic LED
IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T Ethernet IEEE 802.3u 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3x Flow Control RJ-45 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX port 4 x RJ-45 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX ports IP Filter MAC Filter Domain Blocking URL Blocking Scheduling UPnP enable IPSec pass-through, PPTP pass-through Web-based configuration Power Status WAN Link/Act 1, 2, 3, 4 LAN ports DC 5V, 800mA 109 x 155 x 33mm 0- 55C (F) 90%RH maximum non-condensing FCC Class B CE Class B
Power Input Dimension Operating Temperature Humidity EMI Certification
12. Network Glossary
RJ-45 Standard connectors for Twisted Pair copper cable used in Ethernet networks. Although they look similar to standard RJ-11 telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only four. 100Base-TX Also known as 802.3u. The IEEE standard defines how to transmit Fast Ethernet 100Mbps data using Cat.5 UTP/STP cable. the 10Mbps 10-BaseT standard. WAN Wide Area Network. The 100Base-TX standard is backward compatible with
A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. LAN Local Area Network. group of buildings.
It is a computer network covering a small physical area or small
DMZ Demilitarized Zone. When a router opens a DMZ port to an internal network device, it opens all the TCP/UDP service ports to this particular device. PPPoE Point-to-Point over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards; PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the Internet through a common broadband medium, such as single DSL line, wireless device or cable modem. Transparent Transparent mode works to transfer real IP address from WAN interface to the device that connects to DMZ port. So the DMZ device can also get real IP address and offer the service with Internet users.
NAT Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several PCs to share single IP address provided by the ISP. The IP that a router gets from the ISP side is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called Private IP. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol that enables a server to dynamically assign IP addresses. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the network, it automatically gets an IP address assigned to it by DHCP server. A DHCP server can either be a designated PC on the network or another network device, such as router. DNS A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a collection or Internet servers. DDNS Dynamic Domain Name System. An Algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address for hosting Internet Server. DDNS service provides each user account with a domain name. Router with DDNS capability has a built-in DDNS client that updates the IP address information to DDNS service provider whenever there is a change. Therefore, users can build website or other Internet servers even if they dont have fixed IP connection. Subnetwork or Subnet Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between numerous computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, switch or gateway. Each individual wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local computers it talks to. IP Address IP (Internet Protocol) is a layrer-3 network protocol that is the basis of all Internet communication. An IP address is 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: an identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. The new IPv6 specification supports 128-bit IP address format.
MAC Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices. Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices with the approved MAC address can connect with the network. TCP A layre-4 protocol used along with the IP to send data between computers over the Internet. While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet. UDP User Datagram Protocol. A layer-4 network protocol for transmitting data that does not require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data. DoS Attack Denial of Service. A type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols.
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